75% developed

Flora of New York

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Flora noveboracensis
from clubmoss to cornsalad
Lycopodium lucidulum témis 2x3.jpg

Table of contents
Contributors
Preface
Introduction
Genus index
Protected species index
Invasive species index
Excluded species
General references
Legends
Glossary

Valerianella radiata flowering plant.jpg
Flora of New York is a guide to the vascular plants (or tracheophytes) found growing without cultivation in New York State, with an emphasis on showing which plants are native to the New York region, which plants have been introduced from elsewhere, where in the state the plants are likely to be found, and how likely they are to be found.



Lycopodiopsida[edit | edit source]

Class Lycopodiopsida contains the lycophytes (clubmosses, firmosses and quillworts).[1][2]
tracheophytes
Lycopodiopsida
Lycopodiales : Lycopodiaceae
Lycopodielloideae

Lycopodiella spp. (5 bog cubmosses)

Pseudolycopodiella caroliniana (slender bog clubmoss)

Lycopodioideae

Dendrolycopodium spp. (3 tree cubmosses)

Diphasiastrum spp. (8 ground cedars)

Spinulum spp. (3 bristly clubmosses)

Lycopodium spp. (2 running clubmosses)

Huperzioideae

Huperzia spp. (4 firmosses)

Isoetales : Isoetaceae

Isoetes spp. (8 quillworts)

Selaginellales : Selaginellaceae

Selaginella spp. (3 spikemosses)

euphyllophytes

Polypodiopsida (ferns)

spermatophytes (seed plants)


Class Order Family Subfamily Genus Common names #
Lycopodiopsida

(lycophytes)
A. Lycopodiales Lycopodiaceae Lycopodielloideae Lycopodiella bog clubmoss 5
Pseudolycopodiella false bog clubmoss 1
Lycopodioideae Lycopodium clubmoss 2
Dendrolycopodium tree clubmoss 3
Spinulum interrupted clubmoss 3
Diphasiastrum ground cedar 7
Huperzioideae Huperzia firmoss 5
B. Isoetales Isoetaceae Isoetes quillwort 8
C. Selaginellales Selaginellaceae Selaginella spikemoss 3

Polypodiopsida[edit | edit source]

Class Polypodiopsida contains the ferns, including the eusporangiate ferns (horsetails, scouring rushes, moonworts, and grape ferns) and the leptosporangiate ferns of subclass Polypodiidae.[1][2]

Cladogram of ferns showing outgroups and the four subclasses down to orders:

tracheoophytes
lycophytes
Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiales

Isoetales

Selaginellales

euphyllophytes
Polypodiopsida (ferns)
Equisetidae

Equisetales

Ophioglossidae

Psilotales

Ophioglossales

Marattiidae

Marattiales

Polypodiidae

Osmundales

Hymenophyllales

Gleicheniales

Schizaeales

Salviniales

Cyatheales

Polypodiales

spermatophytes

gymnosperms ↓

angiosperms ↓↓

eusporangiate
ferns
leptosporangiate
ferns

A more detailed cladogram of New York State ferns down to subgenera or single species:

ferns
Equisetales : Equisetaceae : Equisetum

subg. Equisetum (6 horse tails)

subg. Hippochaete (7 scouring rushes)

Psilotales : Psilotaceae (0 whisk ferns in NY)

Ophioglossales : Ophioglossaceae

OphioglossoideaeOphioglossum pusillum (northern adder's-tongue) 

Botrychioideae

Botrypus virginianum (rattlesnake fern)

Sceptridium (4 evergreen grapeferns)

Botrychium (7 moonworts, grape ferns)

Marattiales : Marattiaceae (0 marattid ferns in NY)

Osmundales : Osmundaceae

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern)

Claytosmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)

Osmunda regalis (royal fern)

Hymenophyllales : Hymenophyllaceae

Hymenophylloideae (0 filmy ferns)

TrichomanoideaeCrepidomanes intricatum (Appalachian bristle fern) 

Gleicheniales

Gleicheniaceae (0 forked ferns)

Matoniaceae (0 fan ferns)

Dipteridaceae (0 umbrella ferns)

Schizaeales

LygodiaceaeLygodium palmatum (American climbing fern)

SchizaeaceaeSchizaea pusilla (curlygrass)

Salviniales

SalviniaceaeAzolla cristata (mosquitofern)

MarsileaceaeMarsilea quadrifolia (water clover)

Cyatheales (0)

Polypodiales (continued below)

eusporangiate
ferns
leptosporangiate
ferns

Continuation of Polypodiales part of above cladogram of New York State ferns, including the six suborders employed by PPG I (2016):

Polypodiales

Saccolomatineae (1 genus, 0 in NY)

Lindsaeineae (3 families, 0 in NY)

Pteridineae : Pteridaceae

CryptogrammoideaeCryptogramma stelleri (fragile rockbrake}

PteridoideaePteris multifida (brake fern - excluded!)

Cheilanthoideae

Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliffbrake)

Pellaea glabella (smooth cliffbrake)

Myriopteris lanosa (hairy lip-fern)

Vittarioideae

Adiantum (2 maidenhair ferns)

Vittaria appalachiana (Appalachian shoestring fern)

Dennstaedtiineae : Dennstaedtiaceae

Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)

Pteridium aquilinum (2 brackenfern vars.)

Aspleniineae
Cystopteridaceae

Cystopteris (4 bladderferns)

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (northern oak fern)

DiplaziopsidaceaeHomalosorus pycnocarpos (narrow-leaved glade fern)

AspleniaceaeAsplenium (11 spleenworts)

Thelypteridaceae

PhegopteridoideaePhegopteris (2 beech ferns)

ThelypteridoideaeThelypteris (3 marsh ferns)

WoodsiaceaeWoodsia (5 cliff ferns)

Athyriaceae

Athyrium (2 lady ferns)

Deparia acrostichoides (silvery spleenwort)

Onocleaceae

Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)

Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)

Blechnaceae : Woodwardioideae

Anchistea virginica (Virginia chainfern)

Lorinseria areolata (netted chainfern)

Polypodiineae
Dryopteridaceae : Dryopteridoideae

Dryopteris (28 woodferns)

Polystichum (4 holly ferns)

Cyrtomium falcatum (netvein hollyfern - excluded)

Polypodiaceae : Polypodioideae

Polypodium (3 rock-cap ferns)

Pleopeltis polypodioides (resurrection fern excluded)


Subclass Order Suborder Family Subfamily Genus Subgenus Common names #
Equisetidae Equisetales Equisetaceae Equisetum Equisetum horsetail 6
Hippochaete scouring rush 7
Ophioglossidae Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychioideae Botrychium Botrychium moonwort,
grape fern
8
Osmundopteris rattlesnake fern 1
Sceptridium evergreen grapefern 4
Ophioglossoideae Ophioglossum adder's tongue 1
Polypodiidae

(lepto-
sporangiate
ferns)
Osmundales Osmundaceae Osmundastrum cinnamon fern 1
Osmunda Claytosmunda interrupted fern 1
Osmunda royal fern 1
Hymenophyllales Hymenophyllaceae Trichomanoideae Crepidomanes grotto felt,
weft fern
1
Schizaeales Lygodiaceae Lygodium climbing fern 1
Schizaeaceae Schizaea curlygrass fern 1
Salviniales Salviniaceae Azolla mosquitofern 1
Salvinia watermoss,
floatingfern
X
Marsileaceae Marsilea waterclover,
waterfern
1
Polypodiales Dennstaedtiineae Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia hay-scented fern 1
Pteridium brackenfern 2
Pteridineae Pteridaceae Cryptogrammoideae Cryptogramma rock brake 1
Pteridoideae Pteris brake fern X
Cheilanthoideae Pellaea cliff brake 2
Cheilanthes lip fern 1
Vittarioideae Adiantum maidenhair-fern 1
Vittaria ribbon fern 1
Aspleniineae Cystopteridaceae Cystopteris bladder fern 5
Gymnocarpium oak fern 2
Diplaziopsidaceae Homalosorus glade fern 1
Aspleniaceae Asplenium spleenwort 10
Thelypteridaceae Phegopteridoideae Phegopteris beech fern 2
Thelypteridoideae Thelypteris marsh fern,
New York fern
3
Woodsiaceae Woodsia cliff fern 5
Onocleaceae Onoclea sensitive fern 1
Matteuccia ostrich fern 1
Blechnaceae Woodwardioideae Anchistea Virginia chainfern 1
Lorinseria netted chainfern 1
Athyriaceae Deparia false spleenwort 1
Athyrium lady fern 3
Polypodiineae Dryopteridaceae Dryopteridoideae Cyrtomium netvein hollyfern X
Dryopteris woodfern 30
Polystichum hollyfern 5
Polypodiaceae Polypodioideae Polypodium polypody,
rockcap fern
3
Pleopeltis resurrection fern X

Acrogymnospermae[edit | edit source]

The gymnosperms in New York include the conifers and ginkgos.[1][2][3]


spermatophytes
gymnosperms
?

Cycadales—Cycadaceae—Cycas (1 genus of >100 species, no record in NY)

Ginkgoales—Ginkgoaceae—Gingkgo biloba (1 extant species, planted, not naturalized in NY)

Gnetales―Gnetaceae―Gnetum (1 tropical genus, no record in NY)

Pinales
Pinaceae
Pinoideae

Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)

Pinus subg. Pinus spp. (8 hard pines)

Piceoideae

Picea spp. (6 spruces)

Laricoideae

Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)

Larix decidua (European larch)

Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch)

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)

Abietoideae

Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)

Cupressaceae
Taxodioideae

Taxodium distichum (baldcypress)

Cupressoideae

Thuja occidentalis (arborvitae, white-cedar)

Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar)

Juniperus communis (common juniper, ground juniper)

Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper)

Chamaecyparis tyoides (Atlantic white cedar)

Taxaceae

Taxus canadensis (American yew)

Taxus cuspidata (Japanese yew)

Taxus baccata (English yew)


angiosperms

Magnoliidae



Clade Order Family Subfamily Genus Common names #
gymnosperms Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo maidenhair tree, ginkgo 1
Pinales Pinaceae Pinoideae Pinus subg. Strobus soft pine 1
Pinus subg. Pinus hard pines 8
Piceoideae Picea spruce 5
Laricoideae Pseudotsuga Douglas-fir 1
Larix larch, tamarack 3
Abietoideae Tsuga hemlock 1
Abies fir (true firs) 4
Cupressaceae Taxodioideae Taxodium cypress 1
Cupressoideae Thuja arborvitae, white-cedar 1
Juniperus juniper, red-cedar 4
Chamaecyparis cedar, false cypress 2
Taxaceae Taxus yew 3

Magnoliidae[edit | edit source]

Subclass Magnoliidae Novák ex Takht. (1967) contains the extant flowering plants (the angiosperms). An attempt has been made in this document to shoehorn James Reveal's (2012) use of superorders[1] to outlne the flowering plants consistently with more recent phylogenetic research, including APG IV[2] and beyond. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has avoided the use of ranked names for groups larger than orders, so it may become difficult and somewhat artificial to try to maintain the use of superorders here.


angiosperms

A. Amborellanae 0/1 (Amborellales)




B. Nymphaeanae 1/1 (Nymphaeales)




C. Austrobaileyanae 0/1 (Austrobaileyales)


magnoliids

D. Magnolianae 3/4 (Piperales, Laurales, Magnoliales)



monocots

E. Lilianae 9/11




F. Ceratophyllanae 1/1 (Ceratophyllales)


eudicots

G. Ranunculanae 1/1 (Ranunculales)


basal

H. Proteanae 1/1 (Proteales)


eudicots

I. Buxanae 1/1 (Buxales)


core eudicots

J. Myrothamnanae 0/1 (Gunnerales)



K. Dillenianae 0/1 (Dilleniales)



superrosids

L. Saxifraganae 1/1 {Saxifragales)


rosids

Vitales 1/1


eurosids
fabids

M. Rosanae (8/8)


malvids

N. Myrtanae (6/8)





superasterids

O. Berberidopsidanae 0/1



P. Santalanae 1/1 (Santalales)



Q. Caryophyllanae 1/1 (Caryophyllales)


asterids

R. Cornanae 1/1 (Cornales)




S. Ericanae 1/1 (Ericales)


euastrids

T. Lamianae 5/8















  1. James L. Reveal (2012). "An outline of a classification scheme for extant flowering plants (Magnoliidae)." Phytoneuron 2012-37: 1–221. Published 23 April 2012. ISSN 2153 7
  2. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181 (1): 1–20, doi:10.1111/boj.12385 

angiosperm cladogram[edit | edit source]

The following cladeogram, based primarily on APG IV,[1] includes the 44 angiosperm orders found in New York. The handful of remaining angiosperm orders were omitted to save space.
angiosperms

Nymphaeales

magnoliids

Piperales

Laurales

Magnoliales

monocots

Acorales

Alismatales

Dioscoreales

Liliales

Asparagales

commelinids

Poales

Zingiberales

Commelinales

Ceratophyllales

eudicots

Ranunculales

Proteales

Buxales

core eudicots
superrosids

Saxifragales

rosids

Vitales

eurosids
fabids

Zygophyllales

COM

Celestrales

Malphigiales

Oxalidales


Nfix

Fables

Rosales

Fagales

Cucurbitales


malvids

Geraniales

Myrtales

Crossosomatales

Sapindales

Brassicales

Malvales

superasterids

Santalales

Caryophyllales

asterids

Cornales

Ericales

euastrids
lamiids

Boraginales

Gentianales

Solanales

Lamiales

campanulids

Aquifoliales

Asterales

Apiales

Dipsacales

alismatid
monocots
lilioid
monocots
basal
eudicots

  1. APG IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. 

basal angiosperms & magnoliids[edit | edit source]

Aristolochia s.l. is here seaprated into 3 genera (Endodeca, Isotrema, and Aristolochia s.s., in agreement with the New York Flora Atlas.[1]
angiosperms

Amborellales (none in NY)

Nymphaeales

Hydatellaceae

Cabombaceae

Brasenia schreberi (watershield)  

Cabomba caroliniana (fanwort)  

Nymphaeaceae

NupharoideaeNuphar spp. (4 pond lilies)

NymphaeoideaeNymphaea odorata subspp. (2 water lilies) 

Austrobaileyales (none in NY)

Canellales (none in NY)

Piperales
Aristolochiaceae
Asaroideae

Asarum canadense (wild ginger)

Hexastylis shuttleworthii (large-flowered heartleaf) 

Aristolochioideae

Endodeca serpentaria (Virginia snakeroot)

Isotrema macrophyllum (Dutchman's-pipe)

Isotrema tomentosum (woolly Dutchman's-pipe) 

Aristolochia clematitis (birthwort)

Piperaceae (none) 

SaururaceaeSaururus cernuus (lizard’s tail)

Laurales

CalycanthaceaeCalycanthus floridus (eastern sweetshrub)

Lauraceae

Lindera benzoin (northern spicebush)

Sassafras albidum (sassafras)

Persea americana (avocado)

Magnoliales

Magnoliaceae

Annonaceae

Chloranthales (none)

monocots

Ceratophyllales

eudicots

basal
angiosperms
(ANA grade)
magnolids

Clade Order Family Subfamily Genus Common name(s) #
basal
angiosperms
Nymphaeales Cabombaceae Brasenia water-shield, wendock 1
Cabomba fanwort, watershield 1
Nymphaeaceae Nupharoideae Nuphar yellow pond lily, spatterdock 4
Nymphaeoideae Nymphaea white waterlily 2
magnoliids Magnoliales Magnoliaceae Magnolia magnolia, cucumber tree, sweet-bay 5
Liriodendron tulip tree, tulip poplar, yellow poplar 1
Annonaceae Annonoideae Asimina pawpaw, dog banana, Indian banana 1
Laurales Calycanthaceae Calycanthus sweet-shrub, strawberry bush 2
Lauraceae Lindera spicebush 1
Sassafras sassafras, ague tree, mitten tree 1
Persea avocado 1
Piperales Aristolochiaceae Asaroideae Asarum wild ginger 1
Hexastylis heartleaf 1
Aristolochioideae Endodeca snakeroot, serpentary 1
Isotrema dutchman's pipe, pipevine 2
Aristolochia birthwort, heartwort 1
Saururaceae Saururus lizard's tail, water-dragon, swamp root 1

alismatid monocots[edit | edit source]

The Acorales and Alismatales form the basal grade of the monocots (Lilianae), informally grouped as the "alismatid monocots."[1][2]
  1. APG IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. 
  2. Chase, Mark W; Reveal, James L (2009), "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 122–127, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x, http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/downloads/APG2.pdf 
Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
alismatid
monocots
Acorales Acoraceae Acorus sweetflag 2
Alismatales Araceae Orontioideae Orontieae Orontium goldenclub 1
Symplocarpeae Symplocarpus skunk cabbage 1
Lemnoideae Spirodela duckmeat 1
Lemna duckweed 5
Wolffia watermeal 3
Aroideae Calleae Calla callalily 1
Peltandreae Peltandra arrow-arum 1
Arisaemateae Arisaema Jack-in-the-pulpit 5
Pinellia pinellia 1
Pistieae Pistia water-lettuce 1
Tofieldiaceae Triantha tofieldia, false asphodel 1
Hydrocharitaceae Hydrocharitoideae Egeria waterweed 1
Hydrocharis frogbit 1
Limnobium spongeplant 1
Anacharidoideae Elodea waterweed 3
Hydrilloideae Najas waternymph, naiad 8
Hydrilla water-thyme 1
Vallisneria eelgrass 1
Butomaceae Butomus flowering rush 1
Alismataceae Sagittaria arrowhead 9
Alisma water-plantiain 12
Helanthium burhead 1
Scheuchzeriaceae Scheuchzeria rannoch-rush 1
Juncaginaceae Juncaginoideae Triglochin arrowgrass 2
Ruppiaceae Ruppia ditch-grass 1
Zosteraceae Zostera eelgrass 1
Potamogetonaceae Potamogetoneae Potamogeton pondweed 36
Stuckenia fineleaf pondweed 2
Zannichellieae Zannichellia horned pondweed 1

lilioid monocots[edit | edit source]

The Dioscoreales, Liliales and Asparagales form an informal group monocots (Lilianae), known as the "lilioid monocots."[1][2]
  1. APG IV (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. 
  2. Chase, Mark W; Reveal, James L (2009), "A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 122–127, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.01002.x, http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/downloads/APG2.pdf 
Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
lilioid
monocots
Dioscoreales Nartheciaceae Aletris colic root 1
Narthecium asphodel X
Dioscoreaceae Dioscoreoideae Dioscorea yam 2
Liliales Colchicaceae Uvularieae Uvularia bellwort 4
Colchiceae Colchium autumn crocus X
Melanthiaceae Melanthieae Melanthium bunchflower 2
Veratrum false hellebore 1
Anticlea death camas 1
Amianthium fly poison 1
Stenanthium featherbells 6
Heloniadeae Helonias swamp pink 1
Chionographideae Chamaelirium fairywand, devil's bit 1
Parideae Trillium trillium, wake-robin 7
Smilacaceae Smilax greenbrier 7
Liliaceae Calochortoideae Streptopus twisted stalk 2
Prosartes fairy bells 1
Medeoloideae Clintonia bluebead 1
Medeola Indian cucumber 2
Lilioideae Tulipeae Tulipa wild tulip 1
Lilieae Erythronium trout lily 2
Lilium lily 6
Asparagales Orchidaceae Vanilloideae Pogonieae Pogonia snakemouth orchid 3
Isotria fiveleaf orchid 3
Cypripedioideae Cypripedium lady's slipper 7
Epidendroideae Neottieae Epipactis helleborine 2
Neottia twayblade 4
Triphoreae Triphora noddingcaps 1
Arethuseae Arethusa dragon's mouth 2
Malaxideae Liparis widelip-orchid 2
Malaxis adder's-mouth-orchid 3
Maxillarieae Corallorhiza coralroot 6
Aplectrum Adam and Eve 1
Calypsoeae Calypso fairy slipper 1
Tipularia cranefly orchid 1
Orchidoideae Orchideae Amerorchis roundleaf orchis 1
Coeloglossum frog-orchid 1
Galearis galearis 1
Platanthera fringed-orchid 18
Cranichideae Goodyera rattlesnake-plantain 3
Spiranthes ladies'-tresses 14
Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis eastern yellow stargrass 1
Iridaceae Iridoideae Irideae Iris iris 10
Sisyrinchieae Sisyrinchium blue-eyed grass 7
Crocoideae Ixiae Crocus crocus 4
Asphodelaceae Hemerocallidoieae Hemerocallideae Hemerocallis daylily 2
Amaryllidaceae Allioideae Allieae Allium garlic, onion, leek, chives 14
Amaryllidoideae Narcisseae Narcissus daffodil 4
Galantheae Galanthus snowdrop 2
Leucojum snowflake 1
Asparagaceae Scilloideae Ornithogaleae Ornithogalum star-of-Bethlehem 2
Hyacintheae Chionodoxa glory of the snow 1
Hyacinthoides English-bluebell 2
Muscari grape-hyacinth 1
Scilla squill 1
Agavoideae Agaveae Yucca Adam's needle 1
Hosta plantain lily 4
Camassia Atlantic camas 0
Asparagoideae Asparagus asparagus 1
Nolinoideae Convallarieae Convallaria lily-of-the-valley 2
Polygonateae Maianthemum mayflower 4
Polygonatum Solomon's-seal 3

commelinid monocots[edit | edit source]

The order Poales Small (1903)[1][2][3]
Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genus Common name #
commelinid
monocots
Poales
bromeliad
clade
Typhaceae Typha cattail 3
Sparganium bur-reed 7
Poales
xyrid
clade
Eriocaulaceae Eriocauloideae Eriocaulon pipewort 2
Xyridaceae Xyridoideae Xyris yellow-eyed grass 5
Poales

cyperid
clade
Juncaceae Luzula woodrush 8
Juncus rush 36
Oreouncus highland rush 1
Cyperaceae Cyperoideae Sclerieae Scleria nutrush, nutsedge 6
Cladieae Cladium sawgrass, twig rush 1
Schoeneae Rhynchosporinae Rhynchospora beaksedge 13
Scirpeae Eriophorum cottongrass 5
Scirpus bulrush 19
Trichophorum bulrush 4
Cariceae Carex sedge 226
Dulichieae Dulichium threeway sedge 1
Abildgaardieae Bulbostylis hair sedge 1
Fimbristylis fimbry 3
Fuireneae Bolboschoenus tuberous bulrush 7
Fuirena umbrella sedge 2
Schoenoplectus bulrush 10
Eleocharideae Eleocharis spikerush 29
Cypereae Cyperus flatsedge, spikesedge 36
Poales

graminid
clade
Poaceae

BOP
clade
Oryzoideae Oryzeae Oryzinae Leersia cut grass 3
Zizaniinae Zizania wild rice 2
Bambusoideae Arundinarieae Arundinariinae Arundinaria cane 2
Phyllostachys bamboo 2
Pseudosasa arrow bamboo 2
Pooideae Brachyelytreae Brachyelytrum short-husk 2
Nardeae Nardus mat grass 1
Meliceae Glyceria manna grass 11
Melica melicgrass 1
Schizachne false melic 1
Stipeae Oryzopsis rice grass 1
Patis rice grass 1
Piptatheropsis rice grass 2
Piptochaetium spear grass 1
Hesperostipa needle-and-thread 1
Nassella needle grass 1
Diarrheneae Diarrhena beakgrain 1
Brachypodieae Brachypodium false brome 1
Bromeae Bromus brome 26
Triticeae Hordeinae Agropyron wheat grass 1
Elymus wild rye 24
Eremopyrum false wheatgrass 3
Hordeum barley 8
Leymus wildrye 1
Pascopyrum wheatgrass 1
Secale rye 1
Taeniatherum medusahead 1
Triticinae Aegilops goatgrass 5
Triticum wheat 1
Thinopyrum wheatgrass 2
Poeae

Chloroplast
Group 1
(Aveneae type)
Torreyochloinae Torreyochloa false mannagrass 2
Aveninae Sphenopholis wedgescale 4
Trisetum oat grass 1
Graphephorum false oat 1
Koeleria Junegrass 2
Arrhenatherum oatgrass 1
Avena oat 2
Rostraria hairgrass 1
Phalaridinae Phalaris canarygrass 3
Anthoxanthinae Anthoxanthum sweet grass, vernal grass 5
Brizinae Briza quaking grass 2
Echinopogoninae Greeneochloa small reedgrass 1
Agrostidinae Agrostis bentgrass 8
Calamagrostis reedgrass 11
Polypogon rabbitsfoot grass 2
Poeae

Chloroplast
Group 2
(Poeae type)
Sesleriinae Mibora sandgrass 0
Coleanthinae Puccinellia alkaligrass 3
Sclerochloa hardgrass 1
Miliinae Milium millet grass 1
Poinae Poa bluegrass 18
Apera silky bentgrass 2
Cinna wood reed 2
Airinae Avenella wavy hairgrass 1
Aira hairgrass 2
Corynephorus clubawn grass 1
Aristaveninae Deschampsia hair grass 2
Holcinae Vahlodea mountain hairgrass 1
Holcus velvetgrass 2
Cynosurinae Cynosurus dogtail grass 2
Dactylidinae Dactylis orchardgrass 1
Loliinae Festuca, Vulpia fescue 10
Lolium rye grass 6
Schedonorus fescue 3
Parapholiinae Catapodium ferngrass 1
Alopecurinae Alopecurus foxtail 6
Beckmanniinae Beckmannia slough grass 1
Phleinae Phleum timothy 3
Poaceae

PACMAD
clade
Aristidoideae Aristideae Aristida three-awn grass 8
Panicoideae Paniceae Anthephorinae Digitaria crab grass 6
Dichantheliinae Dichanthelium rosette grasses, panicgrasses 30
Boivinellinae Amphicarpum maiden cane 1
Echinochloa cockspur grass 6
Oplismenus basket grass 0
Melinidinae Eriochloa cup grass 1
Panicinae Panicum panic grass 14
Kellochloa warty panicgrass 1
Cenchrinae Cenchrus sandbur 6
Setaria bristle grass 7
Paspaleae Paspalinae Paspalum crown grass 4
Arthropogoninae Coleataenia panicgrass 4
Andropogoneae Arthraxoninae Arthraxon carpgrass 1
Tripsacinae Tripsacum gama grass 1
Zea corn, maize 1
Rottboelliinae Coix Job's tears 1
Germainiinae Imperata cogongrass 0
Sorghinae Sorghum sorghum 1
Saccharinae Microstegium stilt grass 1
Miscanthus silver grass 2
Saccharum sugar cane 1
Apludinae Sorghastrum Indian grass 1
Anthistiriinae Bothriochloa beard grass 1
Andropogoninae Andropogon bluestem 3
Schizachyrium little bluestem 2
Chasmanthieae Chasmanthium wood oats 1
Arundinoideae Molinieae Phragmites reed 3
Molinia moorgrass 1
Danthonioideae Danthonieae Danthonia oatgrass 2
Chloridoideae Eragrostideae Eragrostidinae Eragrostis love grass 12
Zoysieae Sporobolinae Sporobolus dropseed 16
Cynodonteae Gouiniinae Triplasis sand grass 1
Eleusininae Diplachne sprangletop 1
Leptochloa sprangletop 1
Chloris windmill grass 1
Stapfochloa windmill grass 1
Cynodon Bermuda grass 1
Eleusine goose grass 1
Eustachys finger grass 1
Dactyloctenium crowfoot grass 1
Pappophorinae Tridens tridens 1
Pappophorum pappus grass 2
Traginae Tragus burr grass 2
Monanthochloinae Distichlis salt grass 1
Boutelouinae Bouteloua grama 2
Muhlenbergiinae Muhlenbergia muhly 10
Commelinales Commelinaceae Commelinoideae Tradescanteae Tradescantia spiderwort 5
Commelineae Commelina dayflower 2
Murdannia marsh dewflower X
Haemodoraceae Haemodoroideae Lachnanthes Carolina redroot 1
Pontederiaceae Pontederieae Eichhornia water hyacinth 1
Pontederia pickerel weed 1
Heteranthereae Heteranthera mud plantain 2
Zingiberales Cannaceae Canna canna lily 1

Ceratophyllales & basal eudicots[edit | edit source]

Superorder Ceratophyllanae is the probable sister of the eudicots. Its only order Ceratophyllales contains a single living genus.[1]

Superorders Ranunculanae, Proteanae, and Buxanae, are in the basal grade of eudicots.[2]


  1. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 181 (1): 1–20, doi:10.1111/boj.12385 
  2. James L. Reveal (2012). "An outline of a classification scheme for extant flowering plants (Magnoliidae)." Phytoneuron 2012-37: 1–221. Published 23 April 2012. ISSN 2153 7
Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
sister to
eudicots
Ceratophyllales Ceratophyllaceae Ceratophyllum hornwort 2
basal
eudicots
Ranunculales Lardizabalaceae Lardizabaloideae Akebieae Akebia chocolate vine,
fiveleaf akebia
1
Menispermaceae Menispermoideae Menispermeae Menispermum moonseed 1
Berberidaceae Podophylloideae Leonticeae Caulophyllum blue cohosh 2
Podophylleae Podophyllum mayapple, wild mandrake 1
Jeffersonia twinleaf, rheumatism-root 1
Berberidoideae Berberideae Berberis barberry 3
Mahonia Oregon grape 1
Ranunculaceae Hydrastoideae Hydrastideae Hydrastis golden-seal, yellow puccoon 1
Coptidoieae Coptideae Coptis goldthread,
three-leaved goldthread
1
Xanthorhizeae Xanthorhiza yellowroot 1
Thalictroideae Aquilegieae Aquilegia columbine, wild columbine 2
Enemion false rue anemone 1
Thalictreae Thalictrum meadow rue 7
Ranunculoideae Actaeeae Actaea baneberry 5
Eranthis winter aconite 1
Caltheae Caltha marsh marigold 1
Trollius globeflower 1
Adonis pheasant's eye 2
Delphinieae Aconitum monkshood 3
Delphinium lark-spur 1
Consolida knight's-spur, lark-spur 2
Nigelleae Nigella love-in-a-mist 1
Helleboreae Helleborus hellebore, Christmas-rose 2
Anemoneae Anemone hepatica, thimbleweed 9
Clematis leather flower, virgin's-bower 6
Ranunculeae Halerpestes seaside crowfoot 1
Ceratocephala curvseed butterwort 1
Ficaria celadine 1
Ranunculus buttercup, crowfoot, spearwort 23
Papaveraceae Papaveroideae Papavereae Argemone pricklypoppy 2
Papaver poppy 6
Chelidonieae Sanguinaria bloodroot, red puccuoon 1
Chelidonium greater celandine 1
Macleaya plume poppy 1
Glaucium hornpoppy 2
Stylophorum celandine-poppy 1
Eschscholtzieae Eschscholzia California poppy 1
Fumarioideae Fumarieae Dicentra bleeding-heart, Dutchman's breeches 3
Lamprocapnos Asian bleeding-heart 1
Adlumia climbing fumitory 1
Capnoides harlequin, pink corydalis 1
Corydalis fumewort, corydalis 3
Fumaria fumitory 1
Pseudofumaria rock fumitory, yellow corydalis 1
Proteales Nelumbonaceae Nelumbo lotus 2
Platanaceae Platanus sycamore 2
Buxales Buxaceae Buxoideae Buxus boxwood 1
Pachysandroideae Pachysandreae Pachysandra spurge 2

Saxifragales[edit | edit source]

The order Saxifragales is the basal clade of the superrosids, indicating that Saxifragales is the sister to the rosids.
Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
sister to
rosids
Saxifragales Paeoniaceae Paeonia peony 1
Altingiaceae Liquidambar sweetgum 1
Hamamelidaceae Hamamelidoideae Hamamelideae Hamamelis witchhazel 1
Cercidiphyllaceae Cercidiphyllum katsura tree 1
Crassulaceae Crassuloideae Crassula pygmyweed 1
Sempervivoideae Umbiliceae Rhodiola roseroot stonecrop 2
Hylotelephium stonecrop 3
Phedimus false stonecrop 1
Semperviveae Sempervivum houseleek, hen-and-chickens 1
Sedeae Sedum stonecrop 7
Haloragaceae Myriophylleae Myriophyllum watermilfoil 10
Proserpinaca mermaidweed 2
Penthoraceae Penthorum ditch-stonecrop 1
Grossulariaceae Ribes currant, gooseberry 12
Saxifragaceae Saxifragoideae Saxifrageae Saxifraga saxifrage 5
Heucheroideae Chrysosplenieae Chrysosplenium golden saxifrage 1
Heuchereae Tiarella foamflower 1
Mitella miterwort 3
Heuchera alumroot 2
Astilbe florist's spiraea 1

Vitales & fabids[edit | edit source]

Clade Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
rosids basal
rosids
Vitales Vitaceae Vitoideae Parthenocissus creeper, woodbine, ivy 3
Vitis grape 8
Ampelopsis peppervine 3
basal
fabids
Zygophyllales Zygophyllaceae Tribuloideae Tribulus puncturevine 1
Zygophylloideae Zygophyllum beancaper 1
fabids
COM
clade
Celastrales Parnassiaceae Parnassioideae Parnassia grass of parnassus 1
Celastraceae Celastroideae Celastrus bittersweet, staff vine 2
Euonymus burning bush, spindletree, wahoo 6
Oxalidales Oxalidaceae Oxalis woodsorrel 6
Malpighiales Hypericaceae Hypericeae Triadenum marsh St. John's wort 2
Hypericum St. John's wort 18
Podostemaceae Podostemoideae Podostemum river weed 1
Elatinaceae Elatine water wort 3
Violaceae Violoideae Violeae Hybanthus greenviolet 1
Viola violet 57
Salicaceae Salicoideae Populus cottonwood, aspen, poplar 11
Salix willow 36
Euphorbiaceae Acalyphoideae Acalypheae Acalypha copperleaf, three-seed mercury 4
Mercurialis herb mercury 1
Ricinus castor bean 1
Crotonoideae Crotoneae Croton rushfoil, hogwort 1
Euphorbioideae Euphorbieae Euphorbia spurge, sandmat 21
Linaceae Linoideae Lineae Linum flax 9

Fabales[edit | edit source]

Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genus Common names #
rosids:
fabids
Fabales Fabaceae Brachystegioideae Cercideae Cercis redbud 1
Faboideae Sophoreae Cladrastis yellow wood 1
Thermopsideae Baptisia wild indigo 3
Thermopsis golden-banner, false lupine 1
Crotalarieae Crotalaria rattle box 1
Genisteae Lupinus lupine 2
Cytisus scotch broom 2
Genista dyer's broom 1
Ulex dyer's broom 1
Amorpheae Amorpha false-indigo 1
Dalea prairie clover 2
Dalbergieae Stylosanthes pencilflower 1
Millettieae Tephrosia hoary-pea, goat's-rue 1
Wisteria wisteria 3
Phaseoleae Erythrininae Apios ground nut 1
Glycininae Amphicarpaea hog peanut 1
Pueraria kudzu 1
Glycine soy bean 1
Phaseolinae Strophostyles fuzzybean 2
Phaseolus kidney-bean 2
Lablab hyacinth bean 1
Vigna cowpea X
Diocleinae Galactia milk pea 1
Clitoriinae Clitoria pigeon wings 1
Desmodieae Desmodiinae Desmodium tick trefoil 12
Hylodesmum tick trefoil 3
Lespedezinae Lespedeza bush clover 23
Kummerowia Asian clover 2
Psoraleeae Cullen scurf pea 1
Pediomelum Indian-breadroot 1
Loteae Acmispon American trefoil 1
Lotus trefoil 2
Securigera crown vetch 1
Anthyllis kidney vetch 1
Ornithopus bird's-foot 1
Robinieae Robinia locust 4
Galegeae Astragalus milk vetch 3
Glycyrrhiza licorice 1
Galega professor weed 1
Colutea bladder senna 1
Hedysareae Caragana pea shrub 1
Cicereae Cicer chick pea 1
Trifolieae Medicago alfalfa, medick 7
Melilotus sweet clover 4
Trifolium clover 14
Trigonella fenugreek 2
Fabeae Lathyrus pea 8
Lens lentil 1
Pisum pea, garden pea 1
Vicia vetch 15
Caesalpinioideae Cassieae Chamaecrista sensitive pea 2
Senna wild senna 2
Caesalpinieae Gleditsia locust 1
Gymnocladus coffee tree 1
Mimosoideae Ingeae Albizia mimosa, silktree 1
Polygalaceae Polygaleae Polygala milkwort, snakeroot 12

Rosales[edit | edit source]

Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Rosanae
(M)

rosids:
fabids
Rosales Rosaceae Rosoideae Ulmarieae Filipendula queen 3
Rubeae Dalibarda dewdrop $
Rubus blackberry, raspberry, dewberry 23
Colurieae Waldsteinia barren strawberry $
Geum avens 16
Sanguisorbeae Agrimonia agrimony 6
Sanguisorba burnet 1
Roseae Rosa rose 27
Potentilleae Potentilla (cinquefoil)
Argentina (silverweed)
Duchesnea (mock strawberry)
Comarum (marsh cinquefoil)
Drymocallis (tall cinquefoil)
Dasiphora (shrubby cinquefoil)
Sibbaldia (cinquefoil)
Fragaria (strawberry)
Alchemilla (lady's mantle)
Aphanes (parsley-piert)
9 23
Amygdaloideae Neillieae Physocarpus (ninebark) 1 1
Amygdaleae Prunus (cherry, plum, peach) 1 18
Exochordeae Exochorda (pearlbrush) 1 1
Kerrieae Rhodotypos (jetbead)
Kerria (Japanese rose)
2 2
Sorbarieae Sorbaria (false spiraea) 1 1
Spiraeeae Spiraea (meadowsweet)
Aruncus (goatsbeard, bride's feathers)
2 16
Gillenieae Gillenia (Indian physic, Bowman's root) 1 2
Maleae Amelanchier (serviceberry)
Aronia (chokeberry)
Photinia (chokeberry)
Cydonia (quince)
Chaenomeles (flowering quince)
Cotoneaster (cotoneaster)
Crataegus (hawthorn)
Malus (apple)
Pyrus (pear)
Sorbus (mountain ash)
10 82
Rhamnaceae Rhamnoideae Rhamneae Rhamnus (buckthorn)
Frangula (glossy buckthorn)
2 3
Ziziphoideae Pomaderreae Ceanothus (New Jersey tea) 1 2
Elaeagnaceae Shepherdia (buffaloberry)
Elaeagnus (silverberry, Russian olive, autumn olive)
2 5
Ulmaceae Ulmus (elm) 1 6
Cannabaceae Celtis (hackberry)
Humulus (hops)
Cannabis (hemp)
3 4
Moraceae Moreae Morus (mulberry)
Broussonetia (paper mulberry)
Fatoua (crabweed)
5 6
Maclureae Maclura (Osage orange) 5 6
Ficeae Ficus (fig) 5 6
Urticaceae Urticoideae Urticeae Laportea (wood nettle)
Urtica (nettle)
2 5
Lecantheae Pilea (clearweed) 1 3
Boehmerieae Boehmeria (false nettle) 1 1
Parietarieae Parietaria (pellitory) 1 2

Cucurbitales[edit | edit source]

Superorder Order Family Tribe Genus Common names #
Rosanae
(M)

rosids:
fabids
Cucurbitales Cucurbitaceae Thladiantheae Thladiantha Manchu tubergourd 1
Bryonieae Ecballium squirting-cucumber 1
Sicyoeae Echinocystis wild cucumber 1
Sicyos burr cucumber 1
Benincaseae Citrullus watermelon 1
Cucumis melon 3
Lagenaria bottle gourd 1
Cucurbiteae Cucurbita squash, pumpkin 1

Fagales[edit | edit source]

Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Rosanae
(M)

rosids:
fabids
Fagales Fagaceae Quercoideae Querceae Quercus oak white oak 15
red oak 16
Castaneeae Castanea chestnut 4
Fagoideae Fagus beech 2
Myricaceae Comptonia sweetfern 1
Myrica sweetgale 1
Morella bayberry 2
Juglandaceae Juglandoideae Juglandeae Juglans walnut, butternut 3
Caryeae Carya hickory 8
Betulaceae Betuloideae Alnus alder 5
Betula birch 15
Coryloideae Carpineae Carpinus hornbeam 3
Ostrya hop hornbean 1
Coryleae Corylus hazelnut 3

Geraniales & Myrtales[edit | edit source]

Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Myrtanae
(N)

rosids:
malvids
Geraniales Geraniaceae Erodium stork's-bill 5
Geranium crane's-bill 15
Myrtales Onagraceae Ludwigioideae Ludwigia primrose willow 5
Onagroideae Circaeeae Circaea enchanter's nightshade 3
Epilobieae Chamaenerion fireweed 1
Epilobium willow herb 9
Onagreae Gaura bee blossom 0
Oenothera evening primrose 17
Lythraceae Lagerstroemioideae Trapa water chestnut 1
Punicoideae Cuphea waxweed 1
Rotala toothcup 1
Lythroideae Decodon water willow 1
Lythrum loosestrife 4
Melastomataceae Melastomatoideae Melastomateae Rhexia meadow beauty 2

Crossosomatales, Sapindales[edit | edit source]

Superorder Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Myrtanae
(malvids)
Crossosomatales Staphyleaceae Staphylea bladdernut 1
Sapindales Anacardiaceae Anacardioideae Rhoeae Rhus sumac 5
Toxicodendron poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac 4
Cotinus smoketree 2
Sapindaceae Hippocastanoideae Acereae Acer maple 15
Hippocastaneae Aesculus buckeye, horse chestnut 2
Sapindoideae Koelreuterieae Koelreuteria golden rain tree 1
Paullinieae Cardiospermum balloon vine 1
Simaroubaceae Ailantheae Ailanthus tree-of-heaven, Chinese sumac 1
Rutaceae Rutoideae Ruta rue 1
Toddalioideae Zanthoxylum prickly ash 1
Ptelea hop tree 1
Phellodendron Amur cork tree 1
Dictamnus gas plant 1
Meliaceae Melioideae Melieae Melia Chinaberry tree 1

Malvales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Malvales Thymelaeaceae Thymelaeoideae Thymelaeeae Dirca (leatherwood)
Daphne (paradise plant, mezereon)
2 2
Cistaceae Crocanthemum (New-World frostweed)
Helianthemum (Old-World frostweed)
Hudsonia (golden heather)
Lechea (pin weed)
4 16
Sterculiaceae Melochia (chocolate-weed) 1 1
Tiliaceae Tilieae Tilia (basswood, linden) 1 3
Malvaceae Hibisceae Hibiscus (rose mallow)
Kosteletzkya (sea-shore mallow)
2 5
Malveae Abutilon (Indian-mallow)
Alcea (hollyhock)
Althaea (marshmallow)
Malva (mallow)
Sida (fan petals)
Sidalcea (checker bloom)
Anoda (anoda)
7 13

Brassicales[edit | edit source]

Mustards, Capers, etc.

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Brassicales Tropaeolaceae Tropaeolum (nasturtium) 1 1
Limnanthaceae Floerkea (false mermaid-weed) 1 1
Resedaceae Resedeae Reseda (mignonette, dyer's rocket) 1 4
Cleomaceae Cleomoideae Polanisia (clammyweed)
Peritoma (stinking beeplant)
Tarenaya (spiderflower)
Gynandropsis (cat’s-whiskers)
4 5
Brassicaceae Alysseae Lunaria (honesty)
Alyssum (madwort)
Aurinia (goldentuft)
Berteroa (false madwort)
Lobularia (sweet alyssum)
5 7
Conringieae Conringia (hare's-ear-mustard) 1 1
Thlaspideae Alliaria (garlic mustard)
Microthlaspi (pennycress)
Thlaspi (pennycress)
Teesdalia (shepherd's cress)
4 4
Arabideae Arabis (rockcress)
Draba (whitlow grass)
2 6
Iberideae Iberis (candytuft) 1 3
Isatideae Isatis (dyer’s woad) 1 1
Brassiceae Cakile (sea rocket)
Brassica (mustard)
Coincya (star mustard)
Diplotaxis (wall rocket)
Eruca (rocket salad)
Erucastrum (dog mustard)
Raphanus (radish)
Rapistrum (bastard cabbage)
Sinapis (mustard)
9 19
Sisymbrieae Sisymbrium (tumble-mustard) 1 5
Buniadeae Bunias (warty cabbage) 1 1
Hesperideae Hesperis (dame's rocket) 1 1
Cardamineae Armoracia (horse radish)
Cardamine (bitter cress)
Barbarea (yellow rocket)
Nasturtium (water cress)
Rorippa (yellow cress)
Subularia (awl wort)
6 26
Lepidieae Lepidium (pepper weed) 1 10
Descurainieae Descurainia (tansy mustard) 1 3
Boechereae Boechera (rock cress) 1 6
Erysimeae Erysimum (wall flower) 1 5
Camelineae Arabidopsis (rock cress)
Camelina (false flax)
Capsella (shepherd's purse)
Neslia (ball mustard)
Turritis (tower cress)
5 7

Santalales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Santalales Comandraceae Comandra (bastard-toadflax)
Geocaulon (false-toadflax)
2 2
Cervantesiaceae Pyrularia (buffalo-nut, oil-nut) 1 1
Viscaceae Arceuthobium (dwarf-mistletoe)
Phoradendron (mistletoe)
2 2

Caryophyllales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Caryophyllales Droseraceae Drosera (sundew) 1 4
Plumbaginaceae Limonioideae Limonieae Limonium (sea lavender) 1 2
Polygonaceae Polygonoideae Fagopyreae Fagopyrum (buckwheat) 1 2
Rumiceae Rumex (dock)
Rheum (rhubarb)
2 16
Persicarieae Persicaria (smartweed) 1 19
Polygoneae Fallopia (false buckwheat, knotweed)
Polygonella (jointweed)
Polygonum (knotweed)
3 24
Caryophyllaceae Illecebroideae Paronychieae Herniaria (rupture wort)
Paronychia (nail wort)
2 4
Sperguleae Spergularia (sand spurry)
Spergula (spurry)
2 6
Caryophylloideae Sileneae Silene (catchfly)
Agrostemma (corncockle)
Lychnis (campion)
3 20
Caryophylleae Dianthus (pink)
Gypsophila (baby's breath)
Petrorhagia (pink)
Saponaria (soap wort)
Vaccaria (pink)
5 14
Alsinoideae Arenarieae Arenaria (sand wort)
Moehringia (sand wort)
2 2
Alsineae Cerastium (mouse-ear chickweed)
Holosteum (jagged chickweed)
Myosoton (giant chickweed, water chickweed)
Stellaria (common chickweed)
4 19
Sagineae Sagina (pearlwort) 1 3
Sclerantheae Honckenya (sea chickweed)
Minuartia (stitchwort)
Scleranthus (German-knotgrass)
3 6
Amaranthaceae Amaranthoideae Amaranthus (pigweed) 1 18
Achyranthoideae Achyranthes (chaff flower) 1 1
Gomphrenoideae Alternanthera (joyweed)
Froelichia (snake cotton)
Gomphrena (globe amaranth)
3 4
Polycnemoideae Polycnemum (needleleaf) 1 1
Salicornioideae Salicornieae Salicornia (pickleweed)
Sarcocornia (swampfire)
2 3
Camphorosmoideae Suaedeae Suaeda (seepweed) 1 4
Camphorosmeae Bassia (smotherweed)
Kochia (molly)
Spirobassia (hairy smotherweed)
3 4
Salsoloideae Salsoleae Salsola (Russian thistle)
Kali (Russian thistle)
1 4
Corispermoideae Corispermum (bugseed) 1 3
Chenopodioideae Axyrideae Axyris (Russian pigweed) 1 1
Dysphanieae Dysphania (goosefoot)
Teloxys (wormseed)
Cycloloma (pigweed)
3 9
Anserineae Spinacia (spinach)
Blitum (goosefoot)
Monolepis (poverty weed)
2 5
Chenopodieae Chenopodiastrum (goosefoot)
Oxybasis (goosefoot)
Atriplex (saltbush, orache)
Chenopodium (goosefoot)
4 34
Betoideae Beta (beet) 1 1
Aizoaceae Tetragonioideae Tetragonia (New Zealand spinach) 1 1
Sesuvioideae Sesuvium (sea purslane) 1 1
Nyctaginaceae Nyctagineae Mirabilis (four-o'clock) 1 4
Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca (pokeweed) 1 1
Molluginaceae Mollugo (carpetweed) 1 1
Portulacaceae Claytonia (spring beauty)
Portulaca (purslane, rose moss)
2 4
Cactaceae Opuntioideae Opuntieae Opuntia (prickly-pear, devil's tongue cactus) 1 1

Cornales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Cornales Hydrangeaceae Hydrangeoideae Philadelpheae Deutzia (pride of Rochester)
Philadelphus (mock orange)
2 5
Hydrangeae Hydrangea (hydrangea)
Decumaria (climbing hydrangea, woodvamp)
2 4
Cornaceae Cornoideae Cornus (dogwood) 1 12
Nyssoideae Nyssa (tupelo) 1 1

Ericales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera Common names #
Ericales Balsaminaceae Impatiens touch-me-not, jewelweed 4
Polemoniaceae Polemonioideae Polemonieae Polemonium Jacob's ladder, charity 2
Phocideae Phlox phlox 6
Gilieae Collomia trumpet 1
Gilia gilia 1
Loeselieae Ipomopsis red standing cypress 1
Ebenaceae Ebenoideae Diospyros persimmon 1
Primulaceae Theophrastoideae Samoleae Samolus water pimpernel, brookweed 1
Primuloideae Primula primrose 5
Dodecatheon shooting star → Primula
Hottonia featherfoil 1
Androsace rock-jasmine, pussytoes 1
Myrsinoideae Anagallis pimpernel 1
Trientalis starflower → Lysimachia
Lysimachia yellow loosestrife 14
Symplocaceae Symplocos sweetleaf 2
Styracaceae Halesia silverbell 2
Styrax snowbell 2
Diapensiaceae Diapensia Lapland diapensia 1
Galax beetleweed 1
Pyxidanthera flowering moss, pyxies 1
Sarraceniaceae Sarracenia pitcherplant, side-saddle plant 1
Actinidiaceae Actinidioideae Actinidia silver vine 1
Clethraceae Clethra sweet pepperbush 1
Ericaceae Pyroloideae Pyroleae Orthilia one-sided wintergreen 1
Pyrola wintergreen 9
Moneses single-delight, wintergreen 1
Chimaphila prince's pine, wintergreen 1
Monotropoideae Monotropeae Monotropa Indian pipe, pinesap 2
Pterosporeae Pterospora pine drops, pinedrops 1
Arbutoideae Arctostaphylos bearberry, kinnikinnick 1
Harrimanelloideae Harrimanella moss bell-heather 1
Ericoideae Phyllodoceae Epigaea trailing arbutus, mayflower 1
Kalmia laurel, mountain laurel, sheep laurel 5
Ericeae Calluna heather 1
Rhodoreae Rhododendron azalea, rhododendron, pinxter 8
Empetroideae Empetreae Empetrum crowberry (black, purple, red) 2
Corema broom crowberry, poverty grass 1
Vaccinoideae Oxydendreae Oxydendrum swamp-cranberry, sourwood 1
Lyonieae Lyonia stagger bush, maleberry 2
Andromedeae Andromeda bog rosemary 1
Gaultherieae Chamaedaphne leatherleaf 1
Gaultheria snowberry 1
Eubotrys fetterbush 1
Leucothoe doghobble 2
Vaccinieae Gaylussacia huckleberry 3
Vaccinium blueberry, cranberry, deerberry, bilberry 11

Gentianales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Gentianales Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Naucleeae Cephalanthus (button bush) 1 1
Rubioideae Morindeae Mitchella (partridge berry) 1 1
Spermacoceae Diodia (buttonweed)
Houstonia (bluet)
Oldenlandia (clustered bluets)
3 6
Rubieae Rubia (madder)
Sherardia (field-madder)
Asperula (woodruff)
Cruciata (bedstraw)
Galium (bedstraw, wild-licorice, cleavers)
5 29
Loganiaceae Spigelia (Indian pink, pinkroot) 1 1
Gentianaceae Chironieae Centaurium (centaury)
Sabatia (rose gentian, pink)
2 6
Gentianeae Gentianinae Gentiana (gentian) 1 5
Swertiinae Bartonia (screwstem)
Frasera (green-gentian)
Gentianella (dwarf gentian)
Gentianopsis (fringed-gentian)
Halenia (spurred-gentian)
5 7
Apocynaceae Rauvolfioideae Vinceae Vincinae Vinca (periwinkle) 1 2
Amsonieae Amsonia (bluestar) 1 3
Apocynoideae Apocyneae Apocynum (dogbane) 1 3
Periplocoideae Periploca (silk vine) 1 1
Asclepiadoideae Asclepiadeae Asclepiadinae Asclepias (milkweed) 1 12
Cynanchinae Cynanchum (honeyvine) 1 1
Tylophorinae Vincetoxicum (swallow-wort) 1 3

Solanales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Solanales Convolvulaceae Convolvuloideae Convolvuleae Convolvulus (bindweed)
Calystegia (false bindweed)
2 12
Ipomoeeae Ipomoea (morning-glory, sweet potato) 1 8
Cuscutoideae Cuscuta (dodder) 1 13
Solanaceae Schizanthoideae Schizanthus (poorman's orchid) 1 1
Petunioideae Petunia (garden petunia) 1 1
Nicotianoideae Nicotianeae Nicotiana (tobacco) 1 4
Solanoideae Nicandreae Nicandra (shoofly plant) 1 1
Hyoscyameae Atropa (belladonna, nightshade)
Hyoscyamus (henbane)
Lycium (matrimony vine)
3 3
Capsiceae Capsicum (pepper) 1 1
Datureae Datura (jimsonweed) 1 1
Physaleae Physalis (ground cherry)
Leucophysalis (false ground cherry)
2 9
Solaneae Solanum (nightshade, tomato) 1 14

Boraginales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Boraginales Boraginaceae Boraginoideae Boragineae Anchusa (bugloss)
Borago (borage)
Brunnera (bugloss)
Pulmonaria (lungwort)
Symphytum (comfrey)
5 8
Cynoglosseae Cynoglossum (hound's tongue) 1 3
Echieae Echium (Viper's bugloss) 1 3
Eritrichieae Hackelia (stickseed)
Mertensia (blue bells)
Amsinckia (fiddleneck)
Lappula (stickseed)
Asperugo (German madwort)
5 9
Lithospermeae Lithospermum (stoneseed)
Myosotis (forget-me-not)
Buglossoides (corn gromwell)
3 14
Hydrophylloideae Hydrophyllum (waterleaf, John's cabbage)
Ellisia (Aunt Lucy, false babyblueeyes)
Phacelia (scorpion-weed, desert bluebells)
3 6
Heliotropioideae Heliotropium (heliotrope) 1 4

Lamiales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Lamiales Oleaceae Forsythieae Forsythia 1 2
Oleeae Fraxininae Fraxinus (ash) 1 5
Ligustrinae Syringa (lilac)
Ligustrum (privet)
2 8
Oleinae Chionanthus (fringe tree) 1 1
Tetrachondraceae Polypremum (juniper leaf) 1 1
Plantaginaceae Gratioleae Gratiola (hedge hyssop)
Leucospora (cliff conobea)
2 3
Cheloneae Chelone (turtlehead)
Collinsia (blue-eyed Mary)
Penstemon (beard tongue)
3 8
Antirrhineae Antirrhinum (snapdragon)
Chaenorhinum (dwarf snapdragon)
Cymbalaria (toadflax)
Kickxia (cancerwort)
Linaria (toadflax)
Misopates (snapdragon)
Nuttallanthus (toadflax)
7 11
Callitricheae Callitriche (water starwort)
Hippuris (mare's-tail)
2 6
Digitalideae Digitalis (foxglove) 1 4
Veroniceae Veronica (speedwell)
Veronicastrum (Culver's root)
2 25
Plantagineae Littorella (shore grass)
Plantago (plantain)
2 16
Scrophulariaceae Scrophularioideae Scrophularieae Scrophularia (figwort)
Verbascum (mullein)
2 11
Limoselleae Limosella (mudwort) 1 1
Buddlejoideae Buddlejeae Buddleja (butterfly bush) 1 1
Lamiaceae Viticoideae Vitex (chasteberry) 1 1
Ajugoideae Ajugeae Trichostema (blue curls)
Ajuga (bugle)
2 3
Teucrieae Teucrium (germander) 1 3
Scutellarioideae Scutellaria (skullcap) 1 10
Lamioideae Marrubieae Ballota, Marrubium (horehound)
Moluccella (shellflower)
3 3
Lamieae Lamiastrum (yellow archangel)
Lamium (deadnettle)
2 6
Leonureae Leonurus (motherwort, lion's tail) 1 2
Phlomideae Phlomis (Jerusalem sage) 1 1
Synandreae Physostegia (lion's heart, obedient plant) 1 1
Stachydeae Stachys (hedgenettle) 1 11
(unplaced) Galeopsis (hempnettle) 1 4
Nepetoideae Elsholtzieae Collinsonia (horsebalm, richweed)
Elsholtzia (latesummer mint)
Perilla (beefsteak plant)
3 4
Mentheae Salviinae Melissa (balm)
Salvia (sage)
2 10
Prunellinae Prunella (selfheal) 1 3
Lycopinae Lycopus (bugle weed) 1 7
Neptinae Agastache (giant hyssop)
Dracocephalum (dragonhead)
Glechoma (ground ivy)
Hyssopus (hyssop)
Nepeta (catnip)
5 10
Menthinae Hedeoma (false-pennyroyal)
Blephilia (pagoda-plant)
Monarda (beebalm, wild bergamot, horse-mint)
Pycnanthemum (mountain-mint)
Cunila (dittany)
Mentha (mint)
Clinopodium, Calamintha (basil, calamint)
Satureja (savory)
Origanum (marjoram)
Thymus (thyme)
10 37
Ocimeae Lavandula, Ocimum (lavender, basil) 2 2
Mazaceae Mazus (mazus) 1 2
Phrymaceae Mimuleae Mimulus (monkey flower) 1 4
Phrymeae Phryma (lopseed) 1 1
Paulowniaceae Paulownia (princess tree, foxglove tree) 1 1
Orobanchaceae Rhinanthoideae Castillejeae Castilleja (Indian paintbrush)
Orthocarpus (owl's clover)
2 2
Gerardieae Aureolaria (false foxglove)
Agalinis (false foxglove, gerardia)
2 14
Pedicularideae Pedicularis (lousewort) 1 2
Buchnereae Buchnera (blue hearts) 1 1
Rhinantheae Euphrasia (eyebright)
Melampyrum (cow wheat)
Odontites (bartsia)
Rhinanthus (yellow rattle)
4 7
Orobanchoideae Orobancheae Epifagus (beechdrops)
Conopholis (squawroot)
Orobanche (broom rape)
3 4
Cymbarieae Schwalbea (chaffseed) 1 1
Verbenaceae Verbeneae Verbena (vervain) 1 12
Lantaneae Phyla (fogfruit, bogfruit) 2 2
Pedaliaceae Pedalioideae Sesameae Sesamum (sesame) 1 1
Martyniaceae Proboscidea (unicorn plant, devil's claw) 1 1
Linderniaceae Lindernieae Micranthemum (mudflower)
Lindernia (false pimpernel)
2 4
Bignoniaceae Tecomeae Campsis (trumpet creeper) 1 1
Catalpeae Catalpa (catalpa) 1 3
Acanthaceae Acanthoideae Ruellieae Ruellia (petunia) 1 1
Justicieae Justicia (water willow) 2 2
Lentibulariaceae Pinguicula (butterwort)
Utricularia (bladderwort)
2 15

Aquifoliales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Aquifoliales Aquifoliaceae Ilex (holly) 1 7

Asterales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Asterales Campanulaceae Campanuloideae Campanuleae Campanula (bellflower)
Campanulastrum (bellflower)
Triodanis (Venus' looking-glass)
Jasione (sheep bit)
Platycodon (balloon flower)
5 12
Lobelioideae Lobelieae Lobelia (cardinal flower) 1 7
Menyanthaceae Menyanthes (buckbean)
Nymphoides (floating heart)
2 3
Asteraceae
(Compositeae)
Carduoideae Cardueae 1. Carlininae Carlina (carline thistle) 1 1
2. Echinopsinae Echinops (globe thistle) 1 1
3. Carduinae Onopordum (Scotch thistle)
Arctium (burdock)
Silybum (milk thistle)
Cirsium (thistle)
Carduus (plumeless thistle)
5 18
4. Centaureinae Plectocephalus (knapweed)
Centaurea (knapweed, starthistle)
Carthamus (safflower)
3 20
Cichorioideae Cichorieae 5. Scorzonerinae Tragopogon (goat's beard) 1 4
6. Scolyminae Scolymus (golden thistle) 1 1
7. Lactucinae Lactuca, Mycelis (lettuce) 2 10
8. Hyoseridinae Sonchus (sow thistle) 1 5
9. Crepidinae Ixeris (creeping lettuce)
Taraxacum (dandelion)
Crepis (hawksbeard)
Lapsana (nipplewort)
4 10
10. Chondrillinae Chondrilla (rush skeletonweed) 1 1
11. Hypochaeridinae Prenanthes (rattlesnakeroot)
Scorzoneroides, Leontodon (hawkbit)
Hypochaeris (cat's ear)
Helminthotheca, Picris (oxtongue)
4 16
12. Hieraciinae Hieracium (hawkweed)
Pilosella (hawkweed)
2 19
13. Microseridinae Krigia (dwarf dandelion)
Stephanomeria (wire lettuce)
2 4
14. Cichoriinae Cichorium (chicory)
Arnoseris (lamb's lettuce)
2 2
Vernonieae 15. Vernoniineae Vernonia (ironweed) 1 4
Asteroideae Senecioneae 16. Tussilagininae Tussilago (coltsfoot)
Petasites (butterbur)
Arnoglossum (Indian plantain)
3 4
17. Senecioninae Senecio (ragwort)
Erechtites (burnweed)
Packera (ragwort)
Jacobaea (ragwort)
4 15
Calenduleae 18. Calendula (pot marigold) 1 1
Gnaphalieae 19. Cassiniinae Anaphalis (pearly everlasting)
Antennaria (pussytoes)
2 8
20. Gnaphaliinae Gnaphalium, Pseudognaphalium (cudweed)
Gamochaeta (purple everlasting)
Omalotheca (arctic cudweed)
Filago, Logfia (cottonrose)
6 9
Astereae 21. Bellidinae Bellis (English daisy, lawn daisy) 1 1
22. Asterinae Callistephus (China aster)
Tripolium (sea aster)
2 2
23. Baccharidinae Baccharis (baccharis) 1 1
24. "ericamerioid asters" Ericameria (rabbitbrush)
Ionactis (aster)
Oclemena (aster)
3 5
25. Solidagininae Sericocarpus (whitetop aster)
Euthamia (goldentop)
Oligoneuron (goldenrod)
Solidago (goldenrod)
4 41
26. Boltoniinae Boltonia (doll's daisy) 1 2
27. Machaerantherinae Machaeranthera, Dieteria (tansy aster)
Grindelia (gumweed)
3 6
28. Symphyotrichinae Doellingeria (whitetop)
Symphyotrichum (aster)
2 38
29. (unplaced) Eurybia (aster) 1 6
30. Chrysopsidinae Pityopsis (silkgrass)
Chrysopsis (goldenaster)
Heterotheca (false goldenaster)
3 3
31. Conyzinae Conyza (horseweed)
Erigeron (fleabane)
3 10
Anthemideae 32. Artemisiinae Nipponanthemum (daisy)
Leucanthemella (ox-eye)
Artemisia (sagebrush, wormwood)
3 20
33. Matricariinae Achillea (yarrow)
Leucanthemella (chamomile)
2 11
34. Anthemidinae Anthemis (chamomile)
Cota (chamomile)
Tanacetum (tansy)
Tripleurospermum (Mayweed)
2 11
35. Leucantheminae Leucanthemum (daisy) 1 1
36. Santolininae Chamaemelum (dog fennel)
Cladanthus (dog fennel)
2 2
37. Glebionidinae Glebionis (crown daisy, corn marigold) 1 2
Inuleae 38. Inulinae Inula (yellowhead)
Dittrichia (stinkwort)
2 4
39. Plucheinae Pluchea (camphor weed) 1 1
Helenieae 40. Heleniinae Helenium (sneeze weed)
Gaillardia (blanket flower)
2 6
Coreopsideae 41. Coreopsidinae Bidens (beggar ticks)
Coreopsis (tickseed)
Cosmos (cosmos)
3 23
Tageteae 42. Tagetinae Tagetes (marigold)
Dyssodia (dogweed)
2 3
Chaenactideae 43. Chaenactis (pincushion) 1 1
Polymnieae 44. Polymnia (leafcup) 1 1
Ambrosieae (Heliantheae) 45. Ecliptinae Eclipta (false daisy) 1 1
46. Verbesininae Verbesina (crown beard) 1 2
47. Engelmanniinae Chrysogonum (green & gold)
Silphium (rosin weed)
2 4
48. Rudbeckiinae Rudbeckia (coneflower, blackeyed Susan)
Ratibida (prairie coneflower)
2 11
49. Ambrosiinae Ambrosia (ragweed)
Cyclachaena (sumpweed)
Iva (marshelder)
Parthenium (fever-few)
Xanthium (cocklebur)
5 13
50. Zinniinae Heliopsis (smooth oxeye)
Echinacea (purple coneflower)
2 4
51. Helianthinae Helianthus (sunflower)
Heliomeris (false goldeneye)
2 18
Millerieae 52. Milleriinae Smallanthus (leafcup)
Guizotia (ramtilla)
2 2
53. Galinsoginae Galinsoga (gallant soldier, quickweed) 1 2
54. Melampodiinae Acanthospermum (star burr) 1 4
Madieae 55. Arnicinae Arnica (lanceleaf arnica) 1 1
56. Madiinae Madia (tar weed)
Centromadia (spike weed)
2 3
Eupatorieae 57. Oxylobinae Ageratina (snakeroot) 1 2
58. Mikaniinae Mikania (hempvine) 1 1
59. Gyptidinae Conoclinium (mistflower, boneset, thoroughwort) 1 1
60. Liatridinae Liatris (blazing star) 1 6
61. Eupatoriinae Eupatorium (thoroughwort, boneset)
Eutrochium (Joe-Pye weed)
1 21

Apiales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Apiales Araliaceae Aralioideae Hedereae Hedera (English ivy) 1 1
Aralieae Aralia (spikenard, sarsaparilla, angelica tree)
Panax (ginseng)
Eleutherococcus (five-leaved aralia)
3 8
Hydrocotyloideae Hydrocotyle (water pennywort) 1 5
Apiaceae Saniculoideae Saniculeae Sanicula (sanicle, black snakeroot)
Eryngium (eryngo, coyote thistle)
2 7
Apioideae Oenantheae Sium (water-parsnip)
Cicuta (water-hemlock)
Cryptotaenia (honewort)
Ptilimnium (mock bishop-weed, herb-william)
Lilaeopsis (grasswort)
Oxypolis (cowbane, stiff cowbane, water dropwort)
Berula (water parsnip)
7 8
Scandiceae Scandicinae Osmorhiza (sweetroot, sweet-cicely)
Chaerophyllum (chervil)
Anthriscus (chervil, cow parsley)
3 6
Daucinae Daucus (wild carrot, Queen Anne's lace) 1 1
Torilidinae Torilis (hedge parsley) 1 1
Careae Carum (caraway, anise)
Aegopodium (goutweed, ground elder)
2 2
Pimpinelleae Pimpinella (burnet-saxifrage) 1 2
Coriandreae Coriandrum (coriander) 1 1
Apieae Apium (celery)
Anethum (dill)
Foeniculum (fennel)
Levisticum (lovage)
Petroselinum (parsley)
4 4
Tordylieae Heracleum (cow parsnip, hogweed)
Pastinaca (parsnip)
2 4
Selineae Taenidia (yellow pimpernel)
Zizia (golden Alexanders)
Angelica (angelica)
Ligusticum (licorice-root)
Thaspium (meadow-parsnip)
Aethusa (fool's parsley)
Peucedanum (masterwort)
7 11
(unplaced) Conioselinum (hemlock-parsley)
Erigenia (pepper-and-salt)
Conium (poison hemlock)
3 3

Dipsacales[edit | edit source]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Vernacular Names #
Dipsacales Viburnaceae Viburneae Viburnum hobblebush, nannyberry,
arrowwood, possumhaw,
cranberrybush
19
Adoxeae Sambucus elderberry 3
Adoxa muskroot 1
Caprifoliaceae Diervilloideae Diervilla northern bush-honeysuckle 1
Weigela crimson weigela 2
Caprifolioideae Triosteum horse-gentian 3
Lonicera honeysuckle 20
Symphoricarpos snowberry 4
Linnaeoideae Linnaea twinflower 1
Kolkwitzia beautybush 2
Dipsacoideae Dipsaceae Succisella frosted pearls 1
Dipsacus teasel 3
Knautia scabious, blue-buttons 1
Scabiosa scabious, pincushions 1
Valerianoideae Valeriana valerian 3
Valerianella corn salad 3

References[edit | edit source]

Search[edit | edit source]