Flora of New York/Fagales

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Cucurbitales
Flora of New York — Fagales
Geraniales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Fagales is part of the nitrogen-fixing clade:

nitrogen‑fixing clade 

Fabales




Rosales




Cucurbitales


 Fagales 

Fagaceae (beech family: oak, chestnut, and beech)





Myricaceae (bayberry family: sweet-fern and bayberry)



Juglandaceae (walnut family: walnut and hickory)




Betulaceae (birch family: alder, birch, hornbeam, and hazelnut)







However, the vast majority of species able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules are in the Fabaceae (legume family). In the Fagales, only the Myricaceae (bayberry family) and Alnus (alder) species are able to fix nitrogen.

Fagales species primarily take the form of trees. They have also been placed in the Juglandales.


Clades Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
angiosperms
  eudicots
    rosids
      fabids
Fagales Fagaceae Quercoideae Querceae Quercus oak white oak 15
red oak 16
Castaneeae Castanea chestnut 4
Fagoideae Fagus beech 2
Myricaceae Comptonia sweetfern 1
Myrica sweetgale 1
Morella bayberry 2
Juglandaceae Juglandoideae Juglandeae Juglans walnut, butternut 3
Caryeae Carya hickory 8
Betulaceae Betuloideae Alnus alder 5
Betula birch 15
Coryloideae Carpineae Carpinus hornbeam 3
Ostrya hop hornbean 1
Coryleae Corylus hazelnut 3

Family Fagaceae[edit| edit source]

The Fagaceae (beech family) contains the oaks (Quercus), chestnuts (Castanea), and beeches (Fagus).[1][2]
  1. Fagaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Paul S. Manos, Zhe-Kun Zhou, and Charles H. Cannon (2001). "Systematics of Fagaceae: Phylogenic Test of Reproductive Trait Evolution". International Journal of Plant Sciences 162(6): 1361–1379. http://www.ecologicalevolution.org/content/pdf/manos01.pdf. 

Subfamily Quercoideae[edit| edit source]

The Quercoideae, as organized here, includes the oaks and the chestnuts.

Tribe Querceae[edit| edit source]

Querceae currently comprises only genus Quercus. In previous schemes, the tribe also included upgraded Quercus subgenera, including Macrobalanus (large-fruited white oaks) and Erythrobalanus (red and black oaks).[1][2]
Quercus[edit| edit source]
The genus Quercus contains the oaks, which comprise about 30 taxa of trees and shrubs in New York. Two sections of oaks in the subgenus Quercus are found in the state: sect. Quercus (white oaks) and sect. Lobate (red oaks). They commonly hybridized only within their own section.[1]
Quercus sect. Quercus[edit| edit source]
Quercus montana
chestnut oak
The Quercus section Quercus contains the white-oak group, most members of which have leaves with rounded lobes. White oaks produce acorns that mature in a single season and are relatively sweet.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Quercus
Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Quercus alba L.
White oak,
Eastern white oak,
Stave oak
Chêne blanc
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade
NAS-001g Quercus alba.png
Quercus alba NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP
IPN
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Willd.

1783. Q. prinus var. platanoides
1801. Q. bicolor Willd.
1842. Q. prinus var. bicolor
1864. Q. bicolor var. platanoides
1886. Q. discolor var. bicolor
1892. Q. platanoides (Lam.) Sudw.
Swamp white oak
Chêne bicolore,
Chêne bleu
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Tree,
Part shade
NAS-007g Quercus bicolor.png
Quercus bicolor NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Willd.

1753. Q. prinus L. (i)
1805. Q. montana Willd.
Chestnut oak,
Mountain chestnut oak,
Rock chestnut oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-008g Quercus montana.png
Quercus montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 Willd.

1801. Q. prinoides Willd.
Dwarf chinquapin oak,
Scrub chestnut oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
NAS-011g Quercus prinoides.png
Quercus prinoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 Michx.

1801. Q. macrocarpa Michx.
1812. Q. olivaeformis F.Michx.
1838. Cerris macrocarpa (Michx.) Raf.
1838. Cerris oliviformis (F.Michx.) Raf.
1856. Q. macrocarpa var. oliviformis
1876. Q. macrocarpa var. depressa
1924. Q. macrocarpa fo. oliviformis
1931. Q. mandanensis Rydb.
1935. Q. macrocarpa ssp. oliviformis
Bur oak,
Burr oak,
Mossy-cup oak,
Blue oak
Chêne à gros fruits
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
NAS-004g Quercus macrocarpa.png
Quercus macrocarpa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Engelm.

1803. Q. prinus var. acuminata
1877. Q. muehlenbergii Engelm.
1884. Q. rubra var. muehlenbergii
1895. Q. acuminata Sarg. (i)
1901. Q. brayi Small
Chinkapin oak,
Chinquapin oak,
Yellow chestnut oak
Chêne jaune,
Chêne de Mühlenberg
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-010g Quercus muehlenbergii.png
Quercus muehlenbergii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 Wangenh.

1787. Q. stellata Wangenh.
1803. Q. obtusiloba Michx.
1918. Q. minor (Marshall) Sarg.
1918. Q. stellata var. attenuata
1918. Q. stellata var. parviloba
Post oak
Chêne étoilé,
Chêne à étoilé
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-005g Quercus stellata.png
Quercus stellata nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
FNA
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Q. robur L.
1790. Q. pedunculata Ehrh.
English oak,
Pedunculate oak,
European oak
Chêne pédonculé
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Cultivated,
Rarely naturalizes

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-002b Quercus robur.png
Quercus robur nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Quercussect. Quercus (excluded taxa) White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.

1818. Q. michauxii Nutt.
Swamp chestnut oak,
Basket oak,
Cow oak
N. America native
 southeastern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
QuercusMichauxiiLeaf.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
(Ashe) Small

1894. Q. minor var. margarettae
1903. Q. margaretta (Ashe) Small
1913. Q. stellata var. margarettae
1983. Q. stellata ssp. margarettae
Sand post oak,
Runner oak,
Dwarf post oak
N. America native
 southeastern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
NAS-005f Quercus stellata.png
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Quercus sect. Quercus hybrids[edit| edit source]
These are the naturally-occurring white oak hybrids found in New York State.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Quercus
Quercussect. Quercus White oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus montana

Saul's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 chestnut oak
Native,
Vulnerable
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × saulii nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
 Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus bicolor

Jack's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 swamp-white oak
Chêne de Jack
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × jackiana nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN

Images
Wikispecies
 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus prinoides

Faxon's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 dwarf chinkapin oak
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × faxonii nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
 Trel.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus stellata

Fernow's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 post oak
Native,
Endangered,
Impersistent
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
 Trel.

Quercus bicolor ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Quercus × hillii Trel.
Schuette's oak,
Hybrid of
 swamp white oak &
 burr oak
Chêne de Schuette
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN

Images
Wikispecies
 C.K.Schneid.

Quercus alba ×
Quercus macrocarpa

Bebb's oak,
Hybrid of
 white oak &
 burr oak
Chêne de Bebb
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN

Images
Wikispecies
 Trel.

Quercus macrocarpa ×
Quercus muehlenbergii[1]

1917. Quercus × deamii Trel.
1948. Quercus × fallax E.J.Palmer
Deam's oak,
Hybrid of
 burr oak &
 chinkapin oak
Chêne de Deam
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
  1. Trelease (1924) considered Q.× deamii to be Q.alba × Q.muehlenbergii. Bartlett (1951) showed that Q.macrocarpa × Q.muehlenbergii were more likely to have been the real parents of Q.× deamii. Meanwhile E.J.Palmer (1948) published the name Q.× fallax for oaks with that parentage. So now Q.× fallax is considered to be a synonym of Q.× deamii.
Quercus sect. Lobatae[edit| edit source]
Red oak

The Quercus section Lobatae (similar to sect. Erythrobalanus) contains the red oak group, most members of which have leaves with pointed or spiny lobes. Red oaks produce acorns that require two seasons (18 months) to mature and are relatively bitter.

Note that Quercus lobata (a California native) is a member of sect. Querca, not sect. Lobatae, as might be inferred from its name.


Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Lobatae
Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Quercus rubra L.
1817. Quercus borealis Michx.
1916. Quercus maxima (Marshall) Ashe
1916. Quercus borealis var. maxima (i)
1916. Quercus borealis var. maxima
Red oak,
Northern red oak
Chêne rouge
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - part shade
NAS-026g Quercus rubra.png
Quercus rubra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Lam.

1785. Quercus velutina Lam.
1908. Q. velutina var. missouriensis
1917. Quercus missouriensis Ashe
Black oak,
Eastern black oak
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-024g Quercus velutina.png
Quercus velutina NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Wangenh.

1785. Quercus rubra var. nana Marshall
1787. Quercus ilicifolia Wangenh.
1895. Quercus nana (Marshall) Sarg. (i)
Scrub oak,
Bear oak
Chêne à feuilles de houx,
Chêne de Banister
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
NAS-021g Quercus ilicifolia.png
Quercus ilicifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Münchh.

1770. Quercus coccinea Münchh.
1789. Quercus rubra var. coccinea
1918. Quercus coccinea var. tuberculata
Scarlet oak Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun
NAS-025g Quercus coccinea.png
Quercus coccinea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Münchh.

1770. Quercus palustris Münchh.
Pin oak Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun - shade
NAS-027g Quercus palustris.png
Quercus palustris nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
LBJ
FEIS

Images
Wikispecies
 Münchh.
var. marilandica

1753. Quercus nigra var. marilandica
1770. Quercus marilandica Münchh.
Blackjack oak Native, CoC: 7,
Rare

UPL

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-020g Quercus marilandica.png
Quercus marilandica var marilandica nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Quercus phellos L.
Willow oak Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-014f Quercus phellos.png
Quercus phellos nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Buckley

1860. Quercus shumardii Buckley
Shumard('s) oak,
Shumard red oak,
Southern red oak,
Swamp red oak
Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Quercus shumardii (23513714694).jpg
Quercus shumardii nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Michx.

1801. Quercus imbricaria Michx.
1842. Quercus phellos var. imbricaria
1936. Erythrobalanus imbricaria
(Michx.) O.Schwarz
Shingle oak,
Laurel oak
Introduced from
 midwestern US,
Midwest native,
Not naturalized

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-015f Quercus imbricaria.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Quercussect. Lobatae (excluded taxa) Red oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Michx.

1801. Quercus falcata Michx.
Southern red oak,
Spanish oak
N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
NAS-023f Quercus falcata.png
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
FNA
Tropicos
BBG 
Images
Wikispecies
Note: [1]
Raf.

1824. Q. falcata var. pagodifolia
1838. Q. pagoda Raf.
1896. Q. pagodifolia (Elliott) Ashe
1917. Q. rubra var. leucophylla
1918. Q. rubra var. pagodifolia
1935. Q. falcata var. leucophylla
Cherrybark oak,
Cherry-bark oak
N. America native
 southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
Quercus pagoda (23842443810).jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Quercus sect. Lobatae hybrids[edit| edit source]
These are the naturally-occurring red oak hybrids found in New York State.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Lobatae
Quercussect. Lobatae Red oak hybrids N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Sarg.

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus velutina

Bush's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 black oak
Native,
Threatened,
Impersistent
Ny hybrid.svg
Quercus × bushii nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0

Images
Wikispecies
W.T. Davis (pro sp.)

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus marilandica

Britton's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 blackjack oak
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?

Images
Wikispecies
 Trel.

Quercus ilicifolia ×
Quercus velutina

Rehder's oak,
Hybrid of
 scrub oak &
 black oak
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0

Images
Wikispecies
 Sudw.

Quercus rubra ×
Quercus velutina

    Quercus × hawkinsi Sudw.
    Quercus × hawkinsii Sudw.
    Quercus × porteri Trelease illeg.
Hawkins' oak,
Hybrid of
 red oak &
 black oak
Chêne de Hawkins
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
VASCAN
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
 Britton (pro sp.)

Quercus marilandica ×
Quercus phellos

Quercus × dubia Ashe
Rudkin's oak,
Hybrid of
 blackjack oak &
 willow oak
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg

ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
 Little

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus velutina

Varileaf oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 black oak
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

Images
Wikispecies
 Michx.f.

Quercus phellos ×
Quercus rubra

Quercus × hollickii Schneid.
Variable-leaved oak,
Hybrid of
 willow oak &
 red oak
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

Images
Wikispecies
Quercus sect. Cerris[edit| edit source]
The potentially invasive Asian sawtooth oak has not been listed as naturalized in New York, but it is distributed as a "conservation" tree in the state, and has been listed as naturalized in Pennsylvania. It is reported as invasive in Wisconsin, South Carolina, and Georgia.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Quercoideae — Quercus subg. Quercus sect. Cerris
Quercussect. Cerris Turkish oak group N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Carruth.

    
    
    
Sawtooth oak
Sawhorn oak

Introduced from
 Asia,
Potentially invasive,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized,
NPS IPA
Quercus acutissima BW-1237024.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies

Tribe Castaneeae[edit| edit source]

Castanea[edit| edit source]
Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.
American chestnut
Native American chestnut trees (Castanea dentata) were a major component of many New York forests until the introduction of the exotic chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) in the late 19th century. Mature American chestnuts are now rare, but stump sprouts are keeping the chestnut genome alive.
Fagales — Fagaceae — Castanoideae — Castanea
Castanea Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Marsh.) Borkh.

1785. Fagus dentata Marshall (i)
1800. C. dentata (Marshall) Borkh.
1803. C. vesca var. americana
1817. C. americana (Michx.) Raf.
American chestnut,
Chestnut
Châtaignier d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Castanea dentata 3144.jpg
Castanea dentata nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Note: [1]
 (L.) Mill.

1768. Fagus pumila L.
1768. Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.
1818. Castanea alnifolia Nutt
Chinquapin
Chinkapin
Dwarf chestnut
Allegheny chinquapin
N. America native,
Unranked

UPL
NAS-105 Castanea pumila.png
Castanea pumila nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
Go Botany
FNA
BONAP
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Siebold & Zucc.

    
    
    
Japanese chestnut
Korean chestnut

Introduced,
Unk. naturalization
Castanea crenata3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xu
USDA-X0
BBG 
Images
Wikispecies
 Mill.

    Castanea vesca
    Castanea vulgaris
European chestnut Introduced from
 Europe,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Castanea sativa - Sweet chestnut, Giresun 2016 01-4.jpg
Castanea sativa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
Castanea (excluded taxa) Chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Blume

    
    
    
Chinese chestnut

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Castanea mollissima 1.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
  1. Castanea dentata status is misleading because although the species is not rare and will likely persist, chestnut blight prevents the trees from maturing. Most grow from root suckers.

Subfamily Fagoideae[edit| edit source]

Fagus[edit| edit source]

American beech (Fagus grandifolia)
The American beech, Fagus grandifolia, is a widespread hardwood tree in New York, and historically associated with Acer saccharum (sugar maple) in beech-maple climax forests. The American beech, however, is susceptible to beech bark disease, which is now common in New York. The disease is made possible by the non-native beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which pierces the bark to feed on the sap. The resulting holes allow Nectria fungus spores to enter. Eventually the exotic fungus kills portions of inner bark and induces cankers that often girdle and kill the tree.[1] Given these facts, the "secure" status for American beech may be counter-intuitive, but the loss of larger infected trees increases the number of root suckers and stump sprouts, causing dense beech thickets, which have little benefit for wildlife or timber harvesters. So, as with other disease-prone trees such as American elm and American chestnut, the threat of extirpation is low, even though the health of the existing population remains poor. In fact, foresters in New York often consider the American beech to be a native invasive or interfering species and treat beech tree stumps with glyphosate immediately after cutting to prevent such resprouts.[2]
Fagales — Fagaceae — Fagoideae — Fagus
Fagus Beech N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Ehrh.

1788. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.
1789. Fagus ferruginea Aiton
1826. Fagus americana Sweet
1907. Fagus grandifolia var. caroliniana
1940. Fagus grandifolia ssp. heterophylla
American beech
Hêtre américain
Native,
Secure
American Beech - Flickr - pellaea.jpg
Fagus grandifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Fagus sylvatica L.
European beech Introduced from
 Eurasia
Fagus sylvatica flower kz1.jpg
Fagus sylvatica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies

Family Myricaceae[edit| edit source]

The Myricaceae Blume 1829 (bayberry family) contains the bayberry, sweetgale, and sweet-fern species.[1]

Robert L. Wilbur (1994) recommended splitting Myrica (bayberry and sweetgale), moving most of the bayberry species to Morella and leaving sweetgale in Myrica. He also expressed doubt about whether the two eastern North American bayberry species, M. pensylvanica and M. caroliniensis, were distinct enough to be considered separate species.[2] In 2002, Wilbur made the recommendation that the two eastern North American bayberry species should be treated as a single species, Morella caroliniensis.[3]


Comptonia[edit| edit source]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Comptonia
ComptoniaL’Hér. 1789 Sweet-fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) J.M.Coult.

1753. Liquidambar peregrina L.
1753. Myrica aspleniifolia L.
1763. Liquidambar aspleniifolia (L.) L.
1789. Comptonia aspleniifolia (L.) L’Hér.
1891. Myrica peregrina (L.) Kuntze
1894. Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M.Coult.
Sweet fern,
Fern gale
Comptonie voyageuse,
Comptonie à
  feuilles d'asplénie
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub
Comptonia peregrina kz3.jpg
Comptonia peregrina nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies

Myrica[edit| edit source]

Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Myrica
MyricaL. 1754 Sweetgale N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Myrica gale L.
1889. Gale palustris Chev.
Sweet bayberry,
Bog-myrtle,
Sweet gale,
Meadow-fern
Myrique baumier,
Bois-sent-bon
Native,
Secure,
Circumoreal

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub
Bog myrtle - geograph.org.uk - 482608.jpg
Myrica gale nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies

Morella[edit| edit source]

Some sources, including the New York Flora Atlas, treat northern and southern bayberry as a single species. Other sources treat them separately. If treated as two distinct species, only northern bayberry (Morella pensylvanica) is thought to be native or naturalized in New York. But, if treated as as single species, Morella caroliniensis would have priority as the species name.
Fagales — Myricaceae — Myriceae — Morella
MorellaLour. 1790 Bayberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Mirb.) Kartesz

1804. Myrica pensylvanica Mirb.
1919. Myrica macfarlanei Youngken
1937. Cerothamnus pensylvanicus Moldenke
1999. Morella pensylvanica (Mirb.) Kartesz[1]
Northern bayberry,
Candleberry, Waxberry,
Tallow bayberry,
Tallowshrub,
Swamp candleberry,
Candlewood
Cirier de Pennsylvanie,
Myrique de Pennsylvanie
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure,
S4, G5

FAC

Perennial,
Shrub
Morella pensylvanica kz3.jpg
Morella pensylvanica nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
LBJ
MBG 
Images
Wikispecies
 (Mill.) Small

1768. Myrica caroliniensis Mill.
1838. Myrica heterophylla Raf.
1903. Morella caroliniensis Small
1910. Cerothamnus caroliniensis Tidestr.
Southern bayberry,
Evergreen bayberry,
Wax-myrtle,
Small bayberry
N. America native Morella pensylvanica kz2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
MBG 
Images
Wikispecies
  1. NYFA lists Morella pensylvanica as Morella caroliniensis (Mill.) Small, with Myrica pensylvanica as a synonym. However, the other sources listed here (except for Flora Novae Angliae @Go Botany) do not treat northern and southern bayberry as the same species. Flora of North America lists southern bayberry as Myrica heterophylla, and after discussing the minor differences between northern and southern bayberry, states "Whether these differences are sufficient to warrant the recognition of distinct species is yet to be satisfactorily resolved."

Family Juglandaceae[edit| edit source]

The New York members of the Juglandaceae (walnut family) include about ten reported native walnut and hickory species, and a single non-native walnut species.[1] These trees are valuable both for their timber and nut production.
  1. Juglandaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Juglandoideae[edit| edit source]

Both of the New York Juglandaceae tribes are placed in the Juglandoideae. Their fruits are similar in that they are composed of a nut surrounded by a fleshy outer covering so that they somewhat resemble a drupe such as a peach or plum.

Tribe Juglandeae[edit| edit source]

The Juglandeae in New York consist of the relatively common native black walnut and butternut (or white walnut) trees.
Juglans[edit| edit source]
Black walnut (Juglans nigra) may not be native to all parts of New York. It was once a dominant tree in the midwest and southeast, and was probably cultivated by Native Americans in parts of the state where it didn't occur naturally.

Most butternut (Juglans cinerea) trees in the state appear to have been infected by the butternut canker (the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum) . Some naturalized "English" and possibly "Japanese" walnut trees have also been found in the southeastern part of the state.


Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Juglandeae — Juglans
Juglanssect. Rhysocaryon Black walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Juglans nigra L.
1861. Wallia nigra (L.) Alef.
Black walnut,
American walnut
Noyer noir,
Noyer noir d'Amérique
Native,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-030 Juglans nigra.png
Juglans nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Juglanssect. Trachycaryon White walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1759. Juglans cinerea L.
1861. Wallia cinerea (L.) Alef.
Butternut,
White walnut
Noyer cendré,
Arbre à noix longues,
Noix tendre
Native,
Likely secure

FACU
NAS-031 Juglans cinerea.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Juglanssect. Cardiocaryon Asian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Carrière

1872. Juglans sieboldiana Maxim.
1878. Juglans ailantifolia Carrière
Japanese walnut,
Siebold walnut,
Onigurumi,
Heartnut
Noyer du Japon
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
No specimens
Juglans mandshurica var. sieboldiana fruits.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-X
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
Juglans Hybrid walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Rehder

Juglans ailantifolia ×
Juglans cinerea

1921. Juglans × bixbyi Rehder
Bixby's walnut,
Buart,
Buartnut,
Hybrid of
 butternut &
 Japanese walnut
Introduced,
No specimens
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-X0
Go Botany
ITIS
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
Juglanssect. Juglans (excluded taxa) Eurasian walnuts N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Juglans regia L.
1906. Juglans duclouxiana Dode
1906. Juglans falax Dode
1906. Juglans sinensis (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans kamaonica (C.DC.) Dode
1906. Juglans orientis Dode
English walnut,
Persian walnut,
Common walnut,
Black sea walnut,
Madeira-nut
Noyer commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
NAS-029 Juglans regia.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies

Tribe Caryeae[edit| edit source]

Carya[edit| edit source]
North American hickories (Carya) are often divided into two groups: the true hickories (sect. Carya) and the pecan hickories (sect. Apocarya). Section Apocarya contains the pecan hickories, including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), water hickory (C. aquatica), and nutmeg hickory (C. myristiciformis). The wood of the trees in this section is generally considered to be a bit less dense and softer than that of the true hickories.[1] The only member of sect. Apocarya found in New York is bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis). Section Carya contains the true hickories.

Recent molecular data does not strictly support using those two groupss[2]


Fagales — Juglandaceae — Juglandoideae — Caryeae — Apocarya
Caryasect. Apocarya Pecan hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Wangenh.) K. Koch (1869)

1787. Juglans cordiformis
1869. Carya cordiformis
    Hicoria cordiformis
    Hicoria minima
Bitternut hickory,
Swamp hickory
Caryer cordiforme,
Caryer amer
Native,
Secure

FAC-FACU
NAS-033 Carya cordiformis.png
Carya cordiformis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Caryasect. Carya True hickories N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Mill.) K.Koch
var. ovata

1768. Juglans ovata Miller
1869. Carya ovata (Mill.) K.Koch
    Hicoria alba p.p.
1888. Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britton
Shagbark hickory,
Shellbark hickory,
Upland hickory
Caryer ovale
Native,
Secure

FACU-FACU
Peeling (8846441003).jpg
Carya ovata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 (Mill.) Sweet

1768. Juglans glabra Mill.
1787. Juglans ovalis Wangenh.
1813. Juglans pyriformis Muhl., nom. nud.
1826. Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet
1913. Carya ovalis (Wangenh.) Sarg.
1969. Carya glabra var. odorata
Pignut hickory
Sweet pignut
Red hickory
False shagbark
Small pignut
Native,
Secure

FACU-FACU
NAS-038 Carya glabra.png
Carya glabra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 (Poir.) Nutt.

1753. Juglans alba L. p.p.
1798. Juglans tomentosa Poir. in Lam.
1818. Carya tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt.
1818. Carya alba (L.) Nutt
1838. Hicoria tomentosa (Lam.) Raf.
1869. Carya alba (L.) K. Koch
1888. Hicorius alba Britton
Mockernut hickory,
Big-bud hickory,
White-heart hickory,
White hickory,
Square-nut hickory
Native,
Secure
NAS-035 Carya tomentosa.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Note: [1]
 (Michx. f.) G. Don

Hicoria laciniosa
Shellbark hickory,
Kingnut,
Big shellbark hickory,
Shagbark hickory
Native,
Threatened

FACW-FAC
NAS-037 Carya laciniosa.png
Carya laciniosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 Sarg.

Carya laciniosa ×
Carya ovata

1922. Carya × dunbarii Sarg.
Dunbar's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Shellbark hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
Native,
Unranked

Perennial,
Tree
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
 Sarg.

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya ovata

1913. Carya × Laneyi Sarg.
Laney's hickory,
Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shagbark hickory
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
Carya cordiformis × laciniosa

Carya cordiformis ×
Carya laciniosa

Hybrid of
 Bitternut hickory &
 Shellbark hickory
N. America native,
No reports
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg


Images
Wikispecies
  1. NYFA and NRCS list Carya tomentosa as Carya alba. ARS, ITIS, and FNA all list the accepted species name as Carya tomentosa.

Family Betulaceae[edit| edit source]

The Betulaceae (birch family) contains the alder (Alnus), birch (Betula), hornbeam (Carpinus), hop-hornbeam (Ostrya), and hazel (Corylus) trees and shrubs.[1]
  1. Betulaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Betuloideae[edit| edit source]

The Betuloideae contains the alders and birches.

Alnus[edit| edit source]

Alnus incana
speckled alder
The genus Alnus contains trees generally referred to as alders.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Alnus
Alnus Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Moench
ssp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T.Clausen

1771. Betula alnus var. rugosa Du Roi
1784. Betula rugosa (Du Roi) Ehrh.
1826. Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng.
1861. Alnus incana var. americana
1945. Alnus rugosa var. americana
1949. Alnus incana ssp. rugosa
1955. Alnus americana (Regel) Czerep.
Speckled alder,
Tag alder,
Swamp alder
Aulne blanchâtre
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FACW-FACU

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus incana subsp rugosa kz2.jpg
Alnus incana ssp rugosa nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 (Aiton) Willd.

1789. Betula serrulata Aiton
1805. Alnus serrulata (Aiton) Willd.
1904. Alnus noveboracensis Britton
1945. Alnus serrulata var. subelliptica
1967. Alnus incana var. serrulata
 auct. Alnus rubra non (DuRoi) Spreng
Smooth alder,
Hazel alder,
Brookside alder,
Brook-side alder
Aulne tendre,
Aulne blanc,
Aulne serrulé
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
NAS-075 Alnus serrulata.png
Alnus serrulata nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 (Ehrh.) K. Koch
ssp. crispa (Aiton) Raus

1789. Betula crispa Aiton
1813. Alnus crispa (Aiton) Pursh
1904. Alnus alnobetula var. crispa
1962. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa
1964. Duschekia crispa (Aiton) Pouzar
2011. Alnus alnobetula ssp. crispa
Green alder,
Mountain alder,
American green alder
Aulne vert crispé,
Aulne crispé,
Aulne tardif
Native, CoC: 9,
Vulnerable

FAC

Perennial,
Shrub-tree
Alnus fruits.jpg
Alnus viridis ssp crispa nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 Callier

Alnus incana ssp. rungosa ×
Alnus serrulata

1911. Alnus × fallacina Callier
Deceptive alder,
Hybrid of
 speckled alder &
 smooth alder
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Alnus × fallacina nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0
Go Botany
ITIS
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Betula alnus L.
1753. Betula alnus var. glutinosa L.
1757. Alnus vulgaris Hill
1790. Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.
1913. Alnus alnus (L.) Britton nom. illeg.
European alder,
Black alder,
European black alder
Aulne glutineux,
Aulne noir
Introduced from
 Eurasia, n. Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 64%[1],
CP-3[2]
Schwarz-Erle am Blaibacher See.jpg
Alnus glutinosa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Alnus (potential hybrids) Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata

Hybrid of
 European alder &
 smooth alder
Introduced,
No specimens
Ny hybrid.svg
Alnus glutinosa × serrulata nymap.svg

Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
Alnus (excluded taxa) Alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Moench
ssp. incana

    
1794. Alnus incana (L.) Moench p.p.
Gray alder Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
Alnus incana Leaf.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-EXCLD
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies

Betula[edit| edit source]

Betula (ˈbech-ə-lə) in New York consists of about nine native species of birch trees, at least two native hybrids, and a single non-native, naturalized species.
Betula subg. Betulenta[edit| edit source]
Palustrine forest of hemlocks, sweet birches (Betula lenta), and yellow birches (Betula alleghaniensis) along Fall Creek, Monroe County, Pennsylvania.
Subgenus Betulenta contains the wintergreen-oil birches, which in New York consist of yellow and black birch. These contain a noticeable amount of methyl salicylate in their twig bark, giving the twigs a minty odor when broken.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Betulenta
BetulaL. 1753subg. Betulenta Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Britton

1811. Betula lutea F.Michx. nom. illeg.
1904. Betula alleghaniensis Britton
1922. B. lutea var. macrolepis
1949. B. lutea var. alleghaniensis
1966. B. alleghaniensis var. fallax
1966. B. alleghaniensis var. macrolepis
Yellow birch
Bouleau jaune,
Bouleau des Alléghanys,
Merisier
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Betula alleghaniensis 5349050.jpg
Betula alleghaniensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Betula lenta L.
Black birch,
Sweet birch,
Cherry birch
Bouleau flexible,
Merisier rouge
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Histoire des arbres forestiers de l'Amérique septentrionale (Pl. 4) (8720659584).jpg
Betula lenta nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Betula subg. Betula[edit| edit source]
Betula populifolia
gray birch
Subgenus Betula contains the typical birches, which do not have methyl salicylate in their bark.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Betulenta
BetulaL. 1753subg. Betula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Betula populifolia Marshall
Gray birch,
White birch,
Fire birch
Bouleau à
  feuilles de peuplier,
Bouleau gris
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

Perennial,
Tree
Gray-Birch-bark (20701238634).gif
Betula populifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
FNA
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 Marshall

1785. Betula papyrifera Marshall
1789. B. papyracea Aiton
1841. B. alba var. papyrifera
1919. B. papyrifera var. elobata
1945. B. papyrifera var. commutata
1945. B. papyrifera var. pensilis
Paper birch,
Canoe birch,
White birch
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Ecorce de bouleau.JPG
Betula papyrifera nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
Tropicos

Images
Wikispecies
 Regel

1861. Betula cordifolia Regel
1901. B. papyrifera var. cordifolia
[1]
1902. B. alba var. cordifolia
1982. B. papyrifera ssp. cordifolia
Mountain paper birch,
Mountain white birch,
Heart-leaved birch,
Heart-leaved paper birch
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Betula cordifolia bark 4x3.jpg
Betula cordifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Blanch. (pro sp.)

Betula cordifolia ×
Betula populifolia

1904. Betula caerulea-grandis
Blanch.
1904. Betula caerulea Blanch.
Blue birch,
Hybrid of
 Mountain paper birch &
 Gray birch
Bouleau bleu
Native,
Endangered
Ny hybrid.svg
Betula × caerulea nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Note: [2]
 Roth

1788. Betula pendula Roth
1789. Betula alba var. pendula
1790. Betula verrucosa Ehrh.
    
Weeping birch,
Silver birch,
European white birch,
European weeping birch
Bouleau verruqueux,
Bouleau pendant,
Bouleau pleureur,
Bouleau blanc d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
 Canada & Alaska??,
Naturalized

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-070a Betula pendula.png
Betula pendula nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
Betulasubg. Betula (excluded taxa) Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Betula nana L.
Alpine birch,
Dwarf birch,
Arctic dwarf birch
N. America native
 Canada & Alaska,
N.Y. excluded
Betula nana upernavik kujalleq 2007-07-25 1.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
 Ehrh.
ssp. pubescens

Betula alba
Downy birch Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Betual pubescens Blatt.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
 Sukaczev

Betula latifolia
Asian white birch Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Changbai Betula leafage.JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X

Images
Wikispecies
  1. Betula cordifolia is often treated as a variety of Betula papyrifera. According to Flora of North America, "…perhaps it should be considered an ecological race of that species."
  2. Betula × caerulea (blue birch) is listed by NRCS as a cross between papyrifera & populifolia, but FNA agrees with NYFA in stating that it as more likey [cordifolia × populifolia]
Betula subg. Neurobetula[edit| edit source]
Betula nigra
Although somewhat rare in New York and native to bottomlands, especially in the Hudson Valley, river birch is also planted as a popular landscape tree in other parts of the state.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Neurobetula
BetulaL. 1753subg. Neurobetula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Betula nigra L.
1812. Betula rubra F.Michx.
River birch,
Red birch,
Black birch
Native, CoC: 8,
Rare

FACW

Perennial,
Tree
Betula nigra kz1.jpg
Betula nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0
Go Botany
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Betula subg. Chamaebetula[edit| edit source]
Betula pumila
bog birch
Subgenus Chamaebetula contains the dwarf birches.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula subg. Chamaebetula
BetulaL. 1753subg. Chamaebetula Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1767. Betula pumila L.
1902. B. hallii Howell
1909. B. glandulifera
(Regel) E. J. Butler
Bog birch,
Dwarf birch,
Low birch,
Swamp birch
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Cropped clear betula pumila.png
Betula pumila nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
 Michx.

1803. Betula glandulosa Michx.
1911. B. exilis Sukaczev
    
Alpine birch,
Tundra dwarf birch,
Dwarf birch,
Resin birch
Bouleau glanduleux
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Betula glandulosa ÖBG 2012-05-28 03.jpg
Betula glandulosa nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 (Tuck.) Fernald

1843. Betula papyracea var. minor
1890. B. papyrifera var. minor
1902. B. alba var. minor
1945. B. minor Fernald
1966. B. pubescens ssp. minor
1976. B. saxophila Lepage
Dwarf white birch,
Dwarf birch
Bouleau mineur
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

Perennial,
Tree
Betula minor nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Betula inter-subgeneric hybrids[edit| edit source]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Betuloideae — Betula
BetulaL. 1753 Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Britton (pro sp.)

Betula papyrifera ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula sandbergii Britton
1957. Betula × neoborealis Lepage
Sandberg's birch,
Northern birch,
Hybrid of
 Paper birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Sandberg
Native,
Unranked
Betula × sandbergii BB-1913.png
Betula × sandbergii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
BetulaL. 1753 (excluded taxa) Birch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 C.K.Schneid.

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula pumila

1904. Betula purpusii C.K.Schneid.
1904. Betula purpusii var. typica nom. inval.
Purpus' birch,
Hybrid of
 Yellow birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Purpus
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Betula × purpusii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
 Lepage

Betula glandulosa ×
Betula minor

1952. Betula × dutillyi Lepage
Dutilly's birch,
Hybrid of
 Tundra dwarf birch &
 Dwarf white birch
Bouleau de Dutilly
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-0N
VASCAN

Images
Wikispecies
 Lepage

Betula populifolia ×
Betula pumila

1957. Betula × raymundii Lepage
Raymund's birch,
Hybrid of
 Gray birch &
 Bog birch
Bouleau de Raymund
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-0N
VASCAN
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies
Betula alleghaniensis × papyrifera

Betula alleghaniensis ×
Betula papyrifera

Un-named,
Hybrid of
 Yellow brirch &
 Paper birch
Native,
Unranked
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D

Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily Coryloideae[edit| edit source]

The Coryloideae subfamily of the birch family generally includes the hornbeam (Carpineae) and hazel (Coryleae) tribes.

Tribe Carpineae[edit| edit source]

The Carpineae comprise the hornbeams (Carpinus) and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya). A single species of each is native to New York.
Ostrya[edit| edit source]
Ostrya virginiana
American hophornbeam
The genus Ostyra is generally known as hop-hornbeam, or ironwood. Of the approximately nine Ostyra species worldwide, only the Eastern hop-hornbeam species is known to grow outside of cultivation in New York. Because of its small size, shade tolerance, low timber value, and high reproductive rate, hop-hornbeam is often considered to be an undesirable understory species in forests being used for commercial timber production.[1][2]
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Carpineae — Ostrya
Ostrya Hop-hornbean N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Mill.) K.Koch

1768. Carpinus virginiana Mill.
1873. Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch
Eastern hop-hornbeam,
American hophornbeam,
Ironwood
Ostryer de Virginie,
Bois de fer
Native,
Secure
Ostrya virginiana 2.jpg
Ostrya virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Carpinus[edit| edit source]
Carpinus caroliniana
American Hornbeam
The only species of hornbeam native in New York goes by the name American hornbeam, blue beech, or muscle-wood. It also goes by the name ironwood, but as that name is also commonly used for the related hop-hornbeam tree, perhaps it should be used for neither.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Carpineae — Carpinus
Carpinus Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter
ssp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow

1785. C. betulus var. virginiana
1893. C. virginiana Sudw.non Miller 1768
1935. C. caroliniana var. virginiana
1987. C. caroliniana ssp. virginiana
American hornbeam,
Musclewood,
Blue beech,
Muscle tree,
Ironwood
Charme de Virginie,
Bois de fer
Native,
Secure
Carpinus caroliniana kz3.jpg
Carpinus caroliniana ssp virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
FNA
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
L.

1753. C. betulus L.
1940. C. caucasica Grossh.
European hornbeam Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unk. naturalization
20130509Habsterwiesen Saarbruecken08.jpg
Carpinus betulus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Carpinus (excluded taxa) Hornbeam N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter
ssp. caroliniana

1788. C. caroliniana Walter
1803. C. americana Michx.
American hornbeam,
Blue beech,
Musclewood,
Ironwood
Charme de Caroline
N. America native
 southern US,
N.Y. excluded
Carpinus caroliniana kz1.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
FNA
Tropicos
NatureServe
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies

Tribe Coryleae[edit| edit source]

Corylus[edit| edit source]
Corylus contains the hazelnut shrubs and trees, which are not at all closely related to witchhazel.
Fagales — Betulaceae — Coryloideae — Coryleae — Corylus
Corylus Hazelnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall
ssp. cornuta

1785. Corylus cornuta Marshall
1789. Corylus rostrata Aiton
1940. C. cornuta var. megaphylla
Beaked hazelnut,
Beaked hazel,
Beaked filbert
Noisetier à long bec,
Coudrier à long bec
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade
Corylus cornuta (28584755846).jpg
Corylus cornuta ssp cornuta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
IPN
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Walter

1788. Corylus americana Walter
1864. C. americana var. missouriensis
1916. C. americana var. altior
1935. C. americana var. indehiscens
American hazelnut,
American hazel,
American filbert
Noisetier d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun - shade
Corylus americana kz2.jpg
Corylus americana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
Corylus (excluded taxa) Hazelnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Corylus avellana L.
European hazelnut,
European hazel,
Common filbert
Noisetier commun,
Coudrier,
Avelline
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
Corylus avellana (8253780733).jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images
Wikispecies

Cucurbitales
Flora of New York — Fagales
Geraniales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index

References[edit| edit source]