Flora of New York/Myrtales

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Geraniales
Geraniaceae
Flora of New York — Myrtales
Crossosomatales, Sapindales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Myrtales is believed to have originated about 100 million years ago in either southeast Africa or Australasia. It contains the New York plant families Onagraceae (willowherb or evening primrose family), Lythraceae (loosestrife or pomegranate family), and Melastomataceae, which contains just two species found in New York.
Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Myrtales Onagraceae Ludwigioideae Ludwigia (primrose willow) 1 5
Onagroideae Circaeeae Circaea (enchanter's nightshade) 1 3
Epilobieae Chamerion (fireweed)
Epilobium (willow herb)
2 10
Onagreae Gaura (bee blossom)
Oenothera (evening primrose)
2 17
Lythraceae Lagerstroemioideae Trapa (water chestnut) 1 1
Punicoideae Cuphea (waxweed)
Rotala (toothcup)
2 2
Lythroideae Decodon (water willow)
Lythrum (loosestrife)
2 5
Melastomataceae Melastomatoideae Melastomateae Rhexia (meadow beauty) 1 2

Family Onagraceae[edit]

The Onagraceae (willowherb or evening primrose family)...

Subfamily Ludwigioideae[edit]

Ludwigia[edit]

Ludwigia sect. Isnardia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Isnardia
Ludwigiasect. Isnardia Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 (L.) Elliott

1753. Isnardia palustris L.
1803. Ludwigia nitida Michx.
1813. I. nitida (Michx.) Poir.
1817. L. palustris (L.) Elliott
1935. L. palustris var. americana
1836. I. ascendens J.Hall
Water purslane,
Marsh seedbox,
Marsh primrose-willow,
Marsh purslane,
Water false loosestrife
Ludwigie palustre,
Ludwigie des marais
Native, C:4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun
Starr 070515-7067 Ludwigia palustris.jpg
Ludwigia palustris nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Ludwigiasect. Isnardia (excluded taxa) Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
Short & R.Peter

    
    
    
Many-fruit seedbox

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Ludwigia polycarpa.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
Can





Images, wsp
Ludwigia sect. Ludwigia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Ludwigia
Ludwigiasect. Ludwigia Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Ludwigia alternifolia L.
1828. Isnardia alternifolia (L.) DC.
    
Bushy seedbox,
Rattlebox,
Seedbox,
Square-pod
  water-primrose
Ludwigie à
  feuilles alternes
Native, C:6,
Likely secure

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Ludwigia alternifolia - Squarepod waterprimrose.jpg
Ludwigia alternifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium
Ludwigiasect. Microcarpium Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Elliott

1817. Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Elliott
1828. Isnardia sphaerocarpa (Elliott) DC.
1935. L. sphaerocarpa var. deamii
1935. L. sphaerocarpa var. jungens
1935. L. sphaerocarpa var. macrocarpa
Globe-fruited
  false-loosestrife,
Globefruit
  primrose-willow,
Round-pod
  water-primrose
Native, C:9,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Ludwigia sphaerocarpa AWP-SW.png
Ludwigia sphaerocarpa nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0

ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Ludwigia sect. Oligospermum[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Oligospermum
Ludwigiasect. Oligospermum Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Hook. & Arn.)
Zardini, H.Y.Gu & P.H.Raven

1833. Jussiaea hexapetala
Hook. & Arn.
1991. L. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.)
Zardini, H.Y.Gu & P.H.Raven
2000. L. grandiflora ssp. hexapetala
2012. L. grandiflora var. hexapetala
 auct. L. uruguayensis pp.
non (Cambess.) H.Hara
Common water-primrose,
Uruguayan
  primrose-willow,
Uraguay waterprimrose,
Water-primrose,
Large-flower
  primrose-willow
Introduced from
 South America,
 Southern U.S.,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 88%[1],
Prohibited[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-subshrub
Ludwigia grandiflora saint-mathurin-sur-loire 49 10082007 4.JPG
Ludwigia hexapetala nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW-0
ARS ITIS
Trop.


CABI 
Images, wsp
(Kunth) P.H.Raven
ssp. glabrescens

    
1963. L. peploides var. glabrescens
1866. Jussiaea repens var. peploides
 auct. Jussiaea diffusa
Floating primrose-willow,
Floating seedbox,
Clovestrip,
Creeping water-primrose
Introduced from
 South America,
 Southern U.S.,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 89%[3],
Prohibited[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Ludwigia peploides Prague 2012 3.jpg
Ludwigia peploides ssp glabrescens nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
Trop.


CABI 
Images, wsp
Ludwigiasect. Oligospermum (excluded taxa) Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

1830. Jussiaea uruguayensis
Cambess.
1953. L. uruguayensis
(Cambess.) H. Hara
1987. L. grandiflora
(Michx.) Greuter & Burdet
    
Large-flower
primrose-willow

Introduced from
 South America,
 Southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded
Ludwigia grandiflora saint-mathurin-sur-loire 49 10082007 5.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X

ARS 



CABI 
Images, wsp
ssp. peploides

    
    
    
Floating primrose-willow
Water primrose

N. America native
 southwest,
N.Y. excluded
Ludwigia peploides peploides-5.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0





CABI 
Images, wsp

Subfamily Onagroideae[edit]

Tribe Circaeeae[edit]

Circaea[edit]

Circaea (Enchanter's-nightshade) [1]

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Circaeeae — Circaea
Circaea Enchanter's-nightshade N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 (L.) Hill

1753. C. lutetiana var. canadensis
1756. C. latifolia Hill (i)
1765. C. canadensis (L.) Hill
1870. C. lutetiana ssp. canadensis
1939. C. quadrisulcata var. canadensis
1945. C. canadensis var. virginiana
1982. C. quadrisulcata ssp. canadensis
2005. C. canadensis ssp. canadensis
Eastern
  enchanter's nightshade,
Broadleaf
  enchanter's nightshade,
Broad-leaved
  enchanter's nightshade,
Canada
  enchanter's nightshade
Circée du Canada,
Circée de Lutèce
Native, C:5,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade
Circaea lutetiana ssp canadensis 001.jpg
Circaea canadensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. alpina

1753. Circaea alpina L.
1841. C. lutetiana var. alpina
1898. C. lutetiana ssp. alpina
1912. C. caulescens race alpina
1934. C. caulescens var. glabra
1934. C. caulescens var. rosulata
1934. C. caulescens fo. ramosissima
Dwarf
  enchanter's nightshade,
Northern
  enchanter's nightshade,
Small
  enchanter's nightshade
Circée alpine,
Circée des Alpes
Native, C:8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Circaea alpina kz.jpg
Circaea alpina nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Boufford

Circaea alpina ×
Circaea canadensis

2005. Circaea ×‌ sterilis Boufford
 auct. C. × intermedianon Ehrh.
 auct. C. canadensis sensu Fernald
Sterile
enchanter's-nightshade
Intermediate
enchanter's nightshade

Circée de Fernald
Circée intermédiaire
Native,
Threatened
Ny hybrid.svg
Circaea × sterilis nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N
NEW Can

Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Circaea (excluded taxa) Enchanter's-nightshade N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
Ehrh. (pro. sp.)

Circaea alpina ssp. alpina ×
Circaea lutetiana

1789. Circaea intermedia Ehrh.
1806. C. lutetiana var. intermedia
1828. C. alpina var. intermedia
1901. C. lutetiana ssp. intermedia
 auct. C. canadensis sensu Fernald
Intermediate
enchanter's-nightshade
Enchanter's-nightshade

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FACU
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
  1. David Edward Boufford (2005) "Circaea lutetiana sensu lato (Onagraceae) reconsidered." Harvard Papers in Botany 9(2):255-256.

Tribe Epilobieae[edit]

The Epilobieae comprise the fireweeds and willowherbs, which roughly correspond to the sister genera Chamaenerion and Epilobium, respectively. Differences between these two genera include:
Characteristic Chamaenerion (fireweed) Epilobium (willowherb)
Leaf arrangement spiral mostly opposite
Flower symmetry zygomorphic (bilateral) mostly radial
Floral tube absent present
Notch in the petals absent present
Chamaenerion[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Epilobieae — Chamaenerion
Chamaenerion Fireweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(L.) Scop.
ssp. circumvagum
(Mosquin) Moldenke

1847. Epilobium angustifolium
var. canescens
1966. Epilobium angustifolium
ssp. circumvagum
1973. Chamaenerion angustifolium
ssp. circumvagum
1999. Chamerion angustifolium
ssp. circumvagum
Fireweed
Narrow-leaved fireweed
Wandering fireweed

Épilobe vagabond
Native,
Secure
Fireweed plant in the Yukon.jpg
Chamerion angustifolium ssp circumvagum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Chamaenerion (excluded taxa) Fireweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(L.) Scop.
ssp. angustifolium

1753. Epilobium angustifolium L.
1771. Chamaenerion angustifolium
(L.) Scop.
1778. Epilobium spicatum Lam.
1821. Chamaenerion spicatum
(Lam.) Gray
1916. Pyrogennema angustifolium
(L.) Lunell
1972. Chamerion angustifolium
(L.) Holub
Fireweed
Narrow-leaved fireweed

Épilobe à feuilles étroites
Herbe-à-feu
Asperge
Bouquets rouges
Épilobe en épi
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Fireweed flowers (3283299468).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Epilobium[edit]
Plants of the genus Epilobium often go by the common name willowherb because of their willow-shaped leaves and herbaceous habits.
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Epilobieae — Epilobium
Epilobiumsect. Epilobium Willowherb N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Biehler

1807. Epilobium coloratum Biehler
Eastern willow-herb,
Purpleleaf willowherb,
Purple-veined willowherb,
Cinnamon willow-herb,
Willowweed
Épilobe coloré
Native, C:2,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium coloratum (3273833991).jpg
Epilobium coloratum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Raf.
ssp. ciliatum

1808. Epilobium ciliatum Raf.
1879. E. adenocaulon Hausskn.
1879. E. chilense Hausskn.
1879. E. valdiviense Hausskn.
Fringed willow-herb,
Northern willow-herb,
Hairy willow-herb,
American willow-herb,
Coast willowweed
Épilobe cilié
Native, C:3,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium ciliatum 3757.jpg
Epilobium ciliatum ssp ciliatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Ugente

E. ciliatum ssp. ciliatum ×
E. coloratum

    E. × wisconsinense Ugente
    
    
Wisconsin
  hybrid willow-herb,
Wisconsin willow-herb,
Hybrid of
 Fringed willow-herb &
 Eastern willow-herb
Épilobe du Wisconsin
Native,
unranked

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
 Raf.

1813. E. rosmarinifolium Pursh
1814. E. leptophyllum Raf.
1918. E. densum var. nesophilum
1925. E. nesophilum Fernald
1966. E. palustre var. sabulonense
1988. E. palustre var. gracile
Bog willowherb,
Linearleaf willowherb,
Linear-leaved willow-herb,
Narrow-leaved willowherb
Épilobe leptophylle,
Épilobe à feuilles étroites
Native, C:7,
Secure

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium leptophyllum (21489028012).jpg
Epilobium leptophyllum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Muhl. ex Spreng.

1813. Epilobium strictum Muhl.
1814. E. densum Raf.
1825. E. strictum Muhl. ex Spreng.
Downy willow-herb,
Northeastern willowherb,
Soft willowherb
Épilobe dressé,
Épilobe étroite
Native, C:8,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium strictum BB-1913.png
Epilobium strictum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Epilobium palustre L.
1771. Chamaenerion palustre Scop.
1803. E. oliganthum Michx.
1813. E. lineare Muhl. illeg.
1900. E. wyomingense A.Nelson
1925. E. pylaieanum Fernald
Marsh willow-herb,
Swamp willowherb
Épilobe palustre,
Épilobe des marais
Native, C:7,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium palustre.jpeg
Epilobium palustre NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Rchb.
ssp. hornemannii

1810. E. nutans Hornem. illeg.
1824. E. hornemannii Rchb.
1827. E. alpinum var. nutans
1879. E. bongardii Hausskn.
1887. E. alsineifolium var. hornemannii
1900. E. foucaudianum H.Lév.
1918. E. steckerianum Fernald
Hornemann's willowherb,
Alpine willow-herb
Épilobe de Hornemann,
Épilobe d'Hornemann
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium hornemannii BB-1913.png
Epilobium hornemannii ssp hornemannii nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE 
IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Epilobium hirsutum L.
Great hairy willow-herb
Great willow-herb
Hairy willow herb
Hairy willowherb
Hairy willow-herb
Hairy willow-weed
Codlins and cream
Fireweed
Willow-herb

Épilobe hirsute
Épilobe hérissé
Introduced from
 Eurasia, Africa,
Invasive,
NYIS: 63%[2]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium hirsutum jfg.jpg
Epilobium hirsutum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 Schreb.

1771. Chamaenerion parviflorum
Schreb.
1771. E. parviflorum Schreb.
1778. E. molle Lam. non Torr.
Smallflower
  hairy willowherb,
Hoary willowherb
Épilobe à petites fleurs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Epilobium parviflorum korseby.jpeg
Epilobium parviflorum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE 


Images, wsp
Epilobiumsect. Epilobium (excluded taxa) Willowherb N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
Raf.
ssp. glandulosum
(Lehm.) Hoch & P.H.Raven

    E. glandulosum Lehm.
    E. glandulosum
var. cardiophyllum
    E. ciliatum ssp. glandulosum
Glandualar willowherb
Fringed willowherb
American willowherb

Épilobe glanduleux
Épilobe glanduleuse
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Epilobium ciliatum ssp glandulosum NRCS-01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 


IPN 

Images, wsp
Lam.

1753. E. alpinum L. (i)
1786. E. anagallidifolium Lam.
1906. E. dielsii H.Lév.
1911. E. nakahararum Nakai (i)
Pimpernel willowherb
Pimpernel willow-herb
Alpine willowherb
Alpine willowweed

Épilobe à feuilles de mouron
Épilobe à feuilles d'anagallide
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Vallée du Marcadau 18.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2016. Online Conservation Guide for Epilobium hornemannii ssp. hornemannii. Endangered, S1/G5T5.
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentEpilobium hirsutum: High (63). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.

Tribe Onagreae[edit]

Oenothera[edit]
Oenothera is represented by about 16 species of sundrops and evening primroses in New York. Here it is broken down into sections and subsections, according to the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN).
Oenothera sect. Kneiffia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Kneiffia
Oenotherasect. Kneiffia Sundrops N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1759. Oenothera perennis L.
1762. Oenothera pumila L.
1835. Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spach
1836. Oenothera gracilis Schrad.
ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
1919. Kneiffia perennis (L.) Pennell
Small sundrops,
Little evening primrose,
Perennial evening primrose,
Perennial sundrops,
Small evening primrose,
Sundrops
Onagre vivace,
Onagre pérennante
Native, C:2,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Oenothera perennis (4252101042).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. tetragona (Roth) W.L. Wagner

1800. Oenothera tetragona Roth
1803. Oenothera glauca Michx.
1835. Kneiffia glauca (Michx.) Spach
1919. Kneiffia tetragona (Roth) Pennell
2014. O. fruticosa ssp. tetragona
Northern sundrops,
Shrubby evening primrose,
Narrow-leaved sundrops,
Narrowleaf evening primrose
Onagre tétragone
Native, C:10,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Oenothera tetragona02.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 L. (1753)
ssp. fruticosa

1753. Oenothera fruticosa L.
1835. Kneiffia suffruticosa Spach (i)
1893. K. fruticosa (L.) Spach ex Raim.
Southern sundrops,
Narrow-leaved sundrops,
Narrowleaf evening primrose
Native, C:7,
Vulnerable

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Oenothera fruticosa Cumberland Plateau.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 Raf.
ssp. pilosella

1820. Oenothera pilosella Raf.
1894. Kneiffia fruticosa var. pilosella
1903. Kneiffia pratensis Small
1908. Oenothera pratensis B.L.Rob.
Prairie sundrops,
Meadow sundrops,
Meadow evening primrose,
Prairie evening primrose,
Pilose evening primrose,
Finely-pilose evening primrose
Onagre piloselle
Native, C:2,
Unranked

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Oenothera pilosella NRCS-03.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Oenothera[edit]
Oenothera biennis
common evening-primrose

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Oenothera
Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Oenothera Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Oenothera biennis L.
1767. Oenothera muricata L.
1771. Onagra biennis (L.) Scop.
1794. Onagra muricata (L.) Moench
1913. Oenothera pycnocarpa
G.F.Atk.& Bartlett
Common evening-primrose
Yellow evening-primrose
Hoary evening-primrose
Wild evening-primrose
German rampion
Candlestick

Onagre bisannuelle
Herbe aux ânes
Onagre de Victorin
Native, C:1,
Secure

Biennial,
Herb
20160729Oenothera biennis2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.

1759. Oenothera parviflora L.
1832. O. cruciata Nutt. ex G. Don
1840. O. biennis var. parviflora
1913. O. angustissima R.R.Gates
1914. O. atrovirens Shull & Bartlett
1924. O. parviflora var. angustissima
1965. O. parviflora ssp. angustissima
1971. O. lipsiensis Rostanski & Gutte
Small-flowered
evening-primrose
Northern evening-primrose
Least evening primrose
Native, C:0,
Secure

Biennial,
Herb
Oenothera biennis (2).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 (A. Gray)
J.W.Robbins ex S.Watson & J.M.Coult.

1867. Oenothera biennis
var. oakesiana
1890. Oenothera oakesiana
(A.Gray) J.W.Robbins ex
1894. Onagra oakesiana
(A.Gray) Britton
1949. Oenothera parviflora
var. oakesiana
Oakes' evening primrose
Oakes' evening-primrose

Onagre d'Oakes
Native, C:1,
Threatened
Dünen-Nachtkerze 1.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp

Redsepal evening-primrose,
Showy evening-primrose
Introduced,
Not naturalized

Biennial,
Herb
Oenothera glazioviana - Redsepal evening primrose 06.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX
NEW 





Images, wsp
 Thunb.
ssp. villosa

Hairy evening-primrose Introduced,
N. America native,
Unk. naturalization

Biennial,
Herb
Oenothera villosa (4941688651).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xu
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Oenothera (excluded taxa) Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
Kunth
ssp. hirsutissima
(A.Gray ex S.Watson) W.Dietr.

1873. Oe. biennis var. hirsutissima
1983. Oe. elata ssp. hirsutissima
    
Hooker's evening primrose

N. America native
 western N. America,
N.Y. excluded
Oenothera elata hookeri 2.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
LʼHér.

1789. Oenothera grandiflora LʼHér.
1828. Oenothera lamarckiana Ser.
Largeflower evening primrose

N. America native
 southeast,
N.Y. excluded
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NX






Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Raimannia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Raimannia
Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Raimannia Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Hill (1767)

Cutleaf evening primrose,
Cut-leaf evening-primrose,
Cut-leaved evening-primrose
Native, C:1,
Endangered
Oenothera laciniata 04.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NX

ARS 




Images, wsp
 Smyth

1899. Oenothera grandis Smyth
Showy evening-primrose Native, C:10,
Unranked
Oenothera grandis NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW-0
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Candela[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Candela
Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Candela Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
W.Dietr., P.H.Raven & W.L.Wagner

Cleland's evening-primrose Introduced Oclelandii.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X






Images, wsp
Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Candela (excluded taxa) Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray

Fourpoint evening-primrose,
Four-point evening-primrose
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Oenothera rhombipetala B1IMG0047.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Kleinia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Kleinia
Oenotherasect. Kleinia Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Pursh

1813. Oenothera albicaulis Pursh
1835. Agnora pinnatifida (Nutt.) Spach
1894. Anogra albicaulis (Pursh) Britton
White-stemmed evening primrose,
Whitest evening-primrose,
Prairie evening-primrose
Introduced from
 western US,
N. America native

Annual,
Herb-forb
Oenothera albicaulis NPS-01a.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW-0Can-0
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Lavauxia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Lavauxia
Oenotherasect. Lavauxiasubsect. Lavauxia Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE

Stemless evening-primrose Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Oenothera triloba varecristata (15335121753).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Megapterium[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Megapterium
Oenotherasect. Megapterium Sundrops N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Nutt.

1813. Oenothera macrocarpa Nutt.
1813. Oenothera missouriensis Sims
Ozark sundrops Introduced,
N. America native,
No reports
Bigfruit Evening Primrose - Flickr - treegrow.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0

ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Oenothera sect. Hartmannia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Hartmannia
Oenotherasect. Hartmannia Primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE

Showy primrose Introduced,
N. America native,
No reports
Oenothera speciosa2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
NEW-0
ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Oenothera, sect. Gaura[edit]

Most of the genus Gaura was transferred to Oenothera sect. Gaura in 2007.[1]

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Gaura
Oenotherasect. Gaurasubsect. Gaura Beeblossom N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1753. Gaura biennis L.
2007. Oenothera gaura
W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Biennial beeblossom,
Biennial gaura
Gaura bisannuel,
Gaura bisannuelle
Introduced,
N. America native
Gaura biennis 04.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
(Small) W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1835. Gaura longiflora Spach
1840. Gaura biennis var. pitcheri
1898. Gaura filiformis Small
2007. Oenothera filiformis
W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Longflower beeblossom,
Long-flowered gaura,
Large-flower gaura
Gaura à fleurs longues
Introduced from
 Midwest,
N. America native
Oenothera filiformis HXC002635.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Oenotherasect. Gaurasubsect. Campogaura Beeblossom N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Ser.) W.L.Wagner & Hoch

Nutt. ex Pursh
1816. Gaura odorata Sessé ex Lag.
1828. Gaura suffrutescens Ser.
2007. Oenothera suffrutescens
W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Scarlet beeblossom,
Scarlet gaura,
Scarlet butterfly plant,
Wild honeysuckle
Gaura écarlate
Introduced from
 western N. America,
N. America native,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Gaura coccinea 6.jpg
Oenothera suffrutescens nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-NN
NEW-0Can
ARS 

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Oenotherasect. Gaurasubsect. Stipogaura (excluded taxa) Beeblossom N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1828. Gaura sinuata Nutt. ex Ser.
2007. O. sinuosa W.L.Wagner & Hoch
    
Wavyleaf beeblossom
Wavyleaf gaura

N. America native
 southern U.S.
 Mexico,
N.Y. excluded
Oenothera sinuosa NPS-01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Camissonia[edit]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Camissonia
CamissoniaLink (excluded taxa) Sundrops N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
(Douglas) Kearney

1832. Oenothera contorta Douglas (i)
1894. C. contorta (Douglas) Kearney
    
Plains evening primrose

N. America native
 western N.Am.,
N.Y. excluded
JEPS109345 Camissonia contorta (5554012778).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp

Family Lythraceae[edit]

The Lythraceae (loosestrife or pomegranate family)...[1][2]

Subfamily Lagerstroemioideae[edit]

Trapa[edit]

Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lagerstroemioideae — Trapa
Trapa Water chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Trapa natans L.
1815. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.
1897. Trapa natans var. bispinosa
Water chestnut,
European water chestnut,
Water caltrop,
Singhara nut,
Jesuit's-nut
Châtaigne d'eau,
Macre
Introduced from
 Eurasia, Africa,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 82%[3],
NE-1[4]

Annual,
Herb-forb
Trapa natans Prague 2012 1.jpg
Trapa natans nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily Punicoideae[edit]

Cuphea[edit]
Cuphea viscosissima
clammy waxweed

Myrtales — Lythraceae — Punicoideae — Cuphea
Cuphea Waxweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Jacq.

1753. Lythrum petiolatum L.
1772. Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.
1881. Cuphea petiolata (L.) Koehne
1894. Parsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby
Blue waxweed,
Clammy waxweed,
Clammy cuphea,
Tarweed
Cuphéa visqueux,
Cuphéa
Native, C:1,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
Cuphea viscosissima-IMG 4224 (cropped).jpg
Cuphea viscosissima NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS


LBJ

Images, wsp
Rotala[edit]
Myrtales — Lythraceae — Punicoideae — Rotala
Rotala Rotala N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 (L.) Koehne

Toothcup,
Lowland rotala
Native, C:10,
Threatened

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Rotala ramosior NRCS-4.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp

Subfamily Lythroideae[edit]

Lythrum salicaria
purple loosestrife
The Lythroideae contains plants commonly known as loosestrife. This includes not only the widespread and highly invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), but also three loosestrifes that are native to New York.

Decodon[edit]

Decodon verticillatus
waterwillow
Waterwillow or swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus) is the only species of this genus. It occasionally forms wet thickets on the edges of lakes and ponds.
Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lythroideae — Decodon
Decodon Swamp loosestrife N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 (L.) Elliott

1753. Lythrum verticillatum L.
1821. D. verticillatus (L.) Elliott
1823. Nesaea verticillata (L.) Kunth
Waterwillow,
Swamp loosestrife,
Hairy swamp loosestrife,
Swamp willowherb,
Water oleander,
Whorled loosestrife
Décodon verticillé,
Décodent verticillé
Native, C:7,
Secure

OBL
Decodon verticillatus flower.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp

Lythrum[edit]

Lythrum alatum
winged loosestrife

Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lythroideae — Lythrum
Lythrum Loosestrife N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 Pursh
var. alatum

Winged loosestrife,
Winged lythrum
Native,
Secure
Lythrum alatum (20363896053).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 





Images, wsp
 L.

Narrow loosestrife,
Saltmarsh loosestife,
Wand lythrum
Native,
Endangered
Lythrum lineare NRCS-001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NEW 





Images, wsp
L.

1753. Lythrum salicaria L.
1768. Lythrum tomentosum Mill
1813. L. salicaria var. tomentosum
1828. L. salicaria var. vulgare
1837. L. salicaria var. gracilior
Purple loosestrife,
Spiked loosestrife,
Bouguet-violet,
Purple lythrum
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
 northern Africa,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 91%[1],
NE-1[2]
LythrumSalicaria.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Hyssop loosestrife Introduced LythrumHyssopifolia2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-LYHY3
NEW 





Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentLythrum salicaria: Very high (91).
  2. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Family Melastomataceae[edit]

Subamily Melastomatoideae[edit]

Tribe Melastomateae[edit]

Rhexia[edit]
Myrtales — Melastomataceae — Melastomatoideae — Melastomateae — Rhexia
Rhexia Meadowbeauty N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NE
 L.

1753. Rhexia virginica L.
    
    
Virginia meadow-beauty,
Handsome Harry
Native, C:10,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Rhexia virginica (9551628585).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.
var. mariana

1753. Rhexia mariana L.
    
    
Maryland meadow-beauty,
Maryland meadowbeauty
Native, C:10,
Likely extirpated,
Impersistent

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Rhexia mariana flower UMFS.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Zm
USDA-N0

ARS 
Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp

Geraniales
Geraniaceae
Flora of New York — Myrtales
Crossosomatales, Sapindales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index