Flora of New York/Myrtales

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Geraniales
Geraniaceae
Flora of New York — Myrtales
Crossosomatales, Sapindales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Myrtales is believed to have originated about 100 million years ago in either southeast Africa or Australasia. It contains the New York plant families Onagraceae (willowherb or evening primrose family), Lythraceae (loosestrife or pomegranate family), and Melastomataceae, which contains just two species found in New York.
Clades Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
angiosperms
  eudicots:
    rosids:
      malvids
Geraniales Geraniaceae Erodium stork's-bill 5
Geranium crane's-bill 15
Myrtales Onagraceae Ludwigioideae Ludwigia primrose willow 5
Onagroideae Circaeeae Circaea enchanter's nightshade 3
Epilobieae Chamaenerion fireweed 1
Epilobium willow herb 9
Onagreae Gaura bee blossom 0
Oenothera evening primrose 17
Lythraceae Lagerstroemioideae Trapa water chestnut 1
Punicoideae Cuphea waxweed 1
Rotala toothcup 1
Lythroideae Decodon water willow 1
Lythrum loosestrife 4
Melastomataceae Melastomatoideae Melastomateae Rhexia meadow beauty 2

Family Onagraceae[edit | edit source]

The Onagraceae (willowherb or evening primrose family)...

Subfamily Ludwigioideae[edit | edit source]

Ludwigia[edit | edit source]

Ludwigia sect. Isnardia[edit | edit source]
Ludwigia palustris

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Isnardia
Genus Ludwigiasect. Isnardia Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Elliott

1753.  Isnardia palustris  L.
1803.  Ludwigia nitida  Michx.
1813.  Isnardia nitida  (Michx.) Poir.
1817.  Ludwigia palustris  (L.) Elliott
1935.  Ludwigia palustris  var. americana  (DC.) Fernald & Griscom
1836.  Isnardia ascendens  J.Hall
Water purslane,
Marsh seedbox,
Marsh primrose-willow,
Marsh purslane,
Water false loosestrife
Ludwigie palustre,
Ludwigie des marais
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun

NYFA: 5

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Genus Ludwigiasect. Isnardia (excluded taxa) Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Short & R.Peter

    
    
    
Many-fruit seedbox

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Ludwigia sect. Ludwigia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Ludwigia
Genus Ludwigiasect. Ludwigia Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ludwigia alternifolia L.
1828. Isnardia alternifolia (L.) DC.
    
Bushy seedbox,
Rattlebox,
Seedbox,
Square-pod
  water-primrose
Ludwigie à
  feuilles alternes
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium
Genus Ludwigiasect. Microcarpium Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Elliott

1817. Ludwigia sphaerocarpa Elliott
1828. Isnardia sphaerocarpa (Elliott) DC.
1935. L. sphaerocarpavar. deamii
1935. L. sphaerocarpavar. jungens
1935. L. sphaerocarpavar. macrocarpa
Globe-fruited
  false-loosestrife,
Globefruit
  primrose-willow,
Round-pod
  water-primrose
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 2

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Ludwigia sect. Jussiaea[edit | edit source]
Ludwigia peploides
Ludwigia sect. Jussiaea (L.) Hoch, W.L.Wagner, & P.H.Raven was previously known as Ludwigia sect. Oligospermum.[1]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Ludwigioideae — Ludwigia sect. Oligospermum
Genus Ludwigiasect. Oligospermum Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Kunth) P.H.Raven
ssp. glabrescens (Kuntze) P.H. Raven

1891. Jussiaea repens  var. glabrescens  Kuntze
1953. Ludwigia adscendens  var. glabrescens  (Kuntze) H. Hara
1963. Ludwigia peploides  ssp. glabrescens  (Kuntze) P.H. Raven
1964. Ludwigia peploides  var. glabrescens  (Kuntze) Shinners
 auct. Jussiaea diffusa
Floating primrose-willow,
Floating seedbox,
Clovestrip,
Creeping water-primrose
Introduced from
 South America,
 Southern U.S.,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 89%[1],
Prohibited[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1?
NYFA: 3 counties
iNat
5 counties

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 (Hook. & Arn.) Zardini, H.Y.Gu & P.H.Raven

1833. Jussiaea hexapetala Hook. & Arn.
1991. L. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.)
Zardini, H.Y.Gu & P.H.Raven
2000. L. grandiflora  ssp. hexapetala  (Hook. & Arn.) G.L.Nesom & Kartesz
2012. L. grandiflora  var. hexapetala  (Hook. & Arn.) D.B.Ward
 auct. L. uruguayensis pp.
non (Cambess.) H.Hara
Common water-primrose,
Uruguayan
  primrose-willow,
Uraguay waterprimrose,
Water-primrose,
Large-flower
  primrose-willow
Introduced from
 South America,
 Southern U.S.,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 88%[3],
Prohibited[2]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-subshrub

NYFA: X

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Genus Ludwigiasect. Oligospermum (excluded taxa) Primrose-willow N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) Greuter & Burdet

1830. Jussiaea uruguayensis Cambess.
1953. L. uruguayensis (Cambess.) H. Hara
1987. L. grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet
    
Large-flower
primrose-willow

Introduced from
 South America,
 Southern U.S.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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ssp. peploides

    
    
    
Floating primrose-willow ...
Water primrose ...

N. America native
 southwest,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Subfamily Onagroideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Circaeeae[edit | edit source]

Circaea[edit | edit source]

Circaea (Enchanter's-nightshade) [1]

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Circaeeae — Circaea
Genus Circaea Enchanter's-nightshade N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Hill

1753. C. lutetianavar. canadensis
1756. C. latifolia Hill (i)
1765. C. canadensis (L.) Hill
1870. C. lutetianassp. canadensis
1939. C. quadrisulcatavar. canadensis
1945. C. canadensisvar. virginiana
1982. C. quadrisulcatassp. canadensis
2005. C. canadensisssp. canadensis
Eastern
  enchanter's nightshade,
Broadleaf
  enchanter's nightshade,
Broad-leaved
  enchanter's nightshade,
Canada
  enchanter's nightshade
Circée du Canada,
Circée de Lutèce
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade

NYFA: 5

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 L.
ssp. alpina

1753. Circaea alpina L.
1841. C. lutetianavar. alpina
1898. C. lutetianassp. alpina
1912. C. caulescensrace alpina
1934. C. caulescensvar. glabra
1934. C. caulescensvar. rosulata
1934. C. caulescensfo. ramosissima
Dwarf
  enchanter's nightshade,
Northern
  enchanter's nightshade,
Small
  enchanter's nightshade
Circée alpine,
Circée des Alpes
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Boufford

Circaea alpina ×
Circaea canadensis

2005. Circaea ×‌ sterilis Boufford
 auct. C. × intermedianon Ehrh.
 auct. C. canadensis sensu Fernald
Sterile
enchanter's-nightshade
Intermediate
enchanter's nightshade

Circée de Fernald ...
Circée intermédiaire ...
Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2

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Genus Circaea (excluded taxa) Enchanter's-nightshade N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Ehrh. (pro. sp.)

Circaea alpina ssp. alpina ×
Circaea lutetiana

1789. Circaea intermedia Ehrh.
1806. C. lutetiana  var. intermedia  (Ehrh.) Hornem.
1828. C. alpina  var. intermedia  (Ehrh.) DC.
1901. C. lutetiana  ssp. intermedia  (Ehrh.) Rouy & E.G.Camus
 auct. C. canadensis sensu Fernald
Intermediate
enchanter's-nightshade
Enchanter's-nightshade ...

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

FACU

NYFA-Excluded

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  1. David Edward Boufford (2005) "Circaea lutetiana sensu lato (Onagraceae) reconsidered." Harvard Papers in Botany 9(2):255-256.

Tribe Epilobieae[edit | edit source]

The Epilobieae comprise the fireweeds and willowherbs, which roughly correspond to the sister genera Chamaenerion and Epilobium, respectively. Differences between these two genera include:
Characteristic Chamaenerion (fireweed) Epilobium (willowherb)
Leaf arrangement spiral mostly opposite
Flower symmetry zygomorphic (bilateral) mostly radial
Floral tube absent present
Notch in the petals absent present
Chamaenerion[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Epilobieae — Chamaenerion
Genus Chamaenerion Fireweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Scop.
ssp. circumvagum (Mosquin) Moldenke

1847. Epilobium angustifolium  var. canescens  Alph. Wood
1966. Epilobium angustifolium  ssp. circumvagum  Mosquin
1973. Chamaenerion angustifolium  ssp. circumvagum  (Mosquin) Moldenke
1999. Chamerion angustifolium  ssp. circumvagum  (Mosquin) Hoch
Fireweed ...
Narrow-leaved fireweed ...
Wandering fireweed ...

Épilobe vagabond ...
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Genus Chamaenerion (excluded taxa) Fireweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Scop.
ssp. angustifolium

1753. Epilobium angustifolium L.
1771. Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop.
1778. Epilobium spicatum Lam.
1821. Chamaenerion spicatum (Lam.) Gray
1916. Pyrogennema angustifolium (L.) Lunell
1972. Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub
Fireweed ...
Narrow-leaved fireweed ...

Épilobe à feuilles étroites
Herbe-à-feu
Asperge
Bouquets rouges
Épilobe en épi
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Epilobium[edit | edit source]
Epilobium ciliatum
Plants of the genus Epilobium often go by the common name willowherb because of their willow-shaped leaves and herbaceous habits.
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Epilobieae — Epilobium
Genus Epilobiumsect. Epilobium Willowherb N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Biehler

1807. Epilobium coloratum Biehler
Eastern willow-herb,
Purpleleaf willowherb,
Purple-veined willowherb,
Cinnamon willow-herb,
Willowweed
Épilobe coloré
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure,
S5, G5

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Raf.
ssp. ciliatum

1808. Epilobium ciliatum Raf.
1879. E. adenocaulon Hausskn.
1879. E. chilense Hausskn.
1879. E. valdiviense Hausskn.
Fringed willow-herb,
Northern willow-herb,
Hairy willow-herb,
American willow-herb,
Coast willowweed
Épilobe cilié
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure,
S5, G5-T5

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Ugente

E. ciliatum ssp. ciliatum ×
E. coloratum

    E. × wisconsinense Ugente
    
    
Wisconsin
  hybrid willow-herb,
Wisconsin willow-herb,
Hybrid of
 Fringed willow-herb &
 Eastern willow-herb
Épilobe du Wisconsin
Native,
unranked,
SNA

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Otsego (1919)
NYFA: U

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 Raf.

1813. E. rosmarinifolium Pursh
1814. E. leptophyllum Raf.
1918. E. densumvar. nesophilum
1925. E. nesophilum Fernald
1966. E. palustrevar. sabulonense
1988. E. palustrevar. gracile
Bog willowherb,
Linearleaf willowherb,
Linear-leaved willow-herb,
Narrow-leaved willowherb
Épilobe leptophylle,
Épilobe à feuilles étroites
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Muhl. ex Spreng.

1813. Epilobium strictum Muhl.
1814. E. densum Raf.
1825. E. strictum Muhl. ex Spreng.
Downy willow-herb,
Northeastern willowherb,
Soft willowherb
Épilobe dressé,
Épilobe étroite
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Epilobium palustre L.
1771. Chamaenerion palustre Scop.
1803. E. oliganthum Michx.
1813. E. lineare Muhl. illeg.
1900. E. wyomingense A.Nelson
1925. E. pylaieanum Fernald
Marsh willow-herb,
Swamp willowherb
Épilobe palustre,
Épilobe des marais
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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 Rchb.
ssp. hornemannii

1810. E. nutans Hornem. illeg.
1824. E. hornemannii Rchb.
1827. E. alpinum  var. nutans  Hornem.
1879. E. bongardii Hausskn.
1887. E. alsineifolium  var. hornemannii  Lange
1900. E. foucaudianum H.Lév.
1918. E. steckerianum Fernald
Hornemann's willowherb,
Alpine willow-herb
Épilobe de Hornemann,
Épilobe d'Hornemann
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1

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 L.

1753. Epilobium hirsutum L.
Great hairy willow-herb ...
Great willow-herb ...
Hairy willow herb ...
Hairy willowherb ...
Hairy willow-herb ...
Hairy willow-weed ...
Codlins and cream ...
Fireweed
Willow-herb ...

Épilobe hirsute
Épilobe hérissé
Introduced from
 Eurasia, Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 63%[2]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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 Schreb.

1771. Chamaenerion parviflorum Schreb.
1771. E. parviflorum Schreb.
1778. E. molle Lam. non Torr.
Smallflower hairy willowherb,
Hoary willowherb
Épilobe à petites fleurs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Genus Epilobiumsect. Epilobium (excluded taxa) Willowherb N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Raf.
ssp. glandulosum (Lehm.) Hoch & P.H.Raven

    E. glandulosum Lehm.
    E. glandulosum
var. cardiophyllum Fernald
    E. ciliatum  ssp. glandulosum  (Lehm.) Hoch & P.H.Raven
Glandualar willowherb ...
Fringed willowherb ...
American willowherb ...

Épilobe glanduleux ...
Épilobe glanduleuse ...
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Lam.

1753. E. alpinum L. (i)
1786. E. anagallidifolium Lam.
1906. E. dielsii H.Lév.
1911. E. nakahararum Nakai (i)
Pimpernel willowherb ...
Pimpernel willow-herb ...
Alpine willowherb ...
Alpine willowweed ...

Épilobe à feuilles de mouron ...
Épilobe à feuilles d'anagallide ...
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2024. Online Conservation Guide for Epilobium hornemannii ssp. hornemannii. Endangered, S1/G5T5.
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentEpilobium hirsutum: High (63). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.

Tribe Onagreae[edit | edit source]

Oenothera[edit | edit source]
Oenothera is represented by about 16 species of sundrops and evening primroses in New York. Here it is broken down into sections and subsections, according to the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (VASCAN).
Oenothera sect. Kneiffia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Kneiffia
Genus Oenotherasect. Kneiffia Sundrops N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1759. Oenothera perennis L.
1762. Oenothera pumila L.
1835. Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spach
1836. Oenothera gracilis Schrad.
ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.
1919. Kneiffia perennis (L.) Pennell
Small sundrops,
Little evening primrose,
Perennial evening primrose,
Perennial sundrops,
Small evening primrose,
Sundrops
Onagre vivace,
Onagre pérennante
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 L.
ssp. tetragona (Roth) W.L. Wagner

1800. Oenothera tetragona Roth
1803. Oenothera glauca Michx.
1835. Kneiffia glauca (Michx.) Spach
1919. Kneiffia tetragona (Roth) Pennell
2014. O. fruticosassp. tetragona
Northern sundrops,
Shrubby evening primrose,
Narrow-leaved sundrops,
Narrowleaf evening primrose
Onagre tétragone
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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 L. (1753)
ssp. fruticosa

1753. Oenothera fruticosa L.
1835. Kneiffia suffruticosa Spach (i)
1893. K. fruticosa (L.) Spach ex Raim.
Southern sundrops,
Narrow-leaved sundrops,
Narrowleaf evening primrose
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3?

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 Raf.
ssp. pilosella

1820. Oenothera pilosella Raf.
1894. Kneiffia fruticosavar. pilosella
1903. Kneiffia pratensis Small
1908. Oenothera pratensis B.L.Rob.
Prairie sundrops,
Meadow sundrops,
Meadow evening primrose,
Prairie evening primrose,
Pilose evening primrose,
Finely-pilose evening primrose
Onagre piloselle
Native, CoC: 2,
Unranked

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: U

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Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Oenothera[edit | edit source]
Oenothera biennis
common evening-primrose

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Oenothera
Genus Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Oenothera Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Oenothera biennis L.
1767. Oenothera muricata L.
1771. Onagra biennis (L.) Scop.
1794. Onagra muricata (L.) Moench
1913. Oenothera pycnocarpa G.F.Atk.& Bartlett
Common evening-primrose
Yellow evening-primrose
Hoary evening-primrose
Wild evening-primrose
German rampion
Candlestick

Onagre bisannuelle
Herbe aux ânes
Onagre de Victorin
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

Biennial,
Herb

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1759. Oenothera parviflora L.
1832. O. cruciata Nutt. ex G. Don
1840. O. biennis  var. parviflora  (L.) Torr. & A.Gray
1913. O. angustissima R.R.Gates
1914. O. atrovirens Shull & Bartlett
1924. O. parviflora  var. angustissima  (R.R. Gates) Wiegand
1965. O. parviflora  ssp. angustissima  (R.R. Gates) Munz
1971. O. lipsiensis Rostanski & Gutte
Small-flowered
evening-primrose
Northern evening-primrose ...
Least evening primrose ...
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

Biennial,
Herb

NYFA: 5

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 (A. Gray) J.W.Robbins ex S.Watson & J.M.Coult.

1867. Oenothera biennis  var. oakesiana  A.Gray
1890. Oenothera oakesiana (A.Gray) J.W.Robbins ex S.Watson & J.M.Coult.
1894. Onagra oakesiana (A.Gray) Britton
1949. Oenothera parviflora  var. oakesiana  (A.Gray) Fernald
Oakes' evening primrose
Oakes' evening-primrose

Onagre d'Oakes
Native, CoC: 1,
Threatened

NYFA: 2

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Garden evening primrose ...
Large-flowered evening-primrose ...
Redsepal evening-primrose
Showy evening-primrose
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
 Invasive.org: [1],
Potentially invasive,
SNA

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: 3 counties
iNat
1 county

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 Thunb.
ssp. villosa

Hairy evening-primrose Introduced,
N. America native,
Unk. naturalization

Biennial,
Herb

NYFA: Xu

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Genus Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Oenothera (excluded taxa) Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Kunth
ssp. hirsutissima (A.Gray ex S.Watson) W.Dietr.

1873. Oe. biennis  var. hirsutissima  A.Gray ex S.Watson
1983. Oe. elata  ssp. hirsutissima  (A.Gray ex S.Watson) W.Dietr.
    
Hooker's evening primrose ...

N. America native
 western N. America,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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LʼHér.

1789. Oenothera grandiflora LʼHér.
1828. Oenothera lamarckiana Ser.
Largeflower evening primrose ...

N. America native
 southeast,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Raimannia[edit | edit source]

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Raimannia
Genus Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Raimannia Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Hill (1767)

Cutleaf evening primrose,
Cut-leaf evening-primrose,
Cut-leaved evening-primrose
Native, CoC: 1,
Endangered,
 Invasive.org: [2]

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1
NYFA: 14 counties
iNat
6 counties

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 Smyth

1899. Oenothera grandis Smyth
Showy evening-primrose Introduced,
Not naturalized,
SNA

NYFA: U
NYFA: Chemung only
iNat
no observations

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Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Candela[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Oenothera subsect. Candela
Genus Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Candela Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 W.Dietr., P.H.Raven & W.L.Wagner

Cleland's evening-primrose,
Lesser four-point evening-primrose
Introduced,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
NYFA: 3 counties
iNat
no observations

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Genus Oenotherasect. Oenotherasubsect. Candela (excluded taxa) Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray

Fourpoint evening-primrose,
Four-point evening-primrose
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Oenothera sect. Kleinia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Kleinia
Genus Oenotherasect. Kleinia Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh

1813. Oenothera albicaulis Pursh
1835. Agnora pinnatifida (Nutt.) Spach
1894. Anogra albicaulis (Pursh) Britton
White-stemmed evening primrose,
Whitest evening-primrose,
Prairie evening-primrose
Introduced from
 western US,
N. America native

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Oenothera sect. Lavauxia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Lavauxia
Genus Oenotherasect. Lavauxiasubsect. Lavauxia Evening-primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Stemless evening-primrose Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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Oenothera sect. Megapterium[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Megapterium
Genus Oenotherasect. Megapterium Sundrops N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1813. Oenothera macrocarpa Nutt.
1813. Oenothera missouriensis Sims
Ozark sundrops Introduced,
N. America native,
No reports

NYFA: X

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Oenothera sect. Hartmannia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Hartmannia
Genus Oenotherasect. Hartmannia Primrose N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Showy primrose Introduced,
N. America native,
No reports

NYFA: X

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Oenothera, sect. Gaura[edit | edit source]

Most of the genus Gaura was transferred to Oenothera sect. Gaura in 2007.[1]

Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Oenothera sect. Gaura
Genus Oenotherasect. Gaurasubsect. Gaura Beeblossom N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1753. Gaura biennis L.
2007. Oenothera gaura W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Biennial beeblossom,
Biennial gaura
Gaura bisannuel,
Gaura bisannuelle
Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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 (Small) W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1835. Gaura longiflora Spach
1840. Gaura biennisvar. pitcheri
1898. Gaura filiformis Small
2007. Oenothera filiformis W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Longflower beeblossom,
Long-flowered gaura,
Large-flower gaura
Gaura à fleurs longues
Introduced from
 Midwest,
N. America native

NYFA: 0

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Genus Oenotherasect. Gaurasubsect. Campogaura Beeblossom N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Ser.) W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1813. Gaura coccinea Nutt. ex Pursh
1816. Gaura odorata Sessé ex Lag.
1828. Gaura suffrutescens Ser.
2007. Oenothera suffrutescens W.L.Wagner & Hoch
Scarlet beeblossom,
Scarlet gaura,
Scarlet butterfly plant,
Wild honeysuckle
Gaura écarlate
Introduced from
 western N. America,
N. America native,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Xm

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Genus Oenotherasect. Gaurasubsect. Stipogaura (excluded taxa) Beeblossom N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
W.L.Wagner & Hoch

1828. Gaura sinuata Nutt. ex Ser.
2007. O. sinuosa W.L.Wagner & Hoch
    
Wavyleaf beeblossom ...
Wavyleaf gaura ...

N. America native
 southern U.S.
 Mexico,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Camissonia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Onagraceae — Onagroideae — Onagreae — Camissonia
Genus CamissoniaLink (excluded taxa) Sundrops N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Douglas) Kearney

1832. Oenothera contorta Douglas (i)
1894. C. contorta (Douglas) Kearney
    
Plains evening primrose

N. America native
 western N.Am.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Family Lythraceae[edit | edit source]

The Lythraceae (loosestrife or pomegranate family)...[1][2]

Subfamily Lagerstroemioideae[edit | edit source]


Trapa[edit | edit source]

Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lagerstroemioideae — Trapa
Genus Trapa Water chestnut N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Trapa natans L.
1815. Trapa bispinosa Roxb.
1897. Trapa natansvar. bispinosa
Water chestnut,
European water chestnut,
Water caltrop,
Singhara nut,
Jesuit's-nut
Châtaigne d'eau,
Macre
Introduced from
 Eurasia, Africa,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 82%[1],
NE-1[2]

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentTrapa natans: Very high (82).
  2. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Lagerstroemia[edit | edit source]

Lagerstroemia indica
Crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica) is planted in the southeastern part of New York State and is now listed as highly invasive, Tier 2, though it's not yet listed in the New York Flora Atlas.
Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lagerstroemioideae — Lagerstroemia
Genus Lagerstroemia Crape myrtle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1759. Lagerstroemia indica L.
Crape myrtle ...

Introduced from
 southern Asia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS Tier: 2,
 Invasive.org: [3],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive

NYFA: Not listed
2 counties

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Subfamily Punicoideae[edit | edit source]

Cuphea[edit | edit source]
Cuphea viscosissima
clammy waxweed

Myrtales — Lythraceae — Punicoideae — Cuphea
Genus Cuphea Waxweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Jacq.

1753. Lythrum petiolatum L.
1772. Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.
1881. Cuphea petiolata (L.) Koehne
1894. Parsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby
Blue waxweed,
Clammy waxweed,
Clammy cuphea,
Tarweed
Cuphéa visqueux,
Cuphéa
Native, CoC: 1,
Likely secure

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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Rotala[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Lythraceae — Punicoideae — Rotala
Genus Rotala Rotala N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Koehne

Toothcup,
Lowland rotala
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 2

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Subfamily Lythroideae[edit | edit source]

Lythrum salicaria
purple loosestrife
The Lythroideae contains plants commonly known as loosestrife. This includes not only the widespread and highly invasive purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), but also three loosestrifes that are native to New York.

Decodon[edit | edit source]

Decodon verticillatus
waterwillow
Waterwillow or swamp loosestrife (Decodon verticillatus) is the only species of this genus. It occasionally forms wet thickets on the edges of lakes and ponds.
Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lythroideae — Decodon
Genus Decodon Swamp loosestrife N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Elliott

1753. Lythrum verticillatum L.
1821. D. verticillatus (L.) Elliott
1823. Nesaea verticillata (L.) Kunth
Waterwillow,
Swamp loosestrife,
Hairy swamp loosestrife,
Swamp willowherb,
Water oleander,
Whorled loosestrife
Décodon verticillé,
Décodent verticillé
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

NYFA: 5

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Lythrum[edit | edit source]

Lythrum alatum
winged loosestrife

Myrtales — Lythraceae — Lythroideae — Lythrum
Genus Lythrum Loosestrife N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh
var. alatum

Winged loosestrife,
Winged lythrum
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

Narrow loosestrife,
Saltmarsh loosestife,
Wand lythrum
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Hyssop loosestrife,
Grass poly
Unknown nativity,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [4],
SNR, G5

OBL,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
NYFA: Richmond only
3 counties

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L.

1753. Lythrum salicaria L.
1768. Lythrum tomentosum Mill
1813. L. salicaria  var. tomentosum  DC.
1828. L. salicaria  var. vulgare  DC.
1837. L. salicaria  var. gracilior  Turcz.
Purple loosestrife,
Spiked loosestrife,
Bouguet-violet,
Purple lythrum
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
 northern Africa,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 91%[1],
NE-1[2]

NYFA: X

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L.

1753. Lythrum virgatum L.
European wand loosestrife
Wanded loosestrife
Purple loosestrife

Introduced from
 Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYS Tier 1b[3]

NYFA: not listed
no observations

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Family Melastomataceae[edit | edit source]

Subamily Melastomatoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Melastomateae[edit | edit source]

Rhexia[edit | edit source]
Myrtales — Melastomataceae — Melastomatoideae — Melastomateae — Rhexia
Genus Rhexia Meadowbeauty N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Rhexia virginica L.
    
    
Virginia meadow-beauty,
Handsome Harry
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: 4

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 L.
var. mariana

1753. Rhexia mariana L.
    
    
Maryland meadow-beauty,
Maryland meadowbeauty
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated,
Impersistent

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Zm

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