Flora of New York/Commelinales, Zingiberales, Ceratophyllales

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Poales 4
Flora of New York — Commelinales, Zingiberales, Ceratophyllales
Ranunculales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The orders Commelinales and Zingiberales are members of the commelinids clade within the monocots.
commelinids

Arecales (palms, not naturalized in NY)



Poales (grasses, rushes, sedges)





Zingiberales (gingers, banana, unlikely naturalized in NY)



Commelinales (spiderwort, water hyacinth)





The monospecific order Ceratophyllales is thought to be the phylogenetic sister to all the eudicots, which include all the angiosperms that follow.


Order Commelinales[edit | edit source]

The Commelinales

Family Commelinaceae[edit | edit source]

The Commelinaceae (dayflower family).[1]
  1. Commelinaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subamily Commelinoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Tradescanteae[edit | edit source]
Tradescantia[edit | edit source]
Wild Flowers of New York Part 1, Plate 7. Spider Lily, Spiderwort - Tradescantia virginiana (1918)
Spiderwort (Tradescantia) is a New World genus of herbaceous perennials, named by Carl Linnaeus in honor of John Tradescant the Elder (ca. 1570–1638). Although all spiderworts listed in New York are considered to be native to eastern North America, none are listed as New York natives by the New York Flora Atlas.
Commelinales — Commelinaceae — Commelinoideae — Tradescanteae — Tradescantia
Tradescantia Spider wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1814. Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.
Ohio spiderwort,
Bluejacket,
Smooth spiderwort
Introduced from
 eastern N. America,
N. America native,
Naturalized
TradescantiaOhiensis.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
FNA
BONAP
BBG 
Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Tradescantia virginiana L.
Virginia spiderwort
Éphémère de Virginie
Introduced from
 eastern N. America,
N. America native,
Naturalized
Unknown plant2.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
BONAP
BBG 
Images, wsp
T. ohiensis × virginiana

Tradescantia ohiensis ×
Tradescantia virginiana

Hybrid of
 Ohio spiderwort &
 Virginia spiderwort

Introduced from
 eastern N. America,
N. America native,
Naturalized
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X

Images, wsp
(Britton) Smyth
var. occidentalis

T. virginiana var. occidentalis
Prairie spider-wort,
Western spiderwort
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
0 Tradescantia occidentalis - Samoëns (2).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
BONAP

Images, wsp
 Ker Gawl.

yyyy. Tradescantia subaspera Ker Gawl.
yyyy. Tradescantia subaspera var. montana
yyyy. Tradescantia subaspera ssp. montana
yyyy. species fo. forma
Zigzag spiderwort Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent
Tradescantia subaspera kz1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
FNA
BONAP

Images, wsp
Tribe Commelineae[edit | edit source]
The Commelineae in New York include the dayflowers (Commelina spp.) and dewflowers (Murdannia spp.).
Commelina[edit | edit source]
Commelina erecta L.
slender or whitemouth dayflower
The only dayflower (Commelina sp.) listed as native to New York is Commelina erecta (slender dayflower),[1] which is thought to be extirpated from the state.

The introduced Asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis) is fairly common in many parts of the state. It is reported to be invasive in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virgina, Virginia, and Kentucky.[2]


  1. M.L. Fernald (1950). Gray's manual of botany, 8th ed. American Book Company, New York. p. 393. Lists C. erecta (typical) as present in southeastern New York.
  2. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States. July 10, 2018
Commelinales — Commelinaceae — Commelinoideae — Commelineae — Commelina
Commelina Dayflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Commelina erecta L.
    Commelina elegans Kunth
    Commelina saxicola Small
Slender dayflower,
Whitemouth dayflower
Native,
Extirpated,
Impersistent,
NYNHP:[1]
Commelina erecta - Slender Dayflower.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0
Go Botany-0
BONAP

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Commelina communis L.
1811. C. debilis Ledeb.
1843. C. willdenowii Kunth
1861. C. ludens Miq.
1881. C. communis var. ludens
1909. C. communis var. angustifolia
1910. C. coreana H.Lév.
1961. C. communis fo. aureostriata
Asian dayflower,
Asiatic dayflower,
Dayflower
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized,
Potentially invasive

Annual,
Herb-forb
Commelina communis WFNY-006B.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos

Images, wsp
Commelina (excluded taxa) Dayflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
var. diffusa

1768. Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
    
    
Climbing dayflower N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Commelina diffusa 01066.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0
Go Botany

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Commelina virginica L.
    
    
Virginia dayflower N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Commelina virginica - Virginia Dayflower.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

Images, wsp
Murdannia[edit | edit source]
Commelinales — Commelinaceae — Commelinoideae — Commelineae — Murdannia
MurdanniaRoyle (excluded species) Dew-flower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Brenan

1753. Commelina nudiflora L.
1952. Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan
    
Nakedstem dewflower,
Dove-weed
Introduced from
 Asia,
N.Y. excluded
Murdannia nudiflora W2 IMG 1344.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP

Images, wsp
(Hassk.) Hand.-Maz.

    
1870. Aneilema keisak Hassk.
1936. Murdannia keisak (Hassk.)
Hand.-Mazz.
Wart-removing herb,
Marsh dewflower,
Asian spiderwort
Introduced from
 Asia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 78%[1],
No NY reports
Murdannia keisak NRCS-03.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg

USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
FNA
Tropicos
BONAP
BUG 
Images, wsp

Family Haemodoraceae[edit | edit source]

The Haemodoraceae (bloodwort family).[1]

Subfamily Haemodoroideae[edit | edit source]

Lachnanthes[edit | edit source]
Lachnanthes caroliniana
The genus Lachnanthes consists of the single species Carolina redroot or bloodroot (Lachnanthes caroliniana).
  1. Haemodoraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Commelinales — Haemodoraceae — Haemodoroideae
Lachnanthes Redroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Lam.) Dandy

1791. Dilatris caroliniana Lam.
1791. Heritiera tinctorium
Walter ex J.F.Gmel.
1812. Gyrotheca tinctoria
(Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) Salisb.
1814. Dilatris tinctoria
(Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) Pursh
1816. Lachnanthes tinctoria
(Walter ex J.F.Gmel.) Elliott
1932. L. caroliana (Lam.) Dandy
Carolina redroot,
Carolina bloodroot,
Red-root,
Paint-root,
Dye-root
Lachnanthe de Caroline
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
S1, G4,
NYNHP: 1[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Carolina redroot (Lachnanthes caroliana) (7450499000).jpg
Lachnanthes caroliniana nymap.svg
Suffolk
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos
BONAP
LBJ

Images, wsp

Family Pontederiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Pontederiaceae (family).[1]
  1. Pontederiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe Pontederieae[edit | edit source]

Pontederia[edit | edit source]
Pontederia cordata
pickerel weed

Commelinales — Pontederiaceae — Pontederieae — Pontederia
Pontederia Pickerel weed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 L.

1753. Pontederia cordata L.
Pickerelweed
Pontédérie cordée,
Langue du boeuf
Native,
Secure
Pontederia cordata 3 PP.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

Images, wsp
Eichhornia[edit | edit source]
Eichhornia crassipes
water hyacinth
Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) is an attractive free-floating aquatic perennial that is known to be very invasive in the south. It has been reported outside of cultivation in New York State, but it's not able to overwinter this far north. However, it may be able to grow as an annual, and there is concern that water hyacinths may eventually evolve resistance to the cold.[1][2]
Commelinales — Pontederiaceae — Pontederieae — Eichhornia
Eichhornia Water hyacinth N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Mart.) Solms

    E. speciosa Kunth
    Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf.
    Pontederia crassipes Mart.
1883. E. crassipes (Mart.) Solms
Common water hyacinth Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
Impersistent,
Inavisive in south
Cours du Mono au Bénin (51).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images, wsp

Tribe Heteranthereae[edit | edit source]

Heteranthera[edit | edit source]
Commelinales — Pontederiaceae — Heteranthereae — Heteranthera
Heteranthera Mud plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Jacq.) MacMill.

1768. Commelina dubia Jacq.
1892. H. dubia (Jacq.) MacMill.
1894. H. dubia (Jacq.) Morong (i)
1913. Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small
Water star-grass,
Grassleaf mudplantain,
Grass-leaved mud-plantain
Hétéranthère litigieuse,
Hétéranthère douteuse
Native, C:5,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Heterantheradubia.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-
USDA-NN
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
FNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Ruiz & Pav.

    
    
    
Mud-plantain,
Kidneyleaf mudplantain,
Kidney-leaved mud-plantain
Native, C:7,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Heteranthera reniformis kz1.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N0
ITIS
FNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Order Zingiberales[edit | edit source]

Family Cannaceae[edit | edit source]

The Cannaceae (family).[1]

Canna[edit | edit source]

Zingiberales — Cannaceae — Canna
Canna Canna lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.H.Bailey (pro sp.) (1923)

Canna glauca ×
Canna indica

1923. Canna × generalis L.H.Bailey
1923. Canna × orchiodes L.H.Bailey
 auct. Canna × hortensis
non Guillaumin (1934)
Canna-lily,
Canna lily,
Common garden canna
Balisier
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Cultivated

OBL
Starr 071024-0185 Canna x generalis.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
Tropicos

Images, wsp
  1. Cannaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Order Ceratophyllales[edit | edit source]

The Ceratophyllales contains a single family.

Family Ceratophyllaceae[edit | edit source]

The Ceratophyllaceae contains a single genus.

Ceratophyllum[edit | edit source]

The genus Ceratophyllum contains a relatively small number of species, of which, two are listed as native to New York.
Ceratophyllales — Ceratophyllaceae — Ceratophyllum
Ceratophyllum Hornwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ceratophyllum demersum L.
1794. Dichotophyllum demersum (L.) Moench
1829. C. apiculatum Cham.
1860. C. dermersum var. apiculatum
Common coontail,
Common hornwort,
Common hornweed
Cornifle nageante
Native,
Secure
Ceratophyllum demersum.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images, wsp
 A.Gray

1837. Ceratophyllum echinatum A.Gray
1856. C. demersum var. echinatum
1985. C. submersum var. echinatum
Spineless hornwort,
Prickly coontail,
Prickly hornwort
Cornifle échinée
Native,
Vulnerable
CeratophyllumSubmersum.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
Go Botany
FNA
Tropicos

Images, wsp

References[edit | edit source]