Flora of New York/Ginkgoales, Pinales

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Polypodiales
Flora of New York — Pinales
Nymphaeales & magnoliids
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


This page contains the Gymnosperms of New York. This includes both the conifers (in the Pinales) and the seemingly dissimilar Ginkgo tree, the only extant member of the Ginkgoales.

Order Family Subfamily Genera G T
Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo (maidenhair tree, ginkgo) 1 1
Pinales Pinaceae Pinoideae Pinus subg. Strobus (soft pine)
Pinus subg. Pinus (hard pines)
Picea (spruce)
Pseudotsuga (Douglas fir)
Larix (larch, tamarack)
4 19
Abietoideae Abies (fir)
Tsuga (hemlock)
2 3
Cupressaceae Taxodioideae Taxodium (cypress) 1 1
Cupressoideae Thuja (arborvitae, white cedar)
Juniperus (juniper, red cedar)
Chamaecyparis (cedar, false cypress)
3 7
Taxaceae Taxus (yew) 1 3

Order Ginkgoales[edit]

The order Ginkgoales contains a single existing species: Ginkgo biloba.

Family Ginkgoaceae[edit]

As the sole family of the Ginkgoales, Ginkgoaceae (the ginkgo family) contains Ginkgo biloba as the only extant species.[1]

Genus Ginkgo[edit]

The ginkgo, or maidenhair tree is widely planted worldwide, including New York state, but rarely escapes cultivation, and is unlikely to reach maturity as a naturalized tree in this region.

Ginkgoaceaegenus Ginkgo
Ginkgo Maidenhair tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1771. Ginkgo biloba  L.
1797. Salisburia adiantifolia  Sm.
1824. Salisburia biloba  Hoffmanns.
1826. Salisburia ginkgo  (L.) Rich. nom.illeg.
1866. Pterophyllus salisburiensis  J.Nelson
Ginkgo,
Maidenhair tree

Noyer du Japon,
Ginkgo biloba
Introduced from
 Asia,
Rare escape
20131111Ginkgo Hockenheim2.jpg
Ginkgo biloba nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
  1. Ginkgoaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Order Pinales[edit]

The order Pinales contains the conifers, or cone-bearing seed plants. In New York, this includes the three families Pinaceae (pine, fir, spruce, and larch), Cupressaceae (cypress, juniper, and arborviteae), and Taxaceae (yew).

Most of the Pinales are "evergreen," maintaining most of their foliage and its green color through the winter. The exception is the genus Larix (larch) in the Pinaceae. Larix trees are deciduous and lose their needle-like leaves in the winter. Most Pinales also have "needle-like" leaves, often referred to simply as needles. Though many are very flat needles, such as the yews, spruces, and firs. And most of the Cupressaceae leaves could be described as more "scale-like".

Family Pinaceae[edit]

The Pinaceae (pine family)...[1]

Subfamily Pinoideae[edit]

Genus Pinus[edit]

Pinus subg. Strobus[edit]

Subgenus Strobus contains the soft pines, only one of which is found in New York.

Pinus subg. Strobus sect. Quinquefoliae[edit]

The only member of the Quinquefoliae (white-pines) found outside of cultivation in New York is Pinus strobus (eastern white pine). The members of this section normally have their needle-like leaves grouped in bundles (fascicles) of five, though some may occasionally be found in bundles of three or four.

The oldest living eastern white pine on record dates to the mid 16th century, and was found in Nelson Swamp, Madison County, in 1997.[2][3]

Pinaceaesubfam. Pinoideaegenus Pinussubg. Strobussect. Quinquefoliae
Pinussubg. Strobussect. Quinquefoliae Soft, white pines N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 L. (1753)
Eastern white pine,
Northern white pine,
Weymouth pine (UK),
Soft pine

Pin blanc
Native,
Secure
Pinus strobus iced.jpg
Pinus strobus nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Pinus subg. Pinus[edit]

Subgenus Pinus contains the hard pines, and has two sections represented in New York.

Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Trifoliae[edit]

The Trifoliae contains most of the North American hard pines, four of which are native to New York.

Pinaceaesubfam. Pinoideaegenus Pinussubg. Pinussect. Trifoliae
Pinussubg. Trifoliaesubsect. Australes Hard pines:
southern yellow
N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 Mill. (1768)
Pitch pine,
Northern pitch pine,
Torch pine,
Sap pine

Pin rigide
Native,
Secure
Pinus rigida Shawangunk Ridge.jpg
Pinus rigida nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 Mill. (1768)
Shortleaf pine,
Short-leaved pine,
Arkansas pine,
Southern yellow pine
Native,
Endangered
Pinus echinata conelet and leaves.jpg
Pinus echinata nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Pinussubg. Trifoliaesubsect. Contortae Hard pines:
scrub pines
N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 Lamb.

1789. Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata Aiton
1803. Pinus banksiana  Lamb.
1893. Pinus divaricata  (Aiton) Sudw.
Jack pine, Scrub pine,
Banksian pine,
Black pine, Gray pine,
Hudson Bay pine

Pin gris,
Pin de Banks
Native,
Rare
Pinus banksiana closed cones.jpg
Pinus banksiana nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Mill.( 1768)
Virginia pine,
Scrub pine,
Jersey pine

Pin de Virginie
Native,
Endangered
Pinus virginiana Scrub Pine Branch 3200px.jpg
Pinus virginiana nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NX

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Pinus[edit]

Section Pinus contains mostly Old-World hard pines, with the exception of the commercially important red pine (Pinus resinosa), which is native to North America, including New York.

The three other species of this section found in New York are non-native introductions. This group has needles in bundles of two.

Pinaceaesubfam. Pinoideaegenus Pinussubg. Pinussect. Pinus
Pinussubg. Pinussect. Pinus Hard pines:
red pines
N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Aiton

1789. Pinus resinosa  Aiton
Red pine,
Norway pine[1]

Pin rouge,
Pin résineux
Native,
Secure
Pinus resinosa cone.jpg
Pinus resinosa nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 L.
var. sylvestris

1753. Pinus sylvestris  L.
Scots pine,
Scotch pine,
Caledonian pine

Pin sylvestre,
Pin d'Écosse[2]
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
CP-5[3] WW
Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris).jpg
Pinus sylvestris var sylvestris nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
 J.F.Arnold

1785. Pinus nigra  J.F.Arnold
1828. Pinus pallasiana  Lamb.
1910. Pinus nigra
   var.
austriaca Asch. & Graebn.
1914. Pinus nigra
   ssp.
pallasiana Holmboe
Austrian pine,
European black pine

Pin noir,
Pin noir d'Autriche
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native
Pinus nigra cone Bad Voeslau.jpg
Pinus nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Parl. (1868)
Japanese black pine Introduced,
Invasive,
NYIS: 59%[4],
NE-4[5]
Pinus thunbergii3.jpg
Pinus thunbergii nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
  1. Despite the fact that one of its vernacular names is "Norway pine," Pinus resinosa is native only to North America.
  2. Although "pin d'Écosse" is a literal translation of "Scots pine," "pin sylvestre" is more commonly used as the French vernacular name of Pinus sylvestris.
  3. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  4. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPinus thunbergii: Moderate (59).
  5. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Genus Picea[edit]

Pinaceaesubfam. Pinoideaegenus Picea
Picea Spruce N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
(Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1768. Abies mariana  Mill.
1770. Pinus abies var. mariana Münchh.
1785. Pinus nigra  J.F.Arnold
1831. Picea nigra  Link
1888. Picea mariana  Britton, et al.
Black spruce,
Bog spruce,
Swamp spruce

Épinette noire,
Épinette à bière,
Épicéa marial,
Épicéa noir
Native,
Secure
Picea mariana cones.jpg
Picea mariana nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Sarg.

1771. Pinus mariana var. rubra Du Roi
1831. Picea rubra  Link
1879. Picea nigra var. rubra Engelm.
1898. Picea rubens  Sarg.
1903. Picea australis  Small
Red spruce

Épinette rouge
Native,
Secure
Picea rubens UGA5349098.jpg
Picea rubens NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 (Moench) Voss

1768. Abies canadensis  Mill.
1785. Pinus glauca  Moench
1831. Picea alba  (Aiton) Link
1897. Picea canadensis var. glauca
1907. Picea glauca  Voss
White spruce,
Cat spruce

Épinette blanche,
Épinette glauque,
Épicéa blanc,
Épicéa glauque
Native,
Likely secure
Picea glauca UGA.jpg
Picea glauca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.


Images, wsp
 Engelm.

1879. Picea pungens  Engelm.
1883. Picea pungens var. glauca Regel
1897. Picea parryana  Sarg.
Blue spruce,
Colorado blue spruce,
Colorado spruce,
Silver spruce

Épinette de Colorado,
Épinette bleue,
Épicéa de Colorado
Introduced from
 U.S. Rocky Mts.
Picea pungens male flos 2 beentree.jpg
Picea pungens nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 (L.) Karst.

1753. Pinus abies  L.
1779. Pinus excelsa  Lamb.
1842. Picea excelsa  (Lamb.) Link
1881. Picea abies  (L.) H.Karst.
Norway spruce,
White spruce

Épinette de Norvège,
Épicéa élevé,
Épicéa commun
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
CP-4[1][2]
Picea abies cones Lithuania.JPG
Picea abies nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Genus Pseudotsuga[edit]

Pinaceaesubfam. Pinoideaegenus Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga Douglas fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution
 (Mirb.) Franco
var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco

1884. Tsuga douglasii var. glauca Beissn.
1890. P. douglasii var. glauca Mayr
1897. P. taxifolia var. glauca Sudw.
1934. Pseudotsuga flahaultii  Flous
1950. P. menziesii var. glauca Franco
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir,
Douglas-fir,
Blue Douglas-fir,
Colorado Douglas-fir,
Inland Douglas-fir

Douglas bleu,
Douglas de Menzies bleu
Introduced
Pseudotsuga menziesii 16996.JPG
Pseudotsuga menziesii nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Genus Larix[edit]

Pinaceaesubfam. Pinoideaegenus Larix
Larix Larch N.Y. Status Images Distribution
 (DuRoi) K.Koch (1873)
American larch,
Tamarack
Native,
Secure
Larix laricina Kanadanlehtikuusi Kanada lärk C DSC03086.JPG
Larix laricina NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 Mill. (1768)
European larch Introduced,
Europe native
Lärchenzapfen.jpg
Larix decidua NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ITIS



Images, wsp
 (Lam.) Carrière (1856)
Japanese larch Introduced,
East Asia native
Japanese Larch Larix Cone.JPG
Larix kaempferi NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XN

ARS 



Images, wsp

Subfamily Abietoideae[edit]

Pinaceaesubfam. Abietoideae
Tsuga Hemlock N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Carrière

1763. Pinus canadensis  L.
1842. Picea canadensis  Link
1855. Tsuga canadensis  Carrière
1862. Abies canadensis var. gracilis
Eastern hemlock,
Canadian hemlock,
Canada hemlock

Pruche du Canada,
Pruche de l'Est,
Tsuga du Canada
Native,
Secure
Tsuga canadensis foliagecones.jpg
Tsuga canadensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Abies Fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (L.) Mill.

1753. Pinus balsamea  L.
1768. Abies balsamea  Mill.
1770. Pinus abies var. balsamea
1810. Peuce balsamea  Rich.
Balsam fir,
Canada balsam

Sapin baumier,
Sapin
Native,
Secure
Abies balsamea pollen cones1.jpg
Abies balsamea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
 A.Murray bis

1863. Abies magnifica  A.Murray bis
1875. Picea magnifica  Gordon
1876. Pseudotsuga magnifica  W.R.McNab
1876. Pinus magnifica  W.R.McNab
California red fir,
Shasta red fir,
Red fir
Introduced from
 western US
Abies magnifica 8016t.jpg
Abies magnifica nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
(Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.

1858. Picea concolor  Gordon & Glend.
1861. Abies concolor  Lindl. ex Hildebr.
White fir,
Colorado white fir,
Silver fir,
Colorado fir,
Rocky Mountain white fir
Introduced from
 western US,
No specimens
Abies concolor 8065.jpg
Abies concolor nymap.svg

USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp

Family Cupressaceae[edit]

The Cupressaceae (cypress family)...[1]

Subfamily Taxodioideae[edit]

Genus Taxodium[edit]

Cupressaceaesubfam. Taxodioideaegenus Taxodium
Taxodium Cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution
 (L.) Rich.
var. distichum

1753. Cupressus disticha  L.
1789. C. disticha var. nutans Aiton
1810. Taxodium distichum  Rich.
1827. T. distichum var. nutans Sweet
1927. T. ascendens var. nutans Rehder
Baldcypress,
Bald cypress,
Swamp cypress
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Taxodium distichum Cerro Italy.jpg
Taxodium distichum var distichum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
  1. Cupressaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Cupressoideae[edit]

Most of the Cupressoideae in New York go by the common names "cedar" or "juniper." But there is some resistance to calling any of them "cedar," as this could be seen to imply that they are of the Eurasian genus Cedrus, which does not have any naturalized populations in New York, and is normally included in the Pinaceae, not Cupressoideae. Instead, many prefer the common names "arborvitae" or "whitecedar" for Thuja occidentalis, and "red juniper" or "redcedar" for Juniperus virginiana.

Genus Thuja[edit]
Cupressaceaesubfam. Cupressoideaegenus Thuja
Thuja Arborvitae N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Thuja occidentalis  L.
Eastern arborvitae,
Eastern white cedar,
Northern white cedar

Thuya occidental,
Cèdre,
Balai,
Cèdre blanc
Native,
Secure
Northern White Cedar cones (2974756142).jpg
Thuja occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Genus Juniperus[edit]
Cupressaceaesubfam. Cupressoideaegenus Juniperus
Juniperus Juniper N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.
var. virginiana

1753. Juniperus virginiana  L.
1857. Sabina virginiana var. virginiana
Eastern red cedar,
Eastern redcedar,
Pencil cedar, Virginia cedar,
Eastern juniper, Red juniper

Genévrier de Virginie,
Genévrier rouge,
Cèdre rouge
Native,
Secure
Juniperus virginiana NRCS-1.jpg
Juniperus virginiana var virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.


Images, wsp
 Moench

1794. Juniperus horizontalis  Moench
1807. Juniperus prostrata  Pers.
1814. J. sabina var. procumbens Pursh
1838. J. sabina var. humilis Hook.
1843. J. virginiana var. prostrata Torr.
1857. Sabina prostrata  Antoine
1912. Sabina horizontalis  Rydb.
Creeping juniper,
Trailing juniper,
Prostrate juniper,
Horizontal juniper,
Creeping savin

Genévrier horizontal,
Genévrier rampant,
Savinier
Native,
Endangered
JuniperBerry.jpg
Juniperus horizontalis nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 


Images, wsp
 L.
var. depressa Pursh

1787. J. canadensis  Lodd. ex Burgsd.
1814. J. communis var. depressa Pursh
1818. J. depressa  Raf.
1838. J. communis var. canadensis Loudon
1962. J. communis ssp. depressa Franco
Common juniper,
Dwarf juniper,
Prostrate juniper,
Ground juniper

Genévrier commun déprimé,
Genévrier nain,
Genévrier du Canada
Native,
Likely secure
Juniperus communis var depressa 7.jpg
Juniperus communis var depressa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 



Images, wsp
 L.
var. communis

1753. Juniperus communis  L.
1768. Juniperus suecica  Mill.
1822. Juniperus hemisphaerica  C.Presl
1881. J. communis ssp. hemisphaerica
1887. J. communis fo. suecica Beissn.
Common juniper

Genévrier commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
No specimens
Common juniper berries (Mica B).JPG
Juniperus communis var communis nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-0
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Genus Chamaecyparis[edit]
Cupressaceaesubfam. Cupressoideaegenus Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis False cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Cupressus thyoides  L.
1888. Chamaecyparis thyoides  Britton &al.
1962. Chamaecyparis henryae  H.L.Li
1966. C. thyoides var. henryae Little
Atlantic white cedar,
Southern white cedar,
Atlantic white cypress
Native,
Threatened
Atlantic White Cypress Chatsworth NJ 1.jpg
Chamaecyparis thyoides nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp
Hinoki false cypress Introduced
Hafen Riesbach 2012-11-23 14-12-11 (P7700).JPG
Chamaecyparis obtusa nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X





Images, wsp

Family Taxaceae[edit]

The Taxaceae (yew family)...[1]

Genus Taxus[edit]

The American yew (Taxus canadensis) is the only Taxus species native to New York. The Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) and the English yew (Taxus baccata) are widely cultivated in New York and occasionally escape. The Japanese yew has been found to naturalize and has become common in the forests of some New York counties. Its invasive tendencies deserve monitoring.

Taxaceaegenus Taxus
Taxus Yew N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Marshall

1785. Taxus canadensis  Marshall
1803. Taxus baccata var. minor Michx.
1856. Taxus baccata var. canadensis A.Gray
1894. Taxus minor  Britton
1903. Taxus baccata ssp. canadensis Pilg.
2007. Taxus canadensis var. minor Spjut
American yew,
Canada yew,
Ground hemlock,
Shinwood

Buis de sapin,
L'if du Canada,
Sapin trainard
Native,
Secure
CanadaYew.JPG
Taxus canadensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

Note WBA
Images, wsp
 Siebold & Zucc.

1846. Taxus cuspidata  Siebold & Zucc.
1867. Taxus baccata var. cuspidata
1903. Taxus baccata ssp. cuspidata
auct. Taxus baccata  non L.
Japanese yew Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
CP-5[2] NE-4,[3],
WW
Taxus cuspidata2.jpg
Taxus cuspidata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW Can-0
ARS 



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Taxus baccata  L.
1829. Taxus fastigiata  Lindl.
English yew,
European yew,
Common yew

L'if commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Rare escape
Botany Bay - Taxus baccata 1.jpg
Taxus baccata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW Can-0
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Taxus × media
 Rehder

Taxus baccata ×
Taxus cuspidata

1923. Taxus × media  Rehder
Anglo-Japanese yew,
Anglojap yew,
Hybrid of
 English yew &
 Japanese yew
Introduced,
No specimens,
IO
Podlaskie - Suprasl - Kopna Gora - Arboretum - Taxus × media 'nidiformis' - branch.JPG
Taxus × media nymap.svg

USDA-00

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Taxus × hunnewelliana
 Rehder

Taxus canadensis ×
Taxus cuspidata

1925. Taxus × hunnewelliana  Rehder
Hunnewell yew,
Hybrid of
 American yew &
 Japanese yew
Introduced,
No specimens,
Cultivated
Taxus × media nymap.svg


ARS 



Images, wsp
  1. Taxaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Taxus species differentiation[edit]

Character[1] Taxus canadensis
American yew
Taxus cuspidata
Japanese yew
Taxus baccata
English yew
Habit low, straggling,
diffusely branched,
spreading to prostrate
upright upright
Mature height (m) 2 up to 16 10 - 20(-40)
Mature dbh (m) 4
Winter bud scales sharply pointed to cuspidate,
keeled or folded
sharply pointed to cuspidate,
keeled or folded
blunt at the apex,
slightly keeled
Leaf blade taper to apex abrupt abrupt gradual
Leaf blade width (mm) 1 – 2.4 2 - 3 2 - 3
Leaf blade length (mm) 10 - 25 15 - 25 10 - 40
Leaf upper (dorsal) surface dark green to yellow-green dark green, prominent midrib when dry dark green
Leaf lower (ventral) surface pale green, mostly without cuticular papillae along stomatal bands 2 wide tawny stomatal bands dark green
Number of cells from margin to stomata band (8-) 16 - 18 (-22) 11 - 13 4 - 7
Stomata rows per band (4-) 5 - 7 (-11) 7 - 15 (-19) 8 – 10
Petiole gradually curved or abrupt bend near the junction of the branch, not clasping the branchlet abrupt bend near the junction of the blade, clasping the branchlet
Seed shape near apex round or somewhat compressed 4- or 5-angled
Bark reddish, very thin brown, thin, scaly
Cone (aril)
all red when ripe
Taxus canadensis 5443106.jpg Taxus cuspidata fruits.JPG Eibe 2009.JPG