Flora of New York/Ferns 1

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Lycophytes
Flora of New York — Pre-polypod ferns
Polypodiales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Class Polypodiopsida contains the ferns, including the eusporangiate ferns (horsetails, scouring rushes, moonworts, and grape ferns) and the leptosporangiate ferns of subclass Polypodiidae.[1][2]

Cladogram of ferns showing outgroups and the four subclasses down to orders:

tracheoophytes
lycophytes
Lycopodiopsida

Lycopodiales

Isoetales

Selaginellales

euphyllophytes
Polypodiopsida (ferns)
Equisetidae

Equisetales

Ophioglossidae

Psilotales

Ophioglossales

Marattiidae

Marattiales

Polypodiidae

Osmundales

Hymenophyllales

Gleicheniales

Schizaeales

Salviniales

Cyatheales

Polypodiales

spermatophytes

gymnosperms ↓

angiosperms ↓↓

eusporangiate
ferns
leptosporangiate
ferns

A more detailed cladogram of New York State ferns down to subgenera or single species:

ferns
Equisetales : Equisetaceae : Equisetum

subg. Equisetum (6 horse tails)

subg. Hippochaete (7 scouring rushes)

Psilotales : Psilotaceae (0 whisk ferns in NY)

Ophioglossales : Ophioglossaceae

OphioglossoideaeOphioglossum pusillum (northern adder's-tongue) 

Botrychioideae

Botrypus virginianum (rattlesnake fern)

Sceptridium (4 evergreen grapeferns)

Botrychium (7 moonworts, grape ferns)

Marattiales : Marattiaceae (0 marattid ferns in NY)

Osmundales : Osmundaceae

Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern)

Claytosmunda claytoniana (interrupted fern)

Osmunda regalis (royal fern)

Hymenophyllales : Hymenophyllaceae

Hymenophylloideae (0 filmy ferns)

TrichomanoideaeCrepidomanes intricatum (Appalachian bristle fern) 

Gleicheniales

Gleicheniaceae (0 forked ferns)

Matoniaceae (0 fan ferns)

Dipteridaceae (0 umbrella ferns)

Schizaeales

LygodiaceaeLygodium palmatum (American climbing fern)

SchizaeaceaeSchizaea pusilla (curlygrass)

Salviniales

SalviniaceaeAzolla cristata (mosquitofern)

MarsileaceaeMarsilea quadrifolia (water clover)

Cyatheales (0)

Polypodiales (continued below)

eusporangiate
ferns
leptosporangiate
ferns

Continuation of Polypodiales part of above cladogram of New York State ferns, including the six suborders employed by PPG I (2016):

Polypodiales

Saccolomatineae (1 genus, 0 in NY)

Lindsaeineae (3 families, 0 in NY)

Pteridineae : Pteridaceae

CryptogrammoideaeCryptogramma stelleri (fragile rockbrake}

PteridoideaePteris multifida (brake fern - excluded!)

Cheilanthoideae

Pellaea atropurpurea (purple cliffbrake)

Pellaea glabella (smooth cliffbrake)

Myriopteris lanosa (hairy lip-fern)

Vittarioideae

Adiantum pedatum (northern maidenhair fern)

Vittaria appalachiana (Appalachian shoestring fern)

Dennstaedtiineae : Dennstaedtiaceae

Dennstaedtia punctilobula (hay-scented fern)

Pteridium aquilinum (brackenfern)

Aspleniineae
Cystopteridaceae

Cystopteris (4 bladderferns)

Gymnocarpium dryopteris (northern oak fern)

DiplaziopsidaceaeHomalosorus pycnocarpos (narrow-leaved glade fern)

AspleniaceaeAsplenium (11 spleenworts)

Thelypteridaceae

PhegopteridoideaePhegopteris (2 beech ferns)

ThelypteridoideaeThelypteris (3 marsh ferns)

WoodsiaceaeWoodsia (5 cliff ferns)

Athyriaceae

Athyrium (2 lady ferns)

Deparia acrostichoides (silvery spleenwort)

Onocleaceae

Onoclea sensibilis (sensitive fern)

Matteuccia struthiopteris (ostrich fern)

Blechnaceae : Woodwardioideae

Anchistea virginica (Virginia chainfern)

Lorinseria areolata (netted chainfern)

Polypodiineae
Dryopteridaceae : Dryopteridoideae

Dryopteris (28 woodferns)

Polystichum (4 holly ferns)

Cyrtomium falcatum (netvein hollyfern - excluded)

Polypodiaceae : Polypodioideae

Polypodium (3 rock-cap ferns)

Pleopeltis polypodioides (resurrection fern excluded)


Subclass Order Suborder Family Subfamily Genus Subgenus Common names #
Equisetidae Equisetales Equisetaceae Equisetum Equisetum horsetail 6
Hippochaete scouring rush 7
Ophioglossidae Ophioglossales Ophioglossaceae Botrychioideae Botrychium Botrychium moonwort,
grape fern
8
Osmundopteris rattlesnake fern 1
Sceptridium evergreen grapefern 4
Ophioglossoideae Ophioglossum adder's tongue 1
Polypodiidae

(lepto-
sporangiate
ferns)
Osmundales Osmundaceae Osmundastrum cinnamon fern 1
Osmunda Claytosmunda interrupted fern 1
Osmunda royal fern 1
Hymenophyllales Hymenophyllaceae Trichomanoideae Crepidomanes grotto felt,
weft fern
1
Schizaeales Lygodiaceae Lygodium climbing fern 1
Schizaeaceae Schizaea curlygrass fern 1
Salviniales Salviniaceae Azolla mosquitofern 1
Salvinia watermoss,
floatingfern
X
Marsileaceae Marsilea waterclover,
waterfern
1
Polypodiales Dennstaedtiineae Dennstaedtiaceae Dennstaedtia hay-scented fern 1
Pteridium brackenfern 2
Pteridineae Pteridaceae Cryptogrammoideae Cryptogramma rock brake 1
Pteridoideae Pteris brake fern X
Cheilanthoideae Pellaea cliff brake 2
Cheilanthes lip fern 1
Vittarioideae Adiantum maidenhair-fern 1
Vittaria ribbon fern 1
Aspleniineae Cystopteridaceae Cystopteris bladder fern 5
Gymnocarpium oak fern 2
Diplaziopsidaceae Homalosorus glade fern 1
Aspleniaceae Asplenium spleenwort 10
Thelypteridaceae Phegopteridoideae Phegopteris beech fern 2
Thelypteridoideae Thelypteris marsh fern,
New York fern
3
Woodsiaceae Woodsia cliff fern 5
Onocleaceae Onoclea sensitive fern 1
Matteuccia ostrich fern 1
Blechnaceae Woodwardioideae Anchistea Virginia chainfern 1
Lorinseria netted chainfern 1
Athyriaceae Deparia false spleenwort 1
Athyrium lady fern 3
Polypodiineae Dryopteridaceae Dryopteridoideae Cyrtomium netvein hollyfern X
Dryopteris woodfern 30
Polystichum hollyfern 5
Polypodiaceae Polypodioideae Polypodium polypody,
rockcap fern
3
Pleopeltis resurrection fern X

Order Equisetales[edit | edit source]

The order Equisetales contains the plants commonly known as horsetails and scouring rushes. This order contains the single living genus Equisetum, which is represented in every county of New York.

Family Equisetaceae[edit | edit source]

The Equisetaceae (horsetail family) ...

Equisetum[edit | edit source]

Equisetum is here divided into the two subgenera Equisetum (horsetails) and Hippochaete (scouringrushes).
Equisetum subg. Equisetum[edit | edit source]
Equisetum arvense
field horsetail
The Equisetum subgenus Equisetum comprises the horsetails.
Equisetales — Equisetaceae — Equisetum subg. Equisetum
Equisetumsubg. Equisetum Horsetail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Equisetum arvense L.
1832. Equisetum boreale Bong.
1912. Allostelites arvensis (L.) Börner
1960. Equisetum calderi B.Boivin
Field horsetail,
Common horsetail,
Common field horsetail
Prêle des champs,
Queue de renard
Native, C:2,
Secure

FAC
Equisetum arvense R.H (7).JPG
Equisetum arvense nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE 
IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum fluviatile L.
1753. Equisetum limosum L.
1904. E. fluviatile var. limosum (L.) Farw.
Water horsetail,
River horsetail
Prêle fluviatile
Native, C:4,
Secure

OBL
Herne 13.05.2017 Water Horsetail - Equisetum fluviatile (34619839930).jpg
Equisetum fluviatile nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Kühlew. ex Rupr. (pro sp.)

Equisetum arvense ×
Equisetum fluviatile

1845. Equisetum litorale Kühlew. ex Rupr.
Litoral horsetail
Prêle littorale
Native,
Rare

OBL
Equisetum × litorale drawing.png
Equisetum × litorale nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NPT 
ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum sylvaticum L.
1795. Equisetum capillare Hoffm.
Wood horsetail,
Woodland horsetail
Prêle des bois
Native, C:7,
Secure

FACW
Stockshof Equisetum sylvaticum 01.JPG
Equisetum sylvaticum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Equisetum palustre L.
1927. E. palustre var. americanum Vict.
Marsh horsetail
Prêle des marais
Native, C:5,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACW
20160511Equisetum palustre2.jpg
Equisetum palustre nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Ehrh.

1784. Equisetum pratense Ehrh.
Meadow horsetail,
Shady horsetail
Prêle des prés
Native, C:4,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]

FACW
Meadow Horsetail II 2496723699.jpg
Equisetum pratense nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NPT 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Equisetum(excluded)subg. Equisetum Horsetail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Ehrh.
ssp. braunii (Milde) Hauke

1862. Equisetum braunii Milde
1978. Equisetum telmateia var. braunii
 auct. Equisetum maximumnon Lam.
Giant horsetail,
Great horsetail,
Ivory horsetail
Prêle géante
Introduced from
 western N. America,
N.Y. excluded

OBL
Equisetum telmateia in Seattle.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Equisetum subg. Hippochaete[edit | edit source]
Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine
western scouringrush
Plants of subg. Hippochaete are often referred to as scouring rushes.

Christenhusz et. al. (2019) suggests that the western scouringrush (Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine) should be treated at the species level (Equisetum praealtum Raf.).[1]


Equisetales — Equisetaceae — Equisetum subg. Hippochaete
Equisetumsubg. Hippochaete Scouringrush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. affine Calder & Roy L.Taylor

    Equisetum affine Engelm.
    Equisetum praealtum Raf.
    Equisetum robustum A.Braun
    Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Braun
Common scouringrush,
Western scouringrush,
Rough horsetail,
Scouringrush horsetail
Prêle d'hiver
Native, C:2,
Secure
Equisetum hyemale ssp. affine iNat-2273237.jpg
Equisetum hyemale ssp affine nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 
iNat
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Michx. (1803)

Dwarf scouring rush
Prêle faux-scirpe
Native, C:9,
Secure
Equisetum scirpoides kz1.JPG
Equisetum scirpoides nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr
ssp. variegatum

    Equisetum variegatum
Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr
    Equisetum variegatum var. variegatum
    Hippochaete variegata
(Schleich. ex F.Weber & D.Mohr) Bruhin
Variegated scouring rush,
Variegated horsetail
Prêle panachée
Native, C:3,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Herb
Equisetum variegatum 01.jpg
Equisetum variegatum ssp variegatum nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp

Equisetum hyemale ×
Equisetum variegatum

Rough-toothed scouring rush Native, C:3,
Vulnerable
Skrzyp zimowy (Equisetum hyemale ).jpg
Equisetum variegatum 02.jpg
Equisetum × mackaii nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N






Images, wsp
(A.A.Eaton) J.H.Schaffn.

Equisetum laevigatum ×
Equisetum variegatum

1904. E. variegatum var. nelsonii
1926. E. nelsoni J.H.Schaffn.
Nelson's scouring rush,
Nelson's horsetail
Native,
Unranked
Equisetum variegatum kz1.jpg
Equisetum × nelsonii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Clute

Equisetum hyemale ×
Equisetum laevigatum

1903. E. hyemale var. intermedium
1904. Equisetum ferrissii Clute
1917. Equisetum intermedium Rydb.
1951. E. hyemale var. elatum
Ferris' scouring rush Native,
Unranked
Equisetum × ferrissii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
Equisetum(excluded)subg. Hippochaete Scouring rush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
A.Braun (1844)

    E. funstonii
    E. kansanum
    Hippochaete laevigata
Smooth scouring-rush N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
2016.07.09 09.46.58 DSC05170 - Flickr - andrey zharkikh.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Order Ophioglossales[edit | edit source]

The order Ophioglossales may contain the oldest of the plants now considered to be ferns s.l. [1]

Family Ophioglossaceae[edit | edit source]

The Ophioglossaceae (adder's-tongue family) comprises primitive ferns that have traditionally been considered part of a group informally known as fern-allies. In New York, the family is represented by about a dozen native species, all of which are listed as protected plants.[1]

Botrychioideae[edit | edit source]

Botrychium[edit | edit source]
The genus Botrychium contains the moonworts, evergreen grapeferns, and rattlesnake ferns, each of which is treated here as a subgenus of Botrychium. These groups are also sometimes treated as separate genera within the Ophioglossaceae.
Botrychium subg. Botrychium[edit | edit source]
Botrychium matricariifolium
daisy-leaved moonwort

Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Botrychium subg. Botrychium
Botrychiumsubg. Botrychium Moonwort, grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Döll) A.Braun ex W.D.J.Koch

1843. B. lunaria var. matricariifolium
1847. B. neglectum Alph.Wood
1847. B. matricariifolium ex W.D.J.Koch
Daisy-leaved moonwort,
Chamomile grape-fern,
Matricary grapefern
Botryche à feuille
 de matricaire
Native, C:7,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Fern
Moonwort (4752770708).jpg
Botrychium matricariifolium nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can

FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
(Pease & A.H.Moore) Fernald

1906. B. lanceolatum
var. angustisegmentum
1915. B. angustisegmentum
(Pease & A.H.Moore) Fernald
1937. B. lanceolatum
ssp. angustisegmentum
Narrow triangle moonwort,
Narrow moonwort,
Lance-leaved grape-fern
Botryche à segments étroits
Native, C:7,
Likely secure

FACW

Perennial,
Fern
Lance-Leaf Moonwort (3816257528).jpg
Botrychium lanceolatum ssp angustisegmentum nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 E.Hitchc.

1823. B. simplex E.Hitchc.
1899. B. tenebrosum A.A.Eaton
Least grape-fern,
Little grape-fern
Native, C:9,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium simplex (3599528767).jpg
Botrychium simplex nymap.svg
NYFA-4-5
USDA-NN
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
A.A.Eaton

    B. simplex var. tenebrosum
    B. tenebrosum A.A.Eaton
    
Shade-loving moonwort,
Swamp moonwort
Native, C:10,
Endangered

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium tenebrosum-1 - Flickr - Ragnhild & Neil Crawford.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
NPT 





Images, wsp
Stensvold & Farrar

1753. Osmunda lunaria L. misapplied
1801. B. lunaria (L.) Sw. misappl.
1903. B. onondagense Underw.
1923. B. lunaria var. onondagense
2017. B. neolunaria Stensvold & Farrar
Moonwort grape-fern,
Common moonwort
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[1]

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium lunaria (Vanoise).JPG
Botrychium lunaria nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NPT Can

FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
 Vict.

1927. B. minganense Vict.
1937. B. lunaria var. minganense
1965. B. lunaria ssp. minganense
Mingan's moonwort,
Mingan moonwort,
Mingan Island moonwort
Botryche de Mingan
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[2]

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium minganense ^ Ophioglossum azoricum - Flickr - Ragnhild & Neil Crawford (cropped).jpg
Botrychium minganense nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner & Farrar

    B. minganense (in part)
Prairie moonwort,
Prairie dunewort,
Dunewort,
Iowa moonwort
Native, C:10,
No recent reports,
NYNHP: 1[3]

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium campestre - NPS Photo (cropped).jpg
Botrychium campestre nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
Botrychiumsubg. Botrychium (excluded taxa) Moonwort, grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(S.G.Gmel.) Ångstr.

    
1854. B. lanceolatum (S.G.Gmel.) Ångstr.
    
Triangle moonwort
Botryche élancé
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium lanceolatum BB-1913.png
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD


FNA 



Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner

1986. B. ascendens W.H.Wagner
Triangle-lobe moonwort,
Upswept moonwort,
Ascending grapefern
Botryche ascendant
Native,
Unreported

Perennial,
Fern
Botrychium ascendens (cropped).JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris[edit | edit source]
The subgenus Osmundopteris (sometimes treated as the genus Botrypus) contains a single, fairly widespread Rattlesnake fern species in New York.
Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris
Botrychiumsubg. Osmundopteris Rattlesnake fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Sw.

1753. Osmunda virginiana L.
1800. Botrychium virginianum Sw.
1803. Botrypus virginianus Michx.
1814. Botrychium gracile Pursh
1938. Osmundopteris virginiana Small
1958. Japanobotrychium virginianum
M.Nishida
Rattlesnake fern,
Rattlesnake grapefern,
Virginia grapefern
Botryche de Virginie
Native, C:8,
Secure
Rattlesnake fern (Pancake B) 1.jpg
Botrychium virginianum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can

FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Botrychium subg. Sceptridium[edit | edit source]
Botrychium dissectum
cut-leaved grape-fern
The subgenus Sceptridium, often treated as a separate genus Sceptridium Lyon (1905), contains the evergreen grape ferns, four species of which are native to New York.
Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Botrychium subg. Osmundopteris sect. Sceptridium
Botrychiumsubg. Sceptridium Evergreen grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Spreng.

1804. Botrychium dissectum Spreng.
1810. Botrychium obliquum Muhl.
1902. B. dissectum var. obliquum
1905. Sceptridium dissectum Lyon
1905. Sceptridium obliquum Lyon
Cut-leaved grape-fern,
Cutleaf grapefern,
Dissected grapefern
Native, C:3,
Secure
Botrychium dissectum-jak-04a.jpg
Botrychium dissectum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can

FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Note: CA
(S.G.Gmel.) Rupr.

    B. californicum Underw.
    B. coulteri Underw.
    B. silaifolium C.Presl
    Sceptridium multifidum
Leathery grape-fern,
Leather grape-fern
Native, C:3,
Secure
Botrychium multifidum.jpg
Botrychium multifidum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
(Gilbert) House

1901. B. ternatum var. oneidense
1905. B. oneidense House
1916. B. multifidum var. oneidense
1924. B. dissectum var. oneidense
1998. Sceptridium oneidense Holub
Blunt-lobed grape-fern,
Bluntlobe grapefern,
Oneida grape fern
Native, C:5,
Threatened,
CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Botrychium oneidense drawing.png
Botrychium oneidense nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN
NPT 


BNA


Images, wsp
W.H.Wagner

    B. multifidum fo. dentatum
 auct. B. ternatumnon (Thunb.) Sw.
    Sceptridium rugulosum
Ternate grapefern,
Rugulose grape-fern,
St. Lawrence grape-fern,
Botryche à limbe rugueux
Native, C:6,
Endangered,
Few populations,
CA,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Botrychium rugulosum by OpenCage.jpg
Botrychium rugulosum nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NPT 

FNA 
BNA


Images, wsp
Botrychiumsubg. Sceptridium (excluded taxa) Evergreen grape fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Savigny) Underw.

1798. Osmunda biternata Savigny
1896. B. biternatum (Savigny) Underw.
1903. B. tenuifolium Underw.
1905. Sceptridium tenuifolium
(Underw.) Lyon
1905. S. biternatum (Savigny) Lyon
1924. B. dissectum var. tenuifolium
Sparselobe grapefern,
Sparse-lobe grape fern
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0


FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Ophioglossoideae[edit | edit source]

Ophioglossum[edit | edit source]
Ophioglossum pusillum
northern adder's-tongue
Northern adder's-tongue may appear in wet meadows, swamp edges, and thickets.
Ophioglossales — Ophioglossaceae — Ophioglossum
Ophioglossum Adder's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Raf.

1814. Ophioglossum pusillum Raf.
1927. O. vulgatum var. alaskanum
1917. O. vulgatum var. pseudopodum
 auct. O. vulgatumnon L. (s.s.)
Northern adder's-tongue
Herbe-sans-couture
Native, C:5,
Vulnerable

FACW

Perennial,
Fern
Ophioglossum pusillum USFS-1.jpg
Ophioglossum pusillum nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-N
NPT 
ITIS
FNA 

IPN LBJ

Images, wsp
Ophioglossum (excluded) Adder's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Ophioglossum vulgatum L.
1939. O. vulgatum var. pycnostichum
1977. O. pycnostichum
(Fernald) A.Löve & D.Löve
Southern adder's-tongue,
English adder's-tongue
Herbe sans couture
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Ophioglossum vulgatum 001.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-N0

ARS 
FNA 

IPN LBJ

Images, wsp

Order Osmundales[edit | edit source]

The Osmundales contains a single family with three native species represented outside of cultivation in New York.

Family Osmundaceae[edit | edit source]

The Osmundaceae (royal fern family)...

Osmundastrum[edit | edit source]

Osmundales — Osmundaceae — Osmundastrum
Osmundastrum Cinnamon fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) C.Presl
var. cinnamomeum

1753. Osmunda cinnamomea L.
1841. Osmunda cinnamomea var. frondosa
1847. Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C.Presl
1868. Osmunda cinnamomea var. imbricata
1902. Osmunda cinnamomea var. glandulosa
1909. Osmunda cinnamomea var. fokiensis
Cinnamon fern,
Buckhorn
Osmonde cannelle
Native, C:6,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]

OBL-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Osmunda cinnamomea 1-eheep (5097434529).jpg
Osmundastrum cinnamomeum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NPT Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: FEIS

Osmunda[edit | edit source]

Osmundales — Osmundaceae — Osmunda
Osmundasubg. Claytosmunda Flowering fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Osmunda claytoniana L.
1801. Struthiopteris claytoniana (L.) Bernh.
1848. Plenasium claytonianum (L.) C. Presl
1941. Osmundastrum claytonianum (L.) Tagawa
Interrupted fern,
Clayton's fern
Osmonde de Clayton
Native, C:4,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Osmunda claytoniana 3 (5097442911).jpg
Osmunda claytoniana nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NPT Can

Trop.



Images, wsp
Osmundasubg. Osmunda Flowering fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray

1810. Osmunda spectabilis Willd.
1856. Osmunda regalis var. spectabilis
1977. Osmunda regalis ssp. spectabilis
Royal fern,
Regal fern,
Flowering fern
Osmonde royale,
Fougère royale
Native, C:6,
Secure,
DEC-D[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Osmunda regalis 07.JPG
Osmunda regalis var spectabilis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
Can
ARS 




Images, wsp

Order Hymenophyllales[edit | edit source]

Crepidomanes intricatum
The order Hymenophyllales contains a single family, the Hymenophyllaceae, or filmy fern family.

Family Hymenophyllaceae[edit | edit source]

Crepidomanes intricatum
In New York, only one species of this family has been verified as living outside of cultivation, and that species is considered to be endangered in the state.

Crepidomanes[edit | edit source]

Crepidomanes intricatum
The only member of the Hymenophyllaceae found in New York is a gametophitic weft fern Crepidomanes intricatum, which was transferred from Trichomanes to the mostly Asian Crepidomanes genus by Ebihara & Weakley (2011) based on molecular sequence. Crepidomanes intricatum is assumed to be gametophitic only. Sporophitic generations of this plant have not been observed.[1][2]
Hymenophyllales — Hymenophyllaceae — Crepidomanes
Crepidomanes Grotto felt N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley

1992. Trichomanes intricatum Farrar
2011. Crepidomanes intricatum
(Farrar) Ebihara & Weakley
Appalachian bristle fern,
Appalachian trichomanes,
Filmy fern,
Weft fern
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]
Trichomanes intricatum2-BobKlips.jpg
Crepidomanes intricatum nymap.svg
Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Greene, Schoharie, Sullivan, Ulster, Westchester
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NPT 
ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Order Schizaeales[edit | edit source]

The order Schizaeales contains the seemingly dissimilar families Anemiaceae (flowering ferns), Lygodiaceae (climbing ferns), and Schizaeaceae (curly-grass ferns). A single endangered species in each of the latter two families are present in New York.

Family Lygodiaceae[edit | edit source]

Lygodium palmatum
The Lygodiaceae (climbing-fern family) consists of the single genus Lygodium, which in New York, is represented by the endangered American climbing fern. No other Lygodium species are native to North America, and some have been found to be invasive in the southern U.S.[1]

Lygodium[edit | edit source]

Lygodium palmatum
The genus Lygodium contains about 40 species of climbing ferns, the only one of which is found in New York (and the only North American native) is the endangered American climbing fern or Hartford fern (Lygodium palmatum). It grows in moist acidic thickets and woods.
Schizaeales — Lygodiaceae — Lygodium
Lygodium Climbing fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Bernh.) Sw.

1800. Gisopteris palmata Bernh.
1806. Lygodium palmatum (Bernh.) Sw.
American climbing fern,
Creeping fern,
Hartford fern,
Windsor fern
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Lygodium palmatum NRCS-010.jpg
Lygodium palmatum nymap.svg
Chenango, Greene, Oneida, Onondaga, Saratoga, Suffolk
NYFA-1
USDA-N0


FNA 



Images, wsp

Family Schizaeaceae[edit | edit source]

The Schizaeaceae (curly-grass family)...

Schizaea[edit | edit source]

Schizaeales — Schizaeaceae — Schizaea
SchizaeaSm. Curlygrass fern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Pursh

1814. Schizaea pusilla Pursh
    
    
Curlygrass,
Curly-grass fern,
Little curlygrass fern
Native, C:9,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-fern
Schizaea pusilla 2x3.jpg
Schizaea pusilla nymap.png
NYFA-1
USDA-N


FNA 



Images, wsp

Order Salviniales[edit | edit source]

The order Salviniales (the heterosporous or water ferns) contains the families Salviniaceae (mosquitoferns) and Marsileaceae (waterferns), which have few species represented in New York.

Family Salviniaceae[edit | edit source]

The family Salviniaceae contains the aquatic fern genera Azolla and Salvinia.

Azolla[edit | edit source]

Azolla cristata, mosquito fern
Azolla (mosquito ferns) have previously been placed in their own family, the Azollaceae. The taxonomy of the New World Azolla species has been in dispute - four species have been reported in the literature: A. caroliniana, A. filiculoides, A. mexicana and A. microphylla, but Evrard and Van Hove (2004) concluded that only two species exist in America and, according to the priority rule for nomenclature, they should be named A. cristata and A. filiculoides.[1][2] Azolla filiculoides has been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.
  1. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Evrard and Hove (2004) provide evidence that the correct name for this taxon is A. cristata and that A. caroliniana, which has been misapplied to A. cristata, is a true synonym of A. filiculoides."
  2. C. Evrard & C. Van Hove (2004) Taxonmy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a critical review Systematics and Geography of Plants 74:301-318
Salviniales — Salviniaceae — Azolla sect. Azolla
Azollasect. Azolla Mosquitofern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Kaulf.

1824. Azolla cristata Kaulf.
1827. Azolla portoricensis Spreng.
1830. Azolla mexicana
Schltdl. & Cham. nom. nud.
1844. Azolla mexicana
Schltdl. & Cham. ex Kunze
1845. Azolla mexicana
Schltdl. & Cham. ex C.Presl
 auct. Azolla caroliniananon Willd.
 auct. Azolla filiculoidesnon Lam.
Mosquito fern,
Carolina mosquitofern,
Eastern mosquito-fern,
Fairy-moss,
Mosquito-plant
Azolle de Caroline,
Azolla de Caroline
Native, C:2,
Threatened,
DEC-D[1]

OBL

Annual,
Herb-fern
Azolla caroliniana 2x3.jpg
Azolla cristata nymap.png
NYFA-2?
USDA-NX
NPT Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: [2][3]
Azolla (excluded taxa) Mosquitofern N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Lam.

1783. Azolla filiculoides Lam.
1810. Azolla caroliniana Willd.
1810. Azolla magellanica Willd.
1824. Azolla microphylla Kaulf.
1827. Azolla arbuscula Desv.
Pacific mosquitofern,
Pacific azolla,
Fern azolla,
Large mosquito fern,
Duckweed fern,
Redwater fern
Azolle fausse-filicule,
Azolla fausse-filicule
N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
AzollaFiliculoidesProfilDetail.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NX
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
  1. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Regulation §193.3, Protected Native Plants, (d) Exploitably vulnerable.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Evrard and Hove (2004) provide evidence that the correct name for this taxon is A. cristata and that A. caroliniana, which has been misapplied to A. cristata, is a true synonym of A. filiculoides."
  3. C. Evrard & C. Van Hove (2004) Taxonmy of the American Azolla species (Azollaceae): a critical review Systematics and Geography of Plants 74:301-318

Salvinia[edit | edit source]

Salvinia minima
The two species of Salvinia previously reported in New York have been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas as of 9/18/2016.[1]

The genus Salvinia (watermoss) contains mostly tropical, aquatic ferns. S. minima, mistakenly reported as S. natans has been reported from ponds on Staten Island and Rockland County, but these may have been aquarium escapes, as this genus is unlikely to be able to naturalize that far north.[2]

DEC regulation 193.3 Protected native plants, lists Salvinia minima as Exploitably vulnerable,[3] even though it is a Central and South American native that is considered to be invasive in the southeastern U.S.[4]


Salviniales — Salviniaceae — Salvinia
SalviniaSeg. (excluded species) Watermoss N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Baker

1886. Salvinia minima Baker
 auct. Salvinia natansnon (L.) All.
 auct. Salvinia rotundifolianon Willd.
Floating-fern,
Water-fern,
Water spangles,
Common watermoss
Introduced from
 South America,
 southern Mexico,
N.Y. excluded,
DEC-D[1],
(Exploitably vulnerable‽)
Salvinia minima kz02.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
NPT 
ARS 




Images, wsp

1753. Marsilea natans L.
1785. Salvinia natans (L.) All.
Floating watermoss Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northen Africa,
N.Y. excluded,
Old World native
Atlas roslin pl Salwinia pływająca 3990 7859.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
excluded
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X

ARS 




Images, wsp
Note: [2]
  1. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) Regulation §193.3, Protected Native Plants, (d) Exploitably vulnerable.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas states: "Most likely all New York material previously referred to as Salvinia natans is actually S. minima."

Family Marsileaceae[edit | edit source]

The Marsileaceae (water-clover family) has a single species (Marsilea quadrifolia) surviving outside of cultivation in New York.

Marsilea[edit | edit source]

Marsilea quadrifolia,
European water-clover
Although fairly rare, European water-clover can have large local populations and is considered to be potentially invasive in the Finger Lakes and Lower Hudson Valley.[1][2] According to the USDA-NRCS PLANTS database, Marsilea quadrifolia is native to parts of Ontario, Canada,[3] but other sources list it as only a European native.[4][5]
Salviniales — Marsileaceae — Marsilea
Marsilea Waterclover N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

European water-clover,
European water fern,
Water shamrock,
European pepperwort
Marsilée à quatre feuilles,
Marsile à quatre feuilles
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 45%[1]
Marsilea quadrifolia kz03 (cropped).jpg
Marsilea quadrifolia nymap.svg
Cayuga, Niagara, Orange, Seneca, Tompkins, Ulster
NYFA-X
USDA-XN‽
NPT Can
ARS 
FNA 



Images, wsp