Flora of New York/Boraginales

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Solanales
Flora of New York — Boraginales
Lamiales 1
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Family Boraginaceae[edit | edit source]

The Boraginaceae (forget-me-not family)...

Subfamily Boraginoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Eritrichieae[edit | edit source]

Hackelia[edit | edit source]
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Eritrichieae — Hackelia
Genus HackeliaOpiz Stickseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) I.M.Johnst.

1753. Myosotis virginiana L.
1818. Echinospermum virginicum (L.) Lehm.
1819. Rochelia virginiana (L.) Roem.& Schult.
1888. Echinospermum Virginianum
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
1891. Lappula Virginiana (L.) Greene
1891. Cynoglossospermum virginicm
(L.) Kuntze
1923. Hackelia virginiana (L.) I.M.Johnst.
Virginia stickseed,
Beggars lice,
Stickseed
Hackélia de Virginie,
Hackélie de Virginie,
Bardanette de Virginie
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACU

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 (Wahlenb.) Opiz
ssp. americana
(A. Gray) Á.Löve & D.Löve

1882. Echinospermum deflexum
var. americanum
1891. Lappula deflexavar. americana
1897. Lappula americana Rydb.
1924. H. deflexavar. americana
1938. H. americana Fernald
1975. Lappula deflexassp. americana
1982. H. deflexassp. americana
Nodding stickseed,
American stickseed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1

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Mertensia[edit | edit source]
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Eritrichieae — Mertensia
Genus Mertensia Bluebells N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Pers. ex Link

1753. Pulmonaria virginica L.
1797. Mertensia pulmonarioides Roth
1829. Mertensia virginica Pers. ex Link
Eastern bluebells,
Virginia bluebells,
Roanoke-bells,
Virginia cowslip
Mertensia de Virginie
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FAC-FACW

NYFA: 4

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Genus Mertensia (excluded taxa) Bluebells N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Ait.) G. Don.

    Mertensia paniculata (Ait.) G. Don.
Tall bluebells N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
NatureServe
BONAP
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(L.) Gray

    Mertensia maritima (L.) Gray
    Pneumaria maritima (L.) Hill
    
Oysterleaf
Oysterplant
Seaside bluebells ...
Sea bluebells

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Amsinckia[edit | edit source]
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Eritrichieae — Amsinckia
Genus Amsinckia Fiddleneck N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

A. menziesii var. intermedia
Coast fiddleneck,
Common fiddleneck,
Intermediate fiddleneck,
Rancher's fiddleneck,
Coast buckthorn
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: X

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 Lehm.

Bugloss fiddle-neck,
Tarweed fiddleneck
Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: X

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(Lehm.) A. Nelson & J.F.Macbr.

yyyy. Amsinckia menziesii
(Lehm.) A. Nelson & J.F.Macbr.
Small-flowered fiddleneck ...
Menzies' fiddleneck ...

Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Lappula[edit | edit source]
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Eritrichieae — Lappula
Genus Lappula Stickseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Retz.) Dumort.

1753. Myosotis lappula L.
1781. Myosotis squarrosa Retz.
1827. L. squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort.
European stickseed
Bluebur
Bur-forget-me-not
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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(S.Watson) Greene

1891. Lappula redowskii
(Hornem.) Greene misapplied
1895. L. redowskii  var. occidentalis  (S.Watson) Rydb.
1899. L. occidentalis
(S.Watson) Greene
Western stickseed
Flatspine stickseed
Flat-spined stickseed
Flat-spined sheepburr
Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Genus Lappula (excluded taxa) Stickseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Hornem.) Greene

1813. Myosotis redowskii Hornem.
1891. Lappula redowskii
(Hornem.) Greene
Redowski's stickseed

N. America native,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Asperugo[edit | edit source]
Asperugo is a monotypic genus, containing only Asperugo procumbens, commonly known as madwort.
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Eritrichieae — Asperugo
Genus AsperugoL. Madwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Madwort
German madwort
Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Tribe Boragineae[edit | edit source]

Anchusa[edit | edit source]
Anchusa arvensis

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Boragineae — Anchusa
Genus Anchusa Bugloss N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) M. Bieb.

1753. Lycopsis arvensis L.
1808. Anchusa arvensis (L.) M.Bieb.
1911. Lycopsis arvensis  ssp. occidentalis  Kusn.
1927. Anchusa rigolei Sennen
1928. Anchusa guculeacii Sennen
1940. Anchusa arvensis  ssp. occidentalis  (Kusn.) Nordh.
Small alkanet ...
Small bugloss ...
Annual bugloss
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Unknown naturalization

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
NYFA: 6 counties
iNat
no observations

USDA-XX
GBIF
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 Mill.

Anchusa italica
Garden alkanet ...
Italian bugloss ...
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

Common alkanet ...
Common bugloss
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
Unknown naturalization

NYFA: X
NYFA: 3 counties
0 counties

USDA-XX
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Borago[edit | edit source]
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Boragineae — Borago
Genus Borago Borage N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Borago officinalis L.
Borage ...
Common borage ...
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Unknown naturalization

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Brunnera[edit | edit source]
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Boragineae — Brunnera
Genus Brunnera Brunnera N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (Adams) I.Johnst.

Large-leaved brunnera,
Siberian bugloss
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-X0
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Pulmonaria[edit | edit source]
Pulmonaria saccharata

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Boragineae — Pulmonaria
Genus Pulmonaria Lungwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 Mill.

Bethlehem lungwort Introduced,
Unknown naturalization,
 Invasive.org: [1],
 GRIIS-US: Present

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
GBIF
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Symphytum[edit | edit source]
Symphytum officinale
common comfrey

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Boragineae — Symphytum
Genus Symphytum Comfrey N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

S. uliginosum auct. non Kern.
Common comfrey Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Lepechin

Prickly comfrey Introduced

NYFA: X

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Tribe Lithospermeae[edit | edit source]

Lithospermum[edit | edit source]
John Torrey's Flora of the State of New York Volume 2, plate 8
Lithospermum species are generally known as gromwells, stoneseeds, or puccoons.
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Lithospermeae — Lithospermum
Genus Lithospermum Stoneseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

American gromwell,
American stoneseed
Native, CoC: 8,
Vulnerable,
S2, G4

NYFA: 3
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Weakley, Witsell & D.Estes

1905. Onosmodium hispidissimum Mack.
1959. O. molle  var. hispidissimum  (Mack.) Cronquist
1972. O. molle  ssp. hispidissimum  (Mack.) B.Boivin
1976. O. molle  ssp. hispidissimum  (Mack.) Cochrane (isonym)
1995. O. bejariense  var. hispidissimum  (Mack.) B.L. Turner
2009. Lithospermum onosmodiumin…
2011. Lithospermum parviflorumin…
Shaggy marbleseed ...
Soft-hairy false gromwell ...
Hairy false gromwell
Shaggy false gromwell
Soft-hair marbleseed ...

Native, CoC: 10,
Historical,
SH, G4-G5-T4

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3-4

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Note: [1]
 L.

1753. Lithospermum virginianum L.
1846. Onosmodium virginianum A.DC.
1905. O. virginianumvar. hirsutum Mack.
Virginia marbleseed ...
Virginia false gromwell
Wild Job's tears
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S1, G4,
NYNHP: 1[2]

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1

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Note: [1]
 Fernald

1791. Batschia caroliniensis J.F. Gmel.
1892. Lithospermum caroliniensein…
1935. Lithospermum croceum Fernald
1991. L. caroliniense  var. croceum  (Fernald) Cronquist
    L. caroliniense  ssp. croceum  (Fernald) Cusick
Fernald’s puccoon
Carolina puccoon
Plains puccoon

Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
SH, G4-G5-T5

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Monroe, Niagara
NYFA: Z

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 L.

European gromwell,
European stoneseed
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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Genus Lithospermum (excluded taxa) Stoneseed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) Lehm.

    Batschia canescens Michx.
    Lithospermum canescensin…
Hoary puccoon North America native,
N.Y. excluded
excluded
NYFA-Excluded

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  1. a b In 2011, because Onosmodium was found to be embedded within Lithospermum, Alan S. Weakley, et. al. transfered the species of Onosmodium to (in some cases back to) Lithospermum.J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 5(2): 437 – 455. 2011
  2. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2024. Online Conservation Guide for Lithospermum virginianum. Endangered, S1/Gx.
Myosotis[edit | edit source]
Myosotis laxa
Of the seven forget-me-not (Myosotis L.) species reported in New York State, two of them (M. laxa and M. verna) are native.

The genus name is from the Greek muosōtis meaning "mouse ear", based on the shape of the leaves.

Forget-me-not flowers have 5 petals and 5 sepals, and are generally little more than 1/4-inch in diameter.


Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Lithospermeae — Myosotis
Genus MyosotisL. Forget-me-not N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lehm.

1818. Myosotis laxa Lehm.
Smaller forget-me-not ...
Bay forget-me-not ...
Small forget-me-not ...
Small-flowered forget-me-not ...
Tufted forget-me-not ...

Myosotis laxiflore
Myosotis à petite fleur
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

OBL

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Nutt.

1818. Myosotis verna Nutt.
1888. Myosotis virginica (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
Spring forget-me-not ...
Spring scorpion grass ...

Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Myosotis scorpioides L.
1753. Myosotis scorpioides  var. palustris  L.
1756. Myosotis palustris (L.) Nathh.
Water forget-me-not ...
True forget-me-not ...
Forget-me-not ...

Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
Invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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 (L.) Hill

1753. Myosotis scorpioides  var. arvensis  L.
1764. Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill
Field forget-me-not,
Rough forget-me-not
Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

FACU-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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 Ehrh. ex Hoffm.

1788. Myosotis scorpioides  var. sylvatica  Ehrh. nom. nud.
1791. Myosotis sylvatica Ehrh. ex Hoffm.
1794. Myosotis alpestris F.W.Schmidt
1825. Myosotis oblongata Link
Woodland forget-me-not
Wood forget-me-not ...
Garden forget-me-not ...

Introduced from
 Europe,
 temperate Asia,
 tropical Asia,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [3],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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 Link ex Roem. & Schult.

1819. Myosotis stricta Link ex Roem. & Schult.
 auct. Myosotis micrantha non Pall. ex Lehm.
Blue forget-me-not ...
Small-flowered forget-me-not
Strict forget-me-not ...
Upright forget-me-not ...

Introduced from
 Europe,
 northwest Africa,
Naturalized,
 USGS: L48 established,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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 Pers.

1791. Myosotis collina Hoffm.
1798. Myosotis discolor Pers.
1805. Myosotis arvensis  var. versicolor  Pers.
1813. Myosotis versicolor (Pers.) Sm.
1857. Myosotis fallacina Jord. ex Boreau
1917. Myosotis lutea  var. versicolor  (Pers.) J.F.Macbr.
Yellow and blue forget-me-not ...
Changing forget-me-not ...

Introduced from
 Europe,
 Azores to Medit.,
Potentially invasive,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA

UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
NYFA: 4 counties
3 counties

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Buglossoides[edit | edit source]
Buglossoides arvensis
Buglossoides is a Eurasian genus with only the single species corn gromwell (Buglossoides arvensis) known to have naturalized in North America, including New York. It is listed as a noxious weed in Washington State.[1]

Other Buglossoides species, including B. purpurocaerulea, B. tenuiflora, and B. zollingeri, have likely been cultivated in North America, but have not been widely reported to have naturalized.[2]


Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Lithospermeae — Buglossoides
Genus BuglossoidesMoench (1782) Buglossoides N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) I.M.Johnst.

1753. Lithospermum arvense L.
1829. Rhytispermum arvense (L.) Link
1840. Margarospermum arvense (L.) Decne.
1952. Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M.Johnst.
Corn gromwell ...
Corn-gromwell ...

Introduced from
 Europe,
 Asia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [4],
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
NYFA: 34 counties
3 counties

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Tribe Cynoglosseae[edit | edit source]

Andersonglossum[edit | edit source]
Andersonglossum boreale
northern wild comfrey

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Cynoglosseae — Andersonglossum
Genus Cynoglossum Hound's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Fernald) Jim. Mejías, J.I.Cohen & Naczi

1905. Cynoglossum boreale Fernald
1984. C. virginianumvar. boreale
2010. C. virginianumssp. boreale
2017. Andersonglossum boreale
(Fernald) Jim. Mejías, J.I.Cohen & Naczi
Northern wild comfrey,
Wild hound's-tongue,
Wild comfrey
Native, CoC: 8,
Endangered

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1-2

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Note: CA[1]
 L.

1753. Cynoglossum virginianum L.
1984. C. virginianumvar. virginianum
2010. C. virginianumssp. virginianum
2015. Andersonglossum virginianum
(L.) J.I.Cohen
Southern wild comfrey,
Southern hound's-tongue,
Wild comfrey,
Giant-forget-me-not
Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Z

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Cynoglossum[edit | edit source]
Cynoglossum officinale
common hound’s tongue

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Cynoglosseae — Cynoglossum
Genus Cynoglossum Hound's-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1753. Cynoglossum officinale L.
Houndstongue,
Common hound’s tongue
Introduced,
Potentially invasive

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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1906. Cynoglossum amabile
Stapf & J.R. Drumm.
Chinese hound's tongue,
Chinese-forget-me-not
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Tribe Echieae[edit | edit source]

Echium[edit | edit source]
Echium vulgare
common viper's bugloss

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Boraginoideae — Echieae — Echium
Genus Echium Viper's bugloss N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Echium vulgare L.
1800. Echium lusitanicum Georgi
1831. Echium molle Petter ex Rchb.
1962. Echium spinescens G.Klotz
Viper's bugloss ...
Common viper's-bugloss ...
Blueweed
Blue-weed
Blue devil
blue echium ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [5],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
iNat

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Genus Echium (excluded taxa) Viper's bugloss N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
L.
ssp. pustulatum (Sm.) E.Schmid & Gams

1806. Echium pustulatum Sm.
1887. Echium argentae Pau
1927. Echium vulgare  ssp. pustulatum  (Sm.) E.Schmid & Gams
1950. Echium vulgare  ssp. argentae  (Pau) Font Quer
1983. Echium vulgare  var. argentae  (Pau) O.Bolòs & Vigo
Bluedevil,
Blue-weed,
Viper's-bugloss
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA: X

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 L.

1754. Echium lycopsis L. p.p.
1768. Echium lusitanicum Mill.
1771. Echium plantagineum L.
1791. Echium creticum Lam.
1976. Echium creticum  ssp. plantagineum  (L.) Malag.
Salvation jane
Paterson's curse
Lady Campbell-weed ...
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

iNat

USDA-X
GBIF
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L.

1753. Echium creticum L.
Cretan viper's bugloss ...
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Not listed in NY Flora Atlas

NYFA: Not listed
iNat
No NY observations

GBIF
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Subfamily Hydrophylloideae[edit | edit source]

Hydrophyllum[edit | edit source]

Hydrophyllum virginianum
Virginia waterleaf
Hydrophyllum contains eight species of waterleaf, all native to North America, including two that are native to New York.
Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Hydrophylloideae — Hydrophyllum
Genus Hydrophyllum Waterleaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. virginianum

1753. Hydrophyllum virginianum L.
1942. H. virginianumvar. atranthum
Virginia waterleaf,
John's cabbage,
Eastern water-leaf,
Shawnee-salad,
Indian-salad
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1759. Hydrophyllum canadense L.
Bluntleaf waterleaf,
Blunt-leaved waterleaf,
Broad-leaf waterleaf,
Canada waterleaf,
Hairy waterleaf,
Maple-leaved waterleaf
Hydrophylle du Canada
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACW-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Genus Hydrophyllum (excluded taxa) ' N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT

    
    
    
Great waterleaf ...

N. America native
 midwest & south,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

Images
Wikispecies

Ellisia[edit | edit source]

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Hydrophylloideae — Ellisia
Genus Ellisia Ellisia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) L.

1753. Ipomoea nyctelea L.
1762. Polemonium nyctelea L.
1763. Ellisia nyctelea L.
1913. Nyctelea nyctelea Britton
Waterpod,
Aunt Lucy,
False babyblueeyes,
Nyctelea
Native, CoC: 10,
Likely extirpated

FAC-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Z

USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies

Phacelia[edit | edit source]

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Hydrophylloideae — Phacelia
Genus Phacelia Scorpion-weed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Trel. & Small
var. dubia

1753. Polemonium dubium L.
1888. Phacelia dubia Trel. & Small
Small-flowered scorpionweed,
Smallflower phacelia
Native,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: Z

USDA-N0
Go Botany-0
ITIS
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
 A.Gray

1878. Phacelia campanularia A.Gray
1925. Phacelia minor
var. campanularia Jeps.
Desert scorpion-weed,
Desert bluebells,
California bluebell
Introduced,
from Arizona,
from California

NYFA: X

USDA-NX
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies
 Benth.

1835. Phacelia ciliata Benth.
Great valley scorpion-weed,
Great valley phacelia
Introduced,
from California

NYFA: X

USDA-N0
Tropicos
Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily Heliotropioideae[edit | edit source]

Heliotropium[edit | edit source]

Heliotropium europaeum
European heliotrope

Boraginales — Boraginaceae — Heliotropioideae — Heliotropium
Genus Heliotropium Heliotrope N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

European heliotrope
Héliotrope d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
 Australia (?),
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

USDA-X0
Images
Wikispecies
Genus Heliotropium (excluded taxa) Heliotrope N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. curassavicum

Licorice-weed,
Salt heliotrope,
Seaside heliotrope
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Indian heliotrope,
Indian turnsole
Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-X0
Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Garden heliotrope Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-X0
Images
Wikispecies