Flora of New York/Cornales

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Caryophyllales 3
Flora of New York — Cornales
Ericales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Cornales introduction[edit | edit source]

The Cornales Dumortier includes the families: Cornaceae, Curtisiaceae, Grubbiaceae, Hydrangeaceae, Hydrostachyaceae, Loasaceae, and Nyssaceae. [1][2]
Cornales

Hydrangeaceae

Loasaceae

Hydrostachyaceae

Nyssaceae

Grubbiaceae

Curtisiaceae

Cornaceae


Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
Cornales Hydrangeaceae Hydrangeoideae Philadelpheae Deutzia pride of Rochester 1
Philadelphus mock orange 3
Hydrangeae Hydrangea hydrangea 3
Decumaria (excluded) X
Cornaceae Cornus dogwood 13
Nyssaceae Nyssa tupelo 1

Family Hydrangeaceae[edit | edit source]

The Hydrangeaceae (hydrangea family) has about nine species in four genera growing outside of cultivation. Many of these are native to the southeastern United States, but have been introduced in northern states and Canada.

Subfamily Hydrangeoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Philadelpheae[edit | edit source]

Philadelphus[edit | edit source]
Philadelphus coronarius

Cornales — Hydrangeaceae — Hydrangeoideae — Philadelpheae — Philadelphus
Philadelphus Mock orange N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Philadelphus inodorus L.
1794. Syringa inodora Moench
1809. Philadelphus grandiflorus Willd.
1856. P. inodorus var. grandiflorus Willd.
1902. Philadelphus floridus Beadle[1]
1902. Philadelphus gloriosus Beadle
Scentless mock orange
Florida mock orange
Beadle's mockorange
Few-flower mock orange

Seringa inodore
Philadelphe de Beadle
Seringat de Beadle
Seringa très fleuri
Introduced from
 southeastern US,
US South native,
Occasionally naturalized

Perennial,
Shrub
Edwards's botanical register (Plate 39) (7949449384).jpg
Philadelphus inodorus nymap.svg
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 Loisel.

1820. Philadelphus pubescens Loisel.
1828. Philadelphus latifolius Schrad. ex DC.
Hoary mock-orange,
Hairy mock-orange,
Broadleaf mock-orange
Seringa à grandes feuilles
Introduced from
 south-central US,
US South native

Perennial,
Shrub
Philadelphus pubescens 01 (3x4).jpg
Philadelphus pubescens nymap.svg
Orange, Ulster
NYFA-X
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 L.

1753. Philadelphus coronarius L.
1896. Philadelphus caucasicus Koehne
European mock orange
European mock-orange
Sweet mock-orange
Sweet mock orange
Philadelphia mock-orange
English dogwood

Seringat des jardins
Seringa commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Shrub
2020-05-23 08 48 01 English Dogwood flowers along Wisteria Way in the Franklin Glen section of Chantilly, Fairfax County, Virginia.jpg
Philadelphus coronarius nymap.svg
Bronx, Broome, Delaware, Dutchess, Madison, Nassau, New York, Niagara, Orange, Otsego, Queens, Rensselaer, Rockland, Schenectady, Suffolk, Ulster, Westchester
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  1. The NY Flora Atlas previously included P. floridus as a separate species listed only in Greene County, but has since merged in into P. inodorus. NatureServe Explorer indicates that Philadelphus floridus "may prove to be only a form of P. inodorus (Weakley 1996)", although it was "accepted by Kartesz (1999) as a Georgia endemic."
Deutzia[edit | edit source]
Cornales — Hydrangeaceae — Hydrangeoideae — Philadelpheae — Deutzia
Deutzia Pride-of-Rochester N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Thunb.

1784. Deutzia scabra Thunb.
1835. Deutzia crenata Siebold & Zucc.
1867. Deutzia sieboldiana Maxim.
1905. D. sieboldiana var. dippeliana
C.K.Schneid.
    D. scabra var. candidissima Rehder
Fuzzy deutzia,
Fuzzy pride-of-Rochester
Introduced from
 Japan,
IO

Perennial,
Shrub
Zylistek szorstki.JPG
Deutzia scabra nymap.svg
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Tribe Hydrangeae[edit | edit source]

Hydrangea[edit | edit source]
Hydrangea arborescens
There are four species of Hydrangea native to eastern North America. Of these only Hydrangea arborescens (wild hydrangea) is native as far north as New York, which is at the northern limit of the natural range of the species. Wild hydrangea is ranked as Threatened (S2) in New York and has probably always been rare in the state. Historically there have only been ten known sites for wild hydrangea, most of these along the Pennsylvania border, on forested slopes of upper headwater ravines or on ledges.[1] Popular cultivars of wild hydrangea include 'Annabelle' and 'Grandiflora'.

Both Hydrangea arborescens and the Asian species Hydrangea paniculata (panicled hydrangea) are commonly planted but rarely naturalize in New York State.[2]


  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2021. Online Conservation Guide for Hydrangea arborescens, acc. July 19, 2021.
  2. Michael Hough (2019). "Hydrangea." Flora of Cortland and Onondaga Counties, New York, p. 292.
Cornales — Hydrangeaceae — Hydrangeoideae — Hydrangeae — Hydrangea
Hydrangea Hydrangea N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Hydrangea arborescens L.
1768. Viburnum americanum Mill.
1785. Viburnum alnifolium Marshall
1840. Hydrangea arborescens
var. oblonga Torr. & A.Gray
1840. Hydrangea arborescens
var. sterilis Torr. & A.Gray
Wild hydrangea
American hydrangea
Smooth hydrangea
Sevenbark
Sheep flower

Native, CoC: 7,
Threatened,
S2, G5,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
Hydrangea arborescens HabitusInflorescencesLeaves BotGardBln0906b.JPG
Hydrangea arborescens NY-dist-map.png
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Panicle hydrangea,
Panicled hydrangea
Hortensia paniculé
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized
Hydrangea paniculata in Japan.jpg
Hydrangea paniculata NY-dist-map.png
Nassau, Orange, Rensselaer, Rockland
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D. Don

Himalayan hydrangea Introduced,
Not naturalized
Hydrangea heteromalla flower.jpg
Nymap.svg
Bronx
NYFA-X

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Wikispecies
Hydrangea (excluded taxa) Hydrangea N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Small

1830. H. arborescens var. discolor
1898. H. cinerea Small
1921. H. arborescens var. deamii
1956. H. arborescens ssp. discolor
Ashy hydrangea N. America native,
N.Y. excluded
Hydrangea cinerea drawing.png
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
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 W.Bartram

1791. Hydrangea quercifolia W.Bartram
1791. Hydrangea radiata Sm. non Walter
Oakleaf hydrangea Introduced,
US South native,
No specimens

Perennial,
Shrub
Hydrangea quercifolia - Floraison.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N
NatureServe
BONAP

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Decumaria[edit | edit source]
Cornales — Hydrangeaceae — Hydrangeoideae — Hydrangeae — Decumaria
Decumaria Woodvamp N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1763. Decumaria barbara L.
Climbing hydrangea,
Woodvamp,
Wood-vamp
Introduced from
 southeast Virginia south,
US South native

OBL

Perennial,
Woody vine
Decumaria barbara3.JPG
Decumaria barbara NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Family Nyssaceae[edit | edit source]

The Nyssaceae (the tupelo family) has also been treated a subfamily of the Cornaceae, including as recently as the APG III system (2009). The APG IV system (2016) treats them as separate families within the Cornales.

Nyssa[edit | edit source]

The genus Nyssa is here included in the Nyssaceae family within Cornales.
Cornales — Nyssaceae — Nyssa
Nyssa Tupelo N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Nyssa sylvatica Marshall
1787. Nyssa multiflora Wangenh.
1798. Nyssa caroliniana Poir.
1935. N. sylvatica var. caroliniana Fernald
1935. N. sylvatica var. dilatata Fernald
1935. N. sylvatica var. typica Fernald
Blackgum,
Black-gum,
Black gum,
Black tupelo,
Sourgum,
Sour-gum,
Pepperidge
Nyssa sylvestre,
Gommier noir,
Gommier jaune
Native,
Secure
Nyssa sylvatica 22zz.jpg
Nyssa sylvatica NY-dist-map.png
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Family Cornaceae[edit | edit source]

The Cornaceae (dogwood family) has about a dozen, mostly native taxa represented outside of cultivation in New York.

Cornus[edit | edit source]

The genus Cornus (the dogwoods) are here organized by the subgenera used by VASCAN[1] and FNA[2] for this genus. The subgenera are further placed into two groups based on the general fruit color, which has been shown to fairly reflect the phylogenic relationship within this genus.[3][4]
Cornus
BW
subg. Kraniopsis

C. rugosa (round-leaved dogwood)

C. drummondii (rough-leaved dogwood)

C. racemosa (gray dogwood, red-panicled dogwood)

C. amomum ssp. amomum (silky dogwood)

C. amomum ssp. obliqua (narrow-leaved dogwood)

C. sericea (red-osier dogwood)

subg. MesomoraC. alternifolia (pagoda dogwood, alternate-leaved dogwood)

DW

subg. ArctocraniaCornus canadensis (bunchberry)

CC

subg. CornusC. mas (cornelian cherry)


BB

subg. SyncarpeaC. kousa (Japanese dogwood)



subg. CynoxylonC. florida (flowering dogwood)



  • BW -- Blue/White fruit clade (alt. genus Swida)
  • DW -- Dwarf dogwood clade (alt. genus Chamaepericlymenum)
  • CC -- Cornelian Cherry clade (alt. genus Cornus sensu stricto)
  • BB -- Big-Bract dogwoods (alt. genus Benthamidia)

Cornus with blue or white fruit[edit | edit source]

Cornus alternifolia
The dogwood taxa in the clade with blue or white fruit are sometimes placed in the genus Swida Opiz (1838).[1]
Cornus subg. Kraniopsis[edit | edit source]
Cornus subgenus Kraniopsis contains dogwoods with opposite-leaves, blue or white round fruits, open compound cymes, and minute bracts. There are about 30 species in this group worldwide, mostly in East Asia and North America, but a few are from Europe and South America. [1] Five species of subgenus Kraniopsis are native to New York.

Note that the Flora of North America treats subg. Kraniopsis as subg. Thelycrania "because C. S. Rafinesque (1838) apparently treated his new taxon as a genus, not a subgenus, and no publication validating the name at the subgeneric rank has been located."[2] Most other sources use Kraniopsis for this subgenus name.


Cornales — Cornaceae — Cornoideae — Cornus subg. Kraniopsis
Cornussubg. Kraniopsis Blue-fruit dogwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lam.

1786. Cornus racemosa Lam.
1789. C. paniculata L’Hér.
1964. C. foemina ssp. racemosa
1943. Swida racemosa Moldenke
1959. Thelycrania racemosa Tsitsin
Gray dogwood,
Panicled dogwood,
Red-panicled dogwood,
Northern swamp dogwood
Cornouiller à grappes
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Cornus racemosa (3266742099).jpg
Cornus racemosa NY-dist-map.png
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 L.
ssp. sericea

1771. Cornus sericea L.
1803. C. stolonifera Michx.
1890. C. baileyi J.M.Coult.& W.H.Evans
1903. C. alba var. coloradensis
1904. Swida stolonifera (Michx.) Rydb.
1909. C. stolonifera var. coloradensis
1910. C. alba ssp. stolonifera
1933. C. stolonifera var. baileyi
1967. C. alba var. baileyi
1967. C. alba var. interior
1987. Swida sericea Holub
2000. Swida alba ssp. stolonifera
Red-osier dogwood,
Red-rood dogwood,
Red-stem dogwood,
Red-twig dogwood,
American dogwood
Cornouiller stolonifère,
Cornouiller hart-rouge,
Hart-rouge
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Cornus sericea 0738.jpg
Cornus sericea ssp sericea NY-dist-map.png
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 Mill.
ssp. amomum

1768. Cornus amomum Mill.
1903. Swida amomum Small
1950. Thelycrania amomum Pojark.
Silky dogwood,
Silky cornel,
Red-willow
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
Cornus amomum 01.jpg
Cornus amomum ssp amomum NY-dist-map.png
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 Mill.
ssp. obliqua (Raf.) J.S.Wilson

1819. Cornus obliqua Raf.
1845. C. sericea var. schuetzeana
1899. C. purpusii Koehne
1934. C. amomum var. schuetzeana
1944. Swida obliqua Moldenke
1965. C. amomum ssp. obliqua
Narrow-leaved dogwood,
Narrowleaf silky dogwood,
Silky dogwood,
Swamp dogwood,
Pale dogwood
Cornouiller oblique
Native, CoC: 6,
Unranked,
SNR, G5T5
Cornus amomum subsp. obliqua kz01 (cropped).jpg
Cornus amomum ssp obliqua NY-dist-map.png
Chemung, Erie, Genesee, Jefferson, Ontario, Orleans, Oswego, Schenectady, Yates
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 Lam.

1786. Cornus rugosa Lam.
1789. Cornus circinata L'Hér.
1913. Swida circinata Small
1932. Swida rugosa Rydb.
1950. Thelycrania rugosa Pojark.
Roundleaf dogwood,
Round-leaf dogwood,
Round-leaved dogwood
Cornouiller rugueux
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

UPL

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Cornus rugosa 5474512-v.jpg
Cornus rugosa NY-dist-map.png
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 C.A.Mey.

1845. Cornus drummondii C.A.Mey.
1901. Cornus priceae Small
1903. Swida priceae Small
1950. Thelycrania priceae Pojark.
1960. Swida drummondii Soják
Rough-leaved dogwood,
Northern roughleaf dogwood,
Drummond's dogwood
Cornouiller de Drummond
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S1, G5,
NYNHP: 1[1]

FAC

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Cornus drummondii - detail of the flower cluster of the roughleaf dogwood.jpg
Cornus drummondii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
VASCAN

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 Rehder

Cornus rugosa ×
Cornus sericea

Slavin's dogwood Native,
Unranked,
SNA

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Ny hybrid.svg
Cornus × slavinii NY-dist-map.png
Monroe (1905-1915)
NYFA-H
USDA-NN

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Cornus amomum ×
Cornus racemosa

hybrid dogwood Native,
Unranked,
SNA

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
Monroe (1979)
NYFA-H

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Cornus subg. Mesomora[edit | edit source]
Cornus alternifolia
Cornus subgenus Mesomora contains dogwoods with alternate leaves, blue or white fruits, open compound cymes, and minute bracts. Besides the North American Cornus alternifolia (pagoda dogwood), the only other species in subgenus Mesomora is the Asian Cornus controversa (giant dogwood), which has not been known to naturalize in New York.
Cornales — Cornaceae — Cornoideae — Cornus subg. Mesomora
Cornussubg. Mesomora Alternate-leaf dogwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.f.

1782. Cornus alternifolia L.f.
1903. Swida alternifolia Small
1950. Bothrocaryum alternifolium
Pojark.
Alternate-leaf dogwood,
Pagoda dogwood,
Green osier
Cornouiller à feuilles alternes
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Alternate-leaved Dogwood (Cornus alternifolia) - Guelph, Ontario 2020-06-07 (02).jpg
Cornus alternifolia NY-dist-map.png
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Cornus with red fruit[edit | edit source]

Cornus canadensis
Bunchberries are sometimes placed in genus Chamaepericlymenum, while flowering dogwood may be placed in genus Benthamidia.
Cornaceae — Cornoideae — Cornus
Cornussubg. Arctocrania Dwarf dogwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Cornus canadensis L.
1784. Cornus herbacea var. canadensis
1899. Chamaepericlymenum canadense
Asch. & Graebn.[1]
1906. Cornella canadensis Rydb.
1909. Arctocrania canadensis Nakai
Bunchberry,
Pudding berry,
Crackerberry,
Dwarf cornel,
Canada dwarf-dogwood
Cornouiller quatre-temps,
Cornouiller du Canada
Native,
Likely secure

FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cornus canadensis 01.JPG
Cornus canadensis NY-dist-map.png
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Cornussubg. Cynoxylon Big-bract dogwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Cornus florida L.
1838. Cynoxylon floridum Raf.
1839. Benthamidia florida Spach [2]
1909. Benthamia florida Nakai
Flowering dogwood,
White dogwood,
Eastern flowering dogwood,
Big-bracted-dogwood
Cornouiller fleuri,
Cornouiller à fleurs,
Cornouiller de Floride
Native,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree,
Sun-shade
Dogwood Blossoms at Congressional Cemetery.jpg
Cornus florida NY-dist-map.png
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Cornussubg. Syncarpea Big-bract dogwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Hance

1873. Cornus kousa Hance
1830. Cornus japonica DC. nom. illeg.
1836. Benthamia japonica Siebold & Zucc.
1942. Dendrobenthamia japonica Hutch.
1948. Benthamidia japonica H.Hara [3]
Kousa dogwood,
Kousa big-bract-dogwood,
Japanese dogwood
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Not naturalized
Cornus kousa Dereń Kousa 2015 01.jpg
Cornus kousa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Cornussubg. Cornus Cornelian cherry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Cornus mas L.
1909. Macrocarpium mas (L.) Nakai
Cornelian cherry
Cornouiller mâle
Introduced from
 temperate Eurasia
20170313Cornus mas6.jpg
Cornus mas NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X-

Images
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  1. Flora Novae Angliae treats Cornus canadensis as Chamaepericlymenum canadense (L.) Asch. & Graebn.
  2. Flora Novae Angliae treats Cornus florida as Benthamidia florida (L.) Spach.
  3. Flora Novae Angliae treats Cornus kousa as Benthamidia japonica (Siebold & Zucc.) H.Hara.