Flora of New York/Ginkgoales, Pinales

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Polypodiales
Flora of New York — Pinales
Nymphaeales & magnoliids
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


This page contains the Gymnosperms of New York. This includes both the conifers (in the Pinales) and the seemingly dissimilar Ginkgo tree, the only extant member of the Ginkgoales.

Order Family Subfamily Genera Common names #
Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo maidenhair tree, ginkgo 1
Pinales Pinaceae Pinoideae (or) Pinoideae Pinus subg. Strobus soft pine 1
Pinus subg. Pinus hard pines 8
Piceoideae Picea spruce 5
Laricoideae Pseudotsuga Douglas-fir 1
Larix larch, tamarack 3
Abietoideae Tsuga hemlock 1
Abies fir (true firs) 4
Cupressaceae Taxodioideae Taxodium cypress 1
Cupressoideae Thuja arborvitae, white-cedar 1
Juniperus juniper, red-cedar 4
Chamaecyparis cedar, false cypress 2
Taxaceae Taxus yew 3

Order Ginkgoales[edit]

The order Ginkgoales contains a single existing species: Ginkgo biloba.

Family Ginkgoaceae[edit]

As the sole family of the Ginkgoales, Ginkgoaceae (the ginkgo family) contains Ginkgo biloba as the only extant species.[1]

Genus Ginkgo[edit]

The ginkgo, or maidenhair tree is widely planted worldwide, including New York state, but rarely escapes cultivation, and is unlikely to reach maturity as a naturalized tree in this region. This tree has been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.[2]

Ginkgoales – fam. Ginkgoaceae – genus Ginkgo
Ginkgo (excluded species) Maidenhair tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1771. Ginkgo biloba L.
1797. Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.
1824. Salisburia biloba Hoffmanns.
1826. Salisburia ginkgo (L.) Rich. nom.illeg.
1866. Pterophyllus salisburiensis J.Nelson
Ginkgo,
Maidenhair tree

Noyer du Japon,
Ginkgo biloba
Introduced from
 Asia,
Excluded
Samen des Gingko Oktober 2011.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
  1. Ginkgoaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. http://www.newyork.plantatlas.usf.edu/Excluded.aspx?id=744

Order Pinales[edit]

The order Pinales contains the conifers, or cone-bearing seed plants. In New York, this includes the three families Pinaceae (pine, fir, spruce, and larch), Cupressaceae (cypress, juniper, and arborviteae), and Taxaceae (yew).

Most of the Pinales are "evergreen," maintaining most of their foliage and its green color through the winter. The exception is the genus Larix (larch) in the Pinaceae. Larix trees are deciduous and lose their needle-like leaves in the winter. Most Pinales also have "needle-like" leaves, often referred to simply as needles. Though many are very flat needles, such as the yews, spruces, and firs. And most of the Cupressaceae leaves could be described as more "scale-like".

Family Pinaceae[edit]

The Pinaceae (pine family)...[1]

Subfamily Pinoideae[edit]

Genus Pinus[edit]

Pinus subg. Strobus[edit]
Pinus strobus

Subgenus Strobus contains the soft pines, only one of which is found in New York.

Pinus subg. Strobus sect. Quinquefoliae[edit]

The only member of the Quinquefoliae (white-pines) found outside of cultivation in New York is Pinus strobus (eastern white pine), and it has been collected from every county in the state. The members of this section normally have their needle-like leaves grouped in bundles (fascicles) of five, though some may occasionally be found in bundles of three or four.

The oldest living eastern white pine on record dates to the mid 16th century, and was found in Nelson Swamp, Madison County, in 1997.[2][3]

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Pinoideae – genus Pinussubg. Strobussect. Quinquefoliae
Pinussubg. Strobussect. Quinquefoliae Soft, white pines N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 L.

1753. Pinus strobus L.
1903. Strobus strobus (L.) Small
1932. P. strobus fo. prostrata
1940. P. strobus var. chiapensis
1964. P. chiapensis (Martínez) Andresen
Eastern white pine,
Northern white pine,
Weymouth pine (UK),
Soft pine

Pin blanc,
Pin strobus,
Pin du Lord Weymouth
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Round Lake Pinus strobus.jpg
Pinus strobus nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Note: SNA
Pinus rigida
Pinus subg. Pinus[edit]

Subgenus Pinus contains the hard pines, and has two sections represented in New York.

Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Trifoliae[edit]

The Trifoliae contains most of the North American hard pines, four of which are native to New York.

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Pinoideae – genus Pinussubg. Pinussect. Trifoliae
Pinussect. Trifoliaesubsect. Australes Hard pines:
southern yellow
N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 Mill.

1768. Pinus rigida Mill.
    
    
Pitch pine,
Northern pitch pine,
Torch pine,
Sap pine

Pin rigide,
Pin à feuilles rigides
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Pinus rigida Shawangunk Ridge.jpg
Pinus rigida nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
 Mill. (1768)

Shortleaf pine,
Short-leaved pine,
Arkansas pine,
Southern yellow pine
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

Perennial,
Tree
Pinus echinata conelet and leaves.jpg
Pinus echinata nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Pinussect. Trifoliaesubsect. Contortae Hard pines:
scrub pines
N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 Lamb.

1789. Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata
1803. Pinus banksiana Lamb.
1893. Pinus divaricata (Aiton) Sudw.
Jack pine, Scrub pine,
Banksian pine,
Black pine, Gray pine,
Hudson Bay pine

Pin gris,
Pin de Banks
Native, CoC: 9,
Rare

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Pinus banksiana closed cones.jpg
Pinus banksiana nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Note: SNA
 Mill.( 1768)

Virginia pine,
Scrub pine,
Jersey pine

Pin de Virginie
Native, CoC: 3,
Endangered,
NE-5[1]

Perennial,
Tree
Pinus virginiana Scrub Pine Branch 3200px.jpg
Pinus virginiana nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NX

ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: SNA
  1. Category 5 Plants - native invasives - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service (doubtfully invasive in New York, where it is considered to be endangered)
Pinus resinosa
Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Pinus[edit]

Section Pinus contains mostly Old-World hard pines, but it also includes the commercially important red pine (Pinus resinosa), which is native to North America, including New York.

The three other species of this section found in New York are non-native introductions. This group has needles in bundles of two.

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Pinoideae – genus Pinussubg. Pinussect. Pinus
Pinussubg. Pinussect. Pinus Hard pines N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Aiton

1789. Pinus resinosa Aiton
Red pine,
Norway pine[1]

Pin rouge,
Pin résineux
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Pinus resinosa cone.jpg
Pinus resinosa nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Note: SNA
 L.
var. sylvestris

1753. Pinus sylvestris L.
Scots pine,
Scotch pine,
Caledonian pine

Pin sylvestre,
Pin d'Écosse[2]
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
CP-5[3] WW
Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris).jpg
Pinus sylvestris var sylvestris nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp
Note: SNA
 J.F.Arnold

1785. Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold
1828. Pinus pallasiana Lamb.
1910. Pinus nigra
var. austriaca Asch. & Graebn.
1914. Pinus nigra
ssp. pallasiana Holmboe
Austrian pine,
European black pine

Pin noir,
Pin noir d'Autriche
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native
Pinus nigra cone Bad Voeslau.jpg
Pinus nigra nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Note: SNA
 Parl. (1868)

Japanese black pine Introduced,
Invasive,
NYIS: 59%[4],
NE-4[5]
Pinus thunbergii3.jpg
Pinus thunbergii nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Note: SNA
  1. Despite the fact that one of its vernacular names is "Norway pine," Pinus resinosa is native only to North America.
  2. Although "pin d'Écosse" is a literal translation of "Scots pine," "pin sylvestre" is more commonly used as the French vernacular name of Pinus sylvestris.
  3. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  4. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPinus thunbergii: Moderate (59).
  5. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Genus Picea[edit]

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Pinoideae – genus Picea
Picea Spruce N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Sarg.

1771. Pinus mariana var. rubra Du Roi
1831. Picea rubra Link
1879. Picea nigra var. rubra Engelm.
1898. Picea rubens Sarg.
1903. Picea australis Small
Red spruce

Épinette rouge
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Picea rubens UGA5349098.jpg
Picea rubens NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
(Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1768. Abies mariana Mill.
1770. Pinus abies var. mariana Münchh.
1785. Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold
1831. Picea nigra Link
1888. Picea mariana Britton, et al.
Black spruce,
Bog spruce,
Swamp spruce

Épinette noire,
Épinette à bière,
Épicéa marial,
Épicéa noir
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: FACW

Perennial,
Tree
Picea mariana cones.jpg
Picea mariana nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 (Moench) Voss

1768. Abies canadensis Mill.
1785. Pinus glauca Moench
1831. Picea alba (Aiton) Link
1897. Picea canadensis var. glauca
Sudw.
1907. Picea glauca Voss
White spruce,
Cat spruce,
Black Hills Spruce

Épinette blanche,
Épinette glauque,
Épicéa blanc,
Épicéa glauque
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Picea glauca UGA.jpg
Picea glauca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Engelm.

1879. Picea pungens Engelm.
1883. Picea pungens var. glauca Regel
1897. Picea parryana Sarg.
Blue spruce,
Colorado blue spruce,
Colorado spruce,
Silver spruce

Épinette de Colorado,
Épinette bleue,
Épicéa de Colorado
Introduced from
 U.S. Rocky Mts.

WL: FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Picea pungens male flos 2 beentree.jpg
Picea pungens nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 (L.) Karst.

1753. Pinus abies L.
1779. Pinus excelsa Lamb.
1842. Picea excelsa (Lamb.) Link
1881. Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.
Norway spruce,
White spruce

Épinette de Norvège,
Épicéa élevé,
Épicéa commun
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
CP-4[1][2]

Perennial,
Tree
Picea abies cones Lithuania.JPG
Picea abies nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

Genus Pseudotsuga[edit]

Although commonly called Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga trees are not true firs. The genus name means "false hemlock," but phylogenetically, Douglas firs are more often grouped in the Pinoideae with the pines, spruces and larches than with either the firs or hemlocks, which are placed in the Abietoideae. Recent studies, in fact, place Douglas fir closer to the larches, in the subfamily Laricoideae.[1]

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Pinoideae – genus Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga Douglas fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution
 (Mirb.) Franco
var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco

1884. Tsuga douglasii var. glauca Beissn.
1890. P. douglasii var. glauca Mayr
1897. P. taxifolia var. glauca Sudw.
1934. Pseudotsuga flahaultii Flous
1950. P. menziesii var. glauca Franco
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir,
Douglas-fir,
Blue Douglas-fir,
Colorado Douglas-fir,
Inland Douglas-fir

Douglas bleu,
Douglas de Menzies bleu
Introduced,
¿Naturalized?
Pseudotsuga menziesii 16996.JPG
Pseudotsuga menziesii nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Genus Larix[edit]

The larches (Larix spp.) are deciduous conifers. Of the three species found in New York, only the American larch or Tamarack is native. The European and Japanese larches occasionally naturalize near plantations and individuals that have been planted.

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Pinoideae – genus Larix
Larixsect. Larix Larch N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 (DuRoi) K.Koch

1771. Pinus laricina Du Roi
1803. Larix americana Michx.
1839. L. intermedia Lodd. ex J.Forbes
1873. L. laricina (Du Roi) K.Koch
1908. L. alaskensis W.Wight
1947. L. laricina var. alaskensis
2008. L. laricina ssp. alaskensis
Tamarack,
American larch,
Eastern larch,
Red larch,
Hackmatack,
Alaska larch

Mélèze laricin,
Épinette rouge,
Fausse épinette rouge
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

WL: FACW

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-153d Larix laricina.png
Larix laricina NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 Mill. (1768)

European larch Introduced from
 Europe,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Tree
Lärchenzapfen.jpg
Larix decidua NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 (Lam.) Carrière (1856)

Japanese larch Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Tree
Japanese Larch Larix Cone.JPG
Larix kaempferi NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XN

ARS 




Images, wsp

Subfamily Abietoideae[edit]

Genus Tsuga[edit]

Tsuga contains the hemlocks, of which, the only New York native is the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. Hemlocks in eastern North America are being decimated by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae).

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Abietoideae – genus Tsuga
Tsuga Hemlock N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Carrière

1763. Pinus canadensis L.
1842. Picea canadensis Link
1855. Tsuga canadensis Carrière
1862. Abies canadensis var. gracilis
Eastern hemlock,
Canadian hemlock,
Canada hemlock

Pruche du Canada,
Pruche de l'Est,
Tsuga du Canada
Native,
Secure
Tsuga canadensis foliagecones.jpg
Tsuga canadensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp

Genus Abies[edit]

The genus Abies contains the "true" firs. It does not include the Douglas-firs of the genus Pseudotsuga.

Pinales – fam. Pinaceae – subfam. Abietoideae – genus Abies
Abies Fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (L.) Mill.

1753. Pinus balsamea L.
1768. Abies balsamea Mill.
1770. Pinus abies var. balsamea
1810. Peuce balsamea Rich.
Balsam fir,
Canada balsam

Sapin baumier,
Sapin
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Abies balsamea pollen cones1.jpg
Abies balsamea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
(Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.

    
1833. Abies grandis
(Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl.
    
Grand fir,
Lowland white fir
Introduced from
 western N.A.,
No specimens
Abies grandis 5356.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
Abies (excluded species) Fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 A.Murray bis

1863. Abies magnifica A.Murray bis
1875. Picea magnifica Gordon
1876. Pseudotsuga magnifica
W.R.McNab
1876. Pinus magnifica W.R.McNab
California red fir,
Shasta red fir,
Red fir
Introduced from
 western US,
Excluded
Abies magnifica 8016t.jpg
Abies magnifica nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
 (Pursh) Poir.

    Pinus fraseri Pursh
    Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.
    
    
Fraser fir Introduced from
 western VA & NC,
Excluded
FraserFirFoliage.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
Siebold & Zucc.

    Abies homolepis Siebold & Zucc.
    
    
Nikko fir Introduced from
 Asia,
Excluded
Abies homolepis.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
(Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.

1858. Picea concolor Gordon & Glend.
1861. Abies concolor Lindl. ex Hildebr.
White fir,
Colorado white fir,
Silver fir,
Colorado fir,
Rocky Mountain white fir
Introduced from
 western US,
No specimens
Abies concolor 8065.jpg
Abies concolor nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 



Images, wsp

Family Cupressaceae[edit]

The Cupressaceae (cypress family)...[1]

Subfamily Taxodioideae[edit]

The Taxodioideae contains the three genera: Cryptomeria (1 Japanese species), Glyptostrobus (1 Asian species), and Taxodium (1-3 North American species).

Genus Taxodium[edit]

There are about three Taxodium taxa, all of which are native to southeastern North America. Of these, Taxodium distichum var. distichum has been collected in New York, mainly along the Hudson River and on Long Island. Whether it has truly naturalized in the state in uncertain.

Pinales – fam. Cupressaceae – subfam. Taxodioideae – genus Taxodium
Taxodium Cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution
 (L.) Rich.
var. distichum

1753. Cupressus disticha L.
1789. C. disticha var. nutans Aiton
1810. Taxodium distichum Rich.
1827. T. distichum var. nutans Sweet
1927. T. ascendens var. nutans Rehder
Baldcypress,
Bald cypress,
Swamp cypress
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Taxodium distichum cones J1.JPG
Taxodium distichum var distichum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
  1. Cupressaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Cupressoideae[edit]

Most of the Cupressoideae in New York go by the common names "cedar" or "juniper." But there is some resistance to calling any of them "cedar," as this could be seen to imply that they are of the Eurasian genus Cedrus, which does not have any naturalized populations in New York, and is normally included in the Pinaceae, not Cupressoideae. Instead, many prefer the common names "arborvitae" or "whitecedar" for Thuja occidentalis, and "red juniper" or "redcedar" for Juniperus virginiana.

Genus Thuja[edit]

Thuja (pronounced either thoo-juh or thoo-yuh) is Greek for juniper and other trees with aromatic wood.

Pinales – fam. Cupressaceae – subfam. Cupressoideae – genus Thuja
Thuja Arborvitae N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Thuja occidentalis L.
Eastern arborvitae,
Eastern white cedar,
Northern whitecedar,
Swamp cedar

Thuya occidental,
Cèdre,
Balai,
Cèdre blanc
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FACW-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Northern White Cedar cones (2974756142).jpg
Thuja occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp
Genus Juniperus[edit]
Pinales – fam. Cupressaceae – subfam. Cupressoideae – genus Juniperus
Juniperus Juniper N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.
var. virginiana

1753. Juniperus virginiana L.
1857. Sabina virginiana var. virginiana
Eastern red cedar,
Eastern redcedar,
Pencil cedar,
Virginia cedar,
Eastern juniper,
Red juniper

Genévrier de Virginie,
Genévrier rouge,
Cèdre rouge
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

WL: FAC-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Juniperus virginiana Maine.jpg
Juniperus virginiana var virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.
var. depressa Pursh

1787. J. canadensis Lodd. ex Burgsd.
1814. J. communis var. depressa
1818. J. depressa Raf.
1838. J. communis var. canadensis
1962. J. communis ssp. depressa
American common juniper,
Dwarf juniper,
Prostrate juniper,
Ground juniper

Genévrier commun déprimé,
Genévrier nain,
Genévrier du Canada
Native, CoC: 4,
Likely secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun
Juniperus communis var depressa 5.jpg
Juniperus communis var depressa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.
var. communis

1753. Juniperus communis L.
1768. J. suecica Mill.
1822. J. hemisphaerica C.Presl
1881. J. communis ssp. hemisphaerica
1887. J. communis fo. suecica
Eurasian ommon juniper,
Common juniper

Genévrier commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
No specimens

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Juniperus communis200509 060.jpg
Juniperus communis var communis nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-0
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Moench

1794. Juniperus horizontalis Moench
1807. J. prostrata Pers.
1814. J. sabina var. procumbens
1838. J. sabina var. humilis
1843. J. virginiana var. prostrata
1857. Sabina prostrata Antoine
1912. S. horizontalis Rydb.
Creeping juniper,
Trailing juniper,
Prostrate juniper,
Horizontal juniper,
Creeping savin

Genévrier horizontal,
Genévrier rampant,
Savinier
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub
JuniperBerry.jpg
Juniperus horizontalis nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA 

LBJ

Images, wsp
Genus Chamaecyparis[edit]
Pinales – fam. Cupressaceae – subfam. Cupressoideae – genus Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis False cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Cupressus thyoides L.
1888. Chamaecyparis thyoides
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
1962. Ch. henryae H.L.Li
1966. Ch. thyoides var. henryae
Atlantic white cedar,
Southern white cedar,
Atlantic white cypress
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Tree,
Part shade
NAS-152a Chamaecyparis thyoides.png
Chamaecyparis thyoides nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N
NEW Can-0
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.

1844. Retinospora obtusa
Siebold & Zucc.
1847. Chamaecyparis obtusa
(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.
1871. Cupressus obtusa
(Siebold & Zucc.) F. Muell.
Hinoki false cypress Introduced from
 Taiwan & Japan,
Excluded
Hafen Riesbach 2012-11-23 14-12-11 (P7700).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Excluded
USDA-X
NEW-0Can-0
ARS 
FoC 



Images, wsp

Family Taxaceae[edit]

The Taxaceae (yew family)...[1]

Genus Taxus[edit]

The American yew (Taxus canadensis) is the only Taxus species native to New York. The Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) and the English yew (Taxus baccata) are widely cultivated in New York and occasionally escape. The Japanese yew has been found to naturalize and has become common in the forests of some New York counties. Its invasive tendencies deserve monitoring.

Pinales – fam. Taxaceae – genus Taxus
Taxus Yew N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Marshall

1785. Taxus canadensis Marshall
1803. Taxus baccata var. minor Michx.
1856. Taxus baccata var. canadensis A.Gray
1894. Taxus minor Britton
1903. Taxus baccata ssp. canadensis Pilg.
2007. Taxus canadensis var. minor Spjut
American yew,
Canada yew,
Ground hemlock,
Shinwood

Buis de sapin,
L'if du Canada,
Sapin trainard
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure

WL: FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
CanadaYew.JPG
Taxus canadensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Note: WBA
 Siebold & Zucc.

1846. Taxus cuspidata Siebold & Zucc.
1867. Taxus baccata var. cuspidata
1903. Taxus baccata ssp. cuspidata
auctTaxus baccata non L.
Japanese yew,
Rigid branched yew
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Potentially invasive,
CP-5[2] NE-4,[3],
WW
Taxus cuspidata2.jpg
Taxus cuspidata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW Can-0
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Taxus baccata L.
1829. Taxus fastigiata Lindl.
English yew,
European yew,
Common yew

L'if commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Rare escape
Botany Bay - Taxus baccata 1.jpg
Taxus baccata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW Can-0
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
Taxus × media
 Rehder

Taxus baccata ×
Taxus cuspidata

1923. Taxus × media Rehder
Anglo-Japanese yew,
Anglojap yew,
Hybrid of
 English yew &
 Japanese yew
Introduced,
No specimens,
IO
Podlaskie - Suprasl - Kopna Gora - Arboretum - Taxus × media 'nidiformis' - branch.JPG
Taxus × media nymap.svg

USDA-00

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
Taxus × hunnewelliana
 Rehder

Taxus canadensis ×
Taxus cuspidata

1925. Taxus × hunnewelliana Rehder
Hunnewell yew,
Hybrid of
 American yew &
 Japanese yew
Introduced,
No specimens,
Cultivated
Taxus × media nymap.svg


ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. Taxaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Taxus species differentiation[edit]

Character[1] Taxus canadensis
American yew
Taxus cuspidata
Japanese yew
Taxus baccata
English yew
Habit low, straggling,
diffusely branched,
spreading to prostrate
upright upright
Mature height (m) 2 up to 16 10 - 20(-40)
Mature dbh (m) 4
Winter bud scales sharply pointed to cuspidate,
keeled or folded
sharply pointed to cuspidate,
keeled or folded
blunt at the apex,
slightly keeled
Leaf blade taper to apex abrupt abrupt gradual
Leaf blade width (mm) 1 – 2.4 2 - 3 2 - 3
Leaf blade length (mm) 10 - 25 15 - 25 10 - 40
Leaf upper (dorsal) surface dark green to yellow-green dark green,
prominent midrib when dry
dark green
Leaf lower (ventral) surface pale green, mostly without cuticular papillae along stomatal bands 2 wide tawny stomatal bands dark green
Number of cells from margin to stomata band (8-) 16 - 18 (-22) 11 - 13 4 - 7
Stomata rows per band (4-) 5 - 7 (-11) 7 - 15 (-19) 8 – 10
Petiole gradually curved or abrupt bend near the junction of the branch, not clasping the branchlet abrupt bend near the junction of the blade, clasping the branchlet
Seed shape near apex round or somewhat compressed 4- or 5-angled
Bark reddish, very thin brown, thin, scaly
Cone (aril)
all red when ripe
Taxus canadensis 5443106.jpg Taxus cuspidata fruits.JPG Eibe 2009.JPG