Flora of New York/Ginkgoales, Pinales

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Polypodiales
Flora of New York — Pinales
Nymphaeales & magnoliids
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The gymnosperms in New York include the conifers and ginkgos.[1][2][3]
spermatophytes
gymnosperms
?

Cycadales—Cycadaceae—Cycas (1 genus of >100 species, no record in NY)

Ginkgoales—Ginkgoaceae—Gingkgo biloba (1 extant species, planted, not naturalized in NY)

Gnetales―Gnetaceae―Gnetum (1 tropical genus, no record in NY)

Pinales
Pinaceae
Pinoideae

Pinus strobus (eastern white pine)

Pinus subg. Pinus spp. (8 hard pines)

Piceoideae

Picea spp. (6 spruces)

Laricoideae

Larix laricina (tamarack, American larch)

Larix decidua (European larch)

Larix kaempferi (Japanese larch)

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir)

Abietoideae

Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)

Abies balsamea (balsam fir)

Cupressaceae
Taxodioideae

Taxodium distichum (baldcypress)

Cupressoideae

Thuja occidentalis (arborvitae, white-cedar)

Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar)

Juniperus communis (common juniper, ground juniper)

Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper)

Chamaecyparis tyoides (Atlantic white cedar)

Taxaceae

Taxus canadensis (American yew)

Taxus cuspidata (Japanese yew)

Taxus baccata (English yew)


angiosperms

Magnoliidae




Clade Order Family Subfamily Genus Common names #
gymnosperms Ginkgoales Ginkgoaceae Ginkgo maidenhair tree, ginkgo 1
Pinales Pinaceae Pinoideae Pinus subg. Strobus soft pine 1
Pinus subg. Pinus hard pines 8
Piceoideae Picea spruce 5
Laricoideae Pseudotsuga Douglas-fir 1
Larix larch, tamarack 3
Abietoideae Tsuga hemlock 1
Abies fir (true firs) 4
Cupressaceae Taxodioideae Taxodium cypress 1
Cupressoideae Thuja arborvitae, white-cedar 1
Juniperus juniper, red-cedar 4
Chamaecyparis cedar, false cypress 2
Taxaceae Taxus yew 3

Order Ginkgoales[edit | edit source]

The order Ginkgoales contains a single existing species: Ginkgo biloba.

Family Ginkgoaceae[edit | edit source]

As the sole family of the Ginkgoales, Ginkgoaceae (the ginkgo family) contains Ginkgo biloba as the only extant species.[1]

Ginkgo[edit | edit source]

Ginkgo biloba leaves
The ginkgo or maidenhair tree is widely planted worldwide, including New York state, but the dioecious tree rarely escapes cultivation, and is unlikely to reach maturity as a naturalized tree in this region. This tree has been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.[2]
  1. Ginkgoaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Ginkgo biloba excluded. 2017 New York Flora Atlas
Ginkgoales — Ginkgoaceae — Ginkgo
Ginkgo (excluded species) Maidenhair tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1771. Ginkgo biloba L.
1797. Salisburia adiantifolia Sm.
1824. Salisburia biloba Hoffmanns.
1826. Salisburia ginkgo (L.) Rich. nom.illeg.
1866. Pterophyllus salisburiensis J.Nelson
Ginkgo,
Maidenhair tree
Noyer du Japon,
Ginkgo biloba
Introduced from
 Asia,
N.Y. excluded
Samen des Gingko Oktober 2011.JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
excluded
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Order Pinales[edit | edit source]

The order Pinales contains the conifers, or cone-bearing seed plants. In New York, this includes the three families Pinaceae (pine, fir, spruce, and larch), Cupressaceae (cypress, juniper, and arborviteae), and Taxaceae (yew).

Most of the Pinales are "evergreen," maintaining most of their foliage and its green color through the winter. The exception is the genus Larix (larch) in the Pinaceae. Larix trees are deciduous and lose their needle-like leaves in the winter. Most Pinales also have "needle-like" leaves, often referred to simply as needles. Though many are very flat needles, such as the yews, spruces, and firs. And most of the Cupressaceae leaves could be described as more "scale-like".


Family Pinaceae[edit | edit source]

The Pinaceae (pine family)...[1]
  1. Pinaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Pinoideae[edit | edit source]

Pinus[edit | edit source]

Pinus subg. Strobus[edit | edit source]
Subgenus Strobus contains the soft pines, only one of which is found in New York.
Pinus subg. Strobus sect. Quinquefoliae[edit | edit source]
Pinus strobus,
Five Ponds Wilderness Area
The only member of the Quinquefoliae (white-pines) found outside of cultivation in New York is Pinus strobus (eastern white pine), and it has been reported from every county in the state. The members of this section normally have their needle-like leaves grouped in bundles (fascicles) of five, though some may occasionally be found in bundles of three or four.

The oldest living eastern white pine on record dates to the mid 16th century, and was found in Nelson Swamp, Madison County, in 1997.[1][2]


Pinales — Pinaceae — Pinoideae — Pinus subg. Strobus sect. Quinquefoliae
Pinussubg. Strobussect. Quinquefoliae Soft, white pines N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Pinus strobus L.
1903. Strobus strobus (L.) Small
1932. P. strobus fo. prostrata
1940. P. strobus var. chiapensis
1964. P. chiapensis (Martínez) Andresen
Eastern white pine,
Northern white pine,
Weymouth pine (UK),
Soft pine
Pin blanc,
Pin strobus,
Pin du Lord Weymouth
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
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Pinus subg. Pinus[edit | edit source]
Subgenus Pinus contains the hard pines, and has two sections represented in New York.
Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Trifoliae[edit | edit source]
The Trifoliae contains most of the North American hard pines, four of which are native to New York.
Pinales — Pinaceae — Pinoideae — Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Trifoliae
Pinussect. Trifoliaesubsect. Australes Hard pines:
southern yellow
N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1768. Pinus rigida Mill.
    
    
Pitch pine,
Northern pitch pine,
Torch pine,
Sap pine
Pin rigide,
Pin à feuilles rigides
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
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 Mill.

1768. Pinus echinata Mill.
Shortleaf pine,
Short-leaved pine,
Arkansas pine,
Southern yellow pine
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-137 Pinus echinata.png
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Pinussect. Trifoliaesubsect. Contortae Hard pines:
scrub pines
N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lamb.

1789. Pinus sylvestris var. divaricata
1803. Pinus banksiana Lamb.
1893. Pinus divaricata (Aiton) Sudw.
Jack pine, Scrub pine,
Banksian pine,
Black pine, Gray pine,
Hudson Bay pine
Pin gris,
Pin de Banks
Native, CoC: 9,
Rare

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
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 Mill.

1768. Pinus virginiana Mill.
Virginia pine,
Scrub pine,
Jersey pine
Pin de Virginie
Native, CoC: 3,
Endangered,
NE-5[1]

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-139 Pinus virginiana.png
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  1. Category 5 Plants - native invasives - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service (doubtfully invasive in New York, where it is considered to be endangered)
Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Pinus[edit | edit source]
Pinus resinosa plantation
North Elba in Essex County
Section Pinus contains mostly Old-World hard pines, but it also includes the commercially important red pine (Pinus resinosa), which is native to North America, including parts of New York.

The three other species of this section found in New York are non-native introductions. This group has needles in bundles of two.


Pinales — Pinaceae — Pinoideae — Pinus subg. Pinus sect. Pinus
Pinussubg. Pinussect. Pinus Hard pines N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Aiton

1789. Pinus resinosa Aiton
Red pine,
Norway pine[1]
Pin rouge,
Pin résineux
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-134g Pinus resinosa.png
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 L.
var. sylvestris

1753. Pinus sylvestris L.
Scots pine,
Scotch pine,
Caledonian pine
Pin sylvestre,
Pin d'Écosse[2]
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
CP-5[3] WW
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 J.F.Arnold

1785. Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold
1828. Pinus pallasiana Lamb.
1910. Pinus nigra
var. austriaca Asch. & Graebn.
1914. Pinus nigra
ssp. pallasiana Holmboe
Austrian pine,
European black pine
Pin noir,
Pin noir d'Autriche
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive
Шишарка од бор - с. Мажучиште (1).JPG
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 Parl.

1868. Pinus thunbergii Parl.
1949. Pinus thunbergiana Franco
Japanese black pine Introduced from
 Japan,
 South Korea,
Invasive,
NYIS: 59%[4],
NE-4[5]
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  1. Despite the fact that one of its vernacular names is "Norway pine," Pinus resinosa is native only to North America.
  2. Although "pin d'Écosse" is a literal translation of "Scots pine," "pin sylvestre" is more commonly used as the French vernacular name of Pinus sylvestris.
  3. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  4. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentPinus thunbergii: Moderate (59).
  5. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Subfamily Piceoideae[edit | edit source]

Picea[edit | edit source]

Picea rubens
red spruce cones
There are three spruce species that are native to New York State, but the two non-native species seem to be more well-known.

Spruce trees can be easily distinguished from other conifers by their needles, which

  • grow singly (unlike pine-needles, which grow in clusters),
  • are square or triangular in cross-section (unlike fir and hemlock needles, which are flatter),
  • are relatively hard with sharp points,
  • are attached to small woody projections that remain after needles fall.

Spruce cones are also papery, unlike most other conifers. However, it's usually more difficult to differentiate spruces trees from each other. Douglas fir can also be misidentified as a spruce because of their needles, which are also square in cross-section, but not as stiff.


Spruce species Leaf length (inches) Cone length (inches) Height (feet) Width (feet) Growth form Habitat Twig color Bark color
Red 1/2 - 5/8 1.0 - 1.5 60 - 80 15-20 pyramid upland orange-brown gray-brown, red-brown
Black 1/4 - 1/2 0.75 - 1.5 40 - 50 15-20 slender bog brown gray-brown, red-brown
White 1/3 - 3/4 1.5 - 2.5 40 - 90 10 - 20 conical upland light brown, pale gray-brown
Norway 1/2 - 1 4 - 6 > 120 conical orange-brown red-brown, later gray
Blue 1/2 - 5/4 2 - 4 50 - 80 conical upland
Pinales — Pinaceae — Pinoideae — Picea
Picea Spruce N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Sarg.

1771. Pinus mariana var. rubra Du Roi
1831. Picea rubra Link
1879. Picea nigra var. rubra Engelm.
1898. Picea rubens Sarg.
1903. Picea australis Small
Red spruce
Épinette rouge
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
2015-08-20 18 22 25 Red Spruce along Dutch Church Road (Rensselaer County Route 41) in Berlin, New York.jpg
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(Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1768. Abies mariana Mill.
1770. Pinus abies var. mariana Münchh.
1785. Pinus nigra J.F.Arnold
1831. Picea nigra Link
1888. Picea mariana Britton, et al.
Black spruce,
Bog spruce,
Swamp spruce
Épinette noire,
Épinette à bière,
Épicéa marial,
Épicéa noir
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-147 Picea mariana.png
Picea mariana nymap.svg
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 (Moench) Voss

1768. Abies canadensis Mill.
1785. Pinus glauca Moench
1831. Picea alba (Aiton) Link
1897. Picea canadensis var. glauca
Sudw.
1907. Picea glauca Voss
White spruce,
Cat spruce,
Black Hills spruce,
Canadian spruce,
Skunk spruce
Épinette blanche,
Épinette glauque,
Épicéa blanc,
Épicéa glauque
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-148 Picea glauca.png
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 (L.) Karst.

1753. Pinus abies L.
1779. Pinus excelsa Lamb.
1842. Picea excelsa (Lamb.) Link
1881. Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.
Norway spruce,
White spruce
Épinette de Norvège,
Épicéa élevé,
Épicéa commun
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
CP-4[1][2]

Perennial,
Tree
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 Engelm.

1879. Picea pungens Engelm.
1883. Picea pungens var. glauca Regel
1897. Picea parryana Sarg.
Blue spruce,
Colorado blue spruce,
Colorado spruce,
Silver spruce
Épinette de Colorado,
Épinette bleue,
Épicéa de Colorado
Introduced from
 U.S. Rocky Mts.,
Probably not naturalized

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Picea Pungens Young Cones.jpg
Picea pungens nymap.svg
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Subfamily Laricoideae[edit | edit source]

Pseudotsuga[edit | edit source]

Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco
Douglas-fir
Although commonly called Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga trees are not true firs. The genus name means "false hemlock," but phylogenetically, Douglas firs are more often grouped in the Pinoideae with the pines, spruces and larches than with either the firs or hemlocks, which are placed in the Abietoideae. Recent studies, in fact, place Douglas fir closer to the larches, in the subfamily Laricoideae.[1]

Douglas-firs are often planted in New York but seldom if ever naturalize permanently.


Pinales — Pinaceae — Laricoideae — Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga Douglas fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
 (Mirb.) Franco
var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco

1884. Tsuga douglasii var. glauca Beissn.
1890. P. douglasii var. glauca Mayr
1897. P. taxifolia var. glauca Sudw.
1934. Pseudotsuga flahaultii Flous
1950. P. menziesii var. glauca Franco
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir,
Douglas-fir,
Blue Douglas-fir,
Colorado Douglas-fir,
Inland Douglas-fir
Douglas bleu,
Douglas de Menzies bleu
Introduced,
¿Naturalized?
DouglasFir 7491t.jpg
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Larix[edit | edit source]

Larix laricina (Tamarack)
foliage & cones
The larches (Larix spp.) are deciduous conifers. Of the three species found in New York, only the American larch or tamarack is native to the state. The European and Japanese larches occasionally naturalize near plantations and individuals that have been planted.

Among the other words for tamarack is hackmatack, which means "wood used for snowshoes" in the Abenaki language.[1]


Pinales — Pinaceae — Laricoideae — Larix
Larixsect. Larix Larch N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (DuRoi) K.Koch

1771. Pinus laricina Du Roi
1803. Larix americana Michx.
1839. L. intermedia Lodd. ex J.Forbes
1873. L. laricina (Du Roi) K.Koch
1908. L. alaskensis W.Wight
1947. L. laricina var. alaskensis
2008. L. laricina ssp. alaskensis
Tamarack
American larch
Eastern larch
Red larch
Hackmatack
Alaska larch

Mélèze laricin
Épinette rouge
Fausse épinette rouge
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree
NAS-153d Larix laricina.png
Larix laricina NY-dist-map.png
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 Mill.

1753. Pinus larix L.
1768. Larix decidua Mill.
1805. Larix europaea DC.
European larch
Introduced from
 Europe,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Tree
2016.09.22 15.37.54 DSC06555 - Flickr - andrey zharkikh.jpg
Larix decidua NY-dist-map.png
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 (Lam.) Carrière

1856. Larix kaempferi (Lam.) Carrière
1858. Larix leptolepis (Siebold & Zucc.) Gordon
1858. Pseudolarix kaempferi (Lamb.) Gordon
Japanese larch Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Naturalized

Perennial,
Tree
Larch Cones - geograph.org.uk - 478216.jpg
Larix kaempferi NY-dist-map.png
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Subfamily Abietoideae[edit | edit source]

Tsuga[edit | edit source]

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière
foliage and cones
Tsuga contains the hemlocks, of which, the only New York native is the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis. Hemlocks in eastern North America are threatened by the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae).
Pinales — Pinaceae — Abietoideae — Tsuga
Tsuga Hemlock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Carrière

1763. Pinus canadensis L.
1842. Picea canadensis Link
1855. Tsuga canadensis Carrière
1862. Abies canadensis var. gracilis
Eastern hemlock,
Canadian hemlock,
Canada hemlock
Pruche du Canada,
Pruche de l'Est,
Tsuga du Canada
Native,
Secure
Tsuga canadensis 6zz.jpg
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Abies[edit | edit source]

Abies balsamea
balsam fir
The genus Abies contains the "true" firs. It does not include the Douglas-firs of the genus Pseudotsuga.
Pinales — Pinaceae — Abietoideae — Abies
Abies Fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Mill.

1753. Pinus balsamea L.
1768. Abies balsamea Mill.
1770. Pinus abies var. balsamea
1810. Peuce balsamea Rich.
Balsam fir,
Canada balsam
Sapin baumier,
Sapin
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FAC

Perennial,
Tree
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(Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.

    
1833. Abies grandis
(Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl.
    
Grand fir,
Lowland white fir
Introduced from
 western N.A.,
No specimens
Abies grandis 5356.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Abies (excluded species) Fir N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 A.Murray bis

1863. Abies magnifica A.Murray bis
1875. Picea magnifica Gordon
1876. Pseudotsuga magnifica
W.R.McNab
1876. Pinus magnifica W.R.McNab
California red fir,
Shasta red fir,
Red fir
Introduced from
 western US,
N.Y. excluded
Abies magnifica 8016t.jpg
Abies magnifica nymap.svg
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 (Pursh) Poir.

    Pinus fraseri Pursh
    Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.
    
    
Fraser fir Introduced from
 western VA & NC,
N.Y. excluded
FraserFirFoliage.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Siebold & Zucc.

    Abies homolepis Siebold & Zucc.
    
    
Nikko fir Introduced from
 Asia,
N.Y. excluded
Abies homolepis.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
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(Gordon & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr.

1858. Picea concolor Gordon & Glend.
1861. Abies concolor Lindl. ex Hildebr.
White fir,
Colorado white fir,
Silver fir,
Colorado fir,
Rocky Mountain white fir
Introduced from
 western US,
No specimens
Abies concolor cones.jpg
Abies concolor nymap.svg
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Family Cupressaceae[edit | edit source]

The Cupressaceae (cypress family)...[1]
  1. Cupressaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Subfamily Taxodioideae[edit | edit source]

The Taxodioideae contains the three genera: Cryptomeria (1 Japanese species), Glyptostrobus (1 Asian species), and Taxodium (1-3 North American species).

Taxodium[edit | edit source]

There are about three Taxodium taxa, all of which are native to southeastern North America. Of these, Taxodium distichum var. distichum has been reported in New York, mainly along the Hudson River and on Long Island. Whether it has truly naturalized in the state in uncertain.
Pinales — Cupressaceae — Taxodioideae — Taxodium
Taxodium Cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
 (L.) Rich.
var. distichum

1753. Cupressus disticha L.
1789. C. disticha var. nutans Aiton
1810. Taxodium distichum Rich.
1827. T. distichum var. nutans Sweet
1927. T. ascendens var. nutans Rehder
Baldcypress,
Bald cypress,
Swamp cypress
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Taxodium distichum cones J1.JPG
Taxodium distichum var distichum nymap.svg
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Subfamily Cupressoideae[edit | edit source]

Most of the Cupressoideae in New York go by the common names "cedar" or "juniper." But there is some resistance to calling any of them "cedar," as this could be seen to imply that they are of the Eurasian genus Cedrus, which does not have any naturalized populations in New York, and is normally included in the Pinaceae, not Cupressoideae. Instead, many prefer the common names "arborvitae" or "whitecedar" for Thuja occidentalis, and "red juniper" or "redcedar" for Juniperus virginiana.
Thuja[edit | edit source]
Thuja occidentalis
northern whitecedar, arborvitae
Thuja (pronounced either thoo-juh or thoo-yuh) is Greek for juniper and other trees with aromatic wood. There are two North American Thuja species: T. occidentalis (eastern arborvitae or northern whitecedar) and T. plicata (western redcedar). There are also three asian Thuja species. Of the five Thuja species, only T. occidentalis is known to occur in New York.
Pinales — Cupressaceae — Cupressoideae — Thuja
Thuja Arborvitae N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Thuja occidentalis L.
Eastern arborvitae,
Eastern white cedar,
Northern whitecedar,
Swamp cedar
Thuya occidental,
Cèdre,
Balai,
Cèdre blanc
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACW-UPL

Perennial,
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Northern White Cedar cones (2974756284).jpg
Thuja occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
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Juniperus[edit | edit source]
Pinales — Cupressaceae — Cupressoideae — Juniperus
Juniperus Juniper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. virginiana

1753. Juniperus virginiana L.
1857. Sabina virginiana var. virginiana
Eastern red cedar,
Eastern redcedar,
Pencil cedar,
Virginia cedar,
Eastern juniper,
Red juniper
Genévrier de Virginie,
Genévrier rouge,
Cèdre rouge
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FAC-UPL

Perennial,
Tree
Juniperus virginiana Maine.jpg
Juniperus virginiana var virginiana NY-dist-map.png
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 L.
var. depressa Pursh

1787. J. canadensis Lodd. ex Burgsd.
1814. J. communis var. depressa
1818. J. depressa Raf.
1838. J. communis var. canadensis
1962. J. communis ssp. depressa
American common juniper,
Dwarf juniper,
Prostrate juniper,
Ground juniper
Genévrier commun déprimé,
Genévrier nain,
Genévrier du Canada
Native, CoC: 4,
Likely secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun
Juniperus communis var depressa 5.jpg
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 L.
var. communis

1753. Juniperus communis L.
1768. J. suecica Mill.
1822. J. hemisphaerica C.Presl
1881. J. communis ssp. hemisphaerica
1887. J. communis fo. suecica
Eurasian ommon juniper,
Common juniper
Genévrier commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unknown naturalization

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Juniperus communis200509 060.jpg
Juniperus communis var communis nymap.svg
Tompkins
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 Moench

1794. Juniperus horizontalis Moench
1807. J. prostrata Pers.
1814. J. sabina var. procumbens
1838. J. sabina var. humilis
1843. J. virginiana var. prostrata
1857. Sabina prostrata Antoine
1912. S. horizontalis Rydb.
Creeping juniper,
Trailing juniper,
Prostrate juniper,
Horizontal juniper,
Creeping savin
Genévrier horizontal,
Genévrier rampant,
Savinier
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub, subshrub
Juniperus horizontalis 2.jpg
Juniperus horizontalis nymap.svg
Chenango, Clinton, Genesee, Madison, Oneida, Onondaga
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Juniperus (excluded taxa) Juniper N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Juniperus sabina L.
Savin
Sabine
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Tree-shrub
Juniperus sabina 02.JPG
Excluded nymap.svg
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Chamaecyparis[edit | edit source]
Chamaecyparis thyoides
(Atlantic white cedar)
Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic white cedar) is restricted primarily to acidic coastal swamps, where it can form dense stands.
Pinales — Cupressaceae — Cupressoideae — Chamaecyparis
Chamaecyparis False cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Cupressus thyoides L.
1888. Chamaecyparis thyoides
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.
1962. Ch. henryae H.L.Li
1966. Ch. thyoides var. henryae
Atlantic white cedar,
Southern white cedar,
Atlantic white cypress
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened,
S2, G4,
NYNHP: 2[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Tree,
Part shade
NAS-152a Chamaecyparis thyoides.png
Chamaecyparis thyoides nymap.svg
Nassau, New York, Orange, Putnam, Queens, Richmond, Rockland, Suffolk, Westchester
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(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.

1844. Retinispora squarrosa Zucc.
1847. Ch. pisifera
(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.
1867. Ch. obtusa fo. plumosa
Sawara false cypress
Sawara-cypress

Introduced from
 Japan,
Not naturalized
Chamaecyparis pisifera.jpg
Nymap.svg
Orange
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Chamaecyparis (excluded taxa) False cypress N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.

1844. Retinospora obtusa
Siebold & Zucc.
1847. Chamaecyparis obtusa
(Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.
1871. Cupressus obtusa
(Siebold & Zucc.) F. Muell.
Hinoki false cypress Introduced from
 Taiwan & Japan,
N.Y. excluded
Chamaecyparis obtusa 01.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
excluded
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Family Taxaceae[edit | edit source]

The Taxaceae (yew family)...[1]

Taxus[edit | edit source]

The American yew (Taxus canadensis) is the only Taxus species native to New York. The Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata) and the English yew (Taxus baccata) are widely cultivated in New York and occasionally escape. The Japanese yew has been found to naturalize and has become common in the forests of some New York counties. Its invasive tendencies deserve monitoring.
  1. Taxaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
Pinales — Taxaceae — Taxus
Taxus Yew N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Taxus canadensis Marshall
1803. Taxus baccata var. minor Michx.
1856. Taxus baccata var. canadensis A.Gray
1894. Taxus minor Britton
1903. Taxus baccata ssp. canadensis Pilg.
2007. Taxus canadensis var. minor Spjut
American yew,
Canada yew,
Ground hemlock,
Shinwood
Buis de sapin,
L'if du Canada,
Sapin trainard
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
CanadaYew.JPG
Taxus canadensis nymap.svg
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Note: WBA
 Siebold & Zucc.

1846. Taxus cuspidata Siebold & Zucc.
1867. Taxus baccata var. cuspidata
1903. Taxus baccata ssp. cuspidata
auctTaxus baccata non L.
Japanese yew,
Rigid branched yew
Introduced from
 eastern Asia,
Potentially invasive,
CP-5[1] NE-4,[2],
WW
Taxus cuspidata2.jpg
Taxus cuspidata nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Taxus baccata L.
1829. Taxus fastigiata Lindl.
English yew,
European yew,
Common yew
L'if commun
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Rare escape
Botany Bay - Taxus baccata 1.jpg
Taxus baccata nymap.svg
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Taxus × media
 Rehder

Taxus baccata ×
Taxus cuspidata

1923. Taxus × media Rehder
Anglo-Japanese yew,
Anglojap yew,
Hybrid of
 English yew &
 Japanese yew
Introduced,
No specimens,
IO
Podlaskie - Suprasl - Kopna Gora - Arboretum - Taxus × media 'nidiformis' - branch.JPG
Taxus × media nymap.svg

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Taxus × hunnewelliana
 Rehder

Taxus canadensis ×
Taxus cuspidata

1925. Taxus × hunnewelliana Rehder
Hunnewell yew,
Hybrid of
 American yew &
 Japanese yew
Introduced,
No specimens,
Cultivated
Taxus × media nymap.svg

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  1. Appendix 5. Plant species of concern (Watch List) within the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Botanic Gardens' accessioned collections (2018)
  2. Category 4 Plants - local concern and monitoring - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service

Taxus species differentiation[edit | edit source]

Character[1] Taxus canadensis
American yew
Taxus cuspidata
Japanese yew
Taxus baccata
English yew
Habit low, straggling,
diffusely branched,
spreading to prostrate
upright upright
Mature height (m) 2 up to 16 10 - 20(-40)
Mature dbh (m) 4
Winter bud scales sharply pointed to cuspidate,
keeled or folded
sharply pointed to cuspidate,
keeled or folded
blunt at the apex,
slightly keeled
Leaf blade taper to apex abrupt abrupt gradual
Leaf blade width (mm) 1 – 2.4 2 - 3 2 - 3
Leaf blade length (mm) 10 - 25 15 - 25 10 - 40
Leaf upper (dorsal) surface dark green to yellow-green dark green,
prominent midrib when dry
dark green
Leaf lower (ventral) surface pale green, mostly without cuticular papillae along stomatal bands 2 wide tawny stomatal bands dark green
Number of cells from margin to stomata band (8-) 16 - 18 (-22) 11 - 13 4 - 7
Stomata rows per band (4-) 5 - 7 (-11) 7 - 15 (-19) 8 – 10
Petiole gradually curved or abrupt bend near the junction of the branch, not clasping the branchlet abrupt bend near the junction of the blade, clasping the branchlet
Seed shape near apex round or somewhat compressed 4- or 5-angled
Bark reddish, very thin brown, thin, scaly
Cone (aril)
(all red when ripe)
Taxus canadensis 5443106.jpg Taxus cuspidata fruits.JPG Eibe 2009.JPG