Flora of New York/Carduoideae

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Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Menyanthaceae
Flora of New York — Asterales : Asteraceae : Carduoideae : Cardueae
Cichorioideae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos

Family Asteraceae[edit | edit source]

The Asteraceae (or Compositae)

Subfamily Carduoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Cardueae[edit | edit source]

The Cardueae (syn. Cynareae) is a mostly non-native tribe of Asteraceae. It contains various thistles and knapweeds, many of which are considered highly invasive in the region.

Subtribe Carlininae[edit | edit source]

Carlina[edit | edit source]
Carlina vulgaris, Carline thistle
Carline thistle establishes on exposed soil but does not compete with taller dense vegetation.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carlininae — Carlina
Carlina Carline-thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. vulgaris

    C. vulgaris ssp. longifolia
Carline thistle Introduced,
Naturalized
Carlina vulgaris Kerstlingeroeder Feld 02.jpg
Carlina vulgaris ssp vulgaris NY-dist-map.png
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Subtribe Echinopsinae[edit | edit source]

Echinops[edit | edit source]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Echinopsinae
Echinops Globethistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Great globethistle Introduced 20170722Echinops sphaerocephalus1.jpg
Echinops sphaerocephalus NY-dist-map.png
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Subtribe Carduinae[edit | edit source]

Onopordum[edit | edit source]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Onopordum
Onopordum Cottonthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Scotch thistle,
Scotch cottonthistle
Introduced Argynnis pandora 01 by-dpc.jpg
Onopordum acanthium NY-dist-map.png
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Arctium[edit | edit source]
Arctium lappa, greater burdock
Only the two burdock species Arctium lappa (greater burdock) and A. minus (lesser burdock) are currently listed as naturalized in New York. Specimens of A. minus were apparently misidentified as A. tomentosum in the past.

Arctium is an Old World genus whose biennial plants have been introduced around the world, perhaps in part due to Velcro-like burrs that promote wide seed dispersal.


Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Arctium
Arctium Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1753. Arctium lappa L.
1762. Lappa vulgaris Hill
1785. Lappa officinalis All.
1791. Lappa major Gaertn.
1800. Arctium majus Bernh.
1833. Arctium nemorosum Lej. & Court.
1883. Lappa lappa (L.) H.Karst. (i)
1913. Arctium vulgare (Hill) A.H.Evans
1928. Arctium edule Beger
Greater burdock,
Great burdock,
Edible burdock,
Beggar's-buttons
Grande bardane,
Bardane majeure,
Rhubarbe sauvage,
Graquias,
Toques,
Rapace
Introduced from
 Eurasia
Arctium lappa01.jpg
Arctium lappa NY-dist-map.png
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(Hill) Bernh.

1762. Lappa minor Hill
1800. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.
1856. Arctium pubens Bab.
Lesser burdock,
Common burdock,
Cuckoo-button
Petite bardane,
Bardane mineure,
Bardane,
Tabac du diable,
Tapace,
Chou bourache,
Cibourroche,
Graquias
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
Lesser burdock (Arctium minor) - geograph.org.uk - 929695.jpg
Arctium minus NY-dist-map.png
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Arctium (excluded taxa) Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Mill.

1768. Arctium tomentosum Mill.
    
    
Woolly burdock,
Hairy burdock
Bardane tomenteuse
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
N.Y. excluded
Arctium tomentosum (inflorescences).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Silybum[edit | edit source]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Silybum
Silybum Milk thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Carduus marianus L.
1768. Mariana mariana (L.) Hill (i)
1791. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
Milk-thistle,
Blessed milkthistle,
St. Mary's thistle
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

Biennial,
Herb-forb
20130727Silybum marianum4.jpg
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Cirsium[edit | edit source]
Cirsium species are known as plume thistles due to the feathered hairs on their achenes.
New-World Cirsium[edit | edit source]
Cirsium muticum
Swamp thistle
The North American thistles found in New York are here divided into two groups (species complexes) that are known to freely hybridize within the individual group.
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Cirsium
CirsiumMill. (1745)
(North American - HG1)
Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Cirsium muticum Michx.
1807. Carduus muticus (Michx.) Pers.
1814. Cnicus muticus (Michx.) Pursh
1838. Cirsium bigelovii DC.
Swamp thistle,
Dunce-nettle,
Horsetops
Chardon mutique,
Circe mutique
Native, C:9,
Secure

OBL

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium muticum WFNY-264.jpg
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(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.

1803. Cnicus discolor Muhl. ex Willd.
1818. Carduus discolor
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt.
1826. Cirsium discolor
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.
1894. Cirsium altissimum fo. discolor
1902. Cirsium altissimum var. discolor
1917. Cirsium altissimum ssp. discolor
Field thistle,
Pasture thistle
Chardon discolore,
Circe discolore
Native, C:1,
Secure

UPL

Biennial-perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium discolor (15200151605).jpg
Cirsium discolor NY-dist-map.png
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 (L.) Spreng.

1753. Carduus altissimus L.
1804. Cnicus altissimus Willd.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill
1908. Cirsium iowense
(Pammel) Fernald
1917. Cirsium altissimum
var. biltmoreanum Petr.
Tall thistle,
Roadside thistle
Native, C:10,
Likely extirpated

UPL

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium altissimum 3-eheep (5097857372).jpg
Cirsium altissimum NY-dist-map.png
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 (Rydb.) Arthur
1900. Carduus flodmanii Rydb.
1903. Cirsium oblanceolatum
(Rydb.) K.Schum.
1912. Cirsium flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur

Flodman's thistle,
Prairie thistle
Introduced,
Midwest native,
Preglacial relict?

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsiumflodmanii.jpg
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CirsiumMill. (1745)
(North American - HG2)
Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Nutt.) Spreng.
ssp. pumilum

1818. Carduus pumilus Nutt.
1826. Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.) Spreng.
1911. Cirsium odoratum
(Muhl. ex Steud.) Petr.
Pasture thistle,
Fragrant thistle,
Bull thistle
Chardon nain
Native, C:1,
Secure

N. R.

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium pumilum (14553847355).jpg
Cirsium pumilum var pumilum NY-dist-map.png
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 Michx.
var. horridulum

1803. Cirsium horridulum Michx.
    
    
Yellow thistle,
Giant thistle,
Bristly thistle,
Horrid thistle,
Bull thistle
Native, C:5,
Rare

FACU

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium horridulum NRCS-2.jpg
Cirsium horridulum var horridulum NY-dist-map.png
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Old-World Cirsium[edit | edit source]
Cirsium vulgare
bull thistle

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Cirsium
Cirsium(Eurasian ) Plume thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Savi) Ten.

1753. Carduus lanceolatus L.
1798. Carduus vulgaris Savi
1835. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
1938. Ci. vulgare Airy Shaw (hom.)
1972. Ci. lanceolatum Scop.non Hill
Bull thistle,
Common thistle,
Spear thistle,
Scotch thistle
Chardon vulgaire,
Chardon lancéolé,
Gros chardon,
Circe commun,
Circe vulgaire
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Widespread weed,
NE-3[1],
Invasive.org

FACU

Biennial,
Hert-forb
20130704Cirsium vulgare.jpg
Cirsium vulgare NY-dist-map.png
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(L.) Scop.

1753. Serratula arvensis L.
1772. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
1777. Carduus arvensis (L.) E.Robson
1819. Cirsium incanum
(S.G.Gmel.) Fisch. ex M.Bieb.
1819. Cirsium setosum (Willd.) M.Bieb.
Creeping thistle,
Canada thistle,
Field thistle
Chardon des champs,
Chardon du Canada,
Circe des champs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 71%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4] NE-2[5]

FACU

Perennial,
Hert-forb
20170715Cirsium arvense2.jpg
Cirsium arvense NY-dist-map.png
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(L.) Scop.

1753. Carduus palustris L.
1772. Cirsium Palustre (L.) Scop.
    
Marsh thistle,
Marsh plume thistle,
European marsh thistle,
European swamp thistle
Chardon des marais,
Cirse des marais
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68% [6],
NE-2[5]

FACW

Perennial,
Hert-forb
Cirsium palustris - Oberolmer Wald IMG 5821.JPG
Cirsium palustre NY-dist-map.png
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  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium arvense: Highly invasive (71%).
  3. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  4. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  5. a b Category 2 Plants - moderately invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  6. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium palustre: Moderately invaisve (68%).
Carduus[edit | edit source]
Carduus acanthoides
spiny plumeless thistle
Carduus species are known as plumeless thistles.
Asterales — Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Carduus
Carduus Plumeless thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. acanthoides

Spiny plumeless thistle Introduced 20170619Carduus acanthoides2.jpg
Carduus acanthoides ssp acanthoides NY-dist-map.png
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Curled plumless-thistle,
Welted thistle,
Curled thistle
Introduced Carduus crispus20110612 339.jpg
Carduus crispus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Musk thistle,
Nodding thistle,
Nodding plumeless thistle
Introduced Carduus nutans carriere-saint-maximin 60 01072008 01.jpg
Carduus nutans NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xn
USDA-XX

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ssp. pycnocephalus

Italian thistle Introduced,
Unvouchered waif
Carduus pycnocephalus 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-XX

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Serratula[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Carduinae — Serratula
Serratula (excluded) Plumeless saw-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
L.

    Serratula tinctoria L.
    
    
Dyer's plumeless saw-wort,
Saw-wort
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Serratula tinctoria 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Subtribe Centaureinae[edit | edit source]

The Centaureinae contains knapweeds and starthistles, none of which are native to New York, and some of which are considered to be seriously invasive in the state.[1]

Plectocephalus[edit | edit source]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Plectocephalus
Plectocephalus Basketflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.

1821. Centaurea americana Nutt.
1830. Plectocephalus americanus
(Nutt.) D.Don
American star-thistle,
American basketflower,
Powderpuff thistle,
Thornless thistle
Introduced from
 south-central US,
N.Y. excluded
Centaurea americana2.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Centaurea[edit | edit source]
The subgeneric classification of Centaurea (knapweeds) used here is based on Hilpold et al. (2014).[1]
Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Centaurea[edit | edit source]
Centaurea stoebe
spotted knapweed

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Centaurea
Centaureasubg. Centaureasect. Centaurea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. micranthos
(S.G.Gmel. ex Gugler) Hayek

1838. Centaurea biebersteinii DC.
1872. C. australis Pančić ex A. Kern.
1907. C. maculosa ssp. micranthos
1931. C. stoebe ssp. micranthos
2003. C. stoebe ssp. australis
 auct. C. maculosanon Lam.
 auct. Acosta maculosanon (Lam.) Holub
Spotted knapweed,
Spotted star-thistle
Centaurée maculée,
Centaurée tachetée
Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
CP-3[2] NE-1[3]
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos EP4490-05.png
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

1753. Centaurea cineraria L.
1785. C. candidissima Lam.
1839. C. gymnocarpa Moris & DeNot.[4]
1974. Acosta cineraria (L.) Holub
Silver knapweed,
Star-thistle,
Dusty miller
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization
Centaurea cineraria 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Centaurea (excluded taxa) Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lam.

1785. Centaurea diffusa Lam.
1799. C. parviflora Desf.
1822. C. parviflora Besser hom.
1970. C. microcalathina A.O.Tarassov
1972. Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soják
Diffuse knapweed,
White knapweed,
Tumble knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
FEIS
Centaurea diffusa 1459254.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
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Centaurea diffusa ×
C. stoebe ssp. micranthos

Hybrid of
 Diffuse knapweed &
 Spotted knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1]
Ny hybrid.svg
Excluded nymap.svg

USDA-0X

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Jersey knapweed Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Note[5]
C. paniculata-img 000690378O.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
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  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentC. stoebe, C. diffusa, C. × psammogena: High (79).
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. Euro+Med Plantbase lists Centaurea gymnocarpa as an accepted species, while the Global Compositae Checklist lists it as a synonym of Centaurea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2014.1, states "C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor."
  5. Centaurea paniculata checklist entries were based on reports only. No known specimens from New York exist. It is similar in appearance to Centaurea stoebe.
Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Phrygia[edit | edit source]
Centaurea × moncktonii
meadow knapweed
Centaurea sect. Phrygia, in New York State, contains three moderately invasive species of knapweeds, cumulatively known as the Centaurea jacea complex, and gradations of hybrids between possibly all three of them. The named hybrid Centaurea × moncktonii (C. jacea × C. nigra) is morphologically variable, and some individuals appear to have a similarity to C. nigrescens, possibly resulting from hybridization between all three species.

These species can often be distinguished by the involucre bracts, the scale-like structures surrounding the inflorescence, just below flower petals.[1]

  • Centaurea jacea (brown): Bracts are somewhat hairy, with broad, thin papery margins. Center of bract is dark brown.
  • Centaurea nigra (black): Bracts are oval-shaped with broad, comb-like, dark brown or black fringed margins. Fringe length up to 3 times as long as bract width.
  • Centaurea × moncktonii (meadow): Bracts are light to dark brown, roundish, with thin papery margin with fringes about equal width of bract center.
  • Centaurea stoebe (spotted): Bracts are black tipped, tip and upper margin have soft, spine-like fringe, Center spine shorter than others.

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Phrygia
Centaureasubg. Centaureasect. Phrygia Knapweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Centaurea jacea L.
1778. Jacea pratensis Lam.
1799. Centaurea pratensis Thuill. (i)
Brown knapweed,
Brownray knapweed,
Brown-rayed knapweed,,
Brown starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1],
CP-3[2]
Brown Knapweed (Centaurea jacea), strange coloured phyllaries - violet coloured involuctral bracts.jpg
Centaurea jacea NY-dist-map.png
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L.

1753. Centaurea nigra L.
1769. Jacea nigra (L.) Hill
1852. Centaurea nemoralis Jord.
1894. Centaurea jacea ssp. nigra
Black knapweed,
Lesser knapweed,
Common knapweed,
Black starthistle
Introduced from
 Europe,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Common Knapweed (Centaurea nigra).jpg
Centaurea nigra NY-dist-map.png
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C.E.Britton

Centaurea jacea ×
Centaurea nigra

1799. C. pratensis Thuill. non Salisb.
1813. C. nigra var. radiata
18??. C. jacea var. pratensis
1975. C. debeauxii ssp. thuillieri
1921. Centaurea × moncktonii
C.E.Britton
Meadow knapweed,
Protean knapweed,
Hybrid of
 black knapweed &
 brown knapweed
Introduced from
 Europe,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea x moncktonii p1326.jpg
Centaurea × moncktonii NY-dist-map.png
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 Willd.

1803. Centaurea nigrescens Willd.
1831. C. vochinensis Bernh. ex Rchb.
1917. C. dubia ssp. nigrescens
1917. C. dubia ssp. vochinensis
Tyrol knapweed,
Short-fringed knapweed,
Short-fringed starthistle,
Vochin knapweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea sp., Giresun 2018-08-18 1.jpg
Centaurea nigrescens NY-dist-map.png
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    Centaurea austriaca
    C. uniflora ssp. nervosa
Wig knapweed Introduced,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization
Centaurea phrygia Oulu, Finland 13.07.2013 img 1.jpg
Centaurea phrygia NY-dist-map.png
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Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Cnicus[edit | edit source]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Centaurea sect. Cnicus
Centaureasubg. Centaureasect. Cnicus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) L.

1753. Cnicus benedictus L.
1763. Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.
1895. Cirsium pugnax
Sommier & Levier
1908. Carduus benedictus Thell. (i)
Blessed thistle,
Our Lady's thistle
Chardon béni,
Cnicaut béni,
Chardon bénit
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized
Cnicus benedictus 002.JPG
Centaurea benedicta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
VasCan
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos
IPN

Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Lopholoma[edit | edit source]
Centaurea solstitialis
yellow knapweed

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Lopholoma
Centaureasubg. Lopholoma Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Yellow starthistle,
Barnaby star-thistle,
St. Barnaby’s thistle
Introduced,
Unk. naturalization
Centaurea solstitialis capitulum.JPG
Centaurea solstitialis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images, wsp

Great starthistle,
Greater knapweed,
Hardheads,
Scabious knapweed,
Greater centaury
Introduced,
Unk. naturalization
Centaurea scabiosa MichaD 2.jpg
Centaurea scabiosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images, wsp

Purple starthistle,
Red star-thistle,
Caltrops
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent
Centaurea calcitrapa 001.jpg
Centaurea calcitrapa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images, wsp

North African knapweed Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent
Centaurea diluta (37.548916,-4.640892,Co,VI,MFR) D3S2 05.jpg
Centaurea diluta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

Images, wsp

Rough star-thistle Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Impersistent,
NY County only
Centaurea aspera (14556978746).jpg
Centaurea aspera NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Cyanus[edit | edit source]
Centaurea cyanus
bachelor’s button

Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Centaurea subg. Cyanus
Centaureasubg. Cyanus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. (1753)

1769. Cyanus segetum Hill
1837. Centaurea pulchra DC.
Cornflower,
Bachelor’s-button,
Bluebottle,
Bluebonnets
Introduced,
IO
Centaurea de Gredos Norte.jpg
Centaurea cyanus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea montana L.
1768. Cyanus montanus (L) Hill
Mountain starthistle,
Mountain cornflower,
Mountain bluet,
Perennial cornflower
Introduced Flockenblume (6).jpg
Centaurea montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images, wsp
Carthamus[edit | edit source]
Asteraceae — Carduoideae — Cardueae — Centaureinae — Carthamus
Carthamus Distaff thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Carthamus tinctorius L.
1753. Cathamus tinctorius L. (i)
Safflower,
Dyer's-saffron,
False saffron,
Bastard-saffron
Introduced from
 western Asia?,
 eastern Med.?,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Carthamus tinctorius 002.JPG
Carthamus tinctorius NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

Images, wsp

Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Menyanthaceae
Flora of New York — Asterales : Asteraceae : Carduoideae : Cardueae
Cichorioideae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index