Flora of New York/Carduoideae

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Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Menyanthaceae
Flora of New York — Asterales : Asteraceae : Carduoideae : Cardueae
Cichorioideae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos

Family Asteraceae[edit]

The Asteraceae (or Compositae)

Subfamily Carduoideae[edit]

Tribe Cardueae[edit]

The Cardueae is a mostly non-native tribe of Asteraceae. It contains various thistles and knapweeds, many of which are considered highly invasive in the region.

Subtribe Carlininae[edit]

fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carlininae
Carlina Carline-thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
ssp. vulgaris

     C. vulgaris ssp. longifolia
Carline thistle Introduced
Carlina vulgaris 02 (HS).JPG
Carlina vulgaris ssp vulgaris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp

Subtribe Echinopsinae[edit]

fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Echinopsinae
Echinops Globethistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Great globethistle Introduced
Echinops sphaerocephalus Werner1122.JPG
Echinops sphaerocephalus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Subtribe Carduinae[edit]

Genus Onopordum[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Onopordum
Onopordum Cottonthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
Scotch thistle,
Scotch cottonthistle
Introduced
Talamantes - Onopordum acanthium.jpg
Onopordum acanthium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XM





Images, wsp
Genus Arctium[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Arctium
Arctium Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3

Arctium vulgare
A. minus ssp. nemorosum
Arctium nemorosum
Lappa major
Greater burdock Introduced
Arctium lappa02.jpg
Arctium lappa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Common burdock,
Lesser burdock
Introduced
Arctium minus corimbo.jpg
Arctium minus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Woolly burdock Introduced
Arctium tomentosum (inflorescences).jpg
Arctium tomentosum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Silybum[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Silybum
Silybum Milk thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Gaertn.
Blessed milkthistle,
St. Mary's thistle
Introduced
Milk thistle flowerhead.jpg
Silybum marianum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Cirsium[edit]
New-World Cirsium[edit]
The North American thistles found in New York are here divided into two groups that are known to freely hybridize within the individual group.
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Cirsium
Cirsium(North American - HG1) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.

1803. Cnicus discolor Muhl. ex Willd.
1818. Carduus discolor
   (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt.

1826. Cirsium discolor
   (Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.
Field thistle,
Pasture thistle

Chardon discolore,
Circe discolore
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 1

WL: UPL

Biennial-perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium discolor (2920446455).jpg
Cirsium discolor NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 Michx.

1803. Cirsium muticum Michx.
1807. Carduus muticus (Michx.) Pers.
1838. Cirsium bigelovii DC.
Swamp thistle,
Dunce-nettle,
Horsetops

Chardon mutique,
Circe mutique
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 9

WL: OBL

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium muticum 1-eheep (5097848362).jpg
Cirsium muticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 (L.) Spreng.

1753. Carduus altissimus L.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill
Tall thistle,
Roadside thistle
Native,
Likely extirpated,
CoC: 10?

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium altissimum drawing.png
Cirsium altissimum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
 (Rydb.) Arthur

1900. Carduus flodmanii Rydb.
1912. Cirsium flodmanii
     Cirsium oblanceolatum
Flodman's thistle,
Prairie thistle
Introduced,
Midwest native,
Preglacial relict?

WL: FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsiumflodmanii.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngCirsium flodmanii drawing.png
Cirsium flodmanii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
Cirsium(North American - HG2) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 Spreng.
var. pumilum

1818. Carduus pumilus Nutt.
1826. Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.) Spreng.
1911. C. odoratum (Muhl. ex Steud.) Petr.
    
Pasture thistle,
Fragrant thistle,
Bull thistle

Chardon nain
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 1

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium pumilum drawing 1.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngCirsium pumilum (14553847355).jpg
Cirsium pumilum var pumilum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 Michx.
var. horridulum

1803. Cirsium horridulum Michx.
    
    
Yellow thistle,
Giant thistle,
Bristly thistle,
Horrid thistle,
Bull thistle
Native,
Unranked,
CoC: 5

WL: FACU

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium horridulum NRCS.jpg
Cirsium horridulum var horridulum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-N
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
FNA 
BNA 

Images, wsp
Old-World Cirsium[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Cirsium
Cirsium(Eurasian ) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 (Savi) Ten.

1753. Carduus lanceolatus L.
1798. Carduus vulgaris Savi
1835. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
1938. Ci. vulgare Airy Shaw (hom.)
1972. Ci. lanceolatum Scop.non Hill
Bull thistle,
Common thistle,
Spear thistle,
Scotch thistle

Chardon vulgaire,
Chardon lancéolé,
Gros chardon,
Circe commun,
Circe vulgaire
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Widespread weed,
NE-3[1],
Invasive.org

WL: FACU

Biennial,
Hert-forb
Cirsium vulgare - carrick tasmania.JPG
Cirsium vulgare NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
(L.) Scop.

1753. Carduus palustris L.
1772. Cirsium Palustre (L.) Scop.
    
Marsh thistle,
European marsh thistle,
European swamp thistle

Chardon des marais,
Cirse des marais
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68% [2],
NE-2[3]

WL: FACW

Perennial,
Hert-forb
Kveten pr skalak u senotina 18.jpg
Cirsium palustre NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XW
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
(L.) Scop.

1753. Serratula arvensis L.
1772. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
1777. Carduus arvensis (L.) E.Robson
1819. Cirsium incanum
   (S.G.Gmel.) Fisch. ex M.Bieb.

1819. Cirsium setosum (Willd.) M.Bieb.
Canada thistle,
Creeping thistle,
Field thistle

Chardon des champs,
Chardon du Canada,
Circe des champs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 71%[4],
Prohibited[5],
CP-2[6] NE-2[3]

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Hert-forb
20050716-004-thistle.jpg
Cirsium arvense NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium palustre: Moderately invaisve (68%).
  3. a b Category 2 Plants - moderately invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium arvense: Highly invasive (71%).
  5. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  6. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
Genus Carduus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Carduus
Carduus Plumeless thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
ssp. acanthoides
Spiny plumeless thistle Introduced
Carduus acanthoides syp 2.JPG
Carduus acanthoides ssp acanthoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Curled plumless-thistle,
Welted thistle,
Curled thistle
Introduced
Carduus crispus 002a.JPG
Carduus crispus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Musk thistle,
Nodding thistle,
Nodding plumeless thistle
Introduced
Carduus nutans 6 (Espagne).JPG
Carduus nutans NY-dist-map.png

USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Italian thistle Introduced,
Unvouchered waif
Carduus pycnocephalus 1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngCarduus pycnocephalus 2.jpg
Carduus pycnocephalus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-U
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Subtribe Centaureinae[edit]

The Centaureinae[1]

Genus Plectocephalus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Plectocephalus
Plectocephalus Basketflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

Centaurea americana
American star-thistle,
American basketflower,
Powderpuff thistle,
Thornless thistle
Excluded,
US Southcentral native
Centaurea americana2.jpg
Plectocephalus americanus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Excluded
USDA-N0
NEW-0


BNA 

Images, wsp
Genus Centaurea[edit]
Centaurea subg. Centaurea – diffusa clade[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaureasubg. Centaureaclade diffusa Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L.
ssp. micranthos (S.G.Gmel. ex Gugler) Hayek

1838. Centaurea biebersteinii DC.
1872. Centaurea australis Pančić ex A. Kern.
1907. C. maculosa ssp. micranthos Gugler
1931. C. stoebe ssp. micranthos Hayek
2003. C. stoebe ssp. australis Greuter
auct. Centaurea maculosa non Lam.
auct. Acosta maculosa non (Lam.) Holub
Spotted knapweed,
Spotted star-thistle

Centaurée maculée,
Centaurée tachetée
Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
CP-3[2] NE-1[3]
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos EP4490-04.png
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
 Lam.

1785. Centaurea diffusa Lam.
1799. Centaurea parviflora Desf.
1822. Centaurea parviflora Besser hom.
1970. Centaurea microcalathina A.O.Tarassov
1972. Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soják
Diffuse knapweed,
White knapweed,
Tumble knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
FEIS
Centaurea diffusa 0021031.jpg
Centaurea diffusa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-0
USDA-XX

ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp

Centaurea diffusa ×
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos
Hybrid of
 Diffuse knapweed &
 Spotted knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1]
Centaurea diffusa 1459254.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngCentaurea stoebe ssp micranthos EP4490-06.png
Centaurea × psammogena NY-dist-map.png

USDA-0X





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea cineraria L.
1785. Centaurea candidissima Lam.
1839. Centaurea gymnocarpa Moris & DeNot.[4]
1974. Acosta cineraria (L.) Holub
Star-thistle,
Dusty miller
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Casual escape
Centaurea cineraria, Manie van der Schijff BT.jpg
Centaurea cineraria NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
Trop.

IPN 
Images, wsp
Jersey knapweed Introduced,
Impersistent,
Questionable[5]
Centaurea paniculata 000191782.jpg
Centaurea paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ITIS



Images, wsp
  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentC. stoebe, C. diffusa, C. × psammogena: High (79).
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. Euro+Med Plantbase lists Centaurea gymnocarpa as an accepted species, while the Global Compositae Checklist lists it as a synonym of Centaurea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2014.1, states "C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor."
  5. The naturalized status of Centaurea paniculata in New York is in question. Its checklist entries are based on reports only. No known specimens from New York exist. It is similar in appearance to Centaurea stoebe.
Centaurea subg. Centaurea – jacea clade[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaureasubg. Centaureaclade jacea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L.

1753. Centaurea jacea L.
1778. Jacea pratensis Lam.
1799. Centaurea pratensis Thuill. hom.
Brown knapweed,
Brownray knapweed,
Brown-rayed knapweed,,
Brown starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1],
CP-3[2]
Centaurea jacea seite.jpeg
Centaurea jacea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
Lesser knapweed,
Black knapweed,
Common knapweed,
Black starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea nigra.JPG
Centaurea nigra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Centaurea vochinensis
C. dubia ssp. vochinensis
Centaurea pratensis
C. debeauxii ssp. thuillieri
Short-fringed starthistle,
Tyrol knapweed,
Short-fringed knapweed,
Vochin knapweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea nigrescens subsp. nigrescens bgiu.jpg
Centaurea nigrescens NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp

Centaurea jacea ×
Centaurea nigra

Centaurea pratensis
Meadow knapweed,
Protean knapweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea × moncktonii 5435714.jpg
Centaurea × moncktonii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-0X





Images, wsp
 (L.) L.

1753. Cnicus benedictus L.
1763. Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.
1895. Cirsium pugnax Sommier & Levier
1908. Carduus benedictus Thell. inval.
Blessed thistle,
Our Lady's thistle

Chardon béni,
Cnicaut béni,
Chardon bénit
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
C. benedictus.jpg
Centaurea benedicta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 
Images, wsp

     Centaurea austriaca
     C. uniflora ssp. nervosa
Wig knapweed Introduced,
Not naturalized
Centaurea phrygia by Igors Jefimovs.jpg
Centaurea phrygia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Centaurea – aspera clade[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaurea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
Rough star-thistle Introduced
Centaurea aspera flor.jpg
Centaurea aspera NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp
Purple starthistle,
Red star-thistle,
Caltrops
Introduced
Centaurea calcitrapa 01.JPG
Centaurea calcitrapa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
North African knapweed Introduced
Centaurea diluta (37.548916,-4.640892,Co,IV,MFR) D3S2 01c.jpg
Centaurea diluta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0





Images, wsp
Great starthistle,
Greater knapweed,
Hardheads,
Scabious knapweed,
Greater centaury
Introduced
Centaurea scabiosa.jpeg
Centaurea scabiosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 L.
Yellow starthistle,
Barnaby star-thistle,
St. Barnaby’s thistle
Introduced
Centaurea solstitialis InflorescenceCloseup 20June2009 CampodeCalatrava.jpg
Centaurea solstitialis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Cyanus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Cyanus
Centaureasubg. Cyanus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L. (1753)

Cyanus segetum Hill (1769)
Centaurea pulchra DC. (1837)
Cornflower,
Bachelor’s-button,
Bluebottle,
Bluebonnets
Introduced,
IO
Bachelor's button, Basket flower, Boutonniere flower, Cornflower - 1.jpg
Centaurea cyanus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea montana L.
1768}Cyanus montanus. (L) Hill
Mountain starthistle,
Mountain cornflower,
Mountain bluet,
Perennial cornflower
Introduced
0 Centaurea montana - Centaurée des montagnes (1).JPG
Centaurea montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Carthamus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Carthamus
Carthamus Distaff thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Safflower Introduced,
Impersistent
Carthamus tinctorius 050709b.JPG
Carthamus tinctorius NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp