Flora of New York/Carduoideae

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Aquifoliaceae, Campanulaceae, Menyanthaceae
Flora of New York — Asterales : Asteraceae : Carduoideae : Cardueae
Cichorioideae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index
Centaurea stoebe ssp. micranthos

Family Asteraceae[edit]

The Asteraceae (or Compositae)

Subfamily Carduoideae[edit]

Tribe Cardueae[edit]

The Cardueae is a mostly non-native tribe of Asteraceae. It contains various thistles and knapweeds, many of which are considered highly invasive in the region.

Subtribe Carlininae[edit]

fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carlininae
Carlina Carline-thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
ssp. vulgaris

    C. vulgaris ssp. longifolia
Carline thistle Introduced
Carlina vulgaris 02 (HS).JPG
Carlina vulgaris ssp vulgaris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Subtribe Echinopsinae[edit]

fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Echinopsinae
Echinops Globethistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Great globethistle Introduced
Echinops sphaerocephalus Werner1122.JPG
Echinops sphaerocephalus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






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Subtribe Carduinae[edit]

Genus Onopordum[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Onopordum
Onopordum Cottonthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

Scotch thistle,
Scotch cottonthistle
Introduced
Talamantes - Onopordum acanthium.jpg
Onopordum acanthium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XM






Images, wsp
Genus Arctium[edit]

Only the two burdock species Arctium lappa (greater burdock) and A. minus (lesser burdock) are currently listed as naturalized in New York. Specimens of A. minus were apparently misidentified as A. tomentosum in the past.

fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Arctium
Arctium Burdock N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3

1753. Arctium lappa L.
1762. Lappa vulgaris Hill
1785. Lappa officinalis All.
1791. Lappa major Gaertn.
1800. Arctium majus Bernh.
1833. Arctium nemorosum Lej. & Court.
1883. Lappa lappa (L.) H.Karst. (i)
1913. Arctium vulgare (Hill) A.H.Evans
1928. Arctium edule Beger
Greater burdock,
Great burdock,
Edible burdock,
Beggar's-buttons

Grande bardane,
Bardane majeure,
Rhubarbe sauvage,
Graquias,
Toques,
Rapace
Introduced from
 Eurasia
Arctium lappa01.jpg
Arctium lappa NY-dist-map.png
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(Hill) Bernh.

1762. Lappa minor Hill
1800. Arctium minus (Hill) Bernh.
1856. Arctium pubens Bab.
Lesser burdock,
Common burdock,
Cuckoo-button

Petite bardane,
Bardane mineure,
Bardane,
Tabac du diable,
Tapace,
Chou bourache,
Cibourroche,
Graquias
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
Lesser burdock (Arctium minor) - geograph.org.uk - 929695.jpg
Arctium minus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Mill.

1768. Arctium tomentosum Mill.
    
    
Woolly burdock,
Hairy burdock

Bardane tomenteuse
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Excluded
Arctium tomentosum (inflorescences).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
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Genus Silybum[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Silybum
Silybum Milk thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Gaertn.

1753. Carduus marianus L.
1768. Mariana mariana (L.) Hill (i)
1791. Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.
Milk-thistle,
Blessed milkthistle,
St. Mary's thistle
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

Biennial,
Herb-forb
20130727Silybum marianum4.jpg
Silybum marianum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Genus Cirsium[edit]
New-World Cirsium[edit]
The North American thistles found in New York are here divided into two groups that are known to freely hybridize within the individual group.
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Cirsium
Cirsium(North American - HG1) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.

1803. Cnicus discolor Muhl. ex Willd.
1818. Carduus discolor
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt.
1826. Cirsium discolor
(Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng.
Field thistle,
Pasture thistle

Chardon discolore,
Circe discolore
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

UPL

Biennial-perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium discolor (2920446455).jpg
Cirsium discolor NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

FNA Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Michx.

1803. Cirsium muticum Michx.
1807. Carduus muticus (Michx.) Pers.
1838. Cirsium bigelovii DC.
Swamp thistle,
Dunce-nettle,
Horsetops

Chardon mutique,
Circe mutique
Native, CoC: 9,
Secure

OBL

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium muticum 1-eheep (5097848362).jpg
Cirsium muticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
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Images, wsp
 (L.) Spreng.

1753. Carduus altissimus L.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng.
1826. Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill
Tall thistle,
Roadside thistle
Native, CoC: 10?,
Likely extirpated

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium altissimum drawing.png
Cirsium altissimum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
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 (Rydb.) Arthur

1900. Carduus flodmanii Rydb.
1912. Cirsium flodmanii
    Cirsium oblanceolatum
Flodman's thistle,
Prairie thistle
Introduced,
Midwest native,
Preglacial relict?

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsiumflodmanii.jpg
Cirsium flodmanii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp
Cirsium(North American - HG2) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 Spreng.
var. pumilum

1818. Carduus pumilus Nutt.
1826. Cirsium pumilum (Nutt.) Spreng.
1911. C. odoratum (Muhl. ex Steud.) Petr.
    
Pasture thistle,
Fragrant thistle,
Bull thistle

Chardon nain
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium pumilum drawing 1.png
Cirsium pumilum var pumilum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
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 Michx.
var. horridulum

1803. Cirsium horridulum Michx.
    
    
Yellow thistle,
Giant thistle,
Bristly thistle,
Horrid thistle,
Bull thistle
Native, CoC: 5,
Unranked

FACU

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb
Cirsium horridulum NRCS.jpg
Cirsium horridulum var horridulum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-N
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Images, wsp
Old-World Cirsium[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Cirsium
Cirsium(Eurasian ) Thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 9
 (Savi) Ten.

1753. Carduus lanceolatus L.
1798. Carduus vulgaris Savi
1835. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
1938. Ci. vulgare Airy Shaw (hom.)
1972. Ci. lanceolatum Scop.non Hill
Bull thistle,
Common thistle,
Spear thistle,
Scotch thistle

Chardon vulgaire,
Chardon lancéolé,
Gros chardon,
Circe commun,
Circe vulgaire
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Widespread weed,
NE-3[1],
Invasive.org

FACU

Biennial,
Hert-forb
Cirsium vulgare - carrick tasmania.JPG
Cirsium vulgare NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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(L.) Scop.

1753. Carduus palustris L.
1772. Cirsium Palustre (L.) Scop.
    
Marsh thistle,
European marsh thistle,
European swamp thistle

Chardon des marais,
Cirse des marais
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68% [2],
NE-2[3]

FACW

Perennial,
Hert-forb
Kveten pr skalak u senotina 18.jpg
Cirsium palustre NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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(L.) Scop.

1753. Serratula arvensis L.
1772. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.
1777. Carduus arvensis (L.) E.Robson
1819. Cirsium incanum
(S.G.Gmel.) Fisch. ex M.Bieb.
1819. Cirsium setosum (Willd.) M.Bieb.
Canada thistle,
Creeping thistle,
Field thistle

Chardon des champs,
Chardon du Canada,
Circe des champs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 71%[4],
Prohibited[5],
CP-2[6] NE-2[3]

FACU

Perennial,
Hert-forb
20050716-004-thistle.jpg
Cirsium arvense NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  2. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium palustre: Moderately invaisve (68%).
  3. a b Category 2 Plants - moderately invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentCirsium arvense: Highly invasive (71%).
  5. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Regulation 6 NYCRR Part 575 Prohibited and Regulated Invasive Species
  6. Appendix 2. Plant species that are considered highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
Genus Carduus[edit]
Asterales – fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Carduus
Carduus Plumeless thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
ssp. acanthoides

Spiny plumeless thistle Introduced
Carduus acanthoides syp 2.JPG
Carduus acanthoides ssp acanthoides NY-dist-map.png
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Images, wsp

Curled plumless-thistle,
Welted thistle,
Curled thistle
Introduced
Carduus crispus 002a.JPG
Carduus crispus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Musk thistle,
Nodding thistle,
Nodding plumeless thistle
Introduced
Carduus nutans 6 (Espagne).JPG
Carduus nutans NY-dist-map.png

USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Italian thistle Introduced,
Unvouchered waif
Carduus pycnocephalus 1.jpg
Carduus pycnocephalus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-U
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Genus Serratula[edit]
Asterales – fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Carduinae – genus Serratula
Serratula (excluded) Plumeless saw-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution
L.

    Serratula tinctoria L.
    
    
Dyer's plumeless saw-wort,
Saw-wort
Introduced,
Excluded

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Serratula tinctoria ENBLA09.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
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Subtribe Centaureinae[edit]

The Centaureinae contains knapweeds and starthistles, none of which are native to New York, and some of which are considered to be seriously invasive in the state.[1]

Genus Plectocephalus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Plectocephalus
Plectocephalus Basketflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
Nutt.

1821. Centaurea americana Nutt.
1830. Plectocephalus americanus
(Nutt.) D.Don
American star-thistle,
American basketflower,
Powderpuff thistle,
Thornless thistle
Introduced from
 south-central US,
Excluded
Centaurea americana2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-N0
NEW-0
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BNA


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Genus Centaurea[edit]
Centaurea subg. Centaureadiffusa clade[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaureasubg. Centaureaclade diffusa Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L.
ssp. micranthos
(S.G.Gmel. ex Gugler) Hayek

1838. Centaurea biebersteinii DC.
1872. C. australis Pančić ex A. Kern.
1907. C. maculosa ssp. micranthos
1931. C. stoebe ssp. micranthos
2003. C. stoebe ssp. australis
 auct. C. maculosanon Lam.
 auct. Acosta maculosanon (Lam.) Holub
Spotted knapweed,
Spotted star-thistle

Centaurée maculée,
Centaurée tachetée
Introduced from
 southeast Europe,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
CP-3[2] NE-1[3]
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos EP4490-05.png
Centaurea stoebe ssp micranthos NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp
 Lam.

1785. Centaurea diffusa Lam.
1799. C. parviflora Desf.
1822. C. parviflora Besser hom.
1970. C. microcalathina A.O.Tarassov
1972. Acosta diffusa (Lam.) Soják
Diffuse knapweed,
White knapweed,
Tumble knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1],
FEIS
Centaurea diffusa 1459254.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-XX

ARS 
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Images, wsp

Centaurea diffusa ×
C. stoebe ssp. micranthos

Hybrid of
 Diffuse knapweed &
 Spotted knapweed
Introduced,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 79%[1]
Chess tile xx.svg
Nymap.svg

USDA-0X






Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea cineraria L.
1785. C. candidissima Lam.
1839. C. gymnocarpa Moris & DeNot.[4]
1974. Acosta cineraria (L.) Holub
Silver knapweed,
Star-thistle,
Dusty miller
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization
Centaurea cineraria, Manie van der Schijff BT.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS
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IPN 

Images, wsp

Jersey knapweed Introduced,
Excluded,
Note[5]
Centaurea paniculata 000191782.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
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ITIS




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  1. a b c New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentC. stoebe, C. diffusa, C. × psammogena: High (79).
  2. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)
  3. Category 1 Plants - highly invasive - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
  4. Euro+Med Plantbase lists Centaurea gymnocarpa as an accepted species, while the Global Compositae Checklist lists it as a synonym of Centaurea cinerea. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version 2014.1, states "C. gymnocarpa belongs to the group known as the "cineraria" group. This group probably was once a single species when the land masses were united, but as islands were formed, new species evolved on each island. This means that today there are a number of closely related species of Centaurea in the Mediterranean growing on rocky seaward cliffs, all probably related to a common ancestor."
  5. Centaurea paniculata checklist entries were based on reports only. No known specimens from New York exist. It is similar in appearance to Centaurea stoebe.
Centaurea subg. Centaureajacea clade[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaureasubg. Centaureaclade jacea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L.

1753. Centaurea jacea L.
1778. Jacea pratensis Lam.
1799. Centaurea pratensis Thuill. (i)
Brown knapweed,
Brownray knapweed,
Brown-rayed knapweed,,
Brown starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1],
CP-3[2]
Centaurea jacea seite.jpeg
Centaurea jacea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Images, wsp

Lesser knapweed,
Black knapweed,
Common knapweed,
Black starthistle
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea nigra.JPG
Centaurea nigra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp
 Willd.

1803. Centaurea nigrescens Willd.
1831. C. vochinensis Bernh. ex Rchb.
1917. C. dubia ssp. nigrescens
1917. C. dubia ssp. vochinensis
    C. pratensis
    C. debeauxii ssp. thuillieri
Tyrol knapweed,
Short-fringed knapweed,
Short-fringed starthistle,
Vochin knapweed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea nigrescens subsp. nigrescens bgiu.jpg
Centaurea nigrescens NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Centaurea jacea ×
Centaurea nigra

Centaurea pratensis
Meadow knapweed,
Protean knapweed
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Centaurea × moncktonii 5435714.jpg
Centaurea × moncktonii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp

    Centaurea austriaca
    C. uniflora ssp. nervosa
Wig knapweed Introduced,
Impersistent,
Unk. naturalization
Centaurea phrygia by Igors Jefimovs.jpg
Centaurea phrygia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xu
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Images, wsp
 (L.) L.

1753. Cnicus benedictus L.
1763. Centaurea benedicta (L.) L.
1895. Cirsium pugnax
Sommier & Levier
1908. Carduus benedictus Thell. (i)
Blessed thistle,
Our Lady's thistle

Chardon béni,
Cnicaut béni,
Chardon bénit
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Not naturalized
C. benedictus.jpg
Centaurea benedicta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Centaureaaspera clade[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Centaurea
Centaurea Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16

Rough star-thistle Introduced
Centaurea aspera flor.jpg
Centaurea aspera NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp

Purple starthistle,
Red star-thistle,
Caltrops
Introduced
Centaurea calcitrapa 01.JPG
Centaurea calcitrapa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

North African knapweed Introduced
Centaurea diluta (37.548916,-4.640892,Co,IV,MFR) D3S2 01c.jpg
Centaurea diluta NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Great starthistle,
Greater knapweed,
Hardheads,
Scabious knapweed,
Greater centaury
Introduced
Centaurea scabiosa.jpeg
Centaurea scabiosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Yellow starthistle,
Barnaby star-thistle,
St. Barnaby’s thistle
Introduced
Centaurea solstitialis InflorescenceCloseup 20June2009 CampodeCalatrava.jpg
Centaurea solstitialis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp
Centaurea subg. Cyanus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Centaureasubg. Cyanus
Centaureasubg. Cyanus Knapweed, Starthistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 16
 L. (1753)

1769. Cyanus segetum Hill
1837. Centaurea pulchra DC.
Cornflower,
Bachelor’s-button,
Bluebottle,
Bluebonnets
Introduced,
IO
Bachelor's button, Basket flower, Boutonniere flower, Cornflower - 1.jpg
Centaurea cyanus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Centaurea montana L.
1768. Cyanus montanus (L) Hill
Mountain starthistle,
Mountain cornflower,
Mountain bluet,
Perennial cornflower
Introduced
0 Centaurea montana - Centaurée des montagnes (1).JPG
Centaurea montana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Genus Carthamus[edit]
fam. Asteraceae – subfam. Carduoideae – tribe Cardueae – subtr. Centaureinae – genus Carthamus
Carthamus Distaff thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Carthamus tinctorius L.
1753. Cathamus tinctorius L. (i)
Safflower,
Dyer's-saffron,
False saffron,
Bastard-saffron
Introduced from
 western Asia?,
 eastern Med.?,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Carthamus tinctorius 002.JPG
Carthamus tinctorius NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.



Images, wsp