Flora of New York/Proteales…Saxifragales

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Ranunculales
Flora of New York — Proteales, Buxales, Saxifragales
Vitales, Zygophyllales, Celastrales, Oxalidales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Saxifragales is the basal clade of the superrosids, indicating that Saxifragales is the sister to the rosids.
Clade Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genus Common names #
sister to
rosids
Saxifragales Paeoniaceae Paeonia peony 1
Altingiaceae Liquidambar sweetgum 1
Hamamelidaceae Hamamelidoideae Hamamelideae Hamamelis witchhazel 1
Cercidiphyllaceae Cercidiphyllum katsura tree 1
Crassulaceae Crassuloideae Crassula pygmyweed 1
Sempervivoideae Umbiliceae Rhodiola roseroot stonecrop 2
Hylotelephium stonecrop 3
Phedimus false stonecrop 1
Semperviveae Sempervivum houseleek, hen-and-chickens 1
Sedeae Sedum stonecrop 7
Haloragaceae Myriophylleae Myriophyllum watermilfoil 10
Proserpinaca mermaidweed 2
Penthoraceae Penthorum ditch-stonecrop 1
Grossulariaceae Ribes currant, gooseberry 12
Saxifragaceae Saxifragoideae Saxifrageae Saxifraga saxifrage 5
Heucheroideae Chrysosplenieae Chrysosplenium golden saxifrage 1
Heuchereae Tiarella foamflower 1
Mitella miterwort 3
Heuchera alumroot 2
Astilbe florist's spiraea 1

Order Proteales[edit | edit source]

The order Proteales contains the lotus (Nelumbonaceae) and sycamore (Platanaceae) families, each of which has a single species known to be native or naturalized in New York.

Family Nelumbonaceae[edit | edit source]

The Nelumbonaceae (lotus family) has two species of aquatic plants found in New York.

Nelumbo[edit | edit source]

Nelumbo lutea, Sodus Bay, Homer D. House, State Botanist, 1916
Nelumbo lutea (American lotus) is a North American native that was probably introduced to New York from further south prior to widespread European settlement. Early botanists considered Nelumbo lutea to be native to the area around Sodus Bay, but it may have been cultivated there by Native Americans using plants brought from the South. It is now extirpated from that area, but naturalized pants persist elsewhere in the state.

Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) is from tropical Asia and has been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas. It is likely to be cultivated and would be considered invasive if allowed to naturalize.


Proteales — Nelumbonaceae — Nelumbo
Nelumbo Lotus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Willd.

1788. Nymphaea pentapetala Walter
rej.
1799. Nelumbo pentapetala Willd
rej.
1799. Nelumbium luteum Willd.
1799. Nelumbo lutea Willd.
1996. Nelumbo nucifera
ssp. lutea Borsch & Barthlott
American lotus,
Great yellow water-lily,
Water-chinquapin,
Yellow lotus
Introduced,
N. America native,
Rare
Nelumbo lutea WFNY-055.jpg
Nelumbo lutea nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Nelumbo (excluded taxa) Lotus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Gaertn.

1753. Nymphaea nelumbo L.
1788. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.
1799. Nelumbo speciosa Willd.
1799. Nelumbium speciosum Willd.
East Indian lotus,
Oriental lotus,
Pink lotus,
Sacred bean,
Sacred lotus
Introduced from
 tropical Asia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 64%[1],
Excluded[2]
Nelumbo nucifera (4).JPG
Nymap.svg
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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentNelumbo nucifera: invasive (64).
  2. Nelumbo nucifera is likely to become invasive if introduced on Long Island.[1]

Family Platanaceae[edit | edit source]

The Platanaceae (sycamore family) is represented in New York by the native American Sycamore and the London plane tree, which is probably a hybrid of the American Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) and the Oriental plane (Platanus orientalis) from Eurasia.[1] Although widely planted as a street tree, the London plane tree is not known to naturalize extensively in New York.

Platanus[edit | edit source]

Sycamore is a common wetland and riparian tree and is among the largest of the eastern deciduous trees. Sycamores are among the fastest-growing trees in the region and reach the largest diameter of any North American hardwood.[1] The New York State Champion sycamore tree was reported in Dutchess County in 2011 at 117 feet tall, with a circumfrence of 27 feet.[2]
Proteales — Platanaceae — Platanus
Platanus Sycamore N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Platanus occidentalis L.
1901. P. glabrata Fernald
1919. P. occidentalis var. glabrata
1919. P. occidentalis var. attenuata
Eastern sycamore
American sycamore
American plane-tree
Buttonwood tree
Buttonball tree

Platane occidental,
Platane d'Amérique,
Platane d'Occident
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Platanus occidentalis Bloomington.jpg
Platanus occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
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Platanus (excluded taxa) Sycamore N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Mill. ex Münchh

Platanus occidentalis ×
Platanus orientalis

1770. P. hispanica Mill. ex Münchh.
1789. P. orientalis var. acerifolia
1804. P. hybridus Brot.
1805. P. acerifolia (Aiton) Willd.
1919. P. acerifolia var. hispanica
London planetree,
Maple-leaved plane-tree,
London sycamore,
Hybrid of
 American sycamore &
 Oriental planetree
Platane à feuilles d'érable,
Hybride de
 platane occidental et de
 platane oriental
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded,
Cultivated only
Platanus acerifolia Victoria Park.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Order Buxales[edit | edit source]

The order Buxales...

Family Buxaceae[edit | edit source]

The Buxaceae (box family)

Subfamily Buxoideae[edit | edit source]

Buxus[edit | edit source]
Buxus sempervirens

Buxales — Buxaceae — Buxoideae — Buxus
Buxus Boxwood N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Buxus sempervirens L.
1785. Buxus myrtifolia Lam.
1947. Buxus colchica Pojark.
1947. Buxus hyrcana Pojark.
Common boxwood,
Common box
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Unknown naturalization,
SNA, GNR

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Gewöhnlicher Buchsbaum mit Blüteknäuel.JPG
Buxus sempervirens nymap.svg
Orange (1993),
Queens (1986),
Suffolk
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Subfamily Pachysandroideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Pachysandreae[edit | edit source]
Pachysandra[edit | edit source]
Pachysandra terminalis - Japanese pachysandra
Japanese pachysandra is widely planted as a ground-cover and tends to persist, spreading vegetatively to adjacent wooded areas, where it can be difficult to remove. Allegheny pachysandra is planted as a "native" substitute, and is probably unlikely to naturalize as far north as New York State.[1]
  1. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, 02/07/2012 considers reports of naturalized Pachysandra procumbens to have been based on planted specimens.
Buxales — Buxaceae — Pachysandroideae — Pachysandreae — Pachysandra
Pachysandra Pachysandra N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Michx.

1803. Pachysandra procumbens
Michx.
Allegheny pachysandra,
Allegheny spurge
Introduced from
 southern US,
US South native,
NYS Tier buffer,
No specimens[1],
SNA

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Pachysandra procumbens.jpg
Pachysandra procumbens nymap.svg
NYFA-0
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Siebold & Zucc.

1845. Pachysandra terminalis
Siebold & Zucc.
Japanese pachysandra,
Japanese spurge
Introduced from
 China & Japan,
Highly invasive,
NYS Tier 3,
WW
Pachysandra terminalis - Bourgeons.jpg
Pachysandra terminalis nymap.svg
8 counties
NYFA-X
USDA-X
ARS-GRIN

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  1. Long Island Botanical Society Newsletter (18:2, Spring 2008) reported "two patches in the uplands of Oakland Lake [Queens]." and "…from North Hempstead Township in Nassau County."

Order Saxifragales[edit | edit source]

The order Saxifragales has about 15 families worldwide. Of these, ten are represented in New York.

Family Paeoniaceae[edit | edit source]

The Paeoniaceae (peony family)...

Paeonia[edit | edit source]

Saxifragales — Paeoniaceae — Paeonia
Paeonia Peony N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pall.

1776. Paeonia lactiflora Pall.
1788. Paeonia albiflora Pall.
18??. Paeonia sinensis hort. ex Steud.
1870. Paeonia chinensis hort. ex E.Vilm.
Garden peony
Chinese peony
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Rarely spreads
Paeonia lactiflora (Paeoniaceae) (34988588263).jpg
Paeonia lactiflora nymap.svg
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Family Altingiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Altingiaceae (sweetgum family) contains only about fifteen species and its segregation from Hamamelidaceae has only recently been widely accepted. One of its three genera (Semiliquidambar) may comprise intergeneric hybrids of the other two (Altingia and Liquidambar), so revisions within this family may be forthcoming.

Liquidambar[edit | edit source]

Liquidambar styraciflua is the only North American species of Liquidambar, or sweetgum. It is most common in the forests of the southeastern United States, but its native range appears to extend as far north as southeastern New York State. It is cultivated elsewhere in the state and seems to be able to naturalize in some upstate locations.
Saxifragales — Altingiaceae — Liquidambar
Liquidambar Sweet gum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Liquidambar styraciflua L.
1796. Liquidambar gummifera Salisb.
1812. Liquidambar barbata Stokes
1863. Liquidambar macrophylla Oerst.
1863. L. styraciflua var. mexicana Oerst.
Sweetgum,
American sweetgum,
American sweet-gum,
Redgum,
American storax
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure



Perennial,
Tree
NAS-062-c Liquidambar styraciflua.png
Liquidambar styraciflua nymap.svg
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Family Hamamelidaceae[edit | edit source]

The Hamamelidaceae...

Subfamily Hamamelidoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Hamamelideae[edit | edit source]
Hamamelis[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Hamamelidaceae — Hamamelidoideae — Hamamelideae — Hamamelis
Hamamelis Witchhazel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Hamamelis virginiana L.
1788. Hamamelis androgyna Walter
1788. Hamamelis dioica Walter
1814. Hamamelis macrophylla Pursh
1836. Trilopus virginica (L.) Raf.
American witch-hazel,
Common witch-hazel,
Witch-hazel
Café du diable,
Hamémelis de Virginie
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Hamamelis virginiana FlowersLeaves BotGardBln0906.JPG
Hamamelis virginiana nymap.svg
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Hamamelis (excluded taxa) Witchhazel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Sarg.

1908. Hamamelis vernalis Sarg.
1932. H. vernalis var. tomentella
2007. H. virginiana ssp. vernalis
Ozark witchhazel,
Ozark witch-hazel,
Vernal witch-hazel
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Shrub, tree
Hamamelis vernalis 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
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Tribe Corylopsideae[edit | edit source]
Corylopsis[edit | edit source]
There are a number of species of winterhazel (Corylopsis) that are hardy in New York and planted as early-blooming shrubs. None of them have been reported to naturalize in the state, according to the New York Flora Atlas.
Saxifragales — Hamamelidaceae — Hamamelidoideae — Corylopsideae — Corylopsis
Corylopsis Winter hazel N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Hemsl.

1906. Corylopsis sinensis Hemsl.
    
    
Chinese winterhazel Introduced from
 Asia,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized
Corylopsis sinensis kz03.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-00
ARS-GRIN

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Spike winterhazel Introduced from
 Asia,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized
Leaves, Spike Winter Hazel - Flickr - nekonomania (1).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0

Images
Wikispecies

    
    
    
Fragrant winterhazel Introduced from
 Asia,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized
Corylopsis glabrescens - fin de floraison.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0

Images
Wikispecies

    
    
    
Buttercup winterhazel Introduced from
 Asia,
Cultivated,
Not naturalized
Corylopsis pauciflora (flower).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0

Images
Wikispecies
Tribe Fothergilleae[edit | edit source]
Fothergilla[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Hamamelidaceae — Hamamelidoideae — Fothergilleae — Fothergilla
Fothergilla Witch-alder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1774. Fothergilla gardenii L.
1782. Fothergilla alnifolia L.f.
1894. Fothergilla carolina Britton
1903. Fothergilla parvifolia Kearney
Dwarf witchalder Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

Perennial,
Shrub
Fothergilla gardenii 'Mount Airy'.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
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 (Sims) Lodd.

1810. Fothergilla alnifolia var. major Sims
1829. Fothergilla major (Sims) Lodd.
1897. Fothergilla monticola Ashe
Witch-alder,
Mountain witchalder
Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

Perennial,
Shrub
Fothergilla major4.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
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Family Cercidiphyllaceae[edit | edit source]

The Cercidiphyllaceae contains only the Asian genus Cercidiphyllum.

Cercidiphyllum[edit | edit source]

Cercidiphyllum contains the two Asian species, C. japonicum and C. magnificum, the first of which, the katsura-tree has been reported outside of cultivation in Kings, Nassau and Queens Counties.
Saxifragales — Cercidiphyllaceae — Cercidiphyllum
Cercidiphyllum Katsura N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Siebold & Zucc. ex J.J.Hoffm. & J.H.Schult. bis

1846. Cercidiphyllum japonicum Siebold & Zucc.
1864. C. japonicum J.J.Hoffm. & J.H.Schult. bis
1913. C. japonicum
var. sinense Rehder & E.H.Wilson
Katsura-tree,
Toffee-apple tree
Introduced from
 Japan, China,
Potentially invasive
Cercidiphyllum japonicum01.jpg
Cercidiphyllum japonicum nymap.svg
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Family Crassulaceae[edit | edit source]

The Crassulaceae (orpine family)...

Subfamily Crassuloideae[edit | edit source]

Crassula[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Crassulaceae — Crassuloideae — Crassula
Crassula Pygmyweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (L.) Schoenl.

1753. Tillaea aquatica L.
1801. Bulliarda aquatica (L.) DC.
1840. Tillaea angustifolia Nutt.
1890. Crassula aquatica (L.) Schoenl.
1903. Tillaeastrum aquaticum (L.) Britton
1920. Hydrophila aquatica (L.) House
Water pigmy-weed,
River-leek,
Pigmy-weed
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1],
NYNHP: 1[2]
Crassula aquatica.jpg
Crassula aquatica nymap.svg
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Subfamily Sempervivoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Umbiliceae[edit | edit source]
Rhodiola[edit | edit source]
In New York, Rhodiola consists of two taxa of endangered plants.

Rhodiola integrifolia ssp. leedyi is an isolated subspecies of a common western cliff-stonecrop species (transferred from Sedum integrifolium in 1999). It has been found mainly on northwest-to-northeast-facing cliffs in southeastern Minnesota and near the southern part of Seneca Lake. It was discovered at Watkins Glen State Park in Schuyler County in 1918. The largest known population (at least 6000 plants) was discovered that same year, along about 2 miles of Glenora Cliff, on the western shore of Seneca Lake, in Yates County. It wasn't until 1994 that a third New York population was found near Glenora Falls, also in Yates County.[1][2]


Saxifragales — Crassulaceae — Sempervivoideae — Umbiliceae — Rhodiola
Rhodiola Stonecrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Rhodiola rosea L.
1771. Sedum rosea (L.) Scop.
1903. Sedum roanense Britton
1903. Rhodiola roanensis Britton
1930. Sedum rosea var. roanense
1973. Rhodiola rosea ssp. roanensis
Common roseroot,
Roseroot,
Roseroot stonecrop
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1],
NYNHP: 1[2]
Pirin zlatovrah IMG 5015.jpg
Rhodiola rosea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-NN

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 Raf.
ssp. leedyi
(Rosend. & J.W.Moore) H.Ohba

1947. Sedum rosea var. leedyi Rosend. &al.
1975. Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi
R.T.Clausen
1985. Tolmachevia integrifolia ssp. leedyi
Á.Löve & D.Löve
1999. R. integrifolia ssp. leedyi H.Ohba
Leedy's roseroot,
Leedy's stonecrop,
Rose sedum
Native,
Endangered,
Federally listed[3],
DEC-A[1],
NYNHP: 1[4]
Rhodiola integrifolia (7833421774).jpg
Rhodiola integrifolia ssp leedyi NY-dist-map.png
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Rhodiola (excluded taxa) Stonecrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
ssp. integrifolia

1832. Rhodiola integrifolia Raf. p.p.
    Sedum atropurpureum Turcz.
    R. atropurpurea (Turcz.) Trautv. & C. A. Mey.
    R. rosea ssp. integrifolia
    Sedum integrifolium (Raf.) A. Nelson
Ledge stonecrop N. America native
 western N. A.,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Rhodiola integrifolia habitus.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
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Hylotelephium[edit | edit source]

The NYFA now lists Hylotelephium telephioides as not-native to New York, but the DEC (and NYFA) still list it as endangered in New York.

Saxifragales — Crassulaceae — Sempervivoideae — Umbiliceae — Hylotelephium
Hylotelephium Stonecrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Michx.) H.Ohba

American live-forever,
Allegheny stonecrop,
Live forever
Introduced from
 southern U.S.,
N. America native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]
Hylotelephium telephioides - Allegheny Stonecrop.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NX
Go Botany
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(L.) H.Ohba.
ssp. telephium

1753. Sedum telephium L.
1821. S. triphyllum (Haw.) Gray
1843. S. purpurascens W.D.J.Koch
1878. S. telephium var. borderi
1909. S. telephium ssp. purpurascens
1961. S. telephium var. purpurascens (i)
1977. H. telephium (L.) H.Ohba.
Eurasian live-forever,
Garden stonecrop,
Witch's moneybags,
Purple orpine,
Sedum,
Live forever
Vit-toujours
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Naturalized
Sedum telephium 200907.jpg
Nymap.svg
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USDA-XX
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(Miq.) H.Ohba

Garden stonecrop,
Garden orpine
Introduced,
Naturalization unknown
Hylotelephium erythrostictum Frosty Morn kz1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
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Hylotelephium (excluded taxa) Stonecrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Sweet ex Hooker) H. Ohba

    Sedum sieboldii Sweet ex Hooker
    Hylotelephium sieboldii
(Sweet ex Hooker) H.Ohba
    
Stonecrop,
October Daphne
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Hylotelephium sieboldii 04.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-EXCLD

Images
Wikispecies
(Boreau) H.Ohba

Showy stonecrop,
Iceplant
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
Sedum spectabile Brilliant 5zz.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-X0

Images
Wikispecies
Phedimus[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Crassulaceae — Sempervivoideae — Umbiliceae — Phedimus
Phedimus Phedimus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (M.Bieb.) 't Hart

1808. Sedum spurium M.Bieb.
1815. Sedum oppositifolium Sims
1984. Asterosedum spurium Grulich
1985. Spathulata spuria Á.Löve & D.Löve
1995. Phedimus spurius 't Hart
Caucasian stonecrop,
Two-rowed stonecrop
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Naturalized
Phedimus spurius IMG 7180.JPG
Phedimus spurius NY-dist-map.png
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Phedimus (excluded taxa) Phedimus N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(J.F.Gmel.) 't Hart

1774. Sedum stoloniferum J.F.Gmel.
1995. Phedimus stolonifer
(J.F.Gmel.) 't Hart
    
Running false stonecrop,
Stolon stonecrop
Introduced from
 northern Iran,
 eastern Turkey,
N.Y. excluded
Sedum stoloniferum 02.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Wikispecies
Tribe Semperviveae[edit | edit source]
Sempervivum[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Crassulaceae — Sempervivoideae — Semperviveae — Sempervivum
Sempervivum Houseleek N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Sempervivum tectorum L.
Common houseleek,
Hen-and-chickens,
Hen-and-chicks
Joubarbe des toits
Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Sempervivum tectorum (1) 1 (ex Pyrenees).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xx
USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
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Images
Wikispecies
Tribe Sedeae[edit | edit source]
Sedum[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Crassulaceae — Sempervivoideae — Sedeae — Sedum
Sedum Stonecrop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Clausenellia ternata
Wood stonecrop,
Woodland stonecrop
Introduced,
US South native,
NY nativity unknown
Sedum ternatum (8685462617).jpg
Sedum ternatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
Go Botany
NatureServe
BONAP

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Gold-moss,
Goldmoss stonecrop
Introduced Sedum acre1.jpg
Sedum acre NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

White stonecrop Introduced Sedum album 5.JPG
Sedum album NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Spanish stonecrop Introduced Sedum hispanicum 1.jpg
Sedum hispanicum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
Fisch. & C.A.Mey.

Orange stonecrop Introduced Phedimus kamtschaticus - Botanischer Garten, Frankfurt am Main - DSC02410.jpg
Sedum kamtschaticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

    Petrosedum reflexum (L.) Grulich
    Sedum reflexum L.
Jenny's stonecrop,
Reflexed stonecrop
Introduced Sedum refexum 1.JPG
Sedum rupestre NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
 Bunge

Stringy stonecrop Introduced Sedum sarmentosum 01.JPG
Sedum sarmentosum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

Images
Wikispecies
 Chaix

Sedum anopetalum DC.
European stonecrop Introduced,
No specimens
Sedum ochroleucum.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

Images
Wikispecies

Family Haloragaceae[edit | edit source]

The Haloragaceae (watermilfoil family)...

Tribe Myriophylleae[edit | edit source]

Proserpinaca[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Haloragaceae — Myriophylleae — Proserpinaca
Proserpinaca Mermaidweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. crebra

Marsh mermaidweed Native,
Likely secure
Proserpinaca palustris 003.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
 L.
var. palustris

Marsh mermaidweed Native,
Especially vulnerable
Proserpinaca palustris 005.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
 Lam.

Comb-leaved mermaid-weed Native,
Threatened
Proserpinaca pectinata.jpeg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
Myriophyllum[edit | edit source]
The subgeneric system used here for Myriophyllum is based on Michael L. Moody and Donald H. Les (2010). "Systematics of the Aquatic Angiosperm Genus Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae)." Systematic Botany, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 2010), pp. 121-139.

The three Myriophyllum species M. spicatum, M. heterophyllum, and M. aquaticum are listed as invasive in New York State.


Myriophyllum subg. Brachytheca[edit | edit source]
Myriophyllum heterophyllum
Although Myriophyllum heterophyllum (variable-leaved water milfoil) is listed as native to New York, in is also listed as very highly invasive.
Saxifragales — Haloragaceae — Myriophylleae — Myriophyllum subg. Brachytheca
Myriophyllumsubg. Brachythecasect. Tessaronia Water-milfoil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Michx.

1803. Myriophyllum heterophyllum
Michx.
Various-leaved water milfoil,
Variable-leaved water-milfoil,
Two-leaf water-milfoil,
Broad-leaved water-milfoil,
Changeleaf parrotfeather
Introduced,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 93.62[1],
also Native,
Prohibited,
NYIS Tier 4,
S5, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum heterophyllum 5457839.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies
(Raf.) Morong

Low water-milfoil Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum humile BB-1913.png
Myriophyllum humile NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
Bigel.

Slender water-milfoil Native, CoC: 10,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum tenellum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
Morong

Farwell's water-milfoil Native, CoC: 4,
Threatened

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum farwellii BB-1913.png
Myriophyllum farwellii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
(Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

Cutleaf watermilfoil,
Cut-leaved water-milfoil,
Green parrotfeather
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum pinnatum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
Myriophyllumsubg. Brachythecasect. Tessaronia (excluded taxa) Water-milfoil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt. ex Torr. & A.Gray

    
Western watermilfoil N. America native
 western N. Am.,
N.Y. excluded

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum hippuroides 01.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD

Images
Wikispecies
Myriophyllum subg. Myriophyllum[edit | edit source]
Myriophyllum alterniflorum

Saxifragales — Haloragaceae — Myriophylleae — Myriophyllum subg. Myriophyllum
Myriophyllumsubg. Myriophyllumsect. Myriophyllum Water-milfoil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Kom.

1914. Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom.
Northern water-milfoil,
Shortspike watermilfoil
Native,
Secure
UC1755383 Myriophyllum sibiricum (5547563873).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Whorled water-milfoil Native,
Likely secure
Myriophyllum verticillatum turiony.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
 DC.

Alternate-flowered water-milfoil
Alternateflower watermilfoil
Alternate water-milfoil
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened,
S2, G5,
NYNHP: 2[1]

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum alterniflorum 9033 (3x4).jpg
Myriophyllum alterniflorum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA: 6 counties

iNat: St. Lawrence
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
iNaturalist

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Myriophyllum spicatum L.
Eurasian water milfoil
Eurasian water-milfoil
Eurasian watermilfoil
Spike water-milfoil
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 94%[2],
NYS Tier 4,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum spicatum 5447200 (cropped).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA: 30 counties
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Go Botany
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ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies
Myriophyllumsubg. Myriophyllumsect. Pectinatum Water-milfoil N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Vell.) Verdc.

1829. Enydria aquatica Vell.
1830. Myriophyllum brasiliense Cambess.
1973. Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc.
Parrot’s feather
Parrot-feather
Parrot feather watermilfoil
Water-feather
Brazilian water-milfoil
Thread-of-life
Introduced from
 South America,
Highly invasive,
NYS Tier 2,
SNA, GNR

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Myriophyllum aquaticum stem5 (14647365501).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA: 3 counties
iNat: 2 counties
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN

Images
Wikispecies

Family Penthoraceae[edit | edit source]

The Penthoraceae Rydb. ex Britton, nom. cons.[1]

Penthorum[edit | edit source]

Penthorum sedoides
ditch stonecrop
Penthorm contains the Asian species Penthorum chinense and North American species Penthorum sedoides or ditch stonecrop.
  1. Flora of North America, Vol. 8 Page 44, 148, 230: Penthoraceae Rydberg ex Britton "Cronquist (1981) considered it to be transitional between Crassulaceae and Saxifragaceae. … Molecular studies suggest that the genus is sister to Haloragaceae. … Recent authors often have placed it in the monogeneric Penthoraceae."
Saxifragales — Penthoraceae — Penthorum
Penthorum Penthorum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Ditch-stonecrop,
Virginia stonecrop,
Virginia penthorum
Penthorum faux-orpin
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Penthorum sedoides - Ditch Stonecrop.jpg
Penthorum sedoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies

Family Grossulariaceae[edit | edit source]

The Grossulariaceae (gooseberry family)...

Ribes[edit | edit source]

Ribes can be grouped into the currants, which are generally thornless with small berries, and the gooseberries, which generally have thorns and larger berries.
Ribes subg. Ribes[edit | edit source]

Subgenus Ribes contains the currants.

Saxifragales — Grossulariaceae — Ribes subg. Ribes
Ribessubg. Ribes Currant N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1768. Ribes americanum Mill.
1915. Coreosma americana (Mill.) Nieuwl.
Wild black currant,
American black currant,
Blank currant
Groseillier d'Amérique,
Gadellier d’Amérique
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Shrub
Wild Black Currant (Ribes americanum) - Guelph, Ontario 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies
 Grauer

1784. Ribes glandulosum Grauer
1785. Ribes prostratum L'Hér.
1813. Ribes resinosum Pursh
Skunk currant,
Wild currant
Gadellier glanduleux
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Shrub
Ribes glandulosum NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
Go Botany
ARS-GRIN
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FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 Pall.

1797. Ribes triste Pall.
1856. Ribes rubrum var. propinquum
1907. Ribes triste var. albinervium
1966. Ribes rubrum var. alaskanum
Red currant,
Swamp red currant,
Wild red currant
Gadellier amer
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Shrub
Ribes triste 7 (5097500891).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies
 Pursh
var. villosum DC.

1825. Ribes odoratum H.L.Wendl.
1828. Ribes aureum var. villosum DC.
Buffalo currant,
Clove currant,
Golden currant,
Missouri currant
Groseillier doré
Introduced,
N. America native

FACU-FACW

Perennial,
Shrub
Ribesaureum3pl.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
Go Botany
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Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Ribes rubrum L.
1789. Ribes vulgare Lam.
1826. Ribes sylvestre Mert. & W.D.J.Koch
1865. Ribes sativum (Rchb.) Syme
Northern red currant,
Red garden currant,
Cultivated currant
Groseillier rouge
Introduced from
 Europe,
Naturalized
Ribes rubrum fruit Luc Viatour.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Images
Wikispecies
 L.

1753. Ribes nigrum L.
1929. Ribes cyathiforme Pojark.
Black currant,
European black currant,
Garden black currant
Gadellier noir,
Groseillier noir,
Cassis, Cassissier
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unk naturalization
Cassis à Grez-Doiceau 002.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Ribes subg. Grossularia[edit | edit source]

Subgenus Grossularia contains the gooseberries.

Saxifragales — Grossulariaceae — Ribes subg. Grossularia
Ribessubg. Grossularia Gooseberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. 1753

1768. Grossularia cynosbati (L.) Mill.
1901. Ribes huronense Rydb.
Prickly gooseberry,
Eastern prickly gooseberry,
American gooseberry,
Dogbramble,
Pasture gooseberry
Groseillier des chiens
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub,
Sun-shade
Prickly gooseberry 3.jpg
Ribes cynosbati NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Michx. 1803

1838. Grossularia hirtella (Michx.) Spach
Smooth gooseberry,
Wild gooseberry,
Hairystem gooseberry,
Wedge-leaf gooseberry
Groseillier hérissé
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACW
Ribes hirtellum 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 Michx. 1803

1908. Grossularia rotundifolia Coville & Britton
Appalachian gooseberry,
Wild gooseberry
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

UPL
Ribes rotundifolium 233-008.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA
LBJ

Images
Wikispecies
 L.
var. sativum DC.

1753. Ribes grossularia L.
1753. Ribes reclinatum L.
1768. Grossularia reclinata (L.) Mill.
    Ribes uva-crispa ssp. sativum DC.
1830. Ribes uva-crispa ssp. reclinatum Rchb.
European gooseberry,
English gooseberry
Groseillier épineux,
Groseillier deshaies,
Groseillier vert
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native
Stachelbeere bluete und fruchtansatz 3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
Ribes subg. Grossularioides[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Grossulariaceae — Ribes subg. Grossularioides
Ribessubg. Grossularioides Currant / Gooseberry N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Pers.) Poir. 1812

1805. Ribes oxycanthoides var. lacustre
1876. Ribes lacustre var. parvulum
1917. Limnobotrya lacustris (Pers.) Rydb.
Bristly black currant,
Bristly black gooseberry,
Prickly currant,
Swamp gooseberry
Gadellier lacustre
Native,
Likely secure
Ribes lacustre 10474.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
FNA

Images
Wikispecies

Itea[edit | edit source]

Virginia sweetspire is a native of the southeaster U.S., cultivars of which are known to be planted in New York. No reports of naturalization in New York have been found.
Saxifragales — Grossulariaceae — Itea
Itea sweetspire N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Itea virginica L.
Virginia sweetspire,
Tassel-white,
Virginia-tea,
Virginia-willow
Introduced from
 US South,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Shrub
Itea virginica D.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0
ARS-GRIN
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NatureServe
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Images
Wikispecies

Family Saxifragaceae[edit | edit source]

The Saxifragaceae (family)...

Subfamily Saxifragoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Saxifrageae[edit | edit source]
Micranthes[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Saxifragoideae — Saxifrageae — Micranthes
Micranthes Saxifrage N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Small

1803. Saxifraga virginiensis Michx.
1847. S. virginiensis var. virginiensis
1903. Micranthes virginiensis Small
1982. Spatularia virginiensis Á.& D.Löve
Virginia saxifrage,
Early saxifrage
Saxifrage de Virginie
Native,
Secure

FACU-FAC

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Saxifraga virginiensis full plant.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Wikispecies
 L. (Haw.)

1753. Saxifraga pensylvanica L.
1821. Micranthes pensylvanica (L.) Haw.
1870. Saxifraga forbesii Vasey
1923. Saxifraga purpuripetala A.M.Johnson
1925. Micranthes pensylvanica
fo. purpuripetala (A.M.Johnson) House
1928. Micranthes pensylvanica
var. purpuripetala (A.M.Johnson) Bush
Eastern swamp saxifrage,
Swamp saxifrage,
Marsh saxifrage,
Pennsylvania saxifrage
Saxifrage de Pennsylvanie
Native,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Saxifraga pensylvanica 2-eheep (5097404445).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4-5
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Saxifraga[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Saxifragoideae — Saxifrageae — Saxifraga
Saxifraga Saxifrage N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Saxifraga aizoides L.
1821. Leptasea aizoides (L.) Haw.
1836. Evaiezoa aizoides (L.) Raf.
1898. Saxifraga vanbruntiae Small
1905. Leptasea vanbruntiae Small
Yellow mountain saxifrage,
Evergreen saxifrage,
Golden saxifrage
Saxifrage jaune,
Saxifrage faux-aïzoon,
Saxifrage jaune des montagnes
Native,
Threatened
Saxifraga aizoides L. (7582712724).jpg
Saxifraga aizoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
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FNA

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Wikispecies
ssp. oppositifolia

Purple mountain saxifrage Native,
Endangered
Saxifraga oppositifolia 001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies
 Mill.
ssp. paniculata

1768. Saxifraga paniculata Mill.
1778. Saxifraga aizoon Jacq.
1944. Saxifraga aizoon var. neogaea
1968. Saxifraga paniculata ssp. neogaea
1982. Chondrosea paniculata (Mill.) Á.Löve
White mountain saxifrage Native,
Endangered
1024 Im Alpengarten Mallnitz (1200 m ü. M.)-2599.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
FNA

Images
Wikispecies

Subfamily Heucheroideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Chrysosplenieae[edit | edit source]
Chrysosplenium[edit | edit source]
Chrysosplenium americanum

Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Heucheroideae — Chrysosplenieae — Chrysosplenium
Chrysosplenium Golden saxifrage N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

American golden saxifrage Native,
Likely secure
Chrysosplenium americanum iNat-116326355.jpg
Chrysosplenium americanum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
Go Botany

Images
Wikispecies
Tribe Heuchereae[edit | edit source]
Tiarella[edit | edit source]
Tiarella cordifolia L.
heartleaf foamflower

Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Heucheroideae — Heuchereae — Tiarella
Tiarella Foamflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Tiarella cordifolia L.
1903. Tiarella macrophylla Small
1937. Tiarella wherryi Lakela
1937. T. cordifolia var. austrina Lakela
1940. T. cordifolia ssp. collina Wherry
Foamflower,
Heartleaf foamflower,
Heart-leaved foam-flower,
False mitrewort,
Coolwort
Tiarelle cordifoliée,
Tiarelle à feuilles cordées,
Tiarelle feuille-en-coeur,
Tiarelle
Native,
Secure
Tiarella cordifolia WFNY-088.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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ARS-GRIN
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Tropicos
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Images
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Mitella[edit | edit source]
Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Heucheroideae — Heuchereae — Mitella
Mitella Miterwort,
bishop's cap
N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Two-leaved bishop's-cap,
Two-leaved miterwort,
Coolwort
Native,
Secure
Mitella diphylla, 2015-04-25, Fox Chapel, 03.jpg
Mitella diphylla NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Mitella prostrata Michx.
Naked bishop's-cap,
Naked miterwort,
Creeping bishop's cap
Native,
Likely secure
Mitella nuda iNat-144778227.jpg
Mitella nuda NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
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Images
Wikispecies

Mitella diphylla ×
Mitella nuda

Miterwort,
Bishop's-cap
Native,
Especially vulnerable
Ny hybrid.svg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0

Images
Wikispecies
Heuchera[edit | edit source]
Heuchera americana
Alumroot
Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Heucheroideae — Heuchereae — Heuchera
Heuchera Alumroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. americana

American alumroot
Heuchère d'Amérique
Native,
Vulnerable
Heuchera americana var. americana WFNY-089.jpg
Heuchera americana var americana NY-dist-map.png
Bronx, Dutchess, Kings, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Queens, Richmond, Rockland, Ulster, Washington, Westchester
NYFA-3
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
var. villosa

Hairy alumroot Introduced,
N. America native
Heuchera villosa 2019-04-16 0262.jpg
Nymap.svg
Rensselaer
NYFA-X
USDA-N0

Images
Wikispecies
Astilbe[edit | edit source]
Astilbe japonica
False-goat's-beard
Saxifragales — Saxifragaceae — Heucheroideae — Heuchereae — Astilbe
Astilbe False-goat's-beard N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(C.Morren & Decne.) A.Gray

Florist's-spiraea Introduced,
Not naturalized

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Astilbe sp2.jpg
Astilbe japonica NY-dist-map.png
Columbia, Dutchess, Madison, Warren
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
ITIS

Images
Wikispecies

References[edit | edit source]