Flora of New York/Lamiales 1

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Solanales
Flora of New York — Lamiales 1:
Oleaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae

Lamiales 2:
Lamiaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The Lamiales [1]

Family Oleaceae[edit | edit source]

The Oleaceae (olive family) in New York consists of a handful of native and introduced ash trees, along with a number of non-native shrubs, some of which, primarily the privets, are extremely invasive and create dense thickets. Interestingly, the olive family does not include Elaeagnus species (Russian olive and autumn olive), which are also common alien invasives but are categorized in the Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family) in the Rhamnales.[1][2]
  1. Oleaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Oleaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe Forsythieae[edit | edit source]

Forsythia[edit | edit source]

Forsythia suspensa
Forsythia is a popular non-native ornamental shrub, planted at least in part for its bright yellow early spring flowers. In New York, the degree of this popularity is tempered in much of the state where local weather doesn't consistently allow much flowering. The two species listed as having to some extent naturalized in New York are F. viridissima (greenstem forsythia) and F. suspensa (weeping forsythia). It's likely that in recent times the hybrid of the two, Forsythia × intermedia, has been planted at least as much as either of its parents, but it is sterile and also may not reproduce vegetatively as well as F. suspensa, whose arching branches root where they touch the ground, allowing it to do a slow walk into adjacent natural areas.[1]
Forsythia species Common name Stem Center Stem Habit Leaf type
Forsythia suspensa weeping forsythia Hollow except at nodes Arching
Forsythia viridissima greenstem forsythia Pith except at nodes Upright Simple
Forsythia × intermedia hybrid forsythia Upright or arching Simple or 3-lobed
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Forsythieae — Forsythia
Genus Forsythia Forsythia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Thunb.) Vahl

1780.  Ligustrum suspensum  Thunb. in…
1784.  Syringa suspensa  Thunb. ex Murray in…
1792.  Lilac perpensa  Lam. in…
1804.  Forsythia suspensa  Vahl in…
1864.  Forsythia fortunei  Lindl. in…
1889.  Forsythia sieboldii  (Zabel) Dippel in…
1901.  Forsythia suspensa variegata Butz in…
1932.  Rangium suspensum  Ohwi in…
1990.  Forsythia giraldiana  f. pubescens  (Rehder) C.S.Niu  ...
Forsythia,
Weeping forsythia,
Golden-bells
Introduced from
 China,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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 Lindl.

1846.  Forsythia viridissima  Lindl. in…
1932.  Rangium viridissimum  (Lindl.) Ohwi in…
1942.  Rangium koreanum  var. fertile  Uyeki  in…
1947.  Forsythia viridissima  var. bronxensis  Everett  in…
2004.  Forsythia viridissima  var. incisa  Geerinck  in…
Greenstem forsythia,
Green-stemmed forsythia,
Golden-bells
Forsythia vert
Introduced from
 China & Korea,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X
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 Zabel

Forsythia suspensa ×
Forsythia viridissima

1885.  Forsythia × intermedia Zabel in…
1899.  Forsythia × intermedia  var. densiflora  Koehne  in…
1899.  Forsythia × intermedia  var. divaricata  Koehne  in…
1899.  Forsythia × intermedia  var. vitellina  Koehne  in…
1903.  Forsythia × intermedia  f. densiflora  (Koehne) Schelle  ...
1906.  Forsythia × vitellina  (Koehne) Koehne in…
1906.  Forsythia × spectabilis  Koehne in…
1906.  Forsythia × densiflora  (Koehne) Koehne in…
Border forsythia,
Showy forsythia,
Hybrid forsythia
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
Artificial hybrid

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: Suffolk (2008)
iNat
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21 counties

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Tribe Oleeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Fraxininae[edit | edit source]

Fraxinus[edit | edit source]
Fraxinus americana
The genus Fraxinus is represented in New York primarily by the three native and economically important ash trees: white ash, black ash, and green ash. All are susceptible to infestation by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) which has already infested a number of areas in the state and is expected to decimate ash tree populations in the near future.
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Fraxininae — Fraxinus
Genus Fraxinussect. Melioides Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753.  Fraxinus americana  L.
1878.  Fraxinus americana  var. microcarpa  A.Gray
1898.  Fraxinus biltmoreana  Beadle
1947.  Fraxinus americana  var. biltmoreana  (Beadle) J.Wright ex Fernald
1983.  Fraxinus americana  ssp. biltmoreana  (Beadle) A.E.Murray
White ash,
American ash
Frêne blanc,
Franc frêne,
Frêne d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: N

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 Marsh.

1785. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.
1788. F. pubescens Lam.
1800. F. lanceolata Borkh.
1865. F. juglandifoliavar. aucubifolia
1894. F. pennsylvanicavar. lanceolata
1947. F. pennsylvanicavar. subintegerrima
1949. F. pennsylvanicafo. aucubifolia
Green ash,
Downy ash,
Northern red ash
Frêne de Pennsylvanie,
Frêne rouge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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 (Bush) Bush

1813. Fraxinus tomentosa F.Michx. superfl.
1894. Fraxinus americanavar. profunda
1897. Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush
1897. Fraxinus pennsylvanicavar. profunda
1914. Calycomelia profunda (Bush) Nieuwl.
Pumpkin ash
Frêne pubescent
Native, CoC: 8,
Impersistent

OBL

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: X

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Genus Fraxinussect. Fraxinus Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Fraxinus nigra Marshall
1788. F. sambucifolia Lam.
1790. F. nigravar. sambucifolia
1846. F. americanavar. sambucifolia
Black ash,
Brown ash,
Hoop ash,
Swamp ash,
Water ash
Frêne noir,
Frêne de grève,
Frêne gras
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Fraxinus excelsior L.
    
    
European ash,
Black ash
Frêne commun,
Frêne d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Impersistent

Perennial,
Tree

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Ligustrinae[edit | edit source]

The subtribe Ligustrinae contains the non-native lilacs and privets.

Syringa[edit | edit source]
Syringa vulgaris
The common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) has been grown in the state as an ornamental shrub for centuries and appears to persist only where it has been cultivated, and so it is found to have naturalized mainly around abandoned farmsteads and such.

The more recently introduced Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) however is considered to be potentially invasive, and although it is not yet widespread outside of cultivation in New York, it may be of concern.

GBIF shows hundreds of human observations of Syringa reticulata from the 2015 New York City Street Tree Census, giving the appearance on the map that the New York metro area has the highest density of Japanese tree lilacs in the world.[1]

The 2010 Syringa reticulata New York Invasiveness Ranking Form showed its invasiveness as unranked.[2]


Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Ligustrinae — Syringa
Genus SyringaL. Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753.  Syringa vulgaris  L. in…
1768.  Syringa caerulea  Jonst. in…
1770.  Syringa vulgaris  var. alba  Weston  in…
1779.  Lilac vulgaris  (L.) Lam. in…
1796.  Syringa latifolia  Salisb. in…
1800.  Liliacum album  (Weston) Renault in…
1800.  Liliacum vulgare  (L.) Renault in…
1813.  Syringa lilac  Thouin in…
1830.  Syringa cordifolia  Stokes in…
1857.  Lilac vulgaris  var. alba  (Weston) Jacques & Hérincq in…
1889.  Syringa alba  (Weston) A.Dietr. ex Dippel in…
1916.  Lilac caerulea  (Jonst.) Lunell in…
Common lilac,
Purple lilac
Lilas commun,
Lilas vulgaire
Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: [1],
 GRIIS-US: category E,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
NYFA: 16 counties
iNat
GBIF
55 counties

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(Blume) H. Hara
 ssp. reticulata

1851.  Ligustrum reticulatum  Blume in…
1875.  Ligustrina amurensis  var. japonica  Maxim. in…
1879.  Syringa japonica  (Maxim.) Decne. in…
1894.  Ligustrina japonica  (Maxim.) L.Henry in…
1941.  Syringa reticulata  (Blume) H.Hara in…
1952.  Ligustrina reticulata  (Blume) Nakai in…
Japanese tree lilac
Lilas japonais
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 31%[1],
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 GRIIS-US: C3,
SNA

Tree, shrub

NYFA: Xn
NYFA: Columbia, Livingson
iNat
14 NY counties

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Genus Syringa (excluded taxa) Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Blume) H. Hara
ssp. amurensis (Rupr.) P.S. Greene & M.C. Chang

1856. Syringa amurensis Rupr.
1995. S. reticulata  ssp. amurensis  (Rupr.) P.S.Green & M.C.Chang
Amur lilac Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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 Vahl

1804. Syringa villosa Vahl
1895. Syringa bretschneideri Lemoine
Villous lilac,
Late lilac,
Japanese lilac
Introduced from
 China,
No NY reports

NYFA: 0

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Note: [2]
 J. Jacq. ex Rchb.

1830. Syringa josikaea Rchb.
Hungarian lilac Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
No NY reports

NYFA: 0

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Note: [3]
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentSyringa reticulata: 31% (Capital/Mohawk).
  2. USDA-NRCS Plants database showed Syringa villosa in Westchester County, apparently based on Glenn, S.D. (ed.). 2013. New York Metropolitan Flora database. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York. The New York Metropolitan Flora Project entry for genus Syringa at http://nymf.bbg.org/genus/195, only shows S. reticulata and S. vulgaris present in the New York metro area.
  3. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/syringa/josikaea/ shows Syringa josikaea appearing to be naturalized in adjacent Berkshire County, MA.
Ligustrum[edit | edit source]
Ligustrum vulgare
European privet
In general, the several privet species, none of which are native to the western hemisphere, have been found to be invasive, and some are quite difficult to control where they have naturalized. The New York Flora Atlas reports that Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) is by far the most common and invasive of the naturalized privets, but that Ligustrum vulgare (European privet) can be locally quite aggressive as well.

Although some sources continue to treat Amur privet as a separate subspecies (Ligustrum obtusifolium ssp. suave),[1] others treat it as a synonym of border privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium ssp. obtusifolium).[2]


Ligustrum sp. young twigs &
stalks of floral panicles
floral-panicle
length
corolla lobe to
tube length ratio
tube length
L. vulgare hairless or minutely pubescent longer than 2" ~1/1 2.5 - 3 mm
L. obtusifolium conspicuously hairy 1" to 2" long 1/3 - 2/3 5 - 8 mm
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Ligustrinae — Ligustrum
Genus Ligustrum Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ligustrum vulgare L.
1877. L. insulense Decne.
1879. L. insulare Decne.
European privet,
Common privet,
Wild privet,
Prim
Troène commun,
Troène
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 68%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA: X

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 Siebold & Zucc.
ssp. obtusifolium

1846. Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc.
1846. Ligustrum obtusifolium  var. obtusifolium
1846. Ligustrum obtusifolium  ssp. obtusifolium
1899. Ligustrum obtusifolium  var. regelianum  Rehder
1900. Ligustrum ibota  var. regelianum  Rehder
1904. Ligustrum regelianum Koehne
1926. Ligustrum ibota  var. obtusifolium  (Siebold & Zucc.) Koidz.
Border privet Introduced from
 Japan,
 Korea,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS: 77%[2],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4] NE-4[5],
IPA VT

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA: X
GBIF

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 Siebold & Zucc.
ssp. suave (Kitag.) Kitag.

1861. Ligustrum amurense Carrière
1924. Ligustrum ibota  var. amurense  (Carrière) Mansf.
1934. Ligustrum ibota  var. suave  Kitag.
1944. Ligustrum obtusifolium  var. suave  (Kitag.) H.Hara.
1946. Ligustrum obtusifolium  var. amurense  (Carrière) Mansf.
1965. Ligustrum obtusifolium  ssp. suave  (Kitag. )Kitag.
1979. Ligustrum suave (Kitag.) Kitag.
Amur privet,
Amur river privet[5]
Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: NA[6]

Perennial,
Shrub
NYFA: Schenectady (1950)
NYFA: X

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 Hassk.

1844. Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.
1850. L. japonicumvar. ovalifolium Blume
1877. L. californicum Decne.
1878. L. medium Franch. & Sav.
California privet,
Oval-leaf privet,
Garden privet
Troène des haies
Introduced from
 Japan,
 South Korea,
Invasive,
 NYIS: 45%[7],
CP-3[8],
CT-FL

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA: X

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Genus Ligustrum (excluded taxa) Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lour.

1790. Ligustrum sinense Lour.
1874. L. villosum May
1931. L. microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki
Chinese privet,
Small-leaf privet
Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
 Laos, Vietnam,
Potentially invasive,
 NYIS: NA[9]

NYFA: U

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Subtribe Oleinae[edit | edit source]

Chionanthus[edit | edit source]
Chionanthus virginicus
White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) is a usually-dioecious tree that is native to the southeastern US, possiibly as far north as southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, but it has been reported to have naturalized in a few New York counties. It is becoming popular as a small ornamental tree in residential landscapes. There is some evidence that white fringetree in an acceptable host for the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).[1]
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Oleinae — Chionanthus
Genus Chionanthus Fringetree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Chionanthus virginica L.
1814. C. virginicusvar. maritimus
1830. C. maritimus (Pursh) Sweet
White fringetree,
White fringe-tree,
White fringe tree,
American fringetree,
Old-man's-beard
Introduced from
 southeast US,
N. America native,
SNA, G5

FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Part shade
NYFA: 6 counties
NYFA: X

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Lindl. & Paxton

1852. Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxton
Tassel Tree ...
Chinese fringetree ...

Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Cultivated[1]
iNat: 3 counties
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Family Tetrachondraceae[edit | edit source]

The Tetrachondraceae is a very small family containing only two species of the genus Tetrachondra and a single species of the genus Polypremum. Of these three species, only Polypremum procumbens, juniper leaf, has been reported to have been collected in New York, but it has since been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.[1][2]
  1. Tetrachondraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Tetrachondraceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Polypremum[edit | edit source]

Polypremum procumbens
Juniper leaf appears to be native from southern New Jersey to Florida and Texas. It is not known to have naturalized in New York State.
Lamiales — Tetrachondraceae — Polypremum
Genus Polypremum (excluded taxa) Juniper leaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Juniper leaf N. America native
 southeastern US,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded
iNat

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Family Plantaginaceae[edit | edit source]

The Plantaginaceae (plantain family)[1][2]
  1. Plantaginaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Plantaginaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe Gratioleae[edit | edit source]

Gratiola[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Gratioleae — Gratiola
Genus Gratiola Hedge-hyssop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Torr.

1819. Gratiola neglecta Torr.
    
    
Northern clammy hedge-hyssop,
Clammy hedge-hyssop,
American hedge-hyssop
Gratiole négligée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Muhl.

1811. Gratiola lutea Raf.
1813. Gratiola aurea Muhl.
1920. Gratiola aureavar. obtusa
1935. Gratiola luteavar. obtusa
Golden hedge-hyssop,
Golden hedgehyssop,
Golden pert
Gratiole dorée
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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L.

    Gratiola virginiana L.
Virginia hedge hyssop ...
Roundfruit hedgehyssop ...

Native, CoC: ?,
Endangered

OBL

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1

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Leucospora[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Gratioleae — Leucospora
Genus Leucospora Leucospora N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Nutt.

1803. Capraria multifida Michx.
1825. Stemodia multifida (Michx.) Spreng.
1834. Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.
1844. Sutera multifida (Michx.) Walp.
1846. Conobea multifida (Michx.) Benth.
Narrow-leaved paleseed,
Narrow-leaf paleseed,
Obe-Wan-Conobea,
Cliff conobea
Introduced from
 southern Midwest,
N. America native,
Naturalized

NYFA: X

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Tribe Cheloneae[edit | edit source]

Chelone[edit | edit source]

Chelone glabra
white turtle-head
Turtleheads are all native to eastern North America, but only the white turtlehead is native to New York State. Although common in New York wetlands and listed as secure, it is also listed as exploitably vulnerable by the state.[1]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Chelone
Chelone Turtlehead N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Chelone glabra L.
1840. Chlonanthes glabra (L.) Raf.
1929. Chelone chlorantha Pennell & Wherry
White turtlehead,
White turtle-head,
Snakehead,
Smooth balmony
Galane glabre
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - shade

NYFA: 5

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 Pursh

1814. Chelone Lyonii Pursh
Pink turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA-Excluded

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 L.

1767. Chelone obliqua L.
1935. Chelone obliqua  ssp. typica  (L.) Pennell nom. inval.
Red turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 0

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Penstemon[edit | edit source]

Penstemon or beardtongue is a large genus of about 250 species of primarily North American herbaceous perennials. The genus name was derived from the Greek penta (five) and stemon (stamen), referring to the flowers, which have five stamens (one sterile and four fertile).

Some Penstemon species have been hybridized and selected for horticultural trade. A popular example is Penstemon 'Dark Towers' (2004), which is a cross between an eastern U.S. cultivar: Penstemon digitalis Nutt. 'Husker Red' (Lindgren, 1984) and south-central U.S. hybrid pollen parent: Penstemon 'Prairie Splendor' (Penstemon cobaea Nutt. × Penstemon triflorus A.Heller) (Lindgren, 1993).[1]


Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Penstemon
Genus Penstemonsubg. Penstemonsect. Penstemon Beardtongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Willd.

1753. Chelone hirsuta L. (i)
1800. Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. (i)
Hairy beardtongue,
Hairy beard-tongue,
Northeastern beard-tongue
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Small

1903. Penstemon pallidus Small
1922. P. arkansanusvar. pubescens
1933. P. brevisepalus Pennell
Pale beardtongue,
Eastern white beardtongue
Penstémon pâle
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

FACU-UPL

NYFA: 5

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 Nutt. ex Sims

    Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims
    P. laevigatusssp. digitalis
    P. laevigatusvar. angulatus
Foxglove beardtongue,
Fox-glove beard-tongue,
Talus-slope beard-tongue
Introduced,
US South native,
Naturalized

FAC

NYFA: 5

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 Small

    Penstemon calycosus Small
    P. laevigatusssp. calycosus
    
Longsepal beardtongue,
Long-sepal beard-tongue
Introduced,
N. America native,
Unk. naturalizaiton

NYFA: X

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Nutt.

1837. Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt. (i)
1837. Penstemon tubiflorus Nutt. (i)
1949. P. tubaeflorusvar. achoreus Fernald
    
Funnel-form beardtongue,
White-wand beardtongue,
Tube beardtongue
Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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Collinsia[edit | edit source]

Collinsia verna

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Collinsia
Genus CollinsiaNutt. (1817) Blue-eyed-Mary N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1817. Collinsia verna Nutt.
1824. Collinsia bicolor Raf.
Blue-eyed Mary,
Spring blue-eyed Mary,
Eastern blue-eyed Mary,
Broad-leaved collinsia,
Innocence
Collinsie printanière
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
DEC-A[1]

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Z
0 iNat

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Lindl.

1813. Antirrhinum tenellum Pursh nom. illeg.
1827. Collinsia parviflora Lindl.
1846. Collinsia parviflora  var. parviflora  {{{5}}}
1906. Collinsia tenella Piper nom. illeg.
Small-flowered blue-eyed Mary ...
Maiden blue-eyed Mary ...
Few-flowered blue-eyed Mary ...
Blue-lips ...
Small blue-eyed Mary ...
Small-flowered collinsia ...

Collinsie à petites fleurs ...
Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X
0 iNat

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Tribe Antirrhineae[edit | edit source]

Of the dozen or so species of Antirrhineae (snap-dragon tribe) known to grow in the wild in New York, only oldfield toadflax is considered to be native to the state.

Nuttallanthus[edit | edit source]

Nuttallanthus canadensis
The genus Nuttallanthus contains a small number of American toad-flaxes, which are still often included in the much larger Linaria genus.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Nuttallanthus
Genus Nuttallanthus Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) D.A.Sutton

1753. Antirrhinum canadense L.
1802. Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Cours.
1988. Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton
Old-field toadflax,
Canada toadflax,
Blue toadflax,
Field toadflax
Linaire du Canada
Native, CoC: 3,
Likely secure

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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Linaria[edit | edit source]

Linaria vulgaris
butter-and-eggs
Linaria (toadflax) has also been placed in the Scrophulariaceae (figwort family). Note that the New York Flora Atlas includes the native Nuttallanthus canadensis (blue toadflax, above) in Linaria.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Linaria
Genus Linaria Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

    Linaria linaria (L.) Karst.
Butter-and-eggs,
Yellow toadflax,
Flax-weed,
Wild snapdragon,
Eggs-and-bacon
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
Refs.[1][2]

NYFA: X

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(L.) Mill.
ssp. dalmatica

    L. genistifoliassp. dalmatica
    Antirrhinum dalmaticum L.
Balkan toadflax,
Dalmatian toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Very highly invasive,
Refs.[3][4][5],
Invasive.org
NYFA: 3 counties
NYFA: X

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 Hook. f.

Moroccan toadflax,
Morocco toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Herb-forb
NYFA: 2 counties
NYFA: Xm

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(L.) Mill.
ssp. genistifolia

1753. Antirrhinum genistifolium L.
1768. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill.
    
Broom-leaved toad-flax Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xm

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(L.) Mill.

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill.
    Linaria striata DC.
    
Pale toad-flax,
Striped toadflax
Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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(L.) Chaz.
ssp. supina

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill.
    Linaria striata DC.
    
Prostrate toad flax,
Lesser butter and eggs
Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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  1. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in the US.
  2. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in adjacent states CT & NJ and ten other states.
  3. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in the US.
  4. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in four western states.
  5. New York State Invasive Species Tiers: Linaria dalmatica Ecological Invasiveness Rank: Very High.

Chaenorhinum[edit | edit source]

Chaenorhinum minus

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Chaenorhinum
Genus Chaenorhinum Dwarf-snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Lange

    Linaria minus (L.) Desf.
    Chaenorhinum minus (L.) Lange
Dwarf snapdragon
Small toadflax
Introduced from
 continental Europe,
Potentially invasive,
IPA-US,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Cymbalaria[edit | edit source]

Cymbalaria muralis
The genus Cymbalaria
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Cymbalaria
Genus Cymbalaria Cymbalaria N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Gaertn., Meyer & Sherb.

Linaria cymbalaria
Kenilworth ivy Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Wettst.

White coliseum-ivy,
Italian toadflax
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Kickxia[edit | edit source]

Kickxia elatine
The genus Kickxia contains species known as cancerwort or fluellin.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Kickxia
Genus Kickxia Cancerwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Dumort.

1753. Antirrhinum elatine L.
1768. Linaria elatine (L.) Mill.
1827. Kickxia elatine (L.) Dumort.
1840. Tursitis elatine (L.) Raf.
1891. Elatinoides elatine (L.) Wettst.
1891. Anarrhinum elatum (L.) Kuntze
Sharp-pointed fluellin ...
Sharp-leaved fluellen ...
Sharp-point toadflax
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Naturalzed

NYFA: X
NYFA: 3 counties
GBIF
2 counties

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 (L.) Dumort.

1753. Antirrhinum spurium L.
1768. Linaria spuria (L.) Mill.
1800. Cymbalaria spuria (L.) G.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.
1827. Kickxia spuria (L.) Dumort.
1891. Elatinoides spuria (L.) Wettst.
Round-leaved fluellin ...
Round-leaved cancerwort
Female fluellin ...
Introduced

NYFA: X
NYFA: Queens (1879)
GBIF
No NY observations

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Antirrhinum[edit | edit source]

Antirrhinum majus

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Antirrhinum
Genus Antirrhinum Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Garden snapdragon Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Misopates[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Misopates
Genus Misopates Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Raf.

Antirrhinum orontium L.
Lesser snapdragon Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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Tribe Callitricheae[edit | edit source]

Callitriche[edit | edit source]

Callitriche palustris
vernal water-starwort
The Callitriche found in New York are aquatic plants known as water-starworts.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Callitricheae — Callitriche
Genus Callitriche Water-starwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh
ssp. heterophylla

    Callitriche anceps Fernald
Diverseleaf water-starwort,
Twoheaded water-starwort
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

    Callitriche verna L.
Vernal water-starwort Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Raf.

    Callitriche austinii Engelm.
    Callitriche deflexa A.Braun
Terrestrial water-starwort Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]

NYFA: 2-3

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 L.

Autumnal water-starwort,
Northern water-starwort
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[2]

NYFA: 1

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 Scop.

Pond water-starwort Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
 NYIS: 49%[3],
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [3],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
GBIF

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Hippuris[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Callitricheae — Hippuris
Genus Hippuris Mare's-tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1953. Hippuris vulgaris L.
Common mare's-tail
Hippuride vulgaire,
Queue de cheval,
Pesse vulgaire
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]

NYFA: 1

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Tribe Digitalideae[edit | edit source]

Digitalis[edit | edit source]

Digitalis purpurea

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Digitalideae — Digitalis
Genus Digitalissect. Digitalis Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Digitalis purpurea L.
Purple foxglove,
Common foxglove,
Digitalis,
Fairy cap
Digitale pourpre,
Grande digitale
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Morocco,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 53%[1],
Naturalized

NYFA: X

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Genus Digitalissect. Globiflorae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Ehrh.

1792. Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Grecian foxglove,
Woolly foxglove,
Woolly digitalis
Digitale laineuse
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Turkey,
Somewhat invasive,
 NYIS: 37%[2],
Unknown naturalization

NYFA: X
iNat

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Genus Digitalissect. Macranthae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1773. Digitalis ochroleuca Jacq.
1768. Digitalis grandiflora Mill.
1768. Digitalis magniflora Mill.
1768. Digitalis orientalis Mill.
1770. Digitalis ambigua Murray
1775. Digitalis flava Georgi
1782. Digitalis lutea-majar Gilib.
1825. Digitalis ambigua  var. grandiflora  Wender.
1838. Digitalis milleri G.Don
Yellow foxglove,
Large yellow foxglove
Digitale à grandes fleurs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
 NYIS Tier: 2,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [4],
Naturalized

NYFA: X
GBIF

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 L.

1753. Digitalis lutea L.
1773. Digitalis parviflora All.
1907. Digitalis ornata Porta ex Huter
Straw foxglove,
Small yellow foxglove
Digitale jaune,
Digitale à petites fleurs,
Petite digitale
Introduced from
 Europe,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X
NYFA: 4 counties
iNat
GBIF
4 counties

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Tribe Veroniceae[edit | edit source]

Veronica[edit | edit source]

Veronica subg. Veronica[edit | edit source]
Veronica scutellata

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Veronica
Genus Veronicasubg. Veronica Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Marsh speedwell,
Skullcap speedwell
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Veronica officinalis L.
1862. Veronica officinalis L. in…
Common speedwell,
Gypsy-weed,
Common gypsy-weed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Macaronesia,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 52%[1],
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: [5],
Naturalized,
SNA

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X
iNat
GBIF

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentVeronica officinalis: Moderate (52). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Veronica subg. Beccabunga[edit | edit source]
Veronica americana

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Beccabunga
Genus Veronicasubg. Beccabunga Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Schwein. ex Benth. 1846

American speedwell,
American brooklime
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 L.
 ssp. peregrina

Purslane speedwell ...
Neckweed ...
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.
 ssp. xalapensis

    Veronica xalapensis Kunth
    Veronica sherwoodii M.Peck
    
Bird's-eye Speedwell ...
Glandular speedwell ...
Hairy purslane speedwell
Neckweed
Native,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3

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 Pennell

1921. Veronica catenata Pennell
    Veronica comosa Richt.
    Veronica connata Raf.
    Veronica salina Schur. misapplied
 auct. V. anagallis-aquatica
Chained speedwell,
Pink water speedwell,
Water speedwell,
Pennell's speedwell
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3-5

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 L.
 ssp. humifusa (Dicks.) Vahl

    Veronica tenella All.
    Veronica humifusa Dicks.
Bright blue speedwell Native,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: X

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 L.
 ssp. serpyllifolia

Thyme-leaved speedwell Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

1753. V. anagallis-aquatica L.
    V. brittonii Porter ex Pennell
    V. glandifera Pennell
 auct. V. catenata
Water speedwell,
Blue speedwell,
Water pimpernel,
Brook pimpernel,
Blue water speedwell
Mouron d'eau
Introduced

NYFA: 5

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 L.

Brooklime,
European speedwell
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 62%[1]

NYFA: X

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Veronica subg. Chamaedrys[edit | edit source]
Veronica arvensis

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Chamaedrys

Genus Veronicasubg. Chamaedrys Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Corn speedwell Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 5,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
GBIF

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 L.

Germander speedwell Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 3,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
GBIF

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 L.

Spring speedwell Introduced,
Naturalized,
 USGS: L48 established

NYFA: X
NYFA: 2 counties
GBIF
Lewis (1994)

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 Crantz

Dillen's speedwell Introduced,
Not naturalized,
 USGS: L48 established

NYFA: X
GBIF

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Veronica subg. Cochlidiosperma[edit | edit source]
Veronica hederifolia

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Cochlidiosperma
Genus Veronicasubg. Cochlidiosperma Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Veronica hederifolia L.
1839. Cochlidiosperma hederifolium (L.) Opiz
1869. Pocilla hederifolia (L.) Fourr.
Ivy-leaved speedwell ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 7,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Annual,
Herb-forb,
2n=56

NYFA: X
NYFA: 8 counties
GBIF
9 counties

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M.A.Fisch.

1830. Veronica hederifolia  var. lucorum  Klett & Richt.
1966. Veronica hederifolia  ssp. lucorum  (Klett & Richt.) Hartl
1967. Veronica sublobata M.A.Fisch.
Pink ivy-leaved speedwell ...
False ivy-leaved speedwell ...
Introduced

NYFA: Not listed
iNat
GBIF
8? counties

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Veronica subg. Orientales[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Orientales
Genus Veronicasubg. Orientales Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. teucrium (L.) D.A. Webb

1762. Veronica teucrium L.
1939. V. krylovii Schischk.
1972. V. austriaca  ssp. teucrium  (L.) D.A. Webb
Broad-leaved speedwell ...
Broadleaf speedwell ...
Large speedwell
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unknown naturalization

NYFA: X

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Veronica subg. Pocilla[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Pocilla
Genus Veronicasubg. Pocilla Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Field speedwell,
Green field speedwell
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

    Pocilla biloba (L.) W.A. Weber
Two-lobe speedwell Introduced,
Rare

NYFA: X

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 Sm.

Slender speedwell Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Poir.

    Pocilla persica
Bird-eye speedwell Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Fries

    Pocilla polita (Fr.) Fourr.
    Veronica didyma Ten. p.p.
Wayside speedwell Introduced

NYFA: X

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Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachion[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachion
Genus Veronicasubg. Pseudolysimachion Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Veronica longifolia L.
1852. Pseudolysimachion longifolium (L.) Opiz
Longleaf speedwell,
Long-leaf speedwell,
Long-leaved speedwell,
Garden speedwell
Introduced,
Eurasia native

NYFA: X

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 L.

1753. Veronica spicata L.
1769. Veronica orchidea Crantz
1817. Veronica barrelieri Schult.
1852. Pseudolysimachion spicatum
(L.) Opiz
1950. Veronica hololeuca Juz.
Spike speedwell Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Heuff.

1821. Veronica grandis
Fisch. ex Spreng. misapplied
1835. Veronica bachofenii Heuff.
1967. Pseudolysimachion bachofenii
Heartleaf speedwell,
Heart-leaved speedwell
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Veronicastrum[edit | edit source]

Veronicastrum virginicum
Culver's root
Culver's root (Veronicastrum virginicum) is the only species of Veronicastrum (false Veronica) reported in New York. It is listed a threatened (S2) in the state, but is widely planted.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronicastrum
Genus Veronicastrum Veronicastrum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Farw.

1753. Veronica virginica L.
1818. Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt.
1917. Veronicastrum virginicum
(L.) Farw.
Culver's root,
Blackroot,
Bowman's root,
Tall speedwell
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened,
S2, G4,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: 2

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Tribe Plantagineae[edit | edit source]

Littorella [edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Littorella
Genus Littorella Shore grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Fernald

1753. Plantago uniflora L.
1859. Littorella uniflora (L.) Asch.
1918. Littorella americana Fernald
1952. Littorella uniflora
var. americana Gleason
1996. Plantago americana Rahn
American shore-grass,
American shore plantain,
American shore weed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
SH, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1

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Note: [1]

Plantago[edit | edit source]

Plantago subg. Plantago[edit | edit source]
Plantago rugelii
black-seeded plantain

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Plantago
Genus Plantagosubg. Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Rugel’s plantain ...
Blackseed plantain ...
Black-seeded plantain
American plantain ...

Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5
iNat

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 L.

Virginia plantain,
Pale-seeded plantain,
Hoary plantain
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Lam.

1792. Plantago cordata Lam.
Heart-leaved plantain,
Heartleaf plantain,
Kingroot
Native,
Rare

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3

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Dwarf plantain Introduced,
N. America native

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 Nutt.

Slender plantain Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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 L.

Common plantain,
Nipple-seeded plantain
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

Lamb's tongue plantain ...
Hoary plantain ...

Plantain moyen ...
Plantain bâtard ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia

NYFA: X

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Genus Plantagosubg. Plantago (excluded taxa) Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Torr.

Redwool plantain Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Plantago subg. Coronopus[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Coronopus
Genus Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. juncoides

    Plantago juncoides Lam.
    Plantago maritimassp. borealis
    Plantago oliganthos
Seaside plantain Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2-3

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 L.

    
    
    
Buckhorn plantain Introduced,
Rare

NYFA: X

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Plantago subg. Psyllium s.l[edit | edit source]

This subgenus combines subg. Psyllium s.s and subg. Albicans, which have been found to be polyphyletic when treated separately.

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Psyllium s.l
Genus Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Largebracted plantain,
Rat-tail plantain,
Western ripplegrass
Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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 Jacq.

Woolly plantain Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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 L.

English plantain,
Narrowleaf plantain,
Narrow-leaved plantain
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Waldst. & Kit.

1753. Plantago psyllium L., nom. utique rej.
1759. Plantago indica L., nom. utique rej.
1794. Plantago scabra Moench
1801. Plantago arenaria Waldst. & Kit.
Flaxseed plantain ...
Sand plantain ...

Introduced

NYFA: X

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Family Scrophulariaceae[edit | edit source]

The Scrophulariaceae (figwort Family) ...[1][2]

Tribe Scrophularieae[edit | edit source]

Scrophularia[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Scrophularieae — Scrophularia
Genus Scrophularia Figwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh 1813

Hare figwort,
Lanceleaf figwort,
American figwort
Native,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L. 1753

Carpenter's square,
Figwort,
Eastern figwort,
Maryland figwort
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 L. 1753

Woodland figwort,
Common figwort,
Figwort
Introduced,
Eurasia native

NYFA: X

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 L. 1753

S. aquatica auct.
Shoreline figwort,
Water betony,
Water figwort
Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

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  1. Scrophulariaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Scrophulariaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Verbascum[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Scrophularieae — Verbascum
Genus Verbascum Mullein N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Verbascum blattaria L.
Moth mullein,
White moth mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native

NYFA: X

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 L. 1753

1753. Verbascum thapsus L.
Common mullein,
Great mullein
Molène,
Bouillon blanc
Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L.

1753. Verbascum lychnitis L.
White mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native

NYFA: X

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 K.Koch

Verbascum lychnitis ×
Verbascum thapsus

1837. Verbascum spurium K.Koch
Mullein Introduced

NYFA: X

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 L. 1753

1753. Verbascum phlomoides L.
Orange mullein,
Clasping-leaved mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native

NYFA: X

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 L.

1753. Verbascum phoeniceum L.
1753. Verbascum phoenicium L.
Purple mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native

NYFA: X

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 L.

1753. Verbascum sinuatum L.
Wavyleaf mullein,
Wavy-leaved mullein,
Black-leaved mullein,
Scallop-leaved mullein
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Tribe Limoselleae[edit | edit source]

Limosella[edit | edit source]

Limosella australis

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Limoselleae — Limosella
Genus Limosella Mudwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
R. Br.

1804. Limosella tenuifolia J.P.Wolff
1806. Limosella aquatica  ssp. tenuifolia  (J.P.Wolff) Pers.
1810. Limosella australis R.Br.
1817. Limosella subulata E.Ives
1905. Limosella aquatica  var. tenuifolia  (J.P.Wolff) Hook.f.
Atlantic mudwort ...
Welsh mudwort
Delta Mudwort ...

Limosella à feuilles subulées ...
Native, CoC: 10,
Rare,
Vulnerable,
S2, G4-5

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3
iNat

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Tribe Buddlejeae[edit | edit source]

Buddleja[edit | edit source]

Buddleja davidii
One species of Butterfly bush, Buddleja davidii has escaped cultivation and become invasive in New York State. It has been widely planted to attract butterflies and birds, but it has been found to be invasive in many temperate locations outside of its native range in China. Butterfly-bush should not be confused with butterfly-weed (Asclepias tuberosa), which is a native milkweed.
Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Buddlejeae — Buddleja
Genus Buddleja Butterflybush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Franch.

1888. Buddleja davidii Franch.
Orange-eyed butterfly-bush,
Orange-eye butterfly-bush,
Orange eye butterflybush,
Butterfly bush,
Orange eye,
Summer lilac
Arbre aux papillons,
Lilas d'été
Introduced from
 China,
Invasive,
 NYIS: 45%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub

NYFA: X

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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentBuddleja davidii: Low (45). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.