Flora of New York/Lamiales 1

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Solanales
Flora of New York — Lamiales 1:
Oleaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae

Lamiales 2:
Lamiaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The Lamiales [1]

Family Oleaceae[edit]

The Oleaceae (olive family) in New York consists of a handful of native and introduced ash trees, along with a number of non-native shrubs, some of which, primarily the privets, are extremely invasive and create dense thickets. Interestingly, the olive family does not include Elaeagnus species (Russian olive and autumn olive), which are also common alien invasives but are categorized in the Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family) in the Rhamnales.[1][2]

Tribe Forsythieae[edit]

Genus Forsythia[edit]

Forsythia is a popular non-native ornamental shrub, planted at least in part for its bright yellow early spring flowers. In New York, the degree of this popularity is tempered in much of the state where local weather doesn't consistently allow much flowering. The two species listed as having to some extent naturalized in New York are F. viridissima (greenstem forsythia) and F. suspensa (weeping forsythia). It's likely that in recent times the hybrid of the two, Forsythia × intermedia, has been planted at least as much as either of its parents, but it is sterile and also may not reproduce vegetatively as well as F. suspensa, whose arching branches root where they touch the ground, allowing it to do a slow walk into any adjacent natural area.[3]

Key to Forsythia taxa [3]
Branch center Branch position Leaf type Species
Hollow between nodes Forsythia suspensa (weeping forsythia)
Pith between nodes Upright Simple Forsythia viridissima (greenstem forsythia)
Upright or arching Simple or 3-lobed Forsythia × intermedia (hybrid forsythia)
Lamiales – fam. Oleaceae – tribe Forsythieae – genus Forsythia
Forsythia Forsythia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Lindl.

1846. Forsythia viridissima Lindl.
1932. Rangium viridissimum Ohwi
Greenstem forsythia,
Green-stemmed forsythia,
Golden-bells

Forsythia vert
Introduced from
 China & Korea
ForsythiaViridissima2.jpg
Forsythia viridissima NY-dist-map.png
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 (Thunb.) Vahl

1780. Ligustrum suspensum Thunb.
1784. Syringa suspensa Thunb. ex Murray
1804. Forsythia suspensa Vahl
1932. Rangium suspensum Ohwi
Forsythia,
Weeping forsythia,
Golden-bells
Introduced from
 China,
Impersistent
Forsythia suspensa 4090392 レンギョウ(連翹).JPG
Forsythia suspensa NY-dist-map.png
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Images, wsp
 Zabel

Forsythia suspensa var. fortunei ×
Forsythia viridissima

1885. Forsythia × intermedia Zabel
1900. F. × intermedia var. densiflora Koehne
Border forsythia,
Showy forsythia,
Hybrid forsythia
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
No NY reports
Goldfliederblüten.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

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Images, wsp
  1. Oleaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Oleaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).
  3. a b Paul M. Catling (2007) "Weeping forsythia, another shrub naturalized in Canada." Botanical Electronic News No. 378 April 25, 2007. Victoria, B.C.

Tribe Oleeae[edit]

Subtribe Fraxininae[edit]

Genus Fraxinus[edit]

The genus Fraxinus is represented in New York primarily by the three native and economically important ash trees: white ash, black ash, and green ash. All are susceptible to infestation by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) which has already infested a number of areas in the state and is expected to decimate ash tree populations in the near future.

Lamiales – fam. Oleaceae – tribe Oleeae – subtr. Fraxininae – genus Fraxinus
Fraxinussect. Melioides Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 L.

1753. Fraxinus americana L.
1878. F. americana var. microcarpa
1898. F. biltmoreana Beadle
1947. F. americana var. biltmoreana
1983. F. americana ssp. biltmoreana
White ash,
American ash

Frêne blanc,
Franc frêne,
Frêne d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Tree
Fraxinus americana seeds.jpg
Fraxinus americana NY-dist-map.png
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 Marsh.

1785. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.
1788. F. pubescens Lam.
1800. F. lanceolata Borkh.
1865. F. juglandifolia var. aucubifolia
1894. F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata
1947. F. pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima
1949. F. pennsylvanica fo. aucubifolia
Green ash,
Downy ash,
Northern red ash

Frêne de Pennsylvanie,
Frêne rouge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
Fraxinus pensylvanica a1.jpg
Fraxinus pennsylvanica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
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Images, wsp
 (Bush) Bush

1813. Fraxinus tomentosa F.Michx. superfl.
1894. Fraxinus americana var. profunda
1897. Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush
1897. Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. profunda
1914. Calycomelia profunda (Bush) Nieuwl.
Pumpkin ash

Frêne pubescent
Native, CoC: 8,
Impersistent

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Fraxinus profunda, RBGE 2008.jpg
Fraxinus profunda NY-dist-map.png
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Images, wsp
Fraxinussect. Fraxinus Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Marshall

1785. Fraxinus nigra Marshall
1788. F. sambucifolia Lam.
1790. F. nigra var. sambucifolia
1846. F. americana var. sambucifolia
Black ash,
Brown ash,
Hoop ash,
Swamp ash,
Water ash

Frêne noir,
Frêne de grève,
Frêne gras
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

WL: FACW

Perennial,
Tree
Fraxinus nigra 5444763.jpg
Fraxinus nigra NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

1753. Fraxinus excelsior L.
    
    
European ash,
Black ash

Frêne commun,
Frêne d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Impersistent

Perennial,
Tree
Fraxinus excelsior.JPG
Fraxinus excelsior NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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BNA


Images, wsp

Subtribe Ligustrinae[edit]

The subtribe Ligustrinae contains the non-native lilacs and privets.

Genus Syringa[edit]
The common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) has been grown in the state as an ornamental shrub for centuries and appears to persist only where it has been cultivated, and so it is found to have naturalized mainly around abandoned farmsteads and such. The more recently introduced Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) however is considered to be potentially invasive, and although it is not yet widespread outside of cultivation in New York, it is of concern.
Lamiales – fam. Oleaceae – tribe Oleeae – subtr. Ligustrinae – genus Syringa
SyringaL. Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Syringa vulgaris L.
Common lilac,
Purple lilac

Lilas commun,
Lilas vulgaire
Introduced from
 southeastern Europe
Syringa.vulgaris(01).jpg
Syringa vulgaris nymap.svg
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 (Blume) H. Hara

1850. Ligustrum reticulatum Blume
1941. Syringa reticulata H.Hara
1952. Ligustrina reticulata Nakai
Japanese tree lilac

Lilas japonais
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: 31%[1]
Syringa pekinensis 'Morton', Arnold Arboretum - IMG 5973.JPG
Syringa reticulata nymap.svg

USDA-X0
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Images, wsp
 Vahl

1804. Syringa villosa Vahl
1895. Syringa bretschneideri Lemoine
Villous lilac,
Late lilac,
Japanese lilac
Introduced from
 China,
No NY reports
Syringa bretschneideri 136-8292.jpg
Syringa villosa nymap.svg
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 J. Jacq. ex Rchb.

1830. Syringa josikaea Rchb.
Hungarian lilac Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
No NY reports
Botanical Garden of Moscow State University 01.JPG
Syringa josikaea nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-X0
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Images, wsp
Genus Ligustrum[edit]

In general, the several privet species, none of which are native to the western hemisphere, have been found to be invasive, and some are quite difficult to control where they have naturalized. The New York Flora Atlas reports that Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) is by far the most common and invasive of the naturalized privets, but that Ligustrum vulgare (European privet) can be locally quite aggressive as well.

Lamiales – fam. Oleaceae – tribe Oleeae – subtr. Ligustrinae – genus Ligustrum
Ligustrum Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.

1753. Ligustrum vulgare L.
1877. L. insulense Decne.
1879. L. insulare Decne.
European privet,
Common privet,
Wild privet,
Prim

Troène commun,
Troène
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68%[1]
Schurenbachhalde 11 ies.jpg
Ligustrum vulgare nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp
Siebold & Zucc.
ssp. obtusifolium

1846. L. obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc.
1899. L. obtusifolium var. regelianum
Rehder
1900. L. ibota var. regelianum Rehder
1904. L. regelianum Koehne
Border privet Introduced from
 Japan,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 77%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4] NE-4[5],
IPA VT
Ligustrum obtusifolium2.jpg
Ligustrum obtusifolium ssp obtusifolium nymap.svg
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ssp. suave (Kitag.) Kitag.

1861. Ligustrum amurense Carrière
1934. L. ibota var. suave Kitag.
1965. L. obtusifolium ssp. suave Kitag.
Amur privet,
Amur river privet[5]
Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: NA[6]
Ligustrum obtusifolium 3.JPG
Ligustrum obtusifolium ssp suave nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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 Hassk.

1844. Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.
1850. L. japonicum var. ovalifolium Blume
1877. L. californicum Decne.
1878. L. medium Franch. & Sav.
California privet,
Oval-leaf privet,
Garden privet

Troène des haies
Introduced from
 Japan,
 South Korea,
Invasive,
NYIS: 45%[7]
Ligustrum ovalifolium001.jpg
Ligustrum ovalifolium nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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Images, wsp
 Lour.

1790. Ligustrum sinense Lour.
1874. L. villosum May
1931. L. microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki
Chinese privet,
Small-leaf privet
Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
 Laos, Vietnam,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: NA[8]
Ligustrum sinense leaves and flowers 2.jpg
Ligustrum sinense nymap.svg
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Subtribe Oleinae[edit]

Genus Chionanthus[edit]

White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) is a usually-dioecious tree that is native to the southeastern US, possiibly as far north as southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, but it has been reported to have naturalized in a few New York counties. It is becoming popular as a small ornamental tree in residential landscapes.

Lamiales – fam. Oleaceae – tribe Oleeae – subtr. Oleinae – genus Chionanthus
Chionanthus Fringetree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
L.

1753. Chionanthus virginica L.
1814. C. virginicus var. maritimus
1830. C. maritimus (Pursh) Sweet
White fringetree,
White fringe-tree,
White fringe tree,
American fringetree,
Old-man's-beard
Introduced, CoC: 0 from
 southeast US,
N. America native

WL: FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Part shade
Chionanthus virginicus.jpg
Chionanthus virginicus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Family Tetrachondraceae[edit]

The Tetrachondraceae is a very small family containing only two species of the genus Tetrachondra and a single species of the genus Polypremum. Of these three species, only Polypremum procumbens, juniper leaf, has been reported to have been collected in New York, but it has since been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.[1][2]

Genus Polypremum[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Tetrachondraceae – genus Polypremum
Polypremum Juniper leaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Juniper leaf Introduced,
N. America native,
Excluded
Polypremum procumbens 2011.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-EXCLD
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
  1. Tetrachondraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Tetrachondraceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Family Plantaginaceae[edit]

The Plantaginaceae (plantain family)[1][2]

  1. Plantaginaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Plantaginaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe Gratioleae[edit]

Genus Gratiola[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Gratioleae – subg. Gratiola
Gratiola Hedge-hyssop N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Torr.

1819. Gratiola neglecta Torr.
    
    
Northern clammy hedge-hyssop,
Clammy hedge-hyssop,
American hedge-hyssop

Gratiole négligée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Gratiola neglecta NRCS-1.jpg
Gratiola neglecta NY-dist-map.png
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 Muhl.

1811. Gratiola lutea Raf.
1813. Gratiola aurea Muhl.
1920. Gratiola aurea var. obtusa
1935. Gratiola lutea var. obtusa
Golden hedge-hyssop,
Golden hedgehyssop,
Golden pert

Gratiole dorée
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Gratiola aurea BB-1913.png
Gratiola aurea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
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Genus Leucospora[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Gratioleae – subg. Leucospora
Leucospora Leucospora N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Michx.) Nutt.

Capraria multifidaConobea multifida
Cliff conobea Introduced,
Endangered
Leucospora multifida NRCS-1.jpg
Leucospora multifida NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Tribe Cheloneae[edit]

Genus Chelone[edit]

Turtleheads are all native to eastern North America, but only the white turtlehead is native to New York State. Although common in New York wetlands and listed as secure, it is also listed as exploitably vulnerable by the state.[1]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Cheloneae – genus Chelone
Chelone Turtlehead N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1753. Chelone glabra L.
1840. Chlonanthes glabra (L.) Raf.
1929. Chelone chlorantha Pennell & Wherry
White turtlehead,
White turtle-head,
Snakehead,
Smooth balmony

Galane glabre
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
Vulnerable[1]

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Chelone glabra SCA-5638.jpg
Chelone glabra NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
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 Pursh

1814. Chelone Lyonii Pursh
Flora Americae Septentrionalis 2: 737.
Pink turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

WL: FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Chelone lyonii2SHSU.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1767. Chelone obliqua L.
1935. Chelone obliqua
ssp. typica (L.) Pennell nom. inval.
Red turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Chelone obliqua-IMG 6142.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp

Genus Penstemon[edit]

Penstemon or beardtongue is a large genus of North American wildflowers, some of which have been hybridized and selected for horticultural trade. A popular example is Penstemon 'Dark Towers' (2004), which is a cross between Penstemon digitalis Nutt. 'Husker Red' (Lindgren, 1984) and pollen parent Penstemon 'Prairie Splendor' (Penstemon cobaea Nutt. × Penstemon triflorus A.Heller) (Lindgren, 1993).[1]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Cheloneae – genus Penstemon
Penstemonsubg. Penstemonsect. Penstemon Beardtongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 (L.) Willd.

1753. Chelone hirsuta L. (i)
1800. Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. (i)
Hairy beardtongue,
Hairy beard-tongue,
Northeastern beard-tongue
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Penstemon hirsutus - Hairy Beard Tongue 2.jpg
Penstemon hirsutus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
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Images, wsp
 Small

1903. Penstemon pallidus Small
1922. P. arkansanus var. pubescens
1933. P. brevisepalus Pennell
Pale beardtongue

Penstémon pâle
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

WL: FACU-UPL
Penstemon pallidus BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
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 Nutt. ex Sims

    Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims
    P. laevigatus ssp. digitalis
    P. laevigatus var. angulatus
Foxglove beardtongue,
Talus-slope beard-tongue
Introduced,
US South native,
Naturalized

WL: FAC
Penstemon digitalis - Foxglove Beardtongue.jpg
Penstemon digitalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NX
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BNA


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 Small

    Penstemon calycosus Small
    P. laevigatus ssp. calycosus
    
Longsepal beardtongue,
Long-sepal beard-tongue
Introduced,
N. America native,
Unk. naturalizaiton
Penstemon calycosus flower.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Images, wsp
Nutt.

1837. Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt. (i)
1837. Penstemon tubiflorus Nutt. (i)
1949. P. tubaeflorus var. achoreus Fernald
    
Funnel-form beardtongue,
White-wand beardtongue,
Tube beardtongue
Introduced,
N. America native
Penstemon tubiflorus BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
NEW Can
ITIS
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BNA


Images, wsp

Genus Collinsia[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Cheloneae – genus Collinsia
Collinsia Blue-eyed-Mary N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Nutt.

Spring blue-eyed Mary Native,
No recent reports,
DEC-A[1]
Collinsea verna-jk1.jpg
Collinsia verna NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Tribe Antirrhineae[edit]

Genus Nuttallanthus[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Nuttallanthus
Nuttallanthus Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(L.) D.A. Sutton

Linaria canadensis (L.) Chaz.
Canada toadflax,
Old-field toadflax
Native,
Likely secure
Nuttallanthus canadensis (14244371424) 4x3.jpg
Nuttallanthus canadensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Genus Chaenorhinum[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Chaenorhinum
Chaenorhinum Dwarf-snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(L.) Lange

Dwarf snapdragon Introduced
Chaenorhinum-minus-4274.jpg
Chaenorhinum minus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Linaria[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Linaria
Linaria Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Mill.

    Linaria linaria (L.) Karst.
Yellow toadflax,
Butter-and-eggs,
Flax-weed,
Wild snapdragon,
Eggs-and-bacon
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
Refs.[1][2]
20160627Linaria vulgaris2.jpg
Linaria vulgaris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

    L. genistifolia ssp. dalmatica
    Antirrhinum dalmaticum L.
Balkan toadflax,
Dalmatian toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Potentially invasive,
Refs.[3][4],
Invasive.org
Linaria dalmatica ssp dalmatica 0024002.jpg
Linaria dalmatica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Hooker f.

Moroccan toadflax,
Morocco toadflax
Introduced,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Linaria maroccana cv1.jpg
Linaria maroccana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
  1. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in the US.
  2. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in adjacent states CT & NJ and ten other states.
  3. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in the US.
  4. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in four western states.

Genus Cymbalaria[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Cymbalaria
Cymbalaria Cymbalaria N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
Gaertn., Meyer & Sherb.

Linaria cymbalaria
Kenilworth ivy Introduced
Cymbalaria muralis 20081025 2.jpg
Cymbalaria muralis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Wettst.

White coliseum-ivy,
Italian toadflax
Introduced
Cymbalaria pallida 01.jpg
Cymbalaria pallida NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-00






Images, wsp

Genus Kickxia[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Kickxia
Kickxia Cancerwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (L.) Dumort.

Sharp-point toadflax Introduced
Linaire bâtarde (Kickxia elatine).png
Kickxia elatine NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 (L.) Dumort.

Round-leaved cancerwort Introduced
Kickxia spuria Sturm 23.png
Kickxia spuria NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Antirrhinum[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Antirrhinum
Antirrhinum Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

Garden snapdragon Introduced
Antirrhinum majus B.jpg
Antirrhinum majus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Misopates[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Antirrhineae – genus Misopates
Misopates Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Raf.

Antirrhinum orontium L.
Lesser snapdragon Introduced,
Impersistent
Misopates orontium1.jpg
Misopates orontium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xm
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Tribe Callitricheae[edit]

Genus Callitriche[edit]

The Callitriche found in New York are aquatic plants known as water-starworts.

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Callitricheae – genus Callitriche
Callitriche Water-starwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Pursh
ssp. heterophylla

    Callitriche anceps Fernald
Diverseleaf water-starwort,
Twoheaded water-starwort
Native,
Secure
Callitriche heterophylla NRCS-1.png
Callitriche heterophylla ssp heterophylla NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

    Callitriche verna L.
Vernal water-starwort Native,
Secure
Callitriche palustris.jpg
Callitriche palustris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 Raf.

    Callitriche austinii Engelm.
    Callitriche deflexa A.Braun
Terrestrial water-starwort Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]
Callitriche terrestris drawing 1.png
Callitriche terrestris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

Autumnal water-starwort,
Northern water-starwort
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[2]
Callitriche spp Sturm38.jpg
Callitriche hermaphroditica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Pond water-starwort Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 49%[3]
Callitriche stagnalis Enfoque 2010-8-14 FuenteLaNava.jpg
Callitriche stagnalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Hippuris[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Callitricheae – genus Hippuris
Hippuris Mare's-tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1953. Hippuris vulgaris L.
Common mare's-tail

Hippuride vulgaire,
Queue de cheval,
Pesse vulgaire
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]
Hippuris vulgaris 001.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Tribe Digitalideae[edit]

Genus Digitalis[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Digitalideae – genus Digitalis
Digitalissect. Digitalis Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.

1753. Digitalis purpurea L.
Purple foxglove,
Common foxglove,
Digitalis,
Fairy cap

Digitale pourpre,
Grande digitale
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Morocco,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 53%[1]
Cluster of foxgloves, Digitalis purpurea - geograph.org.uk - 827285.jpg
Digitalis purpurea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Digitalissect. Globiflorae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Ehrh.

1792. Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Grecian foxglove,
Woolly foxglove,
Woolly digitalis

Digitale laineuse
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Turkey,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 37%[2]
Digitalis lanata (7446876792).jpg
Digitalis lanata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
Digitalissect. Macranthae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Mill.

1768. Digitalis grandiflora Mill.
1770. Digitalis ambigua Murray
Yellow foxglove,
Large yellow foxglove

Digitale à grandes fleurs
Introduced from
 Eurasia
Digitalis grandiflora.jpg
Digitalis grandiflora NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Digitalis lutea L.
Straw foxglove,
Small yellow foxglove

Digitale jaune,
Digitale à petites fleurs,
Petite digitale
Introduced from
 Europe
Scrophulariaceae - Digitalis lutea (8304665176).jpg
Digitalis lutea NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp

Tribe Veroniceae[edit]

Genus Veronica[edit]

Veronica subg. Veronica[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Veronica
Veronicasubg. Veronica Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

Marsh speedwell,
Skullcap speedwell
Native,
Secure
VeronicaScutellata.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Veronica officinalis L.
1862. V. officinalis var. tournefortii Rchb.
Common speedwell,
Gypsy-weed,
Common gypsy-weed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Mararonesia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 52%[1]
Veronica officinalis 1531.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentVeronica officinalis: Moderate (52). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Veronica subg. Beccabunga[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Beccabunga
Veronicasubg. Beccabunga Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
Schwein. ex Benth. 1846

American speedwell,
American brooklime
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Veronica americana 5496922.jpg
Veronica americana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. peregrina

Neckweed,
Purslane speedwell
Native,
Secure
Veronica serpyllifolia 2131.jpg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 Pennell

1921. Veronica catenata Pennell
    Veronica comosa Richt.
    Veronica connata Raf.
    Veronica salina Schur. misapplied
 auct. V. anagallis-aquatica
Chained speedwell,
Pink water speedwell,
Water speedwell,
Pennell's speedwell
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable
Veronica anagalloides sl34.jpg
NYFA-3-5
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. xalapensis

Veronica xalapensis KunthVeronica sherwoodii M.Peck
Hairy purslane speedwell,
Neckweed
Native,
Vulnerable
Veronica peregrina ssp xalapensis NRCS-1.jpg
Veronica peregrina ssp xalapensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-3
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
(Dicks. ex With.) Syme
ssp. humifusa

Veronica tenella All.Veronica humifusa Dicks.
Bright blue speedwell Introduced,
N. America native
Veronica serpyllifolia 2131.jpg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

1753. V. anagallis-aquatica L.
    V. brittonii Porter ex Pennell
    V. glandifera Pennell
 auct. V. catenata
Water speedwell,
Blue speedwell,
Water pimpernel,
Brook pimpernel,
Blue water speedwell

Mouron d'eau
Introduced
Veronica anagallis-aquatica EnfoqueInflores 2011-6-11 CampodeCalatrava.jpg
Veronica anagallis-aquatica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
ssp. serpyllifolia

Thyme-leaved speedwell Introduced
Veronica serpyllifolia 1.jpg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Brooklime,
European speedwell
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Veronica beccabunga.jpeg
Veronica beccabunga NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Veronica subg. Chamaedrys[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Chamaedrys
Veronicasubg. Chamaedrys Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

Corn speedwell Introduced
Veronica arvensis detail.jpeg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Germander speedwell Introduced
Veronica chamaedrys rozrazil rezevítek 2.jpg
Veronica chamaedrys NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Crantz

Dillen's speedwell Introduced
Rozrazil Dilleniův.JPG
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp
 L.

Spring speedwell Introduced
Veronica verna eF.jpg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Veronica subg. Cochlidiosperma[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Cochlidiosperma
Veronicasubg. Cochlidiosperma Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

Ivy-leaved speedwell Introduced
Veronica hederifolia.2006-04-16.1.uellue.jpg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Veronica subg. Orientales[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Orientales
Veronicasubg. Orientales Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.
ssp. teucrium

Broad-leaved speedwell Introduced
Veronica austriaca ssp teucrium 1.jpg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Veronica subg. Pocilla[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Pocilla
Veronicasubg. Pocilla Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

Field speedwell,
Green field speedwell
Introduced
Veronica agrestis W.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

    Pocilla biloba (L.) W.A. Weber
Two-lobe speedwell Introduced,
Rare
Veronica biloba (5822752819).jpg
Veronica biloba NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Sm.

Slender speedwell Introduced
Siūlinė veronika.jpg
Veronica filiformis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Poir.

    Pocilla persica
Bird-eye speedwell Introduced
Common field speedwell (Veronica persica) - geograph.org.uk - 393851.jpg
Veronica persica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 Fries

    Pocilla polita (Fr.) Fourr.
    Veronica didyma Ten. p.p.
Wayside speedwell Introduced
Veronica polita eF.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachion[edit]
Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicasubg. Pseudolysimachion
Veronicasubg. Pseudolysimachion Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Fisch. ex Spreng.

1821. Veronica grandis Fisch. ex Spreng.
1835. Veronica bachofenii Heuff.
1967. Pseudolysimachion bachofenii
Heartleaf speedwell,
Heart-leaved speedwell
Introduced,
Impersistent,
E. Europe native
Veronica grandis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Veronica longifolia L.
1852. Pseudolysimachion longifolium
(L.) Opiz
Longleaf speedwell,
Long-leaf speedwell,
Long-leaved speedwell,
Garden speedwell
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Veronica longifolia.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.

Spike speedwell Introduced
Týnecké mokřiny (07) - Veronica spicata.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Veronicastrum[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Veroniceae – genus Veronicastrum
Veronicastrum Veronicastrum N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(L.) Farw.

1753. Veronica virginica L.
1818. Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt.
1917. Veronicastrum virginicum
(L.) Farw.
Culver's root,
Blackroot,
Bowman's root,
Tall speedwell
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened

WL: FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Veronicastrum virginicum NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS




Images, wsp

Tribe Plantagineae[edit]

Genus Littorella [edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Plantagineae – genus Littorella
Littorella Shore grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Fernald

1753. Plantago uniflora L.
1859. Littorella uniflora (L.) Asch.
1918. Littorella americana Fernald
1952. Littorella uniflora
var. americana Gleason
1996. Plantago americana Rahn
American shore-grass Native,
Endangered

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Littorella americana BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
Note: [1]

Genus Plantago subg. Plantago[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Plantagineae – genus Plantagosubg. Plantago
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution 14

Black-seeded plantain Native,
Secure
Plantago rugelii BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NX






Images, wsp
 L.

Virginia plantain,
Pale-seeded plantain,
Hoary plantain
Native,
Secure
Plantago virginica BB-1913.png
Plantago virginica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NX






Images, wsp
 Lam.

1792. Plantago cordata Lam.
Heart-leaved plantain,
Heartleaf plantain,
Kingroot
Native,
Rare

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Plantago cordata.jpg
Plantago cordata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-3
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
 Torr.

Redwool plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago eriopoda drawing 1.png
Plantago eriopoda NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Dwarf plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago pusilla BB-1913.png
Plantago pusilla NY-dist-map.png

USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 Nutt.

Slender plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago heterophylla drawing 1.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 L.

Common plantain,
Nipple-seeded plantain
Introduced
Plantago major Blanco1.20-cropped.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Hoavy plantain Introduced
Plantago media leaves.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Plantago subg. Coronopus[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Plantagineae – genus Plantagosubg. Coronopus
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution 14
 L.
var. juncoides

    Plantago juncoides Lam.
    Plantago maritima ssp. borealis
    Plantago oliganthos
Seaside plantain Native,
Threatened
Plantago maritima.jpg
Plantago maritima var juncoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

    
    
    
Buckhorn plantain Introduced,
Rare
9385 Plantago coronopus.JPG
Plantago coronopus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Genus Plantago subg. Psyllium s.l[edit]

This subgenus combines subg. Psyllium s.s and subg. Albicans, which have been found to be polyphyletic when treated separately.

Lamiales – fam. Plantaginaceae – tribe Plantagineae – genus Plantagosubg. Psyllium s.l
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution 14
 Michx.

Largebracted plantain,
Rat-tail plantain,
Western ripplegrass
Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago aristata NPS-1.jpg
Plantago aristata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NX






Images, wsp
 Jacq.

Woolly plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago patagonica 4.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 Waldst. & Kit.

    Plantago psyllium L.
    Plantago indica L.
    Plantago scabra Moench
Sand plantain Introduced
Plantago arenaria, Flora Batava, V16.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

Narrowleaf plantain,
Narrow-leaved plantain
Introduced
Plantago lanceolata flowers.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Family Scrophulariaceae[edit]

The Scrophulariaceae (figwort Family) ...[1][2]

Tribe Scrophularieae[edit]

Genus Scrophularia[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Scrophulariaceae – tribe Scrophularieae – genus Scrophularia
Scrophularia Figwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
Pursh 1813

Hare figwort,
Lanceleaf figwort,
American figwort
Native,
Secure
Scrophularia lanceolata 001p.jpg
Scrophularia lanceolata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
L. 1753

Carpenter's square,
Figwort,
Eastern figwort,
Maryland figwort
Native,
Likely secure
Scrophularia marilandica BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS 




Images, wsp
 L. 1753

Woodland figwort,
Common figwort,
Figwort
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Scrophularia nodosa4 W.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX

ARS 




Images, wsp
L. 1753

S. aquatica auct.
Shoreline figwort,
Water betony,
Water figwort
Introduced,
Impersistent
Scrophularia auriculata TalloyHojas 2011-5-14 SierraMadrona.jpg
Scrophularia auriculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. Scrophulariaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Scrophulariaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Genus Verbascum[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Scrophulariaceae – tribe Scrophularieae – genus Verbascum
Verbascum Mullein N.Y. Status Images Distribution 7
 L.

1753. Verbascum blattaria L.
Moth mullein,
White moth mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native
Verbascum blattaria (3741882422).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp
 L. 1753

1753. Verbascum thapsus L.
Common mullein,
Great mullein

Molène,
Bouillon blanc
Introduced
Scrophulariaceae - Verbascum thapsus-1 (8304662826).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Verbascum lychnitis L.
White mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native
Verbascum lychnitis - flora.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp
K.Koch

Verbascum lychnitis ×
Verbascum thapsus

1837. Verbascum spurium K.Koch
Mullein Introduced
Verbascum lychnitis beauvais-sables-bracheux 60 20062008 5.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
L. 1753

1753. Verbascum phlomoides L.
Orange mullein,
Clasping-leaved mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Verbascum phlomoides flower.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS 




Images, wsp
L.

1753. Verbascum phoeniceum L.
1753. Verbascum phoenicium L.
Purple mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native
Verbascum phoeniceum J1.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Verbascum sinuatum L.
Wavyleaf mullein,
Wavy-leaved mullein,
Black-leaved mullein,
Scallop-leaved mullein
Introduced
Verbascum sinuatum habitusCampoCalatrava.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Tribe Limoselleae[edit]

Genus Limosella[edit]

Lamiales – fam. Scrophulariaceae – tribe Limoselleae – genus Limosella
Limosella Mudwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
R.Br. (1810)

L. aquatica var. tenuifoliaL. subulata
Mudwort,
Welsh mudwort
Native,
Rare,
Vulnerable
Edersee schlammling ds wv 10 2008.jpg
Limosella australis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-3
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Tribe Buddlejeae[edit]

Genus Buddleja[edit]

One species of Butterfly bush, Buddleja davidii has escaped cultivation and become invasive in New York State. It has been widely planted to attract butterflies and birds, but it has been found to be invasive in many temperate locations outside of its native range in China.

Lamiales – fam. Scrophulariaceae – tribe Buddlejeae – genus Buddleja
Buddleja Butterflybush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Franch.

1888. Buddleja davidii Franch.
Orange-eye butterfly-bush,
Butterfly bush,
Orange eye,
Summer lilac

Arbre aux papillons,
Lilas d'été
Introduced from
 China,
Invasive,
NYIS: 45%[1]

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
BuddlejaDavidiiStrauch.jpg
Buddleja davidii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 




Images, wsp
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentBuddleja davidii: Low (45). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.