Flora of New York/Lamiales 1

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Solanales
Flora of New York — Lamiales 1:
Oleaceae, Tetrachondraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae

Lamiales 2:
Lamiaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The Lamiales [1]

Family Oleaceae[edit | edit source]

The Oleaceae (olive family) in New York consists of a handful of native and introduced ash trees, along with a number of non-native shrubs, some of which, primarily the privets, are extremely invasive and create dense thickets. Interestingly, the olive family does not include Elaeagnus species (Russian olive and autumn olive), which are also common alien invasives but are categorized in the Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family) in the Rhamnales.[1][2]
  1. Oleaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Oleaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe Forsythieae[edit | edit source]

Forsythia[edit | edit source]

Forsythia is a popular non-native ornamental shrub, planted at least in part for its bright yellow early spring flowers. In New York, the degree of this popularity is tempered in much of the state where local weather doesn't consistently allow much flowering. The two species listed as having to some extent naturalized in New York are F. viridissima (greenstem forsythia) and F. suspensa (weeping forsythia). It's likely that in recent times the hybrid of the two, Forsythia × intermedia, has been planted at least as much as either of its parents, but it is sterile and also may not reproduce vegetatively as well as F. suspensa, whose arching branches root where they touch the ground, allowing it to do a slow walk into any adjacent natural area.[1]
Branch center Branch position Leaf type Species
Hollow between nodes Forsythia suspensa (weeping forsythia)
Pith between nodes Upright Simple Forsythia viridissima (greenstem forsythia)
Upright or arching Simple or 3-lobed Forsythia × intermedia (hybrid forsythia)
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Forsythieae — Forsythia
Forsythia Forsythia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lindl.

1846. Forsythia viridissima Lindl.
1932. Rangium viridissimum Ohwi
Greenstem forsythia,
Green-stemmed forsythia,
Golden-bells
Forsythia vert
Introduced from
 China & Korea
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 (Thunb.) Vahl

1780. Ligustrum suspensum Thunb.
1784. Syringa suspensa Thunb. ex Murray
1804. Forsythia suspensa Vahl
1932. Rangium suspensum Ohwi
Forsythia,
Weeping forsythia,
Golden-bells
Introduced from
 China,
Impersistent
Forsythia suspensa 4090392 レンギョウ(連翹).JPG
Forsythia suspensa NY-dist-map.png
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 Zabel

Forsythia suspensa var. fortunei ×
Forsythia viridissima

1885. Forsythia × intermedia Zabel
1900. F. × intermedia var. densiflora Koehne
Border forsythia,
Showy forsythia,
Hybrid forsythia
Introduced,
Not naturalized,
No NY reports
Goldfliederblüten.JPG
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Tribe Oleeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Fraxininae[edit | edit source]

Fraxinus[edit | edit source]
The genus Fraxinus is represented in New York primarily by the three native and economically important ash trees: white ash, black ash, and green ash. All are susceptible to infestation by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) which has already infested a number of areas in the state and is expected to decimate ash tree populations in the near future.
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Fraxininae — Fraxinus
Fraxinussect. Melioides Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Fraxinus americana L.
1878. F. americana var. microcarpa
1898. F. biltmoreana Beadle
1947. F. americana var. biltmoreana
1983. F. americana ssp. biltmoreana
White ash,
American ash
Frêne blanc,
Franc frêne,
Frêne d'Amérique
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Tree
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 Marsh.

1785. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.
1788. F. pubescens Lam.
1800. F. lanceolata Borkh.
1865. F. juglandifolia var. aucubifolia
1894. F. pennsylvanica var. lanceolata
1947. F. pennsylvanica var. subintegerrima
1949. F. pennsylvanica fo. aucubifolia
Green ash,
Downy ash,
Northern red ash
Frêne de Pennsylvanie,
Frêne rouge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

FACW-FAC

Perennial,
Tree
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 (Bush) Bush

1813. Fraxinus tomentosa F.Michx. superfl.
1894. Fraxinus americana var. profunda
1897. Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush
1897. Fraxinus pennsylvanica var. profunda
1914. Calycomelia profunda (Bush) Nieuwl.
Pumpkin ash
Frêne pubescent
Native, CoC: 8,
Impersistent

OBL

Perennial,
Tree
Fraxinus profunda, RBGE 2008.jpg
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Fraxinussect. Fraxinus Ash N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Marshall

1785. Fraxinus nigra Marshall
1788. F. sambucifolia Lam.
1790. F. nigra var. sambucifolia
1846. F. americana var. sambucifolia
Black ash,
Brown ash,
Hoop ash,
Swamp ash,
Water ash
Frêne noir,
Frêne de grève,
Frêne gras
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure

FACW

Perennial,
Tree
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 L.

1753. Fraxinus excelsior L.
    
    
European ash,
Black ash
Frêne commun,
Frêne d'Europe
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Impersistent

Perennial,
Tree
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Subtribe Ligustrinae[edit | edit source]

The subtribe Ligustrinae contains the non-native lilacs and privets.

Syringa[edit | edit source]
The common lilac (Syringa vulgaris) has been grown in the state as an ornamental shrub for centuries and appears to persist only where it has been cultivated, and so it is found to have naturalized mainly around abandoned farmsteads and such. The more recently introduced Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) however is considered to be potentially invasive, and although it is not yet widespread outside of cultivation in New York, it is of concern.
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Ligustrinae — Syringa
SyringaL. Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Syringa vulgaris L.
Common lilac,
Purple lilac
Lilas commun,
Lilas vulgaire
Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
Naturalized
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Note: WI, CA
(Blume) H. Hara
ssp. reticulata

1850. Ligustrum reticulatum Blume
1941. Syringa reticulata H.Hara
1952. Ligustrina reticulata Nakai
Japanese tree lilac
Lilas japonais
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 31%[1]
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Syringa (excluded taxa) Lilac N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Blume) H. Hara
ssp. amurensis
(Rupr.) P.S. Greene & M.C. Chang

1856. Syringa amurensis Rupr.
1995. S. reticulata ssp. amurensis
Amur lilac Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
N.Y. excluded
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 Vahl

1804. Syringa villosa Vahl
1895. Syringa bretschneideri Lemoine
Villous lilac,
Late lilac,
Japanese lilac
Introduced from
 China,
No NY reports
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Note: [2]
 J. Jacq. ex Rchb.

1830. Syringa josikaea Rchb.
Hungarian lilac Introduced from
 southeastern Europe,
No NY reports
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Note: [3]
  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentSyringa reticulata: 31% (Capital/Mohawk).
  2. USDA-NRCS Plants database showed Syringa villosa in Westchester County, apparently based on Glenn, S.D. (ed.). 2013. New York Metropolitan Flora database. New York Metropolitan Flora Project, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, New York. The New York Metropolitan Flora Project entry for genus Syringa at http://nymf.bbg.org/genus/195, only shows S. reticulata and S. vulgaris present in the New York metro area.
  3. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/species/syringa/josikaea/ shows Syringa josikaea appearing to be naturalized in adjacent Berkshire County, MA.
Ligustrum[edit | edit source]
Ligustrum vulgare
European privet
In general, the several privet species, none of which are native to the western hemisphere, have been found to be invasive, and some are quite difficult to control where they have naturalized. The New York Flora Atlas reports that Ligustrum obtusifolium (border privet) is by far the most common and invasive of the naturalized privets, but that Ligustrum vulgare (European privet) can be locally quite aggressive as well.
Ligustrum sp. young twigs &
stalks of floral panicles
floral-panicle
length
corolla lobe to
tube length ratio
tube length
L. vulgare hairless or minutely pubescent longer than 2" ~1/1 2.5 - 3 mm
L. obtusifolium conspicuously hairy 1" to 2" long 1/3 - 2/3 5 - 8 mm
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Ligustrinae — Ligustrum
Ligustrum Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Ligustrum vulgare L.
1877. L. insulense Decne.
1879. L. insulare Decne.
European privet,
Common privet,
Wild privet,
Prim
Troène commun,
Troène
Introduced from
 Europe,
 western Asia,
 northern Africa,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 68%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
Ligusterstrauch.jpg
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Siebold & Zucc.
var. obtusifolium

1846. L. obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc.
1899. L. obtusifolium var. regelianum
1900. L. ibota var. regelianum
1904. L. regelianum Koehne
Border privet Introduced from
 Japan,
 Korea,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 77%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4] NE-4[5],
IPA VT

Perennial,
Shrub
Ligustrum obtusifolium 4.JPG
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var. suave

1861. Ligustrum amurense Carrière
1934. L. ibota var. Kitag.
1944. L. obtusifolium var. suave
1965. L. obtusifolium ssp. suave
Amur privet,
Amur river privet[5]
Introduced from
 China,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: NA[6]

Perennial,
Shrub
Ligustrum obtusifolium1.jpg
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 Hassk.

1844. Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.
1850. L. japonicum var. ovalifolium Blume
1877. L. californicum Decne.
1878. L. medium Franch. & Sav.
California privet,
Oval-leaf privet,
Garden privet
Troène des haies
Introduced from
 Japan,
 South Korea,
Invasive,
NYIS: 45%[7],
CP-3[8],
CT-FL

Perennial,
Shrub
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Ligustrum (excluded taxa) Privet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Lour.

1790. Ligustrum sinense Lour.
1874. L. villosum May
1931. L. microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki
Chinese privet,
Small-leaf privet
Introduced from
 China, Taiwan,
 Laos, Vietnam,
Potentially invasive,
NYIS: NA[9]
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Subtribe Oleinae[edit | edit source]

Chionanthus[edit | edit source]
Chionanthus virginicus
White fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus) is a usually-dioecious tree that is native to the southeastern US, possiibly as far north as southern Pennsylvania and New Jersey, but it has been reported to have naturalized in a few New York counties. It is becoming popular as a small ornamental tree in residential landscapes. There is some evidence that white fringetree in an acceptable host for the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis).[1]
Lamiales — Oleaceae — Oleeae — Oleinae — Chionanthus
Chionanthus Fringetree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Chionanthus virginica L.
1814. C. virginicus var. maritimus
1830. C. maritimus (Pursh) Sweet
White fringetree,
White fringe-tree,
White fringe tree,
American fringetree,
Old-man's-beard
Introduced from
 southeast US,
N. America native,
SNA, G5

FAC

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Part shade
Chionanthus virginicus flowers JB.jpg
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Lindl. & Paxton

1852. Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxton
Tassel Tree
Chinese fringetree

Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
Cultivated[1]
Chionanthus retusus5.jpg
Nymap.svg
iNat: 3 counties

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Family Tetrachondraceae[edit | edit source]

The Tetrachondraceae is a very small family containing only two species of the genus Tetrachondra and a single species of the genus Polypremum. Of these three species, only Polypremum procumbens, juniper leaf, has been reported to have been collected in New York, but it has since been excluded from the New York Flora Atlas.[1][2]
  1. Tetrachondraceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Tetrachondraceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Polypremum[edit | edit source]

Polypremum procumbens
Juniper leaf appears to be native from southern New Jersey to Florida and Texas. It is not known to have naturalized in New York State.
Lamiales — Tetrachondraceae — Polypremum
Polypremum (excluded taxa) Juniper leaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Juniper leaf N. America native
 southeastern US,
N.Y. excluded
Polypremum procumbens 2011.jpg
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Family Plantaginaceae[edit | edit source]

The Plantaginaceae (plantain family)[1][2]
  1. Plantaginaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Plantaginaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Tribe Gratioleae[edit | edit source]

Gratiola[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Gratioleae — Gratiola
Gratiola Hedge-hyssop N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Torr.

1819. Gratiola neglecta Torr.
    
    
Northern clammy hedge-hyssop,
Clammy hedge-hyssop,
American hedge-hyssop
Gratiole négligée
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb
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 Muhl.

1811. Gratiola lutea Raf.
1813. Gratiola aurea Muhl.
1920. Gratiola aurea var. obtusa
1935. Gratiola lutea var. obtusa
Golden hedge-hyssop,
Golden hedgehyssop,
Golden pert
Gratiole dorée
Native, CoC: 9,
Likely secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
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L.

    Gratiola virginiana L.
Virginia hedge hyssop
Roundfruit hedgehyssop

Native, CoC: ?,
Endangered

OBL

Annual-biennial,
Herb-forb
Gratiola virginiana - 688-de.png
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Leucospora[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Gratioleae — Leucospora
Leucospora Leucospora N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Nutt.

1803. Capraria multifida Michx.
1825. Stemodia multifida (Michx.) Spreng.
1834. Leucospora multifida (Michx.) Nutt.
1844. Sutera multifida (Michx.) Walp.
1846. Conobea multifida (Michx.) Benth.
Narrow-leaved paleseed,
Narrow-leaf paleseed,
Obe-Wan-Conobea,
Cliff conobea
Introduced from
 southern Midwest,
N. America native,
Naturalized
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Tribe Cheloneae[edit | edit source]

Chelone[edit | edit source]

Chelone glabra
white turtle-head
Turtleheads are all native to eastern North America, but only the white turtlehead is native to New York State. Although common in New York wetlands and listed as secure, it is also listed as exploitably vulnerable by the state.[1]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Chelone
Chelone Turtlehead N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Chelone glabra L.
1840. Chlonanthes glabra (L.) Raf.
1929. Chelone chlorantha Pennell & Wherry
White turtlehead,
White turtle-head,
Snakehead,
Smooth balmony
Galane glabre
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - shade
Chelone glabra 3 (5097845032).jpg
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 Pursh

1814. Chelone Lyonii Pursh
Flora Americae Septentrionalis 2: 737.
Pink turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Chelone lyonii 1zz.jpg
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 L.

1767. Chelone obliqua L.
1935. Chelone obliqua
ssp. typica (L.) Pennell nom. inval.
Red turtlehead Introduced,
US South native,
No NY reports

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Flower (6086122087).jpg
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Penstemon[edit | edit source]

Penstemon or beardtongue is a large genus of about 250 species of primarily North American herbaceous perennials. The genus name was derived from the Greek penta (five) and stemon (stamen), referring to the flowers, which have five stamens (one sterile and four fertile).

Some Penstemon species have been hybridized and selected for horticultural trade. A popular example is Penstemon 'Dark Towers' (2004), which is a cross between an eastern U.S. cultivar: Penstemon digitalis Nutt. 'Husker Red' (Lindgren, 1984) and south-central U.S. hybrid pollen parent: Penstemon 'Prairie Splendor' (Penstemon cobaea Nutt. × Penstemon triflorus A.Heller) (Lindgren, 1993).[1]


Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Penstemon
Penstemonsubg. Penstemonsect. Penstemon Beardtongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Willd.

1753. Chelone hirsuta L. (i)
1800. Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. (i)
Hairy beardtongue,
Hairy beard-tongue,
Northeastern beard-tongue
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
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 Small

1903. Penstemon pallidus Small
1922. P. arkansanus var. pubescens
1933. P. brevisepalus Pennell
Pale beardtongue,
Eastern white beardtongue
Penstémon pâle
Native, CoC: 10,
Secure

FACU-UPL
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 Nutt. ex Sims

    Penstemon digitalis Nutt. ex Sims
    P. laevigatus ssp. digitalis
    P. laevigatus var. angulatus
Foxglove beardtongue,
Fox-glove beard-tongue,
Talus-slope beard-tongue
Introduced,
US South native,
Naturalized

FAC
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 Small

    Penstemon calycosus Small
    P. laevigatus ssp. calycosus
    
Longsepal beardtongue,
Long-sepal beard-tongue
Introduced,
N. America native,
Unk. naturalizaiton
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Nutt.

1837. Penstemon tubaeflorus Nutt. (i)
1837. Penstemon tubiflorus Nutt. (i)
1949. P. tubaeflorus var. achoreus Fernald
    
Funnel-form beardtongue,
White-wand beardtongue,
Tube beardtongue
Introduced,
N. America native
Penstemon tubiflorus BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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Wikispecies

Collinsia[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Cheloneae — Collinsia
CollinsiaNutt. (1817) Blue-eyed-Mary N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Nutt.

1817. Collinsia verna Nutt.
1824. Collinsia bicolor Raf.
Blue-eyed Mary,
Spring blue-eyed Mary,
Eastern blue-eyed Mary,
Broad-leaved collinsia,
Innocence
Collinsie printanière
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
DEC-A[1]

FAC-FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb
Collinsia verna (blue-eyed mary) (Rock Cut, Muskingum Co OH.jpg
Collinsia verna NY-dist-map.png
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LBJ

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Lindl.

1813. Antirrhinum tenellum Pursh nom. illeg.
1827. Collinsia parviflora Lindl.
1846. Collinsia parviflora var. parviflora
1906. Collinsia tenella Piper nom. illeg.
Small-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Maiden blue-eyed Mary
Few-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Blue-lips
Small blue-eyed Mary
Small-flowered collinsia

Collinsie à petites fleurs
Introduced,
N. America native,
Not naturalized
Collinsia parviflora 07503.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Wikispecies

Tribe Antirrhineae[edit | edit source]

Nuttallanthus[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Nuttallanthus
Nuttallanthus Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) D.A.Sutton

1753. Antirrhinum canadense L.
1802. Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Cours.
1988. N. canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton
Old-field toadflax,
Canada toadflax,
Blue toadflax,
Field toadflax
Linaire du Canada
Native, CoC: 3,
Likely secure

Biennial,
Herb-forb
Nuttallanthus canadensis (14244371424).jpg
Nuttallanthus canadensis NY-dist-map.png
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Chaenorhinum[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Chaenorhinum
Chaenorhinum Dwarf-snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Lange

Dwarf snapdragon Introduced Chaenorhinum minus PID1377-1.jpg
Chaenorhinum minus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Wikispecies

Linaria[edit | edit source]

Linaria vulgaris
butter-and-eggs
Linaria (toadflax) has also been placed in the Scrophulariaceae (figwort family).
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Linaria
Linaria Toadflax N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

    Linaria linaria (L.) Karst.
Butter-and-eggs,
Yellow toadflax,
Flax-weed,
Wild snapdragon,
Eggs-and-bacon
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
Refs.[1][2]
20160627Linaria vulgaris2.jpg
Linaria vulgaris NY-dist-map.png
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(L.) Mill.
ssp. dalmatica

    L. genistifolia ssp. dalmatica
    Antirrhinum dalmaticum L.
Balkan toadflax,
Dalmatian toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Very highly invasive,
Refs.[3][4][5],
Invasive.org
Linaria dalmatica ssp dalmatica 0024002.jpg
Linaria dalmatica NY-dist-map.png
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 Hook. f.

Moroccan toadflax,
Morocco toadflax
Introduced from
 Mediterranean,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Linaria maroccana cv1.jpg
Linaria maroccana NY-dist-map.png
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(L.) Mill.
ssp. genistifolia

1753. Antirrhinum genistifolium L.
1768. Linaria genistifolia (L.) Mill.
    
Broom-leaved toad-flax Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized
5021-Linaria genistifolia-Floriánek-7.06.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(L.) Mill.

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill.
    Linaria striata DC.
    
Pale toad-flax,
Striped toadflax
Introduced,
Not naturalized
Linaria repens 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Wikispecies
(L.) Chaz.
ssp. supina

    Linaria repens (L.) Mill.
    Linaria striata DC.
    
Prostrate toad flax,
Lesser butter and eggs
Introduced,
Not naturalized
LINARIA SUPINA - MONTSEC - IB-968 (Violeta de pastor).jpg
Nymap.svg
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  1. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in the US.
  2. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria vulgaris as invasive in adjacent states CT & NJ and ten other states.
  3. National Invasive Species Information Center lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in the US.
  4. Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States lists Linaria dalmatica as invasive in four western states.
  5. New York State Invasive Species Tiers: Linaria dalmatica Ecological Invasiveness Rank: Very High.

Cymbalaria[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Cymbalaria
Cymbalaria Cymbalaria N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Gaertn., Meyer & Sherb.

Linaria cymbalaria
Kenilworth ivy Introduced Cymbalaria muralis 20081025 2.jpg
Cymbalaria muralis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Wikispecies
 Wettst.

White coliseum-ivy,
Italian toadflax
Introduced Cymbalaria pallida 01.jpg
Cymbalaria pallida NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-00

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Wikispecies

Kickxia[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Kickxia
Kickxia Cancerwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Dumort.

Sharp-point toadflax Introduced Linaire bâtarde (Kickxia elatine).png
Kickxia elatine NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Wikispecies
 (L.) Dumort.

Round-leaved cancerwort Introduced Kickxia spuria Sturm 23.png
Kickxia spuria NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Wikispecies

Antirrhinum[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Antirrhinum
Antirrhinum Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Garden snapdragon Introduced Antirrhinum majus B.jpg
Antirrhinum majus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Misopates[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Antirrhineae — Misopates
Misopates Snapdragon N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Raf.

Antirrhinum orontium L.
Lesser snapdragon Introduced,
Impersistent
Misopates orontium1.jpg
Misopates orontium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xm
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Tribe Callitricheae[edit | edit source]

Callitriche[edit | edit source]

Callitriche palustris
vernal water-starwort
The Callitriche found in New York are aquatic plants known as water-starworts.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Callitricheae — Callitriche
Callitriche Water-starwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh
ssp. heterophylla

    Callitriche anceps Fernald
Diverseleaf water-starwort,
Twoheaded water-starwort
Native,
Secure
Callitriche heterophylla NRCS-1.png
Callitriche heterophylla ssp heterophylla NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

    Callitriche verna L.
Vernal water-starwort Native,
Secure
Fig. 05 Callitriche verna.jpg
Callitriche palustris NY-dist-map.png
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 Raf.

    Callitriche austinii Engelm.
    Callitriche deflexa A.Braun
Terrestrial water-starwort Native,
Threatened,
DEC-B[1]
Callitriche terrestris drawing 1.png
Callitriche terrestris NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2-3
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 L.

Autumnal water-starwort,
Northern water-starwort
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[2]
Callitriche spp Sturm38.jpg
Callitriche hermaphroditica NY-dist-map.png
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Pond water-starwort Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 49%[3]
Callitriche stagnalis sl4.jpg
Callitriche stagnalis NY-dist-map.png
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Hippuris[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Callitricheae — Hippuris
Hippuris Mare's-tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1953. Hippuris vulgaris L.
Common mare's-tail
Hippuride vulgaire,
Queue de cheval,
Pesse vulgaire
Native,
Endangered,
DEC-A[1]
Hippuris vulgaris 001.JPG
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Tribe Digitalideae[edit | edit source]

Digitalis[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Digitalideae — Digitalis
Digitalissect. Digitalis Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Digitalis purpurea L.
Purple foxglove,
Common foxglove,
Digitalis,
Fairy cap
Digitale pourpre,
Grande digitale
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Morocco,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 53%[1]
Common Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) (41155708450).jpg
Digitalis purpurea NY-dist-map.png
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Digitalissect. Globiflorae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Ehrh.

1792. Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Grecian foxglove,
Woolly foxglove,
Woolly digitalis
Digitale laineuse
Introduced from
 Europe,
 Turkey,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 37%[2]
Digitalis lanata 06.jpg
Digitalis lanata NY-dist-map.png
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Digitalissect. Macranthae Foxglove N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1768. Digitalis grandiflora Mill.
1770. Digitalis ambigua Murray
Yellow foxglove,
Large yellow foxglove
Digitale à grandes fleurs
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Highly invasive,
NYS Tier 2
Digitalis grandiflora close-up.jpg
Digitalis grandiflora NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

1753. Digitalis lutea L.
Straw foxglove,
Small yellow foxglove
Digitale jaune,
Digitale à petites fleurs,
Petite digitale
Introduced from
 Europe
Digitalis lutea 002.JPG
Digitalis lutea NY-dist-map.png
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Tribe Veroniceae[edit | edit source]

Veronica[edit | edit source]

Veronica subg. Veronica[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Veronica
Veronicasubg. Veronica Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Marsh speedwell,
Skullcap speedwell
Native,
Secure
Veronica scutellata eF.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Veronica officinalis L.
1862. V. officinalis var. tournefortii Rchb.
Common speedwell,
Gypsy-weed,
Common gypsy-weed
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Macaronesia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 52%[1]
Gypsyweed.jpg
Nymap.svg
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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentVeronica officinalis: Moderate (52). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.
Veronica subg. Beccabunga[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Beccabunga
Veronicasubg. Beccabunga Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Schwein. ex Benth. 1846

American speedwell,
American brooklime
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Veronica americana 5473459.jpg
Veronica americana NY-dist-map.png
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 L.
ssp. peregrina

Neckweed,
Purslane speedwell
Native,
Secure
Starr 080415-4014 Veronica peregrina.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.
ssp. xalapensis

    Veronica xalapensis Kunth
    Veronica sherwoodii M.Peck
    
Hairy purslane speedwell,
Neckweed
Native,
Vulnerable
Veronica peregrina ssp xalapensis NRCS-1.jpg
Veronica peregrina ssp xalapensis NY-dist-map.png
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 Pennell

1921. Veronica catenata Pennell
    Veronica comosa Richt.
    Veronica connata Raf.
    Veronica salina Schur. misapplied
 auct. V. anagallis-aquatica
Chained speedwell,
Pink water speedwell,
Water speedwell,
Pennell's speedwell
Native, CoC: 10,
Vulnerable
VeronicaCatenata.jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Dicks. ex With.) Syme
ssp. humifusa

    Veronica tenella All.
    Veronica humifusa Dicks.
Bright blue speedwell Native,
Likely extirpated
Veronica serpyllifolia 2131.jpg
Nymap.svg
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ssp. serpyllifolia

Thyme-leaved speedwell Introduced Veronica serpyllifolia 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. V. anagallis-aquatica L.
    V. brittonii Porter ex Pennell
    V. glandifera Pennell
 auct. V. catenata
Water speedwell,
Blue speedwell,
Water pimpernel,
Brook pimpernel,
Blue water speedwell
Mouron d'eau
Introduced Veronica anagallis-aquatica 5.jpg
Veronica anagallis-aquatica NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

Brooklime,
European speedwell
Introduced,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 62%[1]
Brooklime (Veronica beccabunga) - geograph.org.uk - 1395570.jpg
Veronica beccabunga NY-dist-map.png
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Veronica subg. Chamaedrys[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Chamaedrys

Veronicasubg. Chamaedrys Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Corn speedwell Introduced Corn Speedwell - Flickr - treegrow.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Wikispecies
 L.

Germander speedwell Introduced 20150509Veronica chamaedrys1.jpg
Veronica chamaedrys NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Wikispecies
 Crantz

Dillen's speedwell Introduced Veronica dillenii2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

Spring speedwell Introduced 20150418Veronica verna1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

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Veronica subg. Cochlidiosperma[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Cochlidiosperma
Veronicasubg. Cochlidiosperma Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Ivy-leaved speedwell Introduced 20170402Veronica hederifolia3.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Veronica subg. Orientales[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Orientales
Veronicasubg. Orientales Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. teucrium (L.) D.A. Webb

1762. Veronica teucrium L.
1939. V. krylovii Schischk.
1972. V. austriaca ssp. teucrium
Broad-leaved speedwell
Broadleaf speedwell
Large speedwell
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Unk. naturalization
Veronica austriaca ssp teucrium 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Veronica subg. Pocilla[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Pocilla
Veronicasubg. Pocilla Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Field speedwell,
Green field speedwell
Introduced Green Field-speedwell (Veronica agrestis) X (3356936648).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 L.

    Pocilla biloba (L.) W.A. Weber
Two-lobe speedwell Introduced,
Rare
Veronica biloba-5-24-05.jpg
Veronica biloba NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
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 Sm.

Slender speedwell Introduced Veronica filiformis20.jpg
Veronica filiformis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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 Poir.

    Pocilla persica
Bird-eye speedwell Introduced 20130604Veronica persica3.jpg
Veronica persica NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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 Fries

    Pocilla polita (Fr.) Fourr.
    Veronica didyma Ten. p.p.
Wayside speedwell Introduced Veronica polita sl7.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachion[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronica subg. Pseudolysimachion
Veronicasubg. Pseudolysimachion Speedwell N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Veronica longifolia L.
1852. Pseudolysimachion longifolium
(L.) Opiz
Longleaf speedwell,
Long-leaf speedwell,
Long-leaved speedwell,
Garden speedwell
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Veronica-longifolia.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Veronica spicata L.
1769. Veronica orchidea Crantz
1817. Veronica barrelieri Schult.
1852. Pseudolysimachion spicatum
(L.) Opiz
1950. Veronica hololeuca Juz.
Spike speedwell Introduced Veronica spicata sl1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Heuff.

1821. Veronica grandis
Fisch. ex Spreng. misapplied
1835. Veronica bachofenii Heuff.
1967. Pseudolysimachion bachofenii
Heartleaf speedwell,
Heart-leaved speedwell
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Nymap.svg
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USDA-XX
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Veronicastrum[edit | edit source]

Veronicastrum virginicum
Culver's root
Culver's root (Veronicastrum virginicum) is the only species of Veronicastrum (false Veronica) reported in New York. It is listed a threatened (S2) in the state, but is widely planted.
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Veroniceae — Veronicastrum
Veronicastrum Veronicastrum N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Farw.

1753. Veronica virginica L.
1818. Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt.
1917. Veronicastrum virginicum
(L.) Farw.
Culver's root,
Blackroot,
Bowman's root,
Tall speedwell
Native, CoC: 5,
Threatened,
S2, G4,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Veronicastrum virginicum 002.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Tribe Plantagineae[edit | edit source]

Littorella [edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Littorella
Littorella Shore grass N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Fernald

1753. Plantago uniflora L.
1859. Littorella uniflora (L.) Asch.
1918. Littorella americana Fernald
1952. Littorella uniflora
var. americana Gleason
1996. Plantago americana Rahn
American shore-grass,
American shore plantain,
American shore weed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
SH, G5

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Littorella americana BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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Note: [1]

Plantago[edit | edit source]

Plantago subg. Plantago[edit | edit source]
Plantago rugelii
black-seeded plantain

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Plantago
Plantagosubg. Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

Rugel’s plantain
Blackseed plantain
Black-seeded plantain
American plantain

Native,
Secure
Plantago rugelii iNat-42363761.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

Virginia plantain,
Pale-seeded plantain,
Hoary plantain
Native,
Secure
Plantago virginica BB-1913.png
Plantago virginica NY-dist-map.png
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 Lam.

1792. Plantago cordata Lam.
Heart-leaved plantain,
Heartleaf plantain,
Kingroot
Native,
Rare

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Plantago cordata NRCS-002 4x3.jpg
Plantago cordata NY-dist-map.png
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Dwarf plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago pusilla BB-1913.png
Plantago pusilla NY-dist-map.png

USDA-N0
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 Nutt.

Slender plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago heterophylla drawing 1.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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 L.

Common plantain,
Nipple-seeded plantain
Introduced Plantago major 005.JPG
Nymap.svg
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 L.

Lamb's tongue plantain
Hoary plantain

Plantain moyen
Plantain bâtard
Introduced from
 Eurasia
Kwiatostan babki sredniej podlasie.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Plantagosubg. Plantago (excluded taxa) Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Torr.

Redwool plantain Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
2016.05.28 10.53.19 IMG 6069 - Flickr - andrey zharkikh.jpg
Plantago eriopoda NY-dist-map.png
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Plantago subg. Coronopus[edit | edit source]
Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Coronopus
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
var. juncoides

    Plantago juncoides Lam.
    Plantago maritima ssp. borealis
    Plantago oliganthos
Seaside plantain Native,
Threatened
Plantago maritima.jpg
Plantago maritima var juncoides NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2-3
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Images
Wikispecies
 L.

    
    
    
Buckhorn plantain Introduced,
Rare
9385 Plantago coronopus.JPG
Plantago coronopus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
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Wikispecies
Plantago subg. Psyllium s.l[edit | edit source]

This subgenus combines subg. Psyllium s.s and subg. Albicans, which have been found to be polyphyletic when treated separately.

Lamiales — Plantaginaceae — Plantagineae — Plantago subg. Psyllium s.l
Plantago Plantain N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Largebracted plantain,
Rat-tail plantain,
Western ripplegrass
Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago aristata NPS-1.jpg
Plantago aristata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-NX

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Wikispecies
 Jacq.

Woolly plantain Introduced,
N. America native
Plantago patagonica 4.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN

Images
Wikispecies
 L.

English plantain,
Narrowleaf plantain,
Narrow-leaved plantain
Introduced Plantago lanceolata in Bupyung, Korea.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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 Waldst. & Kit.

1753. Plantago psyllium L., nom. utique rej.
1759. Plantago indica L., nom. utique rej.
1794. Plantago scabra Moench
1801. Plantago arenaria Waldst. & Kit.
Flaxseed plantain
Sand plantain

Introduced Plantago arenaria, Flora Batava, V16.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Wikispecies

Family Scrophulariaceae[edit | edit source]

The Scrophulariaceae (figwort Family) ...[1][2]

Tribe Scrophularieae[edit | edit source]

Scrophularia[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Scrophularieae — Scrophularia
Scrophularia Figwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Pursh 1813

Hare figwort,
Lanceleaf figwort,
American figwort
Native,
Secure
Scrophularia lanceolata 001p.jpg
Scrophularia lanceolata NY-dist-map.png
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L. 1753

Carpenter's square,
Figwort,
Eastern figwort,
Maryland figwort
Native,
Likely secure
Scrophularia marilandica - Eastern Figwort.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
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 L. 1753

Woodland figwort,
Common figwort,
Figwort
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Scrophularia nodosa4 W.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Wikispecies
L. 1753

S. aquatica auct.
Shoreline figwort,
Water betony,
Water figwort
Introduced,
Impersistent
Scrophularia auriculata TalloyHojas 2011-5-14 SierraMadrona.jpg
Scrophularia auriculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xm
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  1. Scrophulariaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Scrophulariaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Verbascum[edit | edit source]

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Scrophularieae — Verbascum
Verbascum Mullein N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Verbascum blattaria L.
Moth mullein,
White moth mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native,
N. Africa native
გულსოსანა Verbascum blattaria Moth Mullein.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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 L. 1753

1753. Verbascum thapsus L.
Common mullein,
Great mullein
Molène,
Bouillon blanc
Introduced Verbascum thapsus 1901.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Verbascum lychnitis L.
White mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native
Verbascum lychnitis vallee-de-grace-amiens 80 21072007 5.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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K.Koch

Verbascum lychnitis ×
Verbascum thapsus

1837. Verbascum spurium K.Koch
Mullein Introduced Verbascum lychnitis beauvais-sables-bracheux 60 20062008 5.jpg
Nymap.svg
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L. 1753

1753. Verbascum phlomoides L.
Orange mullein,
Clasping-leaved mullein
Introduced,
Eurasia native
Verbascum phlomoides flower.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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Wikispecies
L.

1753. Verbascum phoeniceum L.
1753. Verbascum phoenicium L.
Purple mullein Introduced,
Eurasia native
Verbascum phoeniceum J1.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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 L.

1753. Verbascum sinuatum L.
Wavyleaf mullein,
Wavy-leaved mullein,
Black-leaved mullein,
Scallop-leaved mullein
Introduced Verbascum sinuatum habitusCampoCalatrava.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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ITIS

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Tribe Limoselleae[edit | edit source]

Limosella[edit | edit source]

Limosella australis

Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Limoselleae — Limosella
Limosella Mudwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
R. Br.

1804. Limosella tenuifolia J.P.Wolff
1806. Limosella aquatica ssp. tenuifolia
1810. Limosella australis R.Br.
1817. Limosella subulata E.Ives
1905. Limosella aquatica var. tenuifolia
Atlantic mudwort
Welsh mudwort
Delta Mudwort

Limosella à feuilles subulées
Native, CoC: 10,
Rare,
Vulnerable,
S2, G4-5

OBL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Limosella australis iNat-73957056 (cropped).jpg
Limosella australis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
iNaturalist
ITIS
FNA
Tropicos

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Tribe Buddlejeae[edit | edit source]

Buddleja[edit | edit source]

Buddleja davidii
One species of Butterfly bush, Buddleja davidii has escaped cultivation and become invasive in New York State. It has been widely planted to attract butterflies and birds, but it has been found to be invasive in many temperate locations outside of its native range in China. Butterfly-bush should not be confused with butterfly-weed (Asclepias tuberosa), which is a native milkweed.
Lamiales — Scrophulariaceae — Buddlejeae — Buddleja
Buddleja Butterflybush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Franch.

1888. Buddleja davidii Franch.
Orange-eyed butterfly-bush,
Orange-eye butterfly-bush,
Orange eye butterflybush,
Butterfly bush,
Orange eye,
Summer lilac
Arbre aux papillons,
Lilas d'été
Introduced from
 China,
Invasive,
NYIS: 45%[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Shrub
BuddlejaDavidiiIreland.JPG
Buddleja davidii NY-dist-map.png
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  1. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentBuddleja davidii: Low (45). M.J.Jordan, G.Moore & T.W.Weldy (2008). Invasiveness ranking system for non-native plants of New York. Unpublished. The Nature Conservancy, Albany & Cold Spring Harbor, NY; Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, NY.