Flora of New York/Cichorioideae

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Carduoideae
Flora of New York — Asterales : Asteraceae :
Vernonioideae & Cichorioideae

Senecioneae, Calenduleae, Gnaphalieae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Subfamily Vernonioideae[edit | edit source]

Prior to 2019, the tribe Vernonieae was included in the Asteraceae subfamily Cichorioideae. Mandel et al. (2019) proposed moving Vernonieae and several related tribes into their own Asteraceae subfamily, Vernonioideae.[1]

Tribe Vernonieae[edit | edit source]

Vernonieae Cassini, "the evil tribe"[1][2]

Subtribe Vernoniineae[edit | edit source]

Vernonia[edit | edit source]
Vernonia noveboracensis

Asterales — Asteraceae — Vernonioideae — Vernonieae — Vernoniineae — Vernonia
Genus Vernonia Ironweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Michx.

1753.  Serratula noveboracensis  L. in…
1753.  Serratula praealta  L. in…
1768.  Serratula caroliniana   Mill. in…
1768.  Behen noveboracensis  (L.) Hill in…
1768.  Behen praealtum  Hill in…
1788.  Chrysocoma tomentosa  Walter in…
1803.  Vernonia noveboracensis  (L.) Michx. in…
1803.  Vernonia noveboracensis  (L.) Willd. in…
1804.  Chrysocoma noveboracensis  Desf. in…
1823.  Vernonia tomentosa  Elliott in…
1852.  Vernonia rugeliana  Shuttlew. ex A.Gray in…
1891.  Cacalia noveboracensis  (L.) Kuntze in…
1906.  Vernonia harperi  Gleason
New York ironweed Native, CoC: 3,
Likely secure,
S4

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4
NYFA: 15 counties
iNat
? counties

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(Walter) Trel.

1788.  Chrysocoma gigantea  Walter in…
1803.  Vernonia praealta  Michx. in…
1804.  Chrysocoma praealta  Desf. in…
1818.  Vernonia altissima  Nutt. in…
1838.  Serratula altissima  (Nutt.) DC. in…
1891.  Vernonia gigantea  (Walter) Trel. in…
1891.  Vernonia gigantea  (Walter) Trel. ex Branner & Coville in…
1891.  Cacalia gigantea  (Walter) Kuntze in…
Tall ironweed,
Giant ironweed
Vernonie géante
Native, CoC: 0,
Endangered,
S1, G5

FAC-FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 1
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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DC.

1838.  Vernonia arkansana  DC. in…
1838.  Vernonia crinita  Raf. in…
1891.  Cacalia arkansana  (DC.) Kuntze in…
Ozark ironweed ...
Arkansas ironweed ...
Introduced,
N. America native

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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Michx.

1803. Vernonia fasciculata Michx.
1907. Vernonia fasciculata  var. corymbosa  (Schwein.) Daniels
1972. Vernonia fasciculata  ssp. corymbosa  (Schwein.) S.B.Jones
Smooth ironweed,
Fascicled ironweed,
Prairie ironweed
Vernonie fasciculée
Introduced from
 Midwest,
N. America native

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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(L.) Willd.

1753. Serratula glauca L.
1803. Vernonia glauca (L.) Willd.
1884. Vernonia noveboracensis  var. tomentosa  Britton & Brown
Broadleaf ironweed Introduced from
 PA south,
N. America native,
No NY reports

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Unlisted
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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Raf.

    Vernonia missurica Raf.
Missouri ironweed Introduced from
 south-central US,
 midwestern US,
N. America native,
No NY reports,
naturalized in MA

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: Unlisted
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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Tribe Arctotideae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Gorteriinae[edit | edit source]

Gazania[edit | edit source]
Genus Gazania (Treasure Flowers)
Asterales — Asteraceae — Vernonioideae — Arctotideae — Gorteriinae — Gazania
Genus Berkheya African Thistles N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT

    
Wedding treasureflower ...

Introduced,
Cultivated

NYFA: Not listed
13 cultivated

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Trailing Treasureflower ...

Introduced,
Cultivated

NYFA: Not listed
3 cultivated

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Wikispecies

Subfamily Cichorioideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Cichorieae[edit | edit source]

The members of the Cichorieae have white latex and most have flower heads with perfect 5-dentate, mostly-yellow, ligulate flowers.[1]

Subtribe Scorzonerinae[edit | edit source]

Scorzonerinae Dumort., Fl. Belg.: 63. 18271[1]
Tragopogon[edit | edit source]
Tragopogon pratensis

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Scorzonerinae
Genus Tragopogon Goat's beard, Salsify N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753.  Tragopogon pratensis  L.
1806.  Hieracium tragopogon  E.H.L.Krause in…
Meadow salsify,
Meadow goat's-beard,
Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon
Salsifis des prés
Introduced from
 Eurasia

NYFA: X

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L.

1753. Tragopogon porrifolius L.
Salsify,
Purple salsify,
Purple goat's-beard,
Vegetable oyster
Salsifis cultivé,
Salsifis blanc
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa

NYFA: X

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Scop.
 ssp. dubius

1772.  Tragopogon dubius  Scop. in…
1879.  Tragopogon major  ssp. dubius  (Scop.) Nyman  in…
1912.  Tragopogon pratensis  ssp. dubius  (Scop.) Gaut.  in…
Yellow salsify
Salsifis majeur
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Farw.

Tragopogon porrifolius ×
Tragopogon pratensis

1930. Tragopogon neohybridus Farw.
Goat's-beard,
Newhybrid salsify,
Hybrid of
 Meadow salsify &
 Purple salsify
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-X0
IPN
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Subtribe Scolyminae[edit | edit source]

Scolymus[edit | edit source]
Scolymus hispanicus
golden thistle

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Scolyminae — Scolymus
Genus Scolymus Golden thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Scolymus hispanicus  L.
1799. Scolymus grandiflorus  Desf.
Common goldenthistle,
Spanish oyster-plant,
Spanish salsify
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized

NYFA: Xm

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Subtribe Lactucinae[edit | edit source]

Lactuca[edit | edit source]
Lactuca canadensis
Eight Lettuce (Lactuca) species are reported in the New York Flora Atlas, along with a hybrid of the two more common native lettuce species. Four of the species are considered to be native to New York, while the other four are Eurasian species, including the cultivated garden lettuce (Lactuca sativa).
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Lactucinae — Lactuca
Genus Lactuca Lettuce N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Lactuca canadensis L.
1803. Lactuca longifolia Michx.
1824. Lactuca sagittifolia Elliott
1891. Lactuca canadensis  var. latifolia  Kuntze
1898. Lactuca canadensis  var. montana  Britton
1920. Lactuca canadensis  var. obovata  Wiegand
1923. Lactuca canadensis  var. longifolia  (Michx.) Farw.
Tall lettuce,
Canada lettuce,
Canada wild lettuce,
Tall wild lettuce,
Arrow-leaved lettuce,
Devil's weed
Laitue du Canada
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

FACU

Annual, biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5
NYFA: ? counties
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? counties

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(Moench) Fernald

1794. Sonchus biennis Moench
1940. Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald
Tall blue lettuce,
Blue wood lettuce,
Biennial lettuce
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

FAC-FACU

Annual, biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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B.L.Rob.

Lactuca biennis ×
Lactuca canadensis

Morss’s lettuce,
Wild lettuce
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: U
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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Muhl. ex Nutt.

Tall hairy lettuce,
Hairy lettuce,
Downy lettuce
Native, CoC: 5,
Endangered

Biennial

NYFA: 1
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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(L.) Gaertn.

    Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn.
Woodland lettuce Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered

NYFA: 1
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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L.

1753. Lactuca virosa L. misappl.
1756. Lactuca serriola L.
1763. Lactuca scariola L. orth.var.
1773. Lactuca augustana All.
1926. Lactuca serriola  var. integrata  Farw.
Prickly lettuce,
China lettuce,
Wild lettuce
Introduced from
 Europe

NYFA: X
NYFA: 35 counties
~30 counties

USDA-XX
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L.

    
Willow-leaved lettuce Introduced

NYFA: X
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

USDA-XX
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L.

    
Garden lettuce Introduced

NYFA: X
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

USDA-XW
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(Pursh) DC.

1813. Sonchus pulchellus Pursh
1838. Lactuca pulchella (Pursh) DC.
1839. Mulgedium pulchellum (Pursh) G. Don
1841. Mulgedium pulchellum (Pursh) Nutt. (isonym)
1939. Lactuca tatarica  ssp. pulchella  (Pursh) Stebbins
1957. Lactuca tatarica  var. pulchella  (Pursh) Breitung
Showy blue lettuce,
Blue lettuce
Introduced

NYFA: X
NYFA: ? counties
? counties

USDA-NN
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Mycelis[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Lactucinae — Mycelis
Genus MycelisCass. Blue sow thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution Refs.[1] NPT
(L.) Dumort.

1753. Prenanthes muralis L.
1791. Lactuca muralis (L.) Gaertn.
1822. Cicerbita muralis (L.) Wallr.
1827. Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort.
Wall lettuce Introduced

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Hyoseridinae[edit | edit source]

Sonchus[edit | edit source]
Sonchus arvensis
All sow thistles (Sonchus spp.) found in New York are non-native plants. Sonchus arvensis ssp. arvensis, in particular, is considered to be a noxious weed in much of North America and is being tracked in New York for its invasiveness.[1]
Sonchus sow-thistle flowerhead (capitulum) width (mm) fruiting involucre length (mm) duration roots peduncles
(flower/fruit stalks)
phyllaries
(involucral bracts)
leaf blades
S. arvensis ssp. arvensis field sowthistle 30-50 >13, 14-17 perennial creeping, deep-seated rhizome pubescent, yellow stipitate glands pubescent, yellow stipitate glands, 14-17 mm
S. arvensis ssp. uliginosus smooth sowthistle 30-50 >13, 10-15 perennial creeping, deep-seated rhizome glabrous, sessile yellow glands glabrous, sessile yellow glands or tomentose, 10-15 mm
S. asper spiny-leaved sowthistle 15-25 ≤13 annual or biennial taproot stipulate glands or sometimes glabrous 9-13+ mm firm, stiff prickles, rounded basal auricles
S. oleraceus common sow-thistle 15-25 ≤13 annual or biennial taproot glabrous or sometimes stipulate glands 9-13+ mm soft, softer prickles, triangular basal auricles
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hyoseridinae
Genus Sonchus Sow thistle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.
 ssp. arvensis

1753.  Sonchus arvensis  L. in…
1771.  Hieracium arvense  Scop. in…
1813.  Lepicaune spinulosa  Lapeyr. in…
1826.  Hieracium spinulosum  Spreng. in…
1869.  Sonchoseris arvensis  Fourr. in…
Field sow thistle ...
Field sow-thistle ...

Laiteron des champs ...
Introduced from
 Europe,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 Invasive.org: 20,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
 USGS: L48 established,
Naturalized

NYFA: X

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L.
 ssp. uliginosus (M.Bieb.) Nyman

1808. Sonchus uliginosus M.Bieb.
1866. Sonchus arvensis  var. uliginosus  (M.Bieb.) Trautv.
1879. Sonchus arvensis  ssp. uliginosus  (M.Bieb.) Nyman
Smooth sow thistle ...
Moist sowthistle
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 3,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X

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(L.) Hill

1769. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill
1800. Hieracium asperum (L.) Bernh.
Spiny-leaved sowthistle ...
Spiny sowthistle
Prickly sowthistle
Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 9,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X

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L.

Common sowthistle Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 9,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
GBIF
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L.

Slender sowthistle Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X
NYFA: Richmond (1908)
No observations

USDA-X0
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Subtribe Crepidinae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Crepidinae
Crepidinae

Nabalus (8 native rattlesnake roots)

Ixeris stolonifera (creeping lettuce - not naturalized)

Taraxacum (3 introduced dandelions)

Crepis (6 introduced hawk's beards)

Lapsana communis (introduced nipplewort)


Nabalus[edit | edit source]
Nabalus serpentarius
Common names for Nabalus species include rattlesnake-root and white lettuce.
Names Principle phyllaries
(inner/longer involucral bracts)
Flower
count
Ray
color
Pappus
color
Nabalus rattlesnakeroot surface color count
N. altissimus tall rattlesnake root glabrous pale green (4)5(6) 5–6
N. trifoliolatus threeleaf rattlesnake root glabrous pale green (7)8–14 (8)9–18(20) green-yellow to
yellow-white
light brown to
pale yellow-brown
N. albus white rattlesnake root glabrous pale purple-green (7)8–14 (8)9–18(20) white-pink-lavender deep red-brown
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hypochaeridinae — Nabalus
Genus Nabalus Rattlesnakeroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Hook.

1753. Prenanthes altissima L.
1833. Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook.
1900. Prenanthes altissima  var. hispidula  Fernald
1908. Prenanthes altissima  var. cinnamomea  Fernald
Tall rattlesnake root,
Tall rattlesnake-root,
Tall white-lettuce
Prenanthe élevée
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
S5, G5?

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5
iNat

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Cass.

1825. Nabalus trifoliolatus Cass.
1838. Nabalus nanus (Bigelow) DC.
1839. Prenanthes nana Torr. ex DC.
1900. Prenanthes trifoliolata (Cass.) Fernald
1901. Prenanthes trifoliolata  var. nana  (Bigelow) Fernald
Three-leaved rattlesnake root,
Threeleaf rattlesnake-root,
Gall of the earth
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure,
S5, G5

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5
iNat

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(L.) Hook.

1753. Prenanthes alba L.
1833. Nabalus albus (L.) Hook.
White rattlesnakeroot,
White rattlesnake-root
Prenanthe blanche
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure,
S5

FACU

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5
iNat

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(Pursh) Hook.

1813. Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh
    Nabalus integrifolius Cass.
1833. Nabalus serpentarius (Pursh) Hook.
    Nabalus fraseri DC.
    P. integrifolia (Cass.) Small
Lion's-foot rattlesnakeroot,
Cankerweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Butterweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Unranked,
SNR
Albany, Bronx, Chemung, Kings, Nassau, Otsego, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, Ulster, Westchester
NYFA: 3-4
iNat

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DC.

1838. Nabalus boottii DC.
1847. Prenanthes boottii (DC.) D. Dietr.
Alpine rattlesnakeroot,
Boott's rattlesnake-root
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
S1, G2

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Essex (1862-1998)
NYFA: 1
iNat

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(Michx.) DC.

    Prenanthes crepidinea Michx.
    Nabalus crepidineus (Michx.) DC.
Nodding rattlesnakeroot,
Nodding rattlesnake-root
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
No recent reports,
SH, G3-4

FAC-FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Cattaraugus, Erie (1844)
NYFA: Z
iNat

USDA-N0
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Michx.
ssp. racemosa

    Nabalus racemosus
Glaucous rattlesnake-root,
Purple rattlesnakeroot,
Purple rattlesnake-root
Native, CoC: 10,
Extirpated,
SX

FACW

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Kings (1891), Nassau (1909), Queens (1882), Rockland, Westchester (1896)
NYFA: X
iNat

USDA-NN
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(A. Gray) A. Heller

Nabalus racemosus ×
Nabalus trifoliolatus

Maine rattlesnake root Native,
No recent reports,
SNA, GNA

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Nassau (1909)
NYFA: Z

USDA-
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Ixeris[edit | edit source]
Ixeris stolonifera
Creeping lettuce (Ixeris stolonifera) appears to have been collected from a Long Island garden in 1985 and has also been found in New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania, and Delaware but is not assumed to naturalize in New York State.
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Crepidinae — Ixeris
Genus Ixeris Ixeris N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
A.Gray

    Ixeris stolonifera (A. Gray
    Lactuca stolonifera (A. Gray) Benth. ex Maxim.
Creeping lettuce Introduced from
 east Asia,
Impersistent,
Not naturalized
Nassau (1985)
NYFA: X

USDA-X0
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Taraxacum[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Crepidinae — Taraxacum
Genus Taraxacum Dandelion N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
F.H.Wigg.

    Leontodon taraxacum L.
    Taraxacum officinale  var. palustre  Blytt
    Taraxacum sylvanicum R.Doll
    Taraxacum officinale F.H.Wigg.
Common dandelion,
Dandelion
Pissenlit officinal
Introduced,
Widespread weed

NYFA: X

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Andrz. ex Besser

    Leontodon erythrospermum (Andrz. ex Besser) Britton
    Taraxacum disseminatum G.E.Haglund
    Taraxacum erythrospermum Andrz. ex Besser
    Taraxacum lacistophyllum (Dahlst.) Raunk.
Red-seeded dandelion,
Smooth dandelion,
Lesser dandelion,
Rock dandelion
Pissenlit à graines rouges,
Pissenlit à fruits rouges
Introduced

NYFA: X

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(Lyons) Symons

Marsh dandelion
Pissenlit palustre,
Pissenlit des marais
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
VASCAN
ITIS
Images
Wikispecies
Genus Taraxacum (excluded) Dandelion N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Ledeb.) DC

Horned dandelion,
Northern dandelion,
Woolbearing dandelion
Pissenlit tuberculé,
Pissenlit corniculé
N. America native
 western N. A.,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
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Dahlst.

    
    
    
Showy dandelion ...

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-X0
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Wikispecies
Youngia[edit | edit source]
Youngia japonica
Oriental false hawksbeard (Youngia japonica) appears to be present in New York State and is being tracked for its invasive potential.
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Crepidinae — Youngia
Genus Youngia False hawksbeard N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) DC.

    Youngia japonica (L.) DC.
Oriental false hawksbeard

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives,
 GRIIS-US: Invasive

NYFA: 0 counties
iNat
4 counties

GBIF
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Wikispecies
Crepis[edit | edit source]
Crepis capillaris

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Crepidinae — Crepis
Genus Crepis Hawksbeard N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Wallr.

1763. Crepis virens L.
1840. Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr.
1860. Malacothrix crepoides A.Gray
1874. Crepis cooperi A.Gray (i)
Smooth hawksbeard,
Smooth hawk's-beard,
Green crepis
Crépis capillaire,
Crépis à tige capillaire,
Crépis verdâtre,
Crépide à tige capillaire,
Crépide capillaire,
Crépide verdâtre
Introduced from
 Europe

UPL

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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L.

1753. Crepis biennis L.
1838. Limonoseris biennis (L.) Peterm.
Rough hawksbeard,
Rough hawk's-beard
Crépis bisannuel,
Crépis des prés,
Crépide bisannuelle,
Crépide des prés
Introduced from
 Europe

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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Haller f.

1797. Crepis setosa Haller f.
Bristly hawksbeard,
Bristly hawk's-beard
Introduced from
 Eurasia

NYFA: X

USDA-X0
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L.

1753. Crepis tectorum L.
Narrowleaf hawksbeard,
Narrow-leaved hawk's-beard
Crépis des troits
Introduced from
 Eurasia

NYFA: X

USDA-XW
ARS-GRIN
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L.
ssp. taraxacifolia

Beaked hawksbeard,
Beaked hawk's-beard
Introduced,
Impersistent

USDA-XX
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Lapsana[edit | edit source]
Lapsana communis

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Crepidinae — Lapsana
Genus Lapsana Nipplewort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Lapsana communis L.
1899. Lalda communis (L.) Bubani
Nipplewort ...
Common nipplewort ...
Ballogan ...
Succory-dock ...
Dock-cress
Succory dock-cress

Lapsane commune ...
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 9,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
Naturalized

FACU

Annual,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Subtribe Chondrillinae[edit | edit source]

Chondrilla[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Chondrillinae — Chondrilla
Genus Chondrilla Chondrilla N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

Rush skeletonweed Introduced,
Noxious weed US west

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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Subtribe Hypochaeridinae[edit | edit source]

The subtribe Hypochaeridinae contains the genera Hedypnois, Helminthotheca, Hypochaeris, Leontodon, Picris, Prenanthes, Scorzoneroides, and Urospermum.[1]
Hypochaeridinae

Urospermum

Prenanthes purpurea

Scorzoneroides autumnalis (fall dandelion)

Hypochaeris radicata (hairy cat’s ear)

Helminthotheca echioides (bristly oxtongue)

Picris hieracioides (hawkweed oxtongue)

Hedypnois

Leontodon hispidus (rough hawkbit)

Leontodon saxatilis (lesser hawkbit)



Scorzoneroides[edit | edit source]
Scorzoneroides autumnalis
[1]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hypochaeridinae — Scorzoneroides
Genus Scorzoneroides Hawkbit N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Moench
 ssp. autumnalis

1753.  Leontodon autumnalis  L. in…
1778.  Hedypnois autumnalis  (L.) Huds. in…
1779.  Scorzonera autumnalis  (L.) Lam. in…
1785.  Picris autumnalis  (L.) All. in…
1794.  Scorzoneroides autumnalis  (L.) Moench in…
1800.  Lactuca autumnalis  (L.) Bernh. in…
1804.  Apargia autumnalis  (L.) Hoffm. in…
1822.  Virea autumnalis  (L.) Gray in…
1829.  Apargia pratensis  Link in…
1829.  Oporinia autumnalis  (L.) D.Don in…
1846.  Taraxacum autumnale  (L.) Gueldenst. ex Ledeb. in…
Autumn hawkbit,
Fall hawkbit,
Fall dandelion
Introduced from
 Europe to Siberia & Caucasus

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
POWO
FSUS
ARS-GRIN
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Hypochaeris[edit | edit source]
Hypochaeris radicata

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hypochaeridinae — Hypochaeris
Genus Hypochaeris Cat's ear N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.
 ssp. radicata

1753.  Hypochaeris radicata  L. in…
1771.  Leontodon ciliatus  Scop. in…
1771.  Achyrophorus radicatus  (L.) Scop. in…
1786.  Hypochaeris radiata  Falk in…
1826.  Porcellites radicata  (L.) Cass. in…
1840.  Apargia serotina  Jan ex Steud. in…
1911.  Crepis molokaiensis  H.Lév. in…
Spotted cat's ear,
Hairy cat's ear
Introduced from
 Eurasia

NYFA: X
NYFA: 28 counties
? counties

USDA-XX
FSUS
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Helminthotheca[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hypochaeridinae — Helminthotheca
Genus Helminthotheca Ox-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Holub

1753.  Picris echioides  L. in…
1785.  Crepis echioides  (L.) All. in…
1791.  Helminthia echioides  (L.) Gaertn. in…
1794.  Helminthia tuberculata  Moench in…
1796.  Picris ruderalis  Salisb. in…
1807.  Picris humifusa  Willd. in…
1816.  Picris spinosa  (DC.) Poir. in…
1867.  Helminthia dichotoma  Dulac in…
1973.  Helminthotheca echioides  (L.) Holub in…
2006.  Helminthotheca echioides  var. incisa  P.D.Sell  in…
Bristly oxtongue Introduced from
 Medit. to Caucasus,
 E. Europe to Turkmenistan

NYFA: X
NYFA: 3 counties
iNat
? counties

USDA-XX
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Picris[edit | edit source]
Hawkweed oxtongue is becoming increasingly common along roadsides in the Northeast, and it is considered to be a noxious weed in Washington State.
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hypochaeridinae — Picris
Genus Picris Ox-tongue N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Picris hieracioides L.
1762. Hedypnois hieracioides (L.) Huds.
1781. Picris aspera Gilib.
1789. Leontodon umbellatus Schrank
1803. Apargia hieracioides (L.) Willd.
1918. Apargia umbellata (Schrank) Schrank
1967. P. hieracioides  var. kamtschatica  (Ledeb.) B. Boivin
1968. P. hieracioides  ssp. kamtschatica  (Ledeb.) Hultén
1982. P. hieracioides  ssp. tsekouensis  Kitam.
2007. P. hieracioides  var. alpina
Hawkweed oxtongue
Picride fausse-épervière,
Picride épervière,
Picris fausse-épervière
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

NYFA: X

USDA-MX
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Leontodon[edit | edit source]
Leontodon hispidus

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hypochaeridinae — Leontodon
Genus Leontodon Hawkbit N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.
 ssp. hispidus

1753.  Leontodon hispidus  L. in…
1771.  Leontodon chondrillifolius  Scop. in…
1777.  Hieracium incanum  Pollich in…
1778.  Hedypnois hispida  (L.) Huds. in…
1785.  Picris hispida  (L.) All. in…
1800.  Picris acaulis  Bernh. in…
1812.  Apargia hispida  (L.) Hoffm. in…
1822.  Virea hispida  (L.) Gray in…
1826.  Apargia communis  Spenn. in…
1840.  Apargia hirta  Steud. in…
1844.  Leontodon vulgaris  Kitt. in…
1871.  Leontodon hastilis  ssp. hispidus  (L.) Čelak.  in…
1882.  Leontodon protheiformis  ssp. hispidus  (L.) Arcang.  in…
Common hawkbit,
Bristly hawkbit,
Rough hawkbit
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
POWO
ARS-GRIN
ITIS
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Lam.
 ssp. saxatilis

1771.  Apargia hirta  (L.) Scop. in…
1779.  Leontodon saxatilis  Lam. in…
1819.  Apargia saxatilis  Ten. in…
1831.  Leontodon taraxacoides  (Vill.) Willd. ex Mérat in…
1869.  Asterothrix crispa  (Vill.) Fourr. in…
1879.  Leontodon crispus  ssp. saxatilis  (Lam.) Nyman  in…
1952.  Thrincia saxatilis  (Lam.) Holub & Moravec in…
Lesser hawkbit Introduced

NYFA: Xu

USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
Images
Wikispecies

Subtribe Hieraciinae[edit | edit source]

The Hieraciinae contains the hawkweeds. Some sources include them all in genus Hieracium, while others split them into two genera, as is done here.
Hieracium[edit | edit source]
Hieracium scabrum

Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hieraciinae — Hieracium
Genus Hieracium Hawkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1803. Hieracium scabrum Michx.
Sticky hawkweed,
Rough hawkweed
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
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L.

1753. Hieracium paniculatum L.
Panicled hawkweed,
Allegheny hawkweed
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
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1753. Hieracium venosum L.
1918. Hieracium venosum  var. nudicaule  (Michx.) Farw.
Rattlesnake hawkweed,
Veiny hawkweed,
Poor-Robin's-plantain
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

USDA-NN
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L.

1753. Hieracium umbellatum L.
1753. Hieracium kalmii L.
1803. Hieracium canadense Michx.
1824. Hieracium scabriusculum Schwein.
1901. Hieracium columbianum Rydb.
1993. Hieracium kalmii  var. canadense  (Michx.) Reveal
Canada hawkweed,
Canadian hawkweed,
Kalm's hawkweed,
Narrowleaf hawkweed
Èpervière en ombelle,
Èpervière de Kalm
Native, CoC: 5,
Likely secure

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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Hairy hawkweed,
Queen-devil,
Gronovius' hawkweed,
Beaked hawkweed
Native, CoC: 7,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 4

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Willd.

Hieracium gronovii ×
Hieracium venosum

    Hieracium marianum Willd.
    Hieracium × marianum Willd.
    H. pennsylvanicum Fr.
Maryland hawkweed Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2?

USDA-NN
GBIF
ITIS
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies

Common hawkweed Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Canada,
N. America native

NYFA: X

USDA-XN
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    Hieracium hyparcticum (Almquist) Elfstr.
Wall hawkweed
Few-leaved hawkweed ...
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
GBIF
BONAP
Images
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New England hawkweed Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
Pilosella[edit | edit source]
Pilosella aurantiaca
A universal acceptance of the separation of Pilosella from Hieracium has been gradual and is still not complete. Hieracium aurantiacum, H. pilosella and ten others were proposed for transfer to Pilosella in 1862, but many others weren't proposed until a century later. Besides clear morphological differences Pilosella species are prone to hybridization within the genus, while Hieracium species rarely hybridize.[1]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Hieraciinae — Pilosella
Genus Pilosella Hawkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip.

1753.  Hieracium aurantiacum  L. in…
1862.  Pilosella aurantiaca  (L.) F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip. in…
1863.  Hieracium bihariense  A.Kern. in…
1880.  Pilosella bihariensis  Arv.-Touv. in…
1921.  Hieracium brunneocroceum  Pugsley in…
1989.  Pilosella carpathicola  (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov in…
1989.  Pilosella neriedowae  (Woł. & Zahn) Schljakov in…
1989.  Pilosella subaurantiaca  (Nägeli & Peter) Schljakov in…
1995.  Hieracium carpathicola  (Nägeli & Peter) Czerep. in…
Orange hawkweed,
Devil's-paintbrush,
King devil,
Orange-red king devil,
Fox and cubs
Épervière orangée,
Bouquets rouges,
Marguerite rouge
Introduced from
 Central & SE. Europe to Ukraine,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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(Dumort.) P.D.Sell. & C.West

1827. Hieracium caespitosum Dumort.
1828. Hieracium pratense Tausch
1967. Pilosella caespitosa P.D.Sell & C.West
Yellow Hawkweed,
Yellow king-devil,
Yellow fox-and-cubs,
Meadow hawkweed
Èpervière des prés,
Èpervière des prairies
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

NYFA: X

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(Vill.) Soják

1779. Hieracium piloselloides Vill.
1785. Hieracium florentinum All.
1971. P. piloselloides (Vill.) Soják
Glaucous-leaved hawkweed,
Tall hawkweed,
Kingdevil,
Smoothish hawkweed
Èpervière des Florentins
Introduced,
Naturalized

NYFA: Xn

USDA-XX
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F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip.

1753. Hieracium pilosella L,
1862. P. officinarum F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip.
Mouse-ear hawkweed Introduced

NYFA: X

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(Willd.) P.D. Sell & C. West

1814. Hieracium flagellare Willd.
1866. Hieracium flagellare Schur
1967. P. flagellaris (Willd.) P.D. Sell & C. West
Whiplash hawkweed,
Whip hawkweed
Introduced,
Naturalized

NYFA: Xn

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(Wallr.) P.D. Sell & C. West

1822. Hieracium lactucella Wallr.
1967. P. lactucella (Wallr.) P.D. Sell & C. West
Lettuce hawkweed,
European hawkweed
Introduced,
Unk. naturalization

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA:

Images
Wikispecies

Pilosella aurantiaca ×
Pilosella caespitosa

1885. H. fuscoatrum Nägeli & Peter
1971. P. fuscoatra (Nägeli & Peter) Soják
Hybrid hawkweed,
Hybrid of
 orange hawkweed &
 yellow hawkweed
Introduced

NYFA: X

USDA-X0
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(Wimm. & Grab.) Fr.

Pilosella caespitosa ×
Pilosella lactucella

    Hieracium × floribundum
    Hieracium × dorei
    Hieracium auricula
King-devil hawkweed,
Meadow hawkweed,
Yellow hawkweed,
Yellow devil hawkweed,
Smoothish hawkweed
Épervière à
  fleurs nombreuses
Introduced

NYFA: Xn

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(Vill.) Arv.-Touv.

Pilosella officinarum ×
Pilosella piloselloides

    Hieracium × brachiatum Bertol. ex DC.
    P. × brachiata (DC.) F.W.Schultz & Sch.Bip.
    P. × acutifolia (Vill.) Arv.-Touv.
Sharp-leaved hawkweed ...

Introduced,
Unk. naturalization

NYFA: Xu

Images
Wikispecies

Subtribe Microseridinae[edit | edit source]

Krigia[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Microseridinae — Krigia
Genus Krigia Dwarf dandelion N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Walter) S.F.Blake

Twoflower dwarfdandelion,
Two-flowered dwarf dandelion
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

USDA-NN
Images
Wikispecies
(L.) Willd.

Virginia dwarf-dandelion Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

USDA-NX
Images
Wikispecies
(Raf.) K.L.Chambers
 var. cespitosa

1817.  Krigia oppositifolia  Raf. in…
1817.  Serinia cespitosa  Raf. in…
1823.  Apogon humilis  Elliott in…
1838.  Krigia petiolaris  Raf. in…
1866.  Arnoseris humilis  (Elliott) Sch.Bip. in…
1891.  Serinia oppositifolia  (Raf.) Kuntze in…
1973.  Krigia cespitosa  (Raf.) K.L.Chambers in…
Common dwarf-dandelion,
Weedy dwarf-dandelion
Introduced from
 Central & SE. U.S.A. to,
 Mexico (Tamaulipas),
US South native,
No specimens

NYFA-Excluded
NYFA: Not listed
Bronx (2017)

USDA-N0
POWO
Images
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Stephanomeria[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Microseridinae — Stephanomeria
Genus Stephanomeria Wire lettuce N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
Nutt.
ssp. exigua

Small wirelettuce Introduced,
N. America native,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm

USDA-N0
Images
Wikispecies
Nothocalais[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Microseridinae — Nothocalais
Genus Nothocalais False agoseris N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Pursh) Greene

1814.  Troximon cuspidatum  Pursh
1840.  Agoseris cuspidata  (Pursh) Raf.
1866.  Microseris cuspidata  (Pursh) Sch. Bip.
1886.  Nothocalais cuspidata  (Pursh) Greene
Prairie false dandelion,
Sharppoint prairie-dandelion,
Wavy-leaf prairie-dandelion,
Toothed microseris
Microséris cuspidé
N. America native
 Great Plains,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-NN
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Malacothrix[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Microseridinae — Malacothrix
Genus Malacothrix Desert-dandelion N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray

    
Sowthistle desertdandelion N. America native
 western N. America,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

USDA-N0
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Subtribe Cichoriinae[edit | edit source]

Cichorium[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Cichoriinae — Cichorium
Genus Cichorium Chicory N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Cichorium intybus L.
Chicory,
Succory,
Blue sailors,
French endive
Chicorée sauvage,
Chicorée amère,
Chicorée
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 Tunisia,
Potentially invasive

FACU

Biennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
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Arnoseris[edit | edit source]
Asterales — Asteraceae — Cichorioideae — Cichorieae — Cichoriinae — Arnoseris
Genus Arnoseris Arnoseris N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Schweigg. & Körte

1753. Hyoseris minima L
1811. Arnoseris minima (L.) Schweigg. & Körte
Lamb's succory,
Lamb's lettuce,
Swine's succory
Porcelle des moutons,
Chicorée de mouton,
Arnoséris minime,
Arnoséris naine
Introduced,
Impersistent,
No specimens

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
ARS-GRIN
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