Flora of New York/Gentianales

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Ericales
Flora of New York — Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order Garryales[edit | edit source]

The order Garryales...[1]

Family Eucommiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Eucommiaceae (hard rubber tree family) contains a single living species.[1]
  1. Eucommiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Eucommia[edit | edit source]

Although a number of extinct Eucommia species were native to North America, the only living species, Eucommia ulmoides, is native to central China but has been planted worldwide. It is known for being a very cold-tolerant rubber-producing tree. It has been reported as naturalized in Indiana and Ohio, but not in New York State.[1]
Garryales — Eucommiaceae — Eucommia
Eucommia hard rubber tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1890. Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
Hardy rubber tree
Hard rubber tree
Chinese rubber tree
Gutta-percha tree

Introduced,
Not naturalized

Deciduous,
Tree
Eucommia ulmoides - San Francisco Botanical Garden - DSC09825.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
BONAP
Red 
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Order Gentianales[edit | edit source]

The order Gentianales...[1]
Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Gentianales Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Naucleeae Cephalanthus (button bush) 1 1
Rubioideae Morindeae Mitchella (partridge berry) 1 1
Spermacoceae Diodia (buttonweed)
Houstonia (bluet)
Oldenlandia (clustered bluets)
3 6
Rubieae Rubia (madder)
Sherardia (field-madder)
Asperula (woodruff)
Cruciata (bedstraw)
Galium (bedstraw, wild-licorice, cleavers)
5 29
Loganiaceae Spigelia (Indian pink, pinkroot) 1 1
Gentianaceae Chironieae Centaurium (centaury)
Sabatia (rose gentian, pink)
2 6
Gentianeae Gentianinae Gentiana (gentian) 1 5
Swertiinae Bartonia (screwstem)
Frasera (green-gentian)
Gentianella (dwarf gentian)
Gentianopsis (fringed-gentian)
Halenia (spurred-gentian)
5 7
Apocynaceae Rauvolfioideae Vinceae Vincinae Vinca (periwinkle) 1 2
Amsonieae Amsonia (bluestar) 1 3
Apocynoideae Apocyneae Apocynum (dogbane) 1 3
Periplocoideae Periploca (silk vine) 1 1
Asclepiadoideae Asclepiadeae Asclepiadinae Asclepias (milkweed) 1 12
Cynanchinae Cynanchum (honeyvine) 1 1
Tylophorinae Vincetoxicum (swallow-wort) 1 3

Family Rubiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Rubiaceae (coffee or madder family).[1][2]
  1. Rubiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Rubiaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Subfamily Cinchonoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Naucleeae[edit | edit source]

Cephalanthus[edit | edit source]
Cephalanthus occidentalis
buttonbush

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Cinchonoideae — Naucleeae — Cephalanthus
Cephalanthus Buttonbush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
1828. C. occidentalis var. pubescens
1849. C. occidentalis var. californicus
1917. C. berlandieri Wernham
Buttonbush,
Common buttonbush,
Eastern buttonbush,
Button willow,
Honey bells
Céphalanthe occidental,
Céphalante occidental,
Bois-bouton,
Bois-noir
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade
Cephalanthus occidentalis BotGardBln07122011A.JPG
Cephalanthus occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
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Subfamily Rubioideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Morindeae[edit | edit source]

Mitchella[edit | edit source]
Mitchella repens L.
partridgeberry
Mitchella consists of just two species, one from eastern Asia and the other, Mitchella repens (partridgeberry), is native to eastern North America.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Morindeae — Mitchella
Mitchella Mitchella N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Mitchella repens L.
1862. Perdicesca repens (L.) Prov.
Partridgeberry,
Partridge-berry,
Two-eyed berry,
Twinberry,
Squaw vine
Pain-de-perdrix
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade - shade
Mitchella repens kz1.jpg
Mitchella repens nymap.svg
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Tribe Spermacoceae[edit | edit source]

Hexasepalum[edit | edit source]
Hexasepalum teres
The only species of Hexasepalum Bartl. ex DC. (1830) known to be native to New York is rough buttonweed (Hexasepalum teres).[1]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Hexasepalum
Hexasepalum Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) J.H. Kirkbr.

1788. Diodia teres Walter
1913. Diodella teres (Walter) Small
2014. Hexasepalum teres (Walter) J.H.Kirkbr.
Rough buttonweed
Buttonweed
Poorjoe
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Diodia teres.jpg
Diodia teres var teres NY-dist-map.png
10 counties
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Diodia[edit | edit source]
Diodia virginiana

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Diodia
Diodia Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

    Diodia virginiana L.
Virginia buttonweed
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native,
Not naturalized
Diodia virginiana - Virginia Buttonweed.jpg
Nymap.svg
Bronx (2017)
NYFA-x
USDA-N0

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Houstonia[edit | edit source]
Houstonia caerulea
bluets
The genus Houstonia contains about 20 species, generally known as Bluets. All are North American natives. Three are considered to be native to New York State.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Houstonia
Houstonia Bluet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Houstonia caerulea L.
1833. Hedyotis caerulea (L.) Hook.
1834. Anotis coerulea (L.) G.Don
1856. Oldenlandia caerulea (L.) A.Gray
1907. Houstonia caerulea var. faxonorum
Common bluets
Quaker ladies
Little bluet
Azure bluet
Bluets
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Houstonia caerulea - Azure Bluet.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Gaertn.

Long-leaved bluets
Longleaf summer bluet

Houstonie à longues feuilles
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure



Perennial,
Herb-forb
Houstonia longifolia - Long Leaf Bluet.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.

1818. Houstonia canadensis
Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.
1941. Hedyotis canadensis
(Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Fosberg
Canada bluets
Canadian summer bluet

Native, CoC: 7,
Very vulnerable,
S2, G4-5

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Houstonia canadensis iNat-127090832 (3x4).jpg
Nymap.svg
Erie (1930)
4 iNat counties
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 L.
var. calycosa A.Gray

1813. Hedyotis lanceolata Poir.
1830. Anotis lanceolata (Poir.) DC.
1884. Houstonia purpurea var. calycosa
1901. Houstonia calycosa (A. Gray) C. Mohr
1901. Houstonia lanceolata (Poir.) Britton
1954. Hedyotis purpurea var. calycosa
Midwestern purple bluets,
Purple bluet,
Venus' pride
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
SH, G5-T5,
NYNHP: H[1]

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Houstonia purpurea - Venus Pride.jpg
Nymap.svg
Essex, Tompkins, Washington (1892-1927)
NYFA-Z1
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 L.
var. purpurea

1753. Hedyotis purpurea L.
Large purple bluets
Purple bluet
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
SH, G5-T5

Perennial,
Herb-forb
The botanical cabinet (No 1621) (8613661466).jpg
Nymap.svg
Suffolk (1925), Washington
NYFA-Z

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Oldenlandia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Oldenlandia
Oldenlandia Oldenlandia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Clustered bluets,
Clustered mille graines
Native,
Endangered
Oldenlandia uniflora BB-1913.png
Oldenlandia uniflora NY-dist-map.png
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Tribe Rubieae[edit | edit source]

Galium[edit | edit source]
There are about 24 species of Galium or bedstraw in New York State.[1][2][3][4]
Galium sect. Platygalium[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Platygalium
Galiumsect. Platygalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Galium boreale L.
1800. G. hyssopifolium Hoffm.
1818. G. septentrionale Roem.& Schult.
1819. G. strictum Torr.
1830. G. boreale var. hyssopifolium
1830. G. boreale var. intermedium
Northern bedstraw,
Boreal bedstraw,
Crosswort
Gaillet boréal
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
Galium boreale - Katarina nad Ljubljano 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (Torr.) Torr.

1819. G. circaezans var. lanceolatum
1824. G. lanceolatum (Torr.) Torr.
Lanceleaf wild licorice,
Lanceleaf licorice bedstraw,
Torrey's wild licorice,
Spear wild licorice
Gaillet lancéolé
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium lanceolatum BW-1979-0709-0647 (3x4).jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Michx.
var. circaezans

    G. bermudense
    G. circaeoides
    G. rotundifolium var. circaezans
Licorice bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium circaezans var circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
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Note: IWF
 Michx.
var. hypomalacum

Licorice bedstraw,
Forest bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable
Galium circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
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 Aiton
ssp. pilosum

Hairy bedstraw Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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 Aiton
ssp. puncticulosum
(Michx.) Torr. & A.Gray

1788. Galium purpureum Walter
1791. Galium walteri J.F.Gmel.
1803. Galium puncticulosum Michx.
1805. Galium punctatum Pers.
1841. Galium pilosum
var. puncticulosum Torr.& A.Gray
Hairy bedstraw Native,
No records
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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Steller ex Schult. & Schult.f

Boreal bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered
Galium kamtschaticum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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Torrey & A.Gray

Shining bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Galium concinnum - Shining Bedstraw (cropped).jpg
Nymap.svg
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Galium sect. Aparinoides[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Aparinoides
Galiumsect. Aparinoides Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

Rough bedstraw,
Kidney-vine,
Pointed cleavers
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
Galium asprellum clump cropped.jpg
Galium asprellum NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

Common marsh bedstraw,
Marsh bedstraw
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure
Galium palustre habitus.jpeg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

Stiff marsh bedstraw,
Stiff three-petal bedstraw
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure
Galium tinctorium NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.
ssp. trifidum

    G. brandegeei A.Gray p.p.
Three-petal bedstraw Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium trifidum 3.JPG
Galium trifidum ssp trifidum NY-dist-map.png
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 Bigelow 1824
ssp. obtusum

    G. trifidum var. latifolium Torr.
    G. obtusum var. ramosum Gleason
Bluntleaf bedstraw,
Blunt-leaved bedstraw
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium obtusum (3x4).jpg
Nymap.svg
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(Wieg.) Wieg.

    G. tinctorium var. labradoricum
Bog bedstraw,
Northern bog bedstraw
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure
Galium labradoricum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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Fernald & Wiegand

    G. trifidum ssp. brevipes
Limestone swamp bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Likely extirpated
Galium brevipes BB-1913.png
Galium brevipes NY-dist-map.png
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Galium sect. Kolgyda[edit | edit source]
Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium aparine (cleavers) as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species. The native status of Galium aparine has been questioned.[1]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Kolgyda
Galiumsect. Kolgyda Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L. 1753

Cleavers,
Catchweed bedstraw,
Stickywilly,
Scratch bedstraw
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure,
G5

FACU

Annual,
Vine, Herb-forb
20130601Labkraut Holunder Hockenheim.jpg
Galium aparine NY-dist-map.png
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 Dandy

Galium tricorne Stokes p.p.
Rough-fruited corn bedstraw,
Roughfruit corn bedstraw
Introduced Galium tricornutum - Flora batava 1893.png
Nymap.svg
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Galium sect. Hylaea[edit | edit source]
Galium triflorum Michx.
three-flowered bedstraw
Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium triflorum as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Hylaea
Galiumsect. Hylaea Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Galium triflorum Michx.
1803. Galium jalapense Schltdl.
1935. Galium triflorum
var. asprelliforme Fernald
Sweet-scented bedstraw
Three-flowered bedstraw
Fragrant bedstraw

Gaillet à trois fleurs
Gaillet odorant
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-vine
Galium triflorum 10232.JPG
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Scop.

Asperula odorata
Sweet woodruff
Sweet-scented bedstraw
Sweet bedstraw
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
 Europe,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 48%[1],
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Perennial,
Herb-forb
GaliumodoratumWaldmeister.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Galium sect. Leiogalium[edit | edit source]
Galium album Mill.
hedge bedstraw
Although most sources show the hedge bedstraw species Galium mollugo as being widepread in the Northeast and the similar Galium album being less common, if not rare,[1] the New York Flora Atlas now excludes Galium mollugo from New York State and shows Galium album as common, having moved its Galium mollugo records to Galium album. Other sources, such as VASCAN[2] show G. album as a synonym of G. molluglo. See D. Mersereau and A. DiTommaso (2001).[3]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Leiogalium
Galiumsect. Leiogalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Mill.

1753. Galium mollugo L. misapplied
1762. Galium erectum Huds.
1768. Galium album Mill.
    Galium mollugo ssp. erectum
1926. Galium mollugo var. erectum
    Galium album var. erectum
Hedge bedstraw
White bedstraw
False baby's breath
Whorled bedstraw
Wild madder

Gaillet mollugine,
Caille-lait blanc
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
IO,
NE-3[1]
Galium album1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

1762. Galium sylvaticum L.
Scotch-mist,
Wood bedstraw,
Baby's breath
Gaillet des bois,
Gaillet des forêts
Introduced Galium sylvaticum (Wald-Labkraut) IMG 3333.JPG
Galium sylvaticum NY-dist-map.png
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Galium (excluded taxa) Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753. Galium mollugo L.
1880. Rubia mollugo (L.) Baill.
False baby's breath
Smooth bedstraw

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
20170731Galium mollugo2.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
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 L.

1762. Galium aristatum L.
Awned bedstraw Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded
Galium aristatum flowering plant 001 4x3.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
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  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Galium sect. Galium[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Galium
Galiumsect. Galium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. verum

1753. Galium verum L.
1879. G. verum var. verum
1885. G. verum ssp. verum
Lady's bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Yellow Spring bedstraw
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
Galium verum.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
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 L.
ssp. wirtgenii (F.W. Schultz) Oborný

1854. Galium wirtgenii F.W.Schultz
1879. G. verum var. wirtgenii
1885. G. verum ssp. wirtgenii
Wirtgen's bedstraw Introduced Galium wirtgenii.jpg
Galium wirtgenii NY-dist-map.png
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 Retz.

Galium mollugo ×
Galium verum

1795. Galium × pomeranicum Retz.
1804. Galium × ochroleucum
Wolf ex Schweigg.
1850. Galium × ambiguum Gren. & Godr.
1903. G. × ochroleucum var. ambiguum
Pale yellow bedstraw Introduced,
N. America native
Galium ×pomeranicum sl2.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Galium sect. Asperula[edit | edit source]
Galium arvense
Galium arvense (blue woodruff) is still often listed in the genus Asperula.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Asperula
Galiumsect. Asperula Woodruff N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
(L.) F. Herm.

1753. Asperula arvensis L.
1844. Asperula setosa Jaub. & Spach
1904. G. sherardiiflorum (L.) E.H.L.Krause
1844. Asperula arvensis var. setosa
1956. G. arvense (L.) F. Herm.
Blue woodruff Introduced Asperula arvensis1.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Galium sect. Cruciata[edit | edit source]
Cruciata pedemontana

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Cruciata
Galiumsect. Cruciata Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (Bellardi) Ehrend.

1789. Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All.
1788. Vaillantia pedemontana Bellardi
1961. Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.
Piedmont bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Piedmont Crosswort
Introduced Cruciata pedemontana 2 RF.jpg
Nymap.svg
Tompkins (1989)
NYFA-X
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 Opiz

1771. Galium cruciata (L.) Scop.
1852. Cruciata laevipes Opiz
1958. Cruciata chersonensis Ehrend.
Smooth bedstraw Introduced (MHNT) Cruciata laevipes - Inflorescence.jpg
Nymap.svg
Ontario (1918)
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Sherardia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Sherardia
Sherardia Field madder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Blue field madder,
Blue fieldmadder,
Cultivated field madder
Introduced Sherardia arvensis 050731.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Rubia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Rubia
Rubia Rubia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Rubia tinctoria L. orth. var.
Dyer's madder,
Indian madder,
Madder
Introduced,
Impersistent
Rubia tinctorum 002.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Family Loganiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Loganiaceae is a mostly-tropical family with no members that are native to or reported to have naturalized in New York.

Spigelia[edit | edit source]

Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink
Spigelia marilandica, a native of the southeastern U.S., has been propagated in New York and sold in the "native" plant trade. According to the Agriculture Research Service, it is only considered native as far north as southern Indiana and Maryland.
Gentianales — Loganiaceae — Spigelia
Spigelia Pinkroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) L.

1753. Lonicera marilandica L.
1767. Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink,
Woodland pinkroot
N. America native
 southern US,
No specimens,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Forb-herb
Spigelia marilandica kz2.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Family Gentianaceae[edit | edit source]

The Gentianaceae (gentian family).[1][2]

Tribe Chironieae[edit | edit source]

Centaurium[edit | edit source]

Centaurium erythraea
common centaury

  1. Gentianaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Gentianaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Chironieae — Centaurium
Centaurium Centaury N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Rafn

1782. Centaurium umbellatum Gilib. inval.
1800. Centaurium erythraea Rafn
 auct. Centaurium minusnon Moench, rej.
 auct. Erythraea centaurium
Common centaury,
European centaury
Introduced

FAC
CentauriumErythraea3.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (Sw.) Druce

Branched centaury,
Branching centaury-plant,
Lesser centaury
Introduced

FAC
Centaurium pulchellum flowers and buds Hompelvoet RF.JPG
Nymap.svg
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Sabatia[edit | edit source]

Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Chironieae — Sabatia
Sabatia Rose-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh

    S. maculata (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.
    S. palmeri A.Gray
    S. purpusii Brandegee
    S. simulata Britton
Sea pink,
Marsh pink,
Rose of Plymouth,
Saltmarsh rosegentian
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Sabatia stellaris WFNY-166a.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Pursh

1753. Chironia angularis L.
1814. Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh
Square-stemmed rose pink,
Rose pink,
Bitterbloom
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Sabatia angularis - Rose Pink.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) Torr.

    Sabatia gracilis (Michx.) Salisb.
Slender marsh pink,
Slender rose gentian
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Sabatia campanulata BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
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 (L.) BSP.
var. dodecandra

    Chironia dodecandra L.
    Sabatia chloroides (Michx.) Pursh
Large marsh pink,
Marsh rose gentian
Native,
Extirpated
Sabatia dodecandra WFNY-f024.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Tribe Gentianeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Gentianinae[edit | edit source]

Gentiana[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Gentiana
Gentiana Gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Griseb.

Fringe-topped bottle gentian Native,
Likely secure
GentianaAndrewsii.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Raf.

Bottle gentian,
Closed gentian
Native,
Likely secure
BottledGentian.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Froel.

Narrow-leaved gentian Native,
Vulnerable
Gentiana linearis (cropped).jpg
Nymap.svg
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 L.

Soapwort gentian,
Soap gentian,
Harvestbells
Native,
Endangered
Soapwort gentian plant with purple flower gentiana saponaria.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Pringle

Downy gentian Native,
Likely extirpated
Gentiana puberulenta 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Subtribe Swertiinae[edit | edit source]

Bartonia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Bartonia
Bartonia Screwstem N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Sagina virginica L.
1801. Bartonia tenella Willd.
1888. Bartonia virginica (L.) BSP
1895. Bartonia moseri B.L.Rob.
Yellow screwstem,
Virginia screwstem,
Yellow bartonia
Bartonie de Virginie
Native,
Likely secure
Bartonia virginica tip 2x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
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ssp. paniculata

Twining screwstem Native,
Endangered
Bartonia paniculata drawing 1.png
Bartonia paniculata ssp paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1

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Frasera[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Frasera
Frasera Green-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    Frasera officinalis
    Frasera verticillata
    Frasera walteri
    Swertia caroliniensis
Columbo
American columbo
Green gentian
Yellow gentian
Carolina gentian
Native,
Threatened
Frasera caroliniensis.jpg
Frasera caroliniensis NY-dist-map.png
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Gentianella[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Gentianella
Gentianella Dwarf-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Small
ssp. quinquefolia

Agueweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Stiff gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentianella quinquefolia 001.jpg
Gentianella quinquefolia ssp quinquefolia NY-dist-map.png
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Gentianopsis[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Gentianopsis
Gentianopsis Fringed-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Froel.) Ma

Greater fringed gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana crinita.jpg
Nymap.svg
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 (Raf.) Holub

Lesser fringed gentian Native,
Endangered
Gentianopsis virgata.jpg
Nymap.svg
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Halenia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Halenia
Halenia Spurred-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Sm.) Griseb.

Spurred gentian Native,
Endangered
Halenia deflexa NPS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
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Family Apocynaceae[edit | edit source]

The Apocynaceae (dogbane or periwinkle family).[1][2][3]

Subfamily Rauvolfioideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Vinceae[edit | edit source]

A very common New York ground cover, both cultivated and naturalized is Vinca minor, known commonly as periwinkle or myrtle. It is often found in wooded areas were old homesteads once stood and along ditches and stream banks where floodwaters have carried the rhizomes downstream from their previous location.
Vinca[edit | edit source]
Vinca minor
Of the two periwinkles, Vinca minor is very common outside of cultivation and is considered to be moderately invasive. Vinca major is not known to naturalize in New York State.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Rauvolfioideae — Vinceae — Vinca
Vinca Periwinkle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Vinca minor L.
Lesser periwinkle,
Common periwinkle,
Myrtle,
Running-myrtle
Petite pervenche,
Pervenche mineure
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 57%[1],
CP-3[2]
20140325Vinca minor4.jpg
Vinca minor nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Vinca major L.
Greater periwinkle,
Bigleaf periwinkle,
Large-leaved periwinkle
Grande pervenche
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized
Korina 2016-04-19 Vinca major 4.jpg
Vinca major nymap.svg
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Tribe Amsonieae[edit | edit source]

Amsonia[edit | edit source]
Amsonia tabernaemontana
Amsonia or bluestar species are native to southern North America and are sold in the "native" wildflower trade but are not native to New York. It's uncertain whether they have truly naturalized the state.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Rauvolfioideae — Vinceae — Amsonia
Amsonia Bluestar N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter

1762. Tabernaemontana amsonia L.
1788. Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter
1814. Amsonia salicifolia Pursh
1838. Ansonia salicifolia (Pursh) Raf.
1894. Amsonia amsonia (L.) Britton
1928. A. tabernaemontana var. salicifolia
Common bluestar
Eastern bluestar
Texas-star
Willowleaf Bluestar
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana kz01.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var tabernaemontana nymap.svg
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 Woodson

Shining bluestar,
Ozark bluestar
Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia illustris kz01.jpg
Amsonia illustris nymap.svg
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Subfamily Apocynoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Apocyneae[edit | edit source]

Apocynum[edit | edit source]
Apocynum cannabinum
hemp dogbane
Apocynum, or dogbane, is generally considered to be a weedy native genus.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Apocynoideae — Apocyneae — Apocynum
Apocynum Dogbane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Apocynum cannabinum L.
1770. Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.
1789. Apocynum hypericifolium Aiton
1902. Apocynum suksdorfii Greene
1912. Apocynum ithacense Greene
Hemp dogbane,
Clasping-leaved dogbane,
Indian hemp,
American-hemp
Apocyn chanvrin,
Apocyn à feuilles
  de millepertuis
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure
Apocynum cannabinum - Indian Hemp.jpg
Apocynum cannabinum nymap.svg
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1753. Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
1894. Apocynum pumilum (A.Gray) Greene
1901. Apocynum ambigens Greene
1906. Apocynum scopulorum Greene
Spreading dogbane,
Bitter-root,
Common dogbane,
Creeping dogbane
Apocyn à feuilles
  d'androsème,
Herbe à la puce
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure
Spreading Dogbane (3629265769).jpg
Apocynum androsaemifolium NY-dist-map.png
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Greene (pro sp.)

Apocynum androsaemifolium ×
Apocynum cannabinum

1893. Apocynum × floribundum Greene
1897. Apocynum × medium Greene
1901. Apocynum × milleri Britton
1930. Apocynum × jonesii Woodson
Intermediate dogbane,
Jones' dogbane,
Hybrid of
 hemp dogbane &
 spreading dogbane
Apocyn moyen
Native, CoC: x,
Secure
Apocynum × floribundum (as A. medium) BB-1913.png
Apocynum × floribundum NY-dist-map.png
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Subfamily Periplocoideae[edit | edit source]

Periploca[edit | edit source]

Periploca graeca
Silkvine (Periploca graeca) is native to eastern Europe and is listed as invasive in Northeastern Spain. It is capable of rooting vegetatively from small pieces of stem.[1]

Vouchered plant specimens have been collected from Erie and Monroe counties, but it is not thought to have naturalized there.[2] It has also been reported along roadsides in Suffolk County, NY, and Fairfield County, CT, but it is uncertain whether those plants were cultivated or naturalized.[3]


Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Periplocoideae — Periploca
PeriplocaTourn. ex. L. Silk-vine N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Periploca graeca L.
1820. Periploca graeca Schult.
Silkvine,
Silk vine,
Grecian silkvine
Bourreau des arbres
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Woody vine
Periploca graeca Obwojnik grecki 2010-06-20 02.jpg
Periploca graeca nymap.svg
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Subfamily Asclepiadoideae[edit | edit source]

The New York Flora Atlas includes Asclepias, Cynanchum, and Periploca in Asclepiadaceae. It includes the three Vincetoxicum species as Cynanchum.[1]
  1. Asclepiadaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe Asclepiadeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Asclepiadinae[edit | edit source]
Asclepias[edit | edit source]
The milkweed genus Asclepias is here separated into two clades according to Fishbein, et. al. (2011).[1] Each of these clades contains milkweeds that support monarch butterfly developmemt. In New York, these are:
  • common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
  • swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
  • butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
  • whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)
  • poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) also supports monarchs west of the Mississippi, where it is native, but the benefit of planting it in New York for this purpose could be questioned.


Asclepias clade incarnata/verticillata[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Asclepiadinae — Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. incarnata

1753. Asclepias incarnata L.
Western swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed,
Rose milkweed
Asclépiade incarnate,
Asclépiade rouge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
P1000398 Asclepias incarnata (Asclepiadaceae) Leaf.JPG
Asclepias incarnata ssp incarnata NY-dist-map.png
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 L.
ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson

1798. Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.
1840. Asclepias maritima Raf. non Jacq.
1921. A. incarnata var. neoscotica
1954. A. incarnata var. pulchra
Eastern swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed
Native, CoC: 4,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias incarnata subsp. pulchra (9521976873).jpg
Asclepias incarnata ssp pulchra nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Asclepias verticillata L.
Whorled milkweed,
Eastern whorled milkweed,
Horsetail milkweed
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[1]

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias verticillata - Flickr - peganum.jpg
Asclepias verticillata nymap.svg
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Asclepias clade syriaca/speciosa[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Asclepiadinae — Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1762. Asclepias syriaca L.
1840. A. serica Raf.
1844. A. cornuti Decne.
1904. A. kansana Vail
1935. A. syriaca var. kansana
Common milkweed,
Kansas milkweed,
Silkweed,
Virginia silk
Asclépiade commune,
Cochons de lait,
Herbe à coton
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure
Asclepias syriaca prg 1.jpg
Asclepias syriaca NY-dist-map.png
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 Jacq.

1767. Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq.
1818. A. vanilla Raf.
1840. A. quadrifolia
var. oppositifolia
Fourleaf milkweed,
Four-leaved milkweed,
Whorled milkweed
Asclépiade à quatre feuilles
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Four-leaf Milkweed - Flickr - pellaea.jpg
Asclepias quadrifolia NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

1753. Asclepias tuberosa L.
1753. Asclepias decumbens L.
    
Butterfly-weed,
Butterfly milkweed,
Orange milkweed,
Pleurisy root
Asclépiade tubéreuse,
Asclépiade de l'intérieur
Native, CoC: 2,
Likely secure
Asclepias tuberosa 003.JPG
Asclepias tuberosa ssp interior nymap.svg
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Sm.

1797. A. amplexicaulis Sm.
1803. A. obtusifolia Michx.
1832. A. rotundifolia Raf.
1930. A. gladewitzii Farw.
Clasping milkweed,
Blunt-leaved milkweed
Native, CoC: 2,
Likely secure
Asclepias amplexicaulis (14329407319).jpg
Asclepias amplexicaulis NY-dist-map.png
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 L.

1756. Asclepias exaltata L.
1762. A. syriaca var. exaltata
1788. A. polystachya Walter
1814. A. phytolaccoides
G.F. Lyon ex Pursh
1904. A. bicknellii Vail
Poke milkweed,
Tall milkweed
Asclépiade très grande,
Grande asclépiade
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Asclepias exaltata (2985661678).jpg
Asclepias exaltata NY-dist-map.png
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L.

1753. Asclepias purpurascens L.
1753. A. amoena L.
1794. A. compressa Moench
1832. A. dasypus Raf.
1840. A. gonalis Raf.
Purple milkweed,
Eastern purple milkweed
Asclépiade pourprée
Native, CoC: 2,
Threatened,
USFS-CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Purple Milkweed plant.JPG
Asclepias purpurascens nymap.svg
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 Raf.

1808. Asclepias viridiflora Raf.
1819. As. lanceolata E.Ives (i)
1824. As. viridiflora var. lanceolata
1829. Acerates viridiflora
(Raf.) Pursh ex Eaton
1841. Acerates lanceolata Steud.
1946. As. viridiflora var. linearis
Green milkweed,
Green comet milkweed,
Short green milkweed,
Green-flowered milkweed
Asclépiade à fleurs vertes
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]
Asclepias viridiflora - Green Comet Milkweed.jpg
Asclepias viridiflora nymap.svg
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White milkweed,
Redring milkweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Asclepias variegata.jpg
Asclepias variegata nymap.svg
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 L.

1753. Asclepias rubra L.
1788. A. cordata Walter (i)
1803. A. laurifolia Michx.
1814. A. acuminata Pursh
1818. A. periplocaefolia Nutt.
1903. A. rubra var. laurifolia
Red milkweed,
Tall pink bog milkweed
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Asclepias rubra (9341532801).jpg
Asclepias rubra nymap.svg
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Vail

Asclepias amplexicaulis ×
Asclepias syriaca

1904. Asclepias intermedia Vail
    
    
Intermediate milkweed,
Hybrid of
 clasping milkweed &
 common milkweed
Native,
Unranked
Asclepias amplexicaulis (14329407319).jpg
Nymap.svg
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 Torr.

1827. Asclepias speciosa Torr.
1837. Asclepias douglasii Hook.
1931. Asclepias giffordii Eastw.
Showy milkweed,
Greek milkweed
Belle asclépiade
Introduced from
 w. North America,
N. America native,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa showy milkweed plant.JPG
Asclepias speciosa nymap.svg
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A. speciosa × syriaca

Asclepias speciosa ×
Asclepias syriaca

Hybrid
 Showy milkweed &
 Common milkweed
Native,
Introduced,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa showy milkweed flowers.jpg
Nymap.svg

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Note: [4]
Subtribe Cynanchinae[edit | edit source]
Many sources, including the New York Flora Atlas still include the Vincetoxicum species in Cynanchum.
Cynanchum[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Cynanchinae — Cynanchum
CynanchumL. Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Pers.

1803. Gonolobus laevis Michx.
1805. Cynanchum laeve Pers.
1818. Enslenia albida Nutt.
1894. Ampelamus albidus Britton
2001. Ampelamus laevis Krings
Honeyvine,
Smooth swallowwort,
Climbing milkweed
Dompte-venin glabre
Introduced,
US South native
Cynanchum laeve - Honeyvine Milkweed.jpg
Cynanchum laeve nymap.svg
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Subtribe Tylophorinae[edit | edit source]
Vincetoxicum[edit | edit source]
Vincetoxicum includes the two very highly invasive alien vines black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), also known as dog-strangling vines, which are both well-established in parts of New York State. Aside from their general invasiveness and the subsequent loss of habitat for native plants, these milkweed relatives have been implicated in luring monarch butterflies away from native milkweed as a place to lay eggs. Because only milkweed can supprort monarch larvae, those that hatch from eggs laid on the swallow-wort cannot survive.

As with some other invasive plants, when swallow-wort is first introduced in an area, its rate of spread is fairly slow, so the rate of future spread and the difficulty of controlling it is often underestimated. A phenomenon called the Allee effect is responsible for increasing the growth rate of individual swallow-wort plants as their population increases and the population of competing plants declines, up to a limit of course.[1] The root cause of this effect is not certain, but a likely contributor is allelopathy on the part of the invasive swallow-worts, which both produce the phytotoxin -(-) antofine.


Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Tylophorinae — Vincetoxicum
Vincetoxicum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Moench

1753. Asclepias nigra L.
1802. Vincetoxicum nigrum Moench
1805. Cynanchum nigrum Pers. nom. illeg.
1991. Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & …
Black swallow-wort,
Black dog-strangling vine,
Climbing poison,
Louise's swallow-wort
Dompte-venin noir,
Cynaque noir,
Cynanche noire
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 90%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Vincetoxicum nigrum01.jpg
Vincetoxicum nigrum nymap.svg
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(Kleopow) Barbar.

1929. Cynanchum rossicum Kleopow
1950. Vincetoxicum rossicum Barbar.
1952. Antitoxicum rossicum Pobed.
auctCynanchum medium non R.Br.
auctVincetoxicum medium non Dcne.
Pale swallow-wort,
European swallow-wort,
Dog-strangling vine (DSV)
Dompte-venin de Russie
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 88%[4],
Prohibited[2],
CP-3[5]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Vincetoxicum rossicum SCA-10787.jpg
Vincetoxicum rossicum nymap.svg
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 Medik.

1753. Asclepias vincetoxicum L.
1790. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
1794. Vincetoxicum officinale Moench
1805. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L.) Pers.
1883. Vincetoxicum vincetoxicum H.Karst.
1961. Alexitoxicon vincetoxicum H.P.Fuchs
White swallow-wort,
Pale swallow-wort,
White dog-strangling vine,
Poison-rope swallowwort
Dompte-venin officinal
Introduced,
Questionable[6]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
20150604Vincetoxicum hirundinaria1.jpg
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria nymap.svg
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