Flora of New York/Gentianales

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Ericales
Flora of New York — Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order Garryales[edit | edit source]

The order Garryales...[1]

Family Eucommiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Eucommiaceae (hard rubber tree family) contains a single living species.[1]
  1. Eucommiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Eucommia[edit | edit source]

Although a number of extinct Eucommia species were native to North America, the only living species, Eucommia ulmoides, is native to central China but has been planted worldwide. It is known for being a very cold-tolerant rubber-producing tree. It has been reported as naturalized in Indiana and Ohio, but not in New York State.[1]
Garryales — Eucommiaceae — Eucommia
Genus Eucommia hard rubber tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

1890. Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
Hardy rubber tree
Hard rubber tree
Chinese rubber tree
Gutta-percha tree

Introduced,
Not naturalized

Deciduous,
Tree

NYFA: Xm

BONAP
IUCN Red List: [1] Images
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Order Gentianales[edit | edit source]

The order Gentianales...[1]
Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Gentianales Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Naucleeae Cephalanthus (button bush) 1 1
Rubioideae Morindeae Mitchella (partridge berry) 1 1
Spermacoceae Diodia (buttonweed)
Houstonia (bluet)
Oldenlandia (clustered bluets)
3 6
Rubieae Rubia (madder)
Sherardia (field-madder)
Asperula (woodruff)
Cruciata (bedstraw)
Galium (bedstraw, wild-licorice, cleavers)
5 29
Loganiaceae Spigelia (Indian pink, pinkroot) 1 1
Gentianaceae Chironieae Centaurium (centaury)
Sabatia (rose gentian, pink)
2 6
Gentianeae Gentianinae Gentiana (gentian) 1 5
Swertiinae Bartonia (screwstem)
Frasera (green-gentian)
Gentianella (dwarf gentian)
Gentianopsis (fringed-gentian)
Halenia (spurred-gentian)
5 7
Apocynaceae Rauvolfioideae Vinceae Vincinae Vinca (periwinkle) 1 2
Amsonieae Amsonia (bluestar) 1 3
Apocynoideae Apocyneae Apocynum (dogbane) 1 3
Periplocoideae Periploca (silk vine) 1 1
Asclepiadoideae Asclepiadeae Asclepiadinae Asclepias (milkweed) 1 12
Cynanchinae Cynanchum (honeyvine) 1 1
Tylophorinae Vincetoxicum (swallow-wort) 1 3

Family Rubiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Rubiaceae (coffee or madder family).[1][2]
  1. Rubiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Rubiaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Subfamily Cinchonoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Naucleeae[edit | edit source]

Cephalanthus[edit | edit source]
Cephalanthus occidentalis
buttonbush

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Cinchonoideae — Naucleeae — Cephalanthus
Genus Cephalanthus Buttonbush N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753.  Cephalanthus occidentalis  L. in…
1794.  Cephalanthus oppositifolius  Moench in…
1828.  Cephalanthus occidentalis  var. pubescens  Raf.  in…
1838.  Cephalanthus acuminatus  Raf. in…
1849.  Cephalanthus occidentalis  var. californicus  Benth.  in…
1889.  Cephalanthus angustifolius  Dippel in…
1917.  Cephalanthus berlandieri  Wernham in…
1917.  Cephalanthus hansenii  Wernham in…
1982.  Cephalanthus occidentalis  ssp. californicus  (Benth.) A.E.Murray  in…
Buttonbush ...
Common buttonbush ...
Eastern buttonbush ...
Button willow ...
Honey bells ...

Céphalanthe occidental ...
Céphalante occidental ...
Bois-bouton ...
Bois-noir ...
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: 5
iNat

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Subfamily Rubioideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Morindeae[edit | edit source]

Mitchella[edit | edit source]
Mitchella repens L.
partridgeberry
Mitchella consists of just two species, one from eastern Asia and the other, Mitchella repens (partridgeberry), is native to eastern North America.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Morindeae — Mitchella
Genus Mitchella Mitchella N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Mitchella repens L.
1862. Perdicesca repens (L.) Prov.
Partridgeberry,
Partridge-berry,
Two-eyed berry,
Twinberry,
Squaw vine
Pain-de-perdrix
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade - shade

NYFA: 5

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Tribe Spermacoceae[edit | edit source]

Hexasepalum[edit | edit source]
Hexasepalum teres
The only species of Hexasepalum Bartl. ex DC. (1830) known to be native to New York is rough buttonweed (Hexasepalum teres).[1]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Hexasepalum
Genus Hexasepalum Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Walter) J.H. Kirkbr.

1788. Diodia teres Walter
1913. Diodella teres (Walter) Small
2014. Hexasepalum teres (Walter) J.H.Kirkbr.
Rough buttonweed
Buttonweed
Poorjoe
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

FACU-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb
10 counties
NYFA: 5
iNat

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Diodia[edit | edit source]
Diodia virginiana

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Diodia
Genus Diodia Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

    Diodia virginiana L.
Virginia buttonweed ...
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native,
Not naturalized
Bronx (2017)
NYFA: x

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Houstonia[edit | edit source]
Houstonia caerulea
bluets
The genus Houstonia contains about 20 species, generally known as Bluets. All are North American natives. Three are considered to be native to New York State.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Houstonia
Genus Houstonia Bluet N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Houstonia caerulea L.
1833. Hedyotis caerulea (L.) Hook.
1834. Anotis coerulea (L.) G.Don
1856. Oldenlandia caerulea (L.) A.Gray
1907. Houstonia caerulea  var. faxonorum  Pease & A.H.Moore
Common bluets ...
Quaker ladies ...
Little bluet ...
Azure bluet ...
Bluets ...
Native, CoC: 1,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 Gaertn.

Long-leaved bluets ...
Longleaf summer bluet ...

Houstonie à longues feuilles
Native, CoC: 8,
Secure



Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.

1818. Houstonia canadensisin…
1941. Hedyotis canadensisin…
Canada bluets ...
Canadian summer bluet ...

Native, CoC: 7,
Very vulnerable,
S2, G4-5

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Erie (1930)
4 iNat counties
NYFA: U
iNat

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 L.
var. calycosa A.Gray

1813. Hedyotis lanceolata Poir.
1830. Anotis lanceolata (Poir.) DC.
1884. Houstonia purpurea  var. calycosa
1901. Houstonia calycosa (A. Gray) C. Mohr
1901. Houstonia lanceolata (Poir.) Britton
1954. Hedyotis purpurea  var. calycosa  (A.Gray) Fosberg
Midwestern purple bluets,
Purple bluet,
Venus' pride
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
SH, G5-T5,
NYNHP: H[1]

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Essex, Tompkins, Washington (1892-1927)
NYFA: Z1

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 L.
var. purpurea

1753. Hedyotis purpurea L.
Large purple bluets
Purple bluet
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
SH, G5-T5

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Suffolk (1925), Washington
NYFA: Z

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Oldenlandia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Oldenlandia
Genus Oldenlandia Oldenlandia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Clustered bluets,
Clustered mille graines
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Tribe Rubieae[edit | edit source]

Galium[edit | edit source]
There are about 24 species of Galium or bedstraw in New York State.[1][2][3][4]
Galium sect. Platygalium[edit | edit source]
Galium boreale
Section Platygalium species generally have 3-veined leaves in whorls of 4, though the lateral veins are obscure in Galium pilosum.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Platygalium
Genus Galiumsect. Platygalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Galium boreale L.
1800. Galium hyssopifolium Hoffm.
1818. Galium septentrionale Roem.& Schult.
1819. Galium strictum Torr.
1830. Galium borealevar. hyssopifolium
1830. Galium borealevar. intermedium
Northern bedstraw,
Boreal bedstraw,
Crosswort
Gaillet boréal
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Torr.) Torr.

1819. Galium circaezansvar. lanceolatum
1824. Galium lanceolatum (Torr.) Torr.
Lanceleaf wild licorice,
Lanceleaf licorice bedstraw,
Torrey's wild licorice,
Spear wild licorice
Gaillet lancéolé
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Michx.
 var. circaezans

    Galium bermudense
    Galium circaeoides
    Galium rotundifoliumvar. circaezans
Licorice bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Michx.
 var. hypomalacum

Licorice bedstraw,
Forest bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3

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 Aiton
 ssp. pilosum

Hairy bedstraw Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 Aiton
ssp. puncticulosum (Michx.) Torr. & A.Gray

1788. Galium purpureum Walter
1791. Galium walteri J.F.Gmel.
1803. Galium puncticulosum Michx.
1805. Galium punctatum Pers.
1841. Galium pilosum  var. puncticulosum  Torr.& A.Gray
Hairy bedstraw Native,
No records

NYFA: D

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 Steller ex Schult. & Schult.f

Boreal bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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 Torrey & A.Gray

Shining bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]

NYFA: 1

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Galium sect. Aparinoides[edit | edit source]
Galium palustre

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Aparinoides
Genus Galiumsect. Aparinoides Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Galium palustre L.
1782. Galium diffusum Gilib.
1782. Galium incarnatum Gilib.
1796. Galium montanum With.
1818. Galium glomeratum Vill. ex Roem. & Schult.
1851. Galium fontinale K.Koch
1880. Rubia palustris (L.) Baill.
1898. Galium rumelicum Formánek
1928. Galium masferreri Sennen
Common marsh bedstraw,
Marsh bedstraw
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Galium tinctorium L.
1803. Galium claytonii Michx.
1841. Galium trifidum  var. tinctorium  (L.) Torr. & A.Gray
1897. Galium tinctorium  var. floridanum  Wiegand
1939. Galium trifidum  ssp. tinctorium  (L.) H.Hara
Stiff marsh bedstraw,
Stiff three-petal bedstraw
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Michx.

1803. Galium asprellum Michx.
1814. Galium micranthum Pursh
Rough bedstraw,
Kidney-vine,
Pointed cleavers
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.
 ssp. trifidum

1753. Galium trifidum L.
1877. Galium brandegeei A.Gray
1880. Rubia linnaeana Baill.
1921. Galium trifidum  ssp. distentum  Printz
1949. Galium trifidum  ssp. typicum  R.T.Clausen
1958. Galium baicalense Pobed.
1958. Galium ruprechtii Pobed.
Three-petal bedstraw Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Bigelow
 ssp. obtusum

1824. Galium obtusum Bigelow
1824. Galium trifidum  var. latifolium  Torr.
1952. Galium obtusum  var. ramosum  Gleason
Bluntleaf bedstraw,
Blunt-leaved bedstraw
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 (Wiegand) Wiegand

1897. Galium tinctorium  var. labradoricum  Wiegand
1904. Galium labradoricum (Wiegand) Wiegand
Bog bedstraw,
Northern bog bedstraw
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 Fernald & Wiegand

1910. Galium brevipes Fernald & Wiegand
1982. Galium trifidum  ssp. brevipes  (Fernald & Wiegand) Á.Löve & D.Löve
Limestone swamp bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: Z
iNat

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Galium sect. Aparine[edit | edit source]
Galium aparine
Galium aparine (cleavers or stickywilly) was previously included in sect. Kolgyda but has been segregated along with similar Galium spurium into sect. Aparine, which appears to be a sister to the clade formed by sects. Kolgyda and Hylaea.

Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium aparine as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.

The native status of Galium aparine is inconsistent. It is generally treated as native but noxious weed in North America.[1]


Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Aparine
Genus Galiumsect. Aparine Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Galium aparine L.
1794. Aparine hispida Moench
1880. Rubia aparine (L.) Baill.
Cleavers ...
Catchweed bedstraw ...
Stickywilly ...
Scratch bedstraw
Bedstraw ...
Goose-grass ...

Gaillet gratteron ...
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure,
G5

FACU

Annual,
Vine, Herb-forb

NYFA: 5
iNat

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Galium sect. Kolgyda[edit | edit source]
Galium tricornutum

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Kolgyda
Genus Galiumsect. Kolgyda Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Dandy

Galium tricorne Stokes p.p.
Rough-fruited corn bedstraw,
Roughfruit corn bedstraw
Introduced,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X
NYFA: Oneida (1888)
No NY observations

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Galium sect. Hylaea[edit | edit source]
Galium triflorum
Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium triflorum as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Hylaea
Genus Galiumsect. Hylaea Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Michx.

1803. Galium triflorum Michx.
1803. Galium jalapense Schltdl.
1935. Galium triflorum  var. asprelliforme  Fernald
Sweet-scented bedstraw ...
Three-flowered bedstraw
Fragrant bedstraw ...

Gaillet à trois fleurs
Gaillet odorant
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-vine

NYFA: 5

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 (L.) Scop.

1753. Asperula odorata L.
1771. Galium odoratum (L.) Scop.
1829. Asterophyllum asperula K.F.Schimp. & Spenn.
1829. Asterophyllum sylvaticum K.F.Schimp. & Spenn.
1868. Chlorostemma odoratum (L.) Fourr.
1888. Asperula eugeniae K.Richt.
Sweet woodruff ...
Sweet-scented bedstraw ...
Sweet bedstraw ...
Woodruff ...
Introduced from
 temperate Asia,
 Europe,
Somewhat invasive,
 NYIS: 48%[1],
iMapInvasives,
 USGS: L48 established,
Naturalized,
SNA, GNR

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: X

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Galium sect. Leiogalium[edit | edit source]
Galium album
Although most sources show the hedge bedstraw species Galium mollugo as being widepread in the Northeast and the similar Galium album being less common, if not rare,[1] the New York Flora Atlas now excludes Galium mollugo from New York State and shows Galium album as common, having moved its Galium mollugo records to Galium album. Other sources, such as VASCAN[2] show G. album as a synonym of G. molluglo. See D. Mersereau and A. DiTommaso (2001).[3]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Leiogalium
Genus Galiumsect. Leiogalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
L.

1753.  Galium mollugo  L.
1762.  Galium erectum  Huds. in…
1764.  Galium album  Garsault
1796.  Galium flaccidum  Salisb. (Ambiguous)
1822.  Galium vulgare  Gray
1880.  Rubia mollugo  (L.) Baill.
1880.  Galion molluginum  St.-Lag.
False baby's breath ...
Smooth bedstraw ...

Introduced,
Potentially invasive,
 Invasive.org: 9,
 USGS: L48 invasive,
NYFA excluded

NYFA-Excluded
NYFA: Excluded
iNat
50+ counties

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 Mill.

1768. Galium album Mill.
1771. Galium sylvestre Scop.
1778. Galium erectum Huds. (i)
1833. Galium sylvestre  ssp. mollugo  Gaudin
1864. Galium mollugo  var. erectum  Asch.
1865. Galium mollugo  ssp. erectum  Syme
1887. Galium elatum  ssp. erectum  Berher
1921. Galium mixtum Stranski
1926. Galium mollugo  var. erectum  (Huds.) Domin
2000. Galium mollugo  ssp. album  (Mill.) Tzvelev in…
Hedge bedstraw ...
White bedstraw ...
False baby's breath ...
Whorled bedstraw ...
Wild madder

Gaillet mollugine,
Caille-lait blanc
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
 USGS: L48 established,
Naturalized

NYFA: X
NYFA: 49 counties
15 counties

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 L.

1762. Galium sylvaticum L.
Scotch-mist,
Wood bedstraw,
Baby's breath
Gaillet des bois,
Gaillet des forêts
Introduced

NYFA: X
NYFA: 4 counties
? counties

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 L.

1762. Galium aristatum L.
Awned bedstraw Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded

NYFA-Excluded

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Galium sect. Galium[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Galium
Genus Galiumsect. Galium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
 ssp. verum

1753. Galium verum L.
1879. Galium verumvar. verum
1885. Galium verumssp. verum
Lady's bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Yellow Spring bedstraw
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
iMapInvasives

NYFA: X

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 L.
 ssp. wirtgenii (F.W. Schultz) Oborný

1854. Galium wirtgenii F.W.Schultz
1879. Galium verumvar. wirtgenii
1885. Galium verumssp. wirtgenii
Wirtgen's bedstraw Introduced

NYFA: X

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 Retz.

Galium mollugo ×
Galium verum

1795. Galium × pomeranicum Retz.
1804. Galium × ochroleucum
Wolf ex Schweigg.
1850. Galium × ambiguum Gren. & Godr.
1903. Galium × ochroleucumvar. ambiguum
Pale yellow bedstraw Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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Galium sect. Asperula[edit | edit source]
Galium arvense
Galium arvense (blue woodruff) is still often listed in the genus Asperula.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Asperula
Genus Galiumsect. Asperula Woodruff N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
(L.) F. Herm.

1753. Asperula arvensis L.
1844. Asperula setosa Jaub. & Spach
1904. Galium sherardiiflorum (L.) E.H.L.Krause
1844. Asperula arvensis  var. setosa  (Jaub. & Spach) J.Thiébaut
1956. Galium arvense (L.) F. Herm.
Blue woodruff Introduced

NYFA: X

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Galium sect. Cruciata[edit | edit source]
Cruciata pedemontana

Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Cruciata
Genus Galiumsect. Cruciata Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution NPT
 (Bellardi) Ehrend.

1789. Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All.
1788. Vaillantia pedemontana Bellardi
1961. Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.
Piedmont bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Piedmont Crosswort
Introduced
Tompkins (1989)
NYFA: X

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 Opiz

1771. Galium cruciata (L.) Scop.
1852. Cruciata laevipes Opiz
1958. Cruciata chersonensis Ehrend.
Smooth bedstraw Introduced
Ontario (1918)
NYFA: X

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Sherardia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Sherardia
Genus Sherardia Field madder N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Blue field madder,
Blue fieldmadder,
Cultivated field madder
Introduced

NYFA: X

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Rubia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Rubia
Genus Rubia Rubia N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

Rubia tinctoria L. orth. var.
Dyer's madder,
Indian madder,
Madder
Introduced,
Impersistent

NYFA: Xm
NYFA: Washington (1892, 1934)
No NY observations

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Family Loganiaceae[edit | edit source]

The Loganiaceae is a mostly-tropical family with no members that are native to or reported to have naturalized in New York.

Spigelia[edit | edit source]

Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink
Spigelia marilandica, a native of the southeastern U.S., has been propagated in New York and sold in the "native" plant trade. According to the Agriculture Research Service, it is only considered native as far north as southern Indiana and Maryland.
Gentianales — Loganiaceae — Spigelia
Genus Spigelia Pinkroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) L.

1753. Lonicera marilandica L.
1767. Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink,
Woodland pinkroot
N. America native
 southern US,
No specimens,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Forb-herb

NYFA: 0

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Family Gentianaceae[edit | edit source]

The Gentianaceae (gentian family).[1][2]

Tribe Chironieae[edit | edit source]

Centaurium[edit | edit source]

Centaurium erythraea
common centaury

  1. Gentianaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Gentianaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Chironieae — Centaurium
Genus Centaurium Centaury N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Rafn

1782. Centaurium umbellatum Gilib. inval.
1800. Centaurium erythraea Rafn
 auct. Centaurium minusnon Moench, rej.
 auct. Erythraea centaurium
Common centaury,
European centaury
Introduced

FAC

NYFA: X

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 (Sw.) Druce

Branched centaury,
Branching centaury-plant,
Lesser centaury
Introduced

FAC

NYFA: X

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Sabatia[edit | edit source]

Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Chironieae — Sabatia
Genus Sabatia Rose-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Pursh

    S. maculata (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.
    S. palmeri A.Gray
    S. purpusii Brandegee
    S. simulata Britton
Sea pink,
Marsh pink,
Rose of Plymouth,
Saltmarsh rosegentian
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]

NYFA: 2

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 (L.) Pursh

1753. Chironia angularis L.
1814. Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh
Square-stemmed rose pink,
Rose pink,
Bitterbloom
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]

NYFA: 1

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 (L.) Torr.

    Sabatia gracilis (Michx.) Salisb.
Slender marsh pink,
Slender rose gentian
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

NYFA: 1

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 (L.) BSP.
var. dodecandra

    Chironia dodecandra L.
    Sabatia chloroides (Michx.) Pursh
Large marsh pink,
Marsh rose gentian
Native,
Extirpated

NYFA: Z

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Tribe Gentianeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Gentianinae[edit | edit source]

Gentiana[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Gentiana
Genus Gentiana Gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Griseb.

Fringe-topped bottle gentian Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 Raf.

Bottle gentian,
Closed gentian
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 Froel.

Narrow-leaved gentian Native,
Vulnerable

NYFA: 3-4

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 L.

Soapwort gentian,
Soap gentian,
Harvestbells
Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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 Pringle

Downy gentian Native,
Likely extirpated

NYFA: Z

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Subtribe Swertiinae[edit | edit source]

Bartonia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Bartonia
Genus Bartonia Screwstem N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Sagina virginica L.
1801. Bartonia tenella Willd.
1888. Bartonia virginica (L.) BSP
1895. Bartonia moseri B.L.Rob.
Yellow screwstem,
Virginia screwstem,
Yellow bartonia
Bartonie de Virginie
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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ssp. paniculata

Twining screwstem Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Frasera[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Frasera
Genus Frasera Green-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT

    Frasera officinalis
    Frasera verticillata
    Frasera walteri
    Swertia caroliniensis
Columbo
American columbo
Green gentian
Yellow gentian
Carolina gentian
Native,
Threatened

NYFA: 2

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Gentianella[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Gentianella
Genus Gentianella Dwarf-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Small
ssp. quinquefolia

Agueweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Stiff gentian
Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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Gentianopsis[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Gentianopsis
Genus Gentianopsis Fringed-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Froel.) Ma

Greater fringed gentian Native,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 (Raf.) Holub

Lesser fringed gentian Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Halenia[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Halenia
Genus Halenia Spurred-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Sm.) Griseb.

Spurred gentian Native,
Endangered

NYFA: 1

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Family Apocynaceae[edit | edit source]

The Apocynaceae (dogbane or periwinkle family).[1][2][3]

Subfamily Rauvolfioideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Vinceae[edit | edit source]

A very common New York ground cover, both cultivated and naturalized is Vinca minor, known commonly as periwinkle or myrtle. It is often found in wooded areas were old homesteads once stood and along ditches and stream banks where floodwaters have carried the rhizomes downstream from their previous location.
Vinca[edit | edit source]
Vinca minor
Of the two periwinkles, Vinca minor is very common outside of cultivation and is considered to be moderately invasive. Vinca major is not known to naturalize in New York State.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Rauvolfioideae — Vinceae — Vinca
Genus Vinca Periwinkle N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Vinca minor L.
Lesser periwinkle,
Common periwinkle,
Myrtle,
Running-myrtle
Petite pervenche,
Pervenche mineure
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
 NYIS: 57%[1],
CP-3[2]

NYFA: X

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 L.

1753. Vinca major L.
Greater periwinkle,
Bigleaf periwinkle,
Large-leaved periwinkle
Grande pervenche
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Not naturalized

NYFA: X

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Tribe Amsonieae[edit | edit source]

Amsonia[edit | edit source]
Amsonia tabernaemontana
Amsonia or bluestar species are native to southern North America and are sold in the "native" wildflower trade but are not native to New York. It's uncertain whether they have truly naturalized the state.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Rauvolfioideae — Vinceae — Amsonia
Genus Amsonia Bluestar N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 Walter

1762. Tabernaemontana amsonia L.
1788. Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter
1814. Amsonia salicifolia Pursh
1838. Ansonia salicifolia (Pursh) Raf.
1894. Amsonia amsonia (L.) Britton
1928. A. tabernaemontana  var. salicifolia  (Pursh) Woodson
Common bluestar ...
Eastern bluestar
Texas-star
Willowleaf Bluestar
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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 Woodson

Shining bluestar,
Ozark bluestar
Introduced,
N. America native

NYFA: X

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Subfamily Apocynoideae[edit | edit source]

Tribe Apocyneae[edit | edit source]

Apocynum[edit | edit source]
Apocynum cannabinum
hemp dogbane
Apocynum, or dogbane, is generally considered to be a weedy native genus.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Apocynoideae — Apocyneae — Apocynum
Genus Apocynum Dogbane N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Apocynum cannabinum L.
1770. Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.
1789. Apocynum hypericifolium Aiton
1902. Apocynum suksdorfii Greene
1912. Apocynum ithacense Greene
Hemp dogbane,
Clasping-leaved dogbane,
Indian hemp,
American-hemp
Apocyn chanvrin,
Apocyn à feuilles
  de millepertuis
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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1753. Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
1894. Apocynum pumilum (A.Gray) Greene
1901. Apocynum ambigens Greene
1906. Apocynum scopulorum Greene
Spreading dogbane,
Bitter-root,
Common dogbane,
Creeping dogbane
Apocyn à feuilles
  d'androsème,
Herbe à la puce
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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Greene (pro sp.)

Apocynum androsaemifolium ×
Apocynum cannabinum

1893. Apocynum × floribundum Greene
1897. Apocynum × medium Greene
1901. Apocynum × milleri Britton
1930. Apocynum × jonesii Woodson
Intermediate dogbane,
Jones' dogbane,
Hybrid of
 hemp dogbane &
 spreading dogbane
Apocyn moyen
Native, CoC: x,
Secure

NYFA: 4

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Subfamily Periplocoideae[edit | edit source]

Periploca[edit | edit source]

Periploca graeca
Silkvine (Periploca graeca) is native to eastern Europe and is listed as invasive in Northeastern Spain. It is capable of rooting vegetatively from small pieces of stem.[1]

Vouchered plant specimens have been collected from Erie and Monroe counties, but it is not thought to have naturalized there.[2] It has also been reported along roadsides in Suffolk County, NY, and Fairfield County, CT, but it is uncertain whether those plants were cultivated or naturalized.[3]


Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Periplocoideae — Periploca
PeriplocaTourn. ex. L. Silk-vine N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1753. Periploca graeca L.
1820. Periploca graeca Schult.
Silkvine,
Silk vine,
Grecian silkvine
Bourreau des arbres
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Woody vine

NYFA: X

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Subfamily Asclepiadoideae[edit | edit source]

The New York Flora Atlas includes Asclepias, Cynanchum, and Periploca in Asclepiadaceae. It includes the three Vincetoxicum species as Cynanchum.[1]
  1. Asclepiadaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe Asclepiadeae[edit | edit source]

Subtribe Asclepiadinae[edit | edit source]
Asclepias[edit | edit source]
The milkweed genus Asclepias is here separated into two clades according to Fishbein, et. al. (2011).[1] Each of these clades contains milkweeds that support monarch butterfly developmemt. In New York, these are:
  • common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
  • swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
  • butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
  • whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)
  • poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) also supports monarchs west of the Mississippi, where it is native, but the benefit of planting it in New York for this purpose could be questioned.


Asclepias clade incarnata/verticillata[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Asclepiadinae — Asclepias
Genus Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.
ssp. incarnata

1753. Asclepias incarnata L.
Western swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed,
Rose milkweed
Asclépiade incarnate,
Asclépiade rouge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 5

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 L.
ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson

1798. Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.
1840. Asclepias maritima Raf. non Jacq.
1921. A. incarnatavar. neoscotica
1954. A. incarnatavar. pulchra
Eastern swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed
Native, CoC: 4,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3?

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 L.

1753. Asclepias verticillata L.
Whorled milkweed,
Eastern whorled milkweed,
Horsetail milkweed
Native, CoC: 9,
Threatened,
NYNHP: S2[1]

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 3

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L.

1753. Asclepias curassavica L.
Madagascar cottonbush
Tropical milkweed
Bloodflower
Introduced from
 Neotropics,
Highly invasive,
 Invasive.org: [2],
 GRIIS-US: Invasive,
Not listed NYFA

NYFA: ? counties
? counties

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Asclepias clade syriaca/speciosa[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Asclepiadinae — Asclepias
Genus Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 L.

1762. Asclepias syriaca L.
1840. A. serica Raf.
1844. A. cornuti Decne.
1904. A. kansana Vail
1935. A. syriacavar. kansana
Common milkweed,
Kansas milkweed,
Silkweed,
Virginia silk
Asclépiade commune,
Cochons de lait,
Herbe à coton
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 Jacq.

1767. Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq.
1818. A. vanilla Raf.
1840. A. quadrifolia
var. oppositifolia
Fourleaf milkweed,
Four-leaved milkweed,
Whorled milkweed
Asclépiade à quatre feuilles
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

NYFA: 5

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 L.

1753. Asclepias tuberosa L.
1753. Asclepias decumbens L.
    
Butterfly-weed,
Butterfly milkweed,
Orange milkweed,
Pleurisy root
Asclépiade tubéreuse,
Asclépiade de l'intérieur
Native, CoC: 2,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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Sm.

1797. A. amplexicaulis Sm.
1803. A. obtusifolia Michx.
1832. A. rotundifolia Raf.
1930. A. gladewitzii Farw.
Clasping milkweed,
Blunt-leaved milkweed
Native, CoC: 2,
Likely secure

NYFA: 4

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 L.

1756. Asclepias exaltata L.
1762. A. syriacavar. exaltata
1788. A. polystachya Walter
1814. A. phytolaccoides
G.F. Lyon ex Pursh
1904. A. bicknellii Vail
Poke milkweed,
Tall milkweed
Asclépiade très grande,
Grande asclépiade
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: 4

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L.

1753. Asclepias purpurascens L.
1753. A. amoena L.
1794. A. compressa Moench
1832. A. dasypus Raf.
1840. A. gonalis Raf.
Purple milkweed,
Eastern purple milkweed
Asclépiade pourprée
Native, CoC: 2,
Threatened,
USFS-CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb

NYFA: 2-3

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 Raf.

1808. Asclepias viridiflora Raf.
1819. As. lanceolata E.Ives (i)
1824. As. viridifloravar. lanceolata
1829. Acerates viridiflora
(Raf.) Pursh ex Eaton
1841. Acerates lanceolata Steud.
1946. As. viridifloravar. linearis
Green milkweed,
Green comet milkweed,
Short green milkweed,
Green-flowered milkweed
Asclépiade à fleurs vertes
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]

NYFA: 2

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White milkweed,
Redring milkweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]

NYFA: 1

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 L.

1753. Asclepias rubra L.
1788. A. cordata Walter (i)
1803. A. laurifolia Michx.
1814. A. acuminata Pursh
1818. A. periplocaefolia Nutt.
1903. A. rubravar. laurifolia
Red milkweed,
Tall pink bog milkweed
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade

NYFA: Z

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Vail

Asclepias amplexicaulis ×
Asclepias syriaca

1904. Asclepias intermedia Vail
    
    
Intermediate milkweed,
Hybrid of
 clasping milkweed &
 common milkweed
Native,
Unranked

NYFA: ?

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 Torr.

1827. Asclepias speciosa Torr.
1837. Asclepias douglasii Hook.
1931. Asclepias giffordii Eastw.
Showy milkweed,
Greek milkweed
Belle asclépiade
Introduced from
 w. North America,
N. America native,
No reports

NYFA: P

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A. speciosa × syriaca

Asclepias speciosa ×
Asclepias syriaca

Hybrid
 Showy milkweed &
 Common milkweed
Native,
Introduced,
No reports

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Note: [4]
Subtribe Cynanchinae[edit | edit source]
Many sources, including the New York Flora Atlas still include the Vincetoxicum species in Cynanchum.
Cynanchum[edit | edit source]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Cynanchinae — Cynanchum
Genus CynanchumL. Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (Michx.) Pers.

1803. Gonolobus laevis Michx.
1805. Cynanchum laeve Pers.
1818. Enslenia albida Nutt.
1894. Ampelamus albidus Britton
2001. Ampelamus laevis Krings
Honeyvine,
Smooth swallowwort,
Climbing milkweed
Dompte-venin glabre
Introduced,
US South native

NYFA: X

USDA-NX
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
Subtribe Tylophorinae[edit | edit source]
Vincetoxicum[edit | edit source]
Vincetoxicum includes the two very highly invasive alien vines black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), also known as dog-strangling vines, which are both well-established in parts of New York State. Aside from their general invasiveness and the subsequent loss of habitat for native plants, these milkweed relatives have been implicated in luring monarch butterflies away from native milkweed as a place to lay eggs. Because only milkweed can supprort monarch larvae, those that hatch from eggs laid on the swallow-wort cannot survive.

As with some other invasive plants, when swallow-wort is first introduced in an area, its rate of spread is fairly slow, so the rate of future spread and the difficulty of controlling it is often underestimated. A phenomenon called the Allee effect is responsible for increasing the growth rate of individual swallow-wort plants as their population increases and the population of competing plants declines, up to a limit of course.[1] The root cause of this effect is not certain, but a likely contributor is allelopathy on the part of the invasive swallow-worts, which both produce the phytotoxin -(-) antofine.


Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Tylophorinae — Vincetoxicum
Genus Vincetoxicum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution NY NPT
 (L.) Moench

1753. Asclepias nigra L.
1802. Vincetoxicum nigrum Moench
1805. Cynanchum nigrum Pers. nom. illeg.
1991. Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi
Black swallow-wort,
Black dog-strangling vine,
Climbing poison,
Louise's swallow-wort
Dompte-venin noir,
Cynaque noir,
Cynanche noire
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 90%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
(Kleopow) Barbar.

1929. Cynanchum rossicum Kleopow
1950. Vincetoxicum rossicum Barbar.
1952. Antitoxicum rossicum Pobed.
auctCynanchum medium non R.Br.
auctVincetoxicum medium non Dcne.
Pale swallow-wort,
European swallow-wort,
Dog-strangling vine (DSV)
Dompte-venin de Russie
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
 NYIS: 88%[4],
Prohibited[2],
CP-3[5]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
Go Botany
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
 Medik.

1753. Asclepias vincetoxicum L.
1790. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
1794. Vincetoxicum officinale Moench
1805. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L.) Pers.
1883. Vincetoxicum vincetoxicum H.Karst.
1961. Alexitoxicon vincetoxicum H.P.Fuchs
White swallow-wort,
Pale swallow-wort,
White dog-strangling vine,
Poison-rope swallowwort
Dompte-venin officinal
Introduced,
Questionable[6]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine

NYFA: X

USDA-XX
VASCAN
ARS-GRIN
Tropicos
BONAP
Images
Wikispecies
Subtribe Oxypetalinae[edit | edit source]
Araujia[edit | edit source]
Araujia sericifera
South American bladderflower (Araujia) species have not been reported in New York. White bladderflower (Araujia sericifera) is widely naturalized and of concern in regions with Mediterranean-type climates.[1] It is listed as highly invasive, tier 1b in New York State.[2]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Oxypetalinae — Araujia
Genus Araujia Bladderflower N.Y. Status Images Distribution  NPT
Brot.

1817. Araujia sericifera Brot.
1829. Apocynum volubine Vell.
1885. Araujia hortorum E.Fourn.
White bladderflower ...
Cape-dandelion ...

Introduced from
 South America,
Potentially invasive,
Not listed in NY

NYFA: Not listed
iNat
0 counties

GBIF
POWO
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Wikispecies