Flora of New York/Gentianales

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Ericales
Flora of New York — Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Gentianales...[1]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Gentianales Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Naucleeae Cephalanthus (button bush) 1 1
Rubioideae Morindeae Mitchella (partridge berry) 1 1
Spermacoceae Diodia (buttonweed)
Houstonia (bluet)
Oldenlandia (clustered bluets)
3 6
Rubieae Rubia (madder)
Sherardia (field-madder)
Asperula (woodruff)
Cruciata (bedstraw)
Galium (bedstraw, wild-licorice, cleavers)
5 29
Loganiaceae Spigelia (Indian pink, pinkroot) 1 1
Gentianaceae Chironieae Centaurium (centaury)
Sabatia (rose gentian, pink)
2 6
Gentianeae Gentianinae Gentiana (gentian) 1 5
Swertiinae Bartonia (screwstem)
Frasera (green-gentian)
Gentianella (dwarf gentian)
Gentianopsis (fringed-gentian)
Halenia (spurred-gentian)
5 7
Apocynaceae[2] Rauvolfioideae Vinceae Vincinae Vinca (periwinkle) 1 2
Amsonieae Amsonia (bluestar) 1 3
Apocynoideae Apocyneae Apocynum (dogbane) 1 3
Periplocoideae Periploca (silk vine) 1 1
Asclepiadoideae Asclepiadeae Asclepiadinae Asclepias (milkweed) 1 12
Cynanchinae Cynanchum (honeyvine) 1 1
Tylophorinae Vincetoxicum (swallow-wort) 1 3

Family Rubiaceae[edit]

The Rubiaceae (coffee or madder family).[1][2]

  1. Rubiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Rubiaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Subfamily Cinchonoideae[edit]

Tribe Naucleeae[edit]

Genus Cephalanthus[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Cinchonoideae – tribe Naucleeae – genus Cephalanthus
Cephalanthus Buttonbush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
1828. C. occidentalis var. pubescens
1849. C. occidentalis var. californicus
1917. C. berlandieri Wernham
Buttonbush,
Common buttonbush,
Eastern buttonbush,
Button willow,
Honey bells

Céphalanthe occidental,
Céphalante occidental,
Bois-bouton,
Bois-noir
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Cephalanthus occidentalis-Buttonbush.jpg
Cephalanthus occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily Rubioideae[edit]

Tribe Morindeae[edit]

Genus Mitchella[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Morindeae – genus Mitchella
Mitchella Mitchella N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Mitchella repens L.
1862. Perdicesca repens (L.) Prov.
Partridgeberry,
Partridge-berry,
Two-eyed berry,
Twinberry,
Squaw vine

Pain-de-perdrix
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade - shade
Mitchella repens 2004.JPG
Mitchella repens nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Tribe Spermacoceae[edit]

Genus Diodia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae – genus Diodia
Diodia Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Walter

1788. Diodia teres Walter
1913. Diodella teres (Walter) Small
2014. Hexasepalum teres
(Walter) J.H.Kirkbr.
Rough buttonweed,
Buttonweed,
Poorjoe
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure

WL: FACU-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Diodia teres.jpg
Diodia teres var teres NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 


LBJ

Images, wsp
Genus Houstonia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae – genus Houstonia
Houstonia Bluet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.

Azure bluet Native,
Secure
Bluets (Houstonia caerulea) Hedyotis caerulea.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5

ITIS




Images, wsp
 Gaertn.

Longleaf bluet,
Longleaf summer bluet,
Houstonie à longues feuilles
Native,
Secure
Hedyotis longifolia 1 (5097295673).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.
var. calycosa A.Gray

Hedyotis purpurea var. calycosaHoustonia calycosa
Purple bluet,
Venus' pride
Native,
Endangered
Houstonia purpurea - Venus Pride.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z1
USDA-N0

ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.
var. purpurea

Hedyotis purpurea
Purple bluet Native,
Endangered
Hedyotis purpurea montana.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z






Images, wsp
Genus Oldenlandia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae – genus Oldenlandia
Oldenlandia Oldenlandia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Clustered bluets,
Clustered mille graines
Native,
Endangered
Oldenlandia uniflora BB-1913.png
Oldenlandia uniflora NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Tribe Rubieae[edit]

Genus Asperula[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Asperula
Asperula Woodruff N.Y. Status Images Distribution n

Blue woodruff Introduced
Asperula arvensis0.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X






Images, wsp
Genus Cruciata[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Cruciata
Cruciata Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
 (Bellardi) Ehrend.

1789. Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All.
1788. Vaillantia pedemontana Bellardi
1961. Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.
Piedmont bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Piedmont Crosswort
Introduced
Cruciata pedemontana sl2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-


Trop.



Images, wsp
 Opiz

1771. Galium cruciata (L.) Scop.
1852. Cruciata laevipes Opiz
1958. Cruciata chersonensis Ehrend.
Smooth bedstraw Introduced
20140507Cruciata laevipes3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0


Trop.



Images, wsp
Genus Galium[edit]

There are about 24 species of Galium or bedstraw in New York State.[1] [2]

Galium sect. Platygalium[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Platygalium
Galiumsect. Platygalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

1753. Galium boreale L.
1800. G. hyssopifolium Hoffm.
1818. G. septentrionale Roem.& Schult.
1819. G. strictum Torr.
1830. G. boreale var. hyssopifolium
1830. G. boreale var. intermedium
Northern bedstraw,
Boreal bedstraw,
Crosswort

Gaillet boréal
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
Galium boreale 01.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
 (Torr.) Torr.

1819. G. circaezans var. lanceolatum
1824. G. lanceolatum (Torr.) Torr.
Lanceleaf wild licorice,
Lanceleaf licorice bedstraw,
Torrey's wild licorice,
Spear wild licorice

Gaillet lancéolé
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium lanceolatum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Michx.
var. circaezans

    G. bermudense
    G. circaeoides
    G. rotundifolium var. circaezans
Licorice bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium circaezans var circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Note: IWF
 Michx.
var. hypomalacum

Licorice bedstraw,
Forest bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, CoC: 7,
Vulnerable
Galium circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. pilosum

Hairy bedstraw Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. puncticulosum
(Michx.) Torr. & A.Gray

1788. Galium purpureum Walter
1791. Galium walteri J.F.Gmel.
1803. Galium puncticulosum Michx.
1805. Galium punctatum Pers.
1841. Galium pilosum Torr.& A.Gray
var. puncticulosum
Hairy bedstraw Native,
No records
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-N0
NEW 

Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Steller ex Schult. & Schult.f

Boreal bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered
Galium kamtschaticum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Torrey & A.Gray

Shining bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Galium concinnum - Shining Bedstraw.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW-0


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Aparinoides[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Aparinoides
Galiumsect. Aparinoides Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.

Rough bedstraw,
Kidney-vine,
Pointed cleavers
Native, CoC: 6,
Secure
Galium asprellum clump.jpg
Galium asprellum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

Common marsh bedstraw,
Marsh bedstraw
Native, CoC: 3,
Secure
Galium palustre 1a.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

Stiff marsh bedstraw,
Stiff three-petal bedstraw
Native, CoC: 5,
Secure
Galium tinctorium NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. trifidum

    G. brandegeei A.Gray p.p.
Three-petal bedstraw Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium trifidum 2898.JPG
Galium trifidum ssp trifidum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Bigelow 1824
ssp. obtusum

    G. trifidum var. latifolium Torr.
    G. obtusum var. ramosum Gleason
Bluntleaf bedstraw,
Blunt-leaved bedstraw
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Galium obtusum NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(Wieg.) Wieg.

    G. tinctorium var. labradoricum
Bog bedstraw,
Northern bog bedstraw
Native, CoC: 8,
Likely secure
Galium labradoricum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Fernald & Wiegand

    G. trifidum ssp. brevipes
Limestone swamp bedstraw Native, CoC: 10?,
Likely extirpated
Galium brevipes BB-1913.png
Galium brevipes NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Kolgyda[edit]

Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium aparine as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.

Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Kolgyda
Galiumsect. Kolgyda Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L. 1753

Catchweed bedstraw,
Cleavers,
Stickywilly,
Scratch bedstraw
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure
Galium aparine 2004-04-07.jpg
Galium aparine NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NX?
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Dandy

Galium tricorne Stokes p.p.
Rough-fruited corn bedstraw,
Roughfruit corn bedstraw
Introduced
Galium tricornutum - Flora batava 1893.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX



NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Hylaea[edit]

Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium triflorum as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.

Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Hylaea
Galiumsect. Hylaea Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.

1803. Galium triflorum Michx.
1803. Galium jalapense Schltdl.
1935. Galium triflorum Fernald
var. asprelliforme
Three-flowered bedstraw,
Fragrant bedstraw,
Sweet-scented bedstraw

Gaillet à trois fleurs,
Gaillet odorant
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Herb-vine
Galium triflorum 0807042 4x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 (L.) Scop.

Asperula odorata
Sweet bedstraw,
Sweetscented bedstraw,
Sweet woodruff
Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 48%[1]
Woodruff1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Leiogalium[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Leiogalium
Galiumsect. Leiogalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

1753. Galium mollugo L.
1762. Galium erectum Huds.
1768. Galium album Mill.
    Galium mollugo Briq. ssp. erectum
    Galium mollugo Domin var. erectum
    Galium album Domin var. erectum
White bedstraw,
Smooth bedstraw,
False baby's-breath,
Wild madder,
Whorled bedstraw

Gaillet mollugine,
Caille-lait blanc
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
IO,
NE-3[1]
20140929Galium mollugo1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1762. Galium sylvaticum L.
Scotch-mist,
Wood bedstraw,
Baby's breath

Gaillet des bois,
Gaillet des forêts
Introduced
Galium sylvaticum (Wald-Labkraut) IMG 3333.JPG
Galium sylvaticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1762. Galium aristatum L.
Awned bedstraw Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
Galium aristatum flowering plant 001 4x3.jpg
Galium aristatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-
NEW-0
ITIS

BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Galium sect. Galium[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Galium
Galiumsect. Galium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.
ssp. verum

1753. Galium verum L.
1879. G. verum var. verum
1885. G. verum ssp. verum
Lady's bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Yellow Spring bedstraw
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
CublesuSJ2012 (91).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX


Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. wirtgenii (F.W. Schultz) Oborný

1854. Galium wirtgenii F.W.Schultz
1879. G. verum var. wirtgenii
1885. G. verum ssp. wirtgenii
Wirtgen's bedstraw Introduced
Galium wirtgenii.jpg
Galium wirtgenii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX


Trop.



Images, wsp
 Retz.

Galium mollugo ×
Galium verum

1795. Galium × pomeranicum Retz.
1804. Galium × ochroleucum
Wolf ex Schweigg.
1850. Galium × ambiguum Gren. & Godr.
1903. G. × ochroleucum var. ambiguum
Pale yellow bedstraw Introduced,
N. America native
Galium x pomeranicum eF.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XN


Trop.



Images, wsp
Genus Sherardia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Sherardia
Sherardia Field madder N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Blue field madder,
Blue fieldmadder,
Cultivated field madder
Introduced
Sherardia arvensis Kaldari 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Genus Rubia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Rubia
Rubia Rubia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Rubia tinctoria L. orth. var.
Dyer's madder,
Indian madder,
Madder
Introduced,
Impersistent
Rubia tinctorum 001.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Family Loganiaceae[edit]

The Loganiaceae is a mostly-tropical family with no members that are native to or reported to have naturalized in New York.

Genus Spigelia[edit]

Spigelia marilandica, a native of the southeast, has been propagated in New York and sold in the "native" plant trade. According to the Agriculture Research Service, it is only considered native as far north as southern Indiana and Maryland.

Gentianales – fam. Loganiaceae – genus Spigelia
Spigelia Pinkroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution 0
 (L.) L.

1753. Lonicera marilandica L.
1767. Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink,
Woodland pinkroot
Introduced from
 southern US,
No specimens,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Forb-herb
Indianpink.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0

ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp

Family Gentianaceae[edit]

The Gentianaceae (gentian family).[1][2]

Tribe Chironieae[edit]

Genus Centaurium[edit]

Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Chironieae – genus Centaurium
Centaurium Centaury N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Rafn

European centaury Introduced
Centaurium erythraea 6238.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 (Sw.) Druce

Branched centaury,
Branching centaury-plant
Introduced
CentauriumPulchellum.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
  1. Gentianaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Gentianaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Genus Sabatia[edit]

Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Chironieae – genus Sabatia
Sabatia Rose-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Pursh

S. maculata (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.S. palmeri A.GrayS. purpusii BrandegeeS. simulata Britton
Marsh pink,
Rose of Plymouth,
Sea pink,
Saltmarsh rosegentian
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Marsh Pink, NPSPhoto (9102075924).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 (L.) Pursh

     L.
    Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh
Square-stemmed rose pink,
Rose pink,
Bitterbloom
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Sabatia angularis 001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 (L.) Torr.

    Sabatia gracilis (Michx.) Salisb.
Slender marsh pink,
Slender rose gentian
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Sabatia campanulata BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 (L.) BSP.
var. dodecandra

    Chironia dodecandra L.
    Sabatia chloroides (Michx.) Pursh
Large marsh pink,
Marsh rose gentian
Native,
Extirpated
SabatiaDodecendra 05-07-29.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Tribe Gentianeae[edit]

Subtribe Gentianinae[edit]

Genus Gentiana[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Gentiana
Gentiana Gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Griseb.

Fringe-topped bottle gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana andrewsii NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 Raf.

Bottle gentian,
Closed gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana.clausa NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 Froel.

Narrow-leaved gentian Native,
Vulnerable
Gentiana linearis 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 L.

Soapwort gentian,
Soap gentian,
Harvestbells
Native,
Endangered
Gentiana saponaria 001.jpg
Nymap.svg







Images, wsp
 Pringle

Downy gentian Native,
Likely extirpated
Gentiana puberulenta.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Subtribe Swertia[edit]

Genus Bartonia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Bartonia
Bartonia Screwstem N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Sagina virginica L.
1801. Bartonia tenella Willd.
1888. Bartonia virginica (L.) BSP
1895. Bartonia moseri B.L.Rob.
Yellow screwstem,
Virginia screwstem,
Yellow bartonia

Bartonie de Virginie
Native,
Likely secure
Bartonia virginica BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
ssp. paniculata

Twining screwstem Native,
Endangered
Bartonia paniculata drawing 1.png
Bartonia paniculata ssp paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1






Images, wsp
Genus Frasera[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Frasera
Frasera Green-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

Frasera officinalisFrasera verticillataFrasera walteriSwertia caroliniensis
American columbo,
Yellow gentian,
Carolina gentian
Native,
Threatened
Frasera caroliniensis drawing 1.png
Frasera caroliniensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Genus Gentianella[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Gentianella
Gentianella Dwarf-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Small
ssp. quinquefolia

Agueweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Stiff gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentianella quinquefolia 001.jpg
Gentianella quinquefolia ssp quinquefolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Genus Gentianopsis[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Gentianopsis
Gentianopsis Fringed-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (Froel.) Ma

Greater fringed gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentianopsis crinita NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 (Raf.) Holub

Lesser fringed gentian Native,
Endangered
Gentianopsis virgata BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Genus Halenia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Halenia
Halenia Spurred-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Sm.) Griseb.

Spurred gentian Native,
Endangered
Halenia deflexa NPS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Family Apocynaceae[edit]

The Apocynaceae (dogbane or periwinkle family).[1][2]

Subfamily Rauvolfioideae[edit]

Tribe Vinceae[edit]

A very common New York ground cover, both cultivated and naturalized is Vinca minor, known commonly as periwinkle or myrtle. It is often found in wooded areas were old homesteads once stood and along ditches and stream banks where floodwaters have carried the rhizomes downstream from their previous location.

Subtribe Vincinae[edit]
Genus Vinca[edit]

While Vinca minor is very common outside of cultivation and is considered to be moderately invasive, Vinca major rarely naturalizes in New York State.

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Rauvolfioideae – tribe Vinceae – genus Vinca
Vinca Periwinkle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1753. Vinca minor L.
Lesser periwinkle,
Common periwinkle,
Myrtle,
Running-myrtle

Petite pervenche,
Pervenche mineure
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 57%[3],
CP-3[4]
Vinca minor001.jpg
Vinca minor nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Vinca major L.
Greater periwinkle,
Bigleaf periwinkle,
Large-leaved periwinkle

Grande pervenche
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Rarely naturalizing
Apocynaceae - Vinca major-1.JPG
Vinca major nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp
  1. Apocynaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Apocynaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).
  3. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentVinca minor: Moderate (57).
  4. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)

Tribe Amsonieae[edit]

Genus Amsonia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Rauvolfioideae – tribe Vinceae – genus Amsonia
Amsonia Bluestar N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Walter
var. tabernaemontana

1762. Tabernaemontana amsonia L.
1788. Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter
1894. Amsonia amsonia (L.) Britton
Eastern bluestar,
Texas-star
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var tabernaemontana nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Walter
var. salicifolia (Pursh) Woodson

1814. Amsonia salicifolia Pursh
1838. Ansonia salicifolia (Pursh) Raf.
1928. A. tabernaemontana var. salicifolia
(Pursh) Woodson
Eastern bluestar,
Willowleaf Bluestar
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana0.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var salicifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Woodson

Bluestar,
Ozark bluestar
Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia illustris.jpg
Amsonia illustris nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Subfamily Apocynoideae[edit]

Tribe Apocyneae[edit]

Genus Apocynum[edit]

Apocynum, or dogbane, is generally considered to be a weedy native genus.

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Apocynoideae – tribe Apocyneae – genus Apocynum
Apocynum Dogbane N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Apocynum cannabinum L.
1770. Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.
1789. Apocynum hypericifolium Aiton
1902. Apocynum suksdorfii Greene
1912. Apocynum ithacense Greene
Hemp dogbane,
Clasping-leaved dogbane,
Indian hemp,
American-hemp

Apocyn chanvrin,
Apocyn à feuilles
  de millepertuis
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure
Apocynum cannabinum 6801.JPG
Apocynum cannabinum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

1753. Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
1894. Apocynum pumilum (A.Gray) Greene
1901. Apocynum ambigens Greene
1906. Apocynum scopulorum Greene
Spreading dogbane,
Bitter-root,
Common dogbane,
Creeping dogbane

Apocyn à feuilles
  d'androsème,
Herbe à la puce
Native, CoC: 2,
Secure
Spreading dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium close.jpg
Apocynum androsaemifolium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Greene (pro sp.)

Apocynum androsaemifolium ×
Apocynum cannabinum

1893. Apocynum × floribundum Greene
1897. Apocynum × medium Greene
1901. Apocynum × milleri Britton
1930. Apocynum × jonesii Woodson
Intermediate dogbane,
Jones' dogbane,
Hybrid of
 hemp dogbane &
 spreading dogbane

Apocyn moyen
Native, CoC: x,
Secure
Apocynum × floribundum (as A. medium) BB-1913.png
Apocynum × floribundum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
Can

Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily Periplocoideae[edit]

Genus Periploca[edit]

Silkvine (Periploca graeca) is native to eastern Europe and is listed as invasive in Northeastern Spain. It is capable of rooting vegetatively from small pieces of stem.[1]

Vouchered plant specimens have been collected from Erie and Monroe counties, but it is not thought to have naturalized there.[2] It has also been reported along roadsides in Suffolk County, NY, and Fairfield County, CT, but it is uncertain whether those plants were cultivated or naturalized.[3]

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Periplocoideae – genus Periploca
PeriplocaTourn. ex. L. Silk-vine N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Periploca graeca L.
1820. Periploca graeca Schult.
Silkvine,
Silk vine,
Grecian silkvine

Bourreau des arbres
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Woody vine
Fleurs de Périploque de Grèce.jpg
Periploca graeca nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp

Subfamily Asclepiadoideae[edit]

The New York Flora Atlas includes Asclepias, Cynanchum, and Periploca in Asclepiadaceae. It includes the three Vincetoxicum species as Cynanchum.[1]

Tribe Asclepiadeae[edit]

Subtribe Asclepiadinae[edit]
Genus Asclepias[edit]

The milkweed genus Asclepias is here separated into two clades according to Fishbein, et. al. (2011).[2] Each of these clades contains milkweeds that support monarch butterfly developmemt. In New York, these are:

  • common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
  • swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
  • butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
  • whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)
  • poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) also supports monarchs west of the Mississippi, where it is native, but the benefit of planting it in New York for this purpose could be questioned.

Asclepias clade incarnata/verticillata
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Asclepiadinae – genus Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.
ssp. incarnata

1753. Asclepias incarnata L.
Western swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed,
Rose milkweed

Asclépiade incarnate,
Asclépiade rouge
Native, CoC: 4,
Secure

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
P1000400 Asclepias incarnata (Asclepiadaceae) Flower.JPG
Asclepias incarnata ssp incarnata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson

1798. Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.
1840. Asclepias maritima Raf. non Jacq.
1921. A. incarnata var. neoscotica
1954. A. incarnata var. pulchra
Eastern swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed
Native, CoC: 4,
Vulnerable

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
BB-3389 Asclepias pulchra.png
Asclepias incarnata ssp pulchra nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias verticillata L.
    
    
Whorled milkweed,
Eastern whorled milkweed,
Horsetail milkweed
Native, CoC: 9,
Rare

WL: FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias verticillata (9388551493) 4x3.jpg
Asclepias verticillata nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Asclepias clade syriaca/speciosa
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Asclepiadinae – genus Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.

1762. Asclepias syriaca L.
1840. A. serica Raf.
1844. A. cornuti Decne.
1904. A. kansana Vail
1935. A. syriaca var. kansana
Common milkweed,
Kansas milkweed,
Silkweed,
Virginia silk

Asclépiade commune,
Cochons de lait,
Herbe à coton
Native, CoC: 0,
Secure
Asclepias syriaca sl 2.jpg
Asclepias syriaca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Jacq.

1767. Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq.
1818. A. vanilla Raf.
1840. A. quadrifolia
var. oppositifolia
Fourleaf milkweed,
Four-leaved milkweed,
Whorled milkweed

Asclépiade à quatre feuilles
Native, CoC: 7,
Secure
Asclepias quadrifolia 001.jpg
Asclepias quadrifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias tuberosa L.
1753. Asclepias decumbens L.
    
Butterfly-weed,
Butterfly milkweed,
Orange milkweed,
Pleurisy root

Asclépiade tubéreuse,
Asclépiade de l'intérieur
Native, CoC: 2,
Likely secure
Asclepias tuberosa 002.JPG
Asclepias tuberosa ssp interior nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
Sm.

1797. A. amplexicaulis Sm.
1803. A. obtusifolia Michx.
1832. A. rotundifolia Raf.
1930. A. gladewitzii Farw.
Clasping milkweed,
Blunt-leaved milkweed
Native, CoC: 2,
Likely secure
Asclepias amplexicaulis (19733015086).jpg
Asclepias amplexicaulis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1756. Asclepias exaltata L.
1762. A. syriaca var. exaltata
1788. A. polystachya Walter
1814. A. phytolaccoides
G.F. Lyon ex Pursh
1904. A. bicknellii Vail
Poke milkweed,
Tall milkweed

Asclépiade très grande,
Grande asclépiade
Native, CoC: 6,
Likely secure

WL: FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Asclepias exaltata (7487167116) 4x3.jpg
Asclepias exaltata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
L.

1753. Asclepias purpurascens L.
1753. A. amoena L.
1794. A. compressa Moench
1832. A. dasypus Raf.
1840. A. gonalis Raf.
Purple milkweed,
Eastern purple milkweed

Asclépiade pourprée
Native, CoC: 2,
Threatened,
USFS-CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias purpurascens0.jpg
Asclepias purpurascens nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Raf.

1808. Asclepias viridiflora Raf.
1819. As. lanceolata E.Ives (i)
1824. As. viridiflora var. lanceolata
1829. Acerates viridiflora
(Raf.) Pursh ex Eaton
1841. Acerates lanceolata Steud.
1946. As. viridiflora var. linearis
Green milkweed,
Green comet milkweed,
Short green milkweed,
Green-flowered milkweed

Asclépiade à fleurs vertes
Native, CoC: 10,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]
Asclepias viridiflora - Green Comet Milkweed.jpg
Asclepias viridiflora nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

White milkweed,
Redring milkweed
Native, CoC: 10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Asclepias variegata.jpg
Asclepias variegata nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NEW 


BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias rubra L.
1788. A. cordata Walter (i)
1803. A. laurifolia Michx.
1814. A. acuminata Pursh
1818. A. periplocaefolia Nutt.
1903. A. rubra var. laurifolia
Red milkweed,
Tall pink bog milkweed
Native, CoC: 10,
No recent reports

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Asclepias rubra (9341532801).jpg
Asclepias rubra nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N
NEW-0Can-0
ITIS

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Vail

Asclepias amplexicaulis ×
Asclepias syriaca

1904. Asclepias intermedia Vail
    
    
Intermediate milkweed,
Hybrid of
 clasping milkweed &
 common milkweed
Native,
Unranked
Asclepias amplexicaulis (14329407319).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-?
USDA-NN



BNA


Images, wsp
 Torr.

1827. Asclepias speciosa Torr.
1837. Asclepias douglasii Hook.
1931. Asclepias giffordii Eastw.
Showy milkweed,
Greek milkweed

Belle asclépiade
Introduced from
 w. North America,
N. America native,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa (5258351154).jpg
Asclepias speciosa nymap.svg
NYFA-P
USDA-NN
Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
A. speciosa × syriaca

Asclepias speciosa ×
Asclepias syriaca

Hybrid
 Showy milkweed &
 Common milkweed
Native,
Introduced,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa showy milkweed flowers.jpg
Nymap.svg




BNA


Images, wsp
Note: [4]
Subtribe Cynanchinae[edit]

Many sources, including the New York Flora Atlas still include the Vincetoxicum species in Cynanchum.

Genus Cynanchum[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Cynanchinae – genus Cynanchum
CynanchumL. Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Michx.) Pers.

1803. Gonolobus laevis Michx.
1805. Cynanchum laeve Pers.
1818. Enslenia albida Nutt.
1894. Ampelamus albidus Britton
2001. Ampelamus laevis Krings
Honeyvine,
Smooth swallowwort,
Climbing milkweed

Dompte-venin glabre
Introduced,
US South native
Cynanchum laeve NRCS-1.jpg
Cynanchum laeve nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Subtribe Tylophorinae[edit]
Genus Vincetoxicum[edit]

Vincetoxicum includes the two very highly invasive alien vines black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), also known as dog-strangling vines, which are both well-established in parts of New York State. Aside from their general invasiveness and the subsequent loss of habitat for native plants, these milkweed relatives have been implicated in luring monarch butterflies away from native milkweed as a place to lay eggs. Because only milkweed can supprort monarch larvae, those that hatch from eggs laid on the swallow-wort cannot survive.

As with some other invasive plants, when swallow-wort is first introduced in an area, its rate of spread is fairly slow, so the rate of future spread and the difficulty of controlling it is often underestimated. A phenomenon called the Allee effect is responsible for increasing the growth rate of individual swallow-wort plants as their population increases and the population of competing plants declines, up to a limit of course.[1] The root cause of this effect is not certain, but a likely contributor is allelopathy on the part of the invasive swallow-worts, which both produce the phytotoxin -(-) antofine.

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Tylophorinae
Vincetoxicum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 (L.) Moench

1753. Asclepias nigra L.
1802. Vincetoxicum nigrum Moench
1805. Cynanchum nigrum Pers. nom. illeg.
1991. Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & …
Black swallow-wort,
Black dog-strangling vine,
Climbing poison,
Louise's swallow-wort

Dompte-venin noir,
Cynaque noir,
Cynanche noire
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 90%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Cynanchum louiseae 3800.JPG
Vincetoxicum nigrum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
(Kleopow) Barbar.

1929. Cynanchum rossicum Kleopow
1950. Vincetoxicum rossicum Barbar.
1952. Antitoxicum rossicum Pobed.
auctCynanchum medium non R.Br.
auctVincetoxicum medium non Dcne.
Pale swallow-wort,
European swallow-wort,
Dog-strangling vine (DSV)

Dompte-venin de Russie
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 88%[5],
Prohibited[3],
CP-3[6]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Vincetoxicum rossicum SCA-5116 4x3.jpg
Vincetoxicum rossicum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
 Medik.

1753. Asclepias vincetoxicum L.
1790. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
1794. Vincetoxicum officinale Moench
1805. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L.) Pers.
1883. Vincetoxicum vincetoxicum H.Karst.
1961. Alexitoxicon vincetoxicum H.P.Fuchs
White swallow-wort,
Pale swallow-wort,
White dog-strangling vine,
Poison-rope swallowwort

Dompte-venin officinal
Introduced,
Questionable[7]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Slakine kregzdune1.JPG
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp