Flora of New York/Gentianales

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Ericales
Flora of New York — Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


The order Gentianales...[1]

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Gentianales Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Naucleeae Cephalanthus (button bush) 1 1
Rubioideae Morindeae Mitchella (partridge berry) 1 1
Spermacoceae Diodia (buttonweed)
Houstonia (bluet)
Oldenlandia (clustered bluets)
3 6
Rubieae Rubia (madder)
Sherardia (field-madder)
Asperula (woodruff)
Cruciata (bedstraw)
Galium (bedstraw, wild-licorice, cleavers)
5 29
Loganiaceae Spigelia (Indian pink, pinkroot) 1 1
Gentianaceae Chironieae Centaurium (centaury)
Sabatia (rose gentian, pink)
2 6
Gentianeae Gentianinae Gentiana (gentian) 1 5
Swertiinae Bartonia (screwstem)
Frasera (green-gentian)
Gentianella (dwarf gentian)
Gentianopsis (fringed-gentian)
Halenia (spurred-gentian)
5 7
Apocynaceae[2] Rauvolfioideae Vinceae Vincinae Vinca (periwinkle) 1 2
Amsonieae Amsonia (bluestar) 1 3
Apocynoideae Apocyneae Apocynum (dogbane) 1 3
Periplocoideae Periploca (silk vine) 1 1
Asclepiadoideae Asclepiadeae Asclepiadinae Asclepias (milkweed) 1 12
Cynanchinae Cynanchum (honeyvine) 1 1
Tylophorinae Vincetoxicum (swallow-wort) 1 3

Family Rubiaceae[edit]

The Rubiaceae (coffee or madder family).[1][2]

  1. Rubiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Rubiaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Subfamily Cinchonoideae[edit]

Tribe Naucleeae[edit]

Genus Cephalanthus[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Cinchonoideae – tribe Naucleeae – genus Cephalanthus
Cephalanthus Buttonbush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Cephalanthus occidentalis  L.
1828. C. occidentalis var. pubescens
1849. C. occidentalis var. californicus
1917. C. berlandieri  Wernham
Buttonbush,
Common buttonbush,
Eastern buttonbush,
Button willow,
Honey bells

Céphalanthe occidental,
Céphalante occidental,
Bois-bouton,
Bois-noir
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7

WL: OBL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub
Cephalanthus occidentalis-Buttonbush.jpg
Cephalanthus occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.


Images, wsp

Subfamily Rubioideae[edit]

Tribe Morindeae[edit]

Genus Mitchella[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Morindeae – genus Mitchella
Mitchella Mitchella N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Mitchella repens  L.
1862. Perdicesca repens  (L.) Prov.
Partridgeberry,
Partridge-berry,
Two-eyed berry,
Twinberry,
Squaw vine

Pain-de-perdrix
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 6

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade - shade
Mitchella repens 2004.JPG
Mitchella repens nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 
LBJ 
Images, wsp

Tribe Spermacoceae[edit]

Genus Diodia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae – genus Diodia
Diodia Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Walter

1788. Diodia teres  Walter
1913. Diodella teres  (Walter) Small
2014. Hexasepalum teres
   (Walter) J.H.Kirkbr.
Rough buttonweed,
Buttonweed,
Poorjoe
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 0

WL: FACU-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Diodia teres.jpg
Diodia teres var teres NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 


LBJ 
Images, wsp
Genus Houstonia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae – genus Houstonia
Houstonia Bluet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.
Azure bluet Native,
Secure
Bluets (Houstonia caerulea) Hedyotis caerulea.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5

ITIS



Images, wsp
 Gaertn.
Longleaf bluet,
Longleaf summer bluet,
Houstonie à longues feuilles
Native,
Secure
Houstonia longifolia BB-1913-1.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngHoustonia longifolia BB-1913-2.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS



Images, wsp
 L.
var. calycosa A.Gray

Hedyotis purpurea var. calycosa
Houstonia calycosa
Purple bluet,
Venus' pride
Native,
Endangered
Houstonia purpurea - Venus Pride.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngHoustonia purpurea L. Venus' pride.tiff
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z1
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
 L.
var. purpurea

Hedyotis purpurea
Purple bluet Native,
Endangered
Hedyotis purpurea montana.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z





Images, wsp
Genus Oldenlandia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Spermacoceae – genus Oldenlandia
Oldenlandia Oldenlandia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Clustered bluets,
Clustered mille graines
Native,
Endangered
Oldenlandia uniflora BB-1913.png
Oldenlandia uniflora NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Tribe Rubieae[edit]

Genus Asperula[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Asperula
Asperula Woodruff N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
Blue woodruff Introduced
Asperula arvensis0.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X





Images, wsp
Genus Cruciata[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Cruciata
Cruciata Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
 (Bellardi) Ehrend.

1789. Galium pedemontanum  (Bellardi) All.
1788. Vaillantia pedemontana  Bellardi
1961. Cruciata pedemontana  (Bellardi) Ehrend.
Piedmont bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Piedmont Crosswort
Introduced
Cruciata pedemontana sl2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-


Trop.


Images, wsp
 Opiz

1771. Galium cruciata  (L.) Scop.
1852. Cruciata laevipes  Opiz
1958. Cruciata chersonensis  Ehrend.
Smooth bedstraw Introduced
20140507Cruciata laevipes3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0


Trop.


Images, wsp
Genus Galium[edit]

There are about 24 species of Galium or bedstraw in New York State.[1] [2]

Galium sect. Platygalium[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Platygalium
Galiumsect. Platygalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

1753. Galium boreale  L.
1800. G. hyssopifolium  Hoffm.
1818. G. septentrionale  Roem.& Schult.
1819. G. strictum  Torr.
1830. G. boreale var. hyssopifolium
1830. G. boreale var. intermedium
Northern bedstraw,
Boreal bedstraw,
Crosswort

Gaillet boréal
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 6
Galium boreale 01.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA 
IPN 
Images, wsp
 (Torr.) Torr.

1819. G. circaezans var. lanceolatum
1824. G. lanceolatum  (Torr.) Torr.
Lanceleaf wild licorice,
Lanceleaf licorice bedstraw,
Torrey's wild licorice,
Spear wild licorice

Gaillet lancéolé
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7
Galium lanceolatum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Michx.
var. circaezans

     G. bermudense
     G. circaeoides
     G. rotundifolium var. circaezans
Licorice bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7
Galium circaezans var circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Note: IWF
 Michx.
var. hypomalacum
Licorice bedstraw,
Forest bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native,
Vulnerable,
CoC: 7
Galium circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. pilosum
Hairy bedstraw Native,
Likely secure,
CoC: 6
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. puncticulosum
(Michx.) Torr. & A.Gray

1788. Galium purpureum  Walter
1791. Galium walteri  J.F.Gmel.
1803. Galium puncticulosum  Michx.
1805. Galium punctatum  Pers.
1841. Galium pilosum
   var.
puncticulosum Torr.& A.Gray
Hairy bedstraw Native,
No records
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-N0
NEW 

Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Steller ex Schult. & Schult.f
Boreal bedstraw Native,
Endangered,
CoC: 10?
Galium kamtschaticum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Torrey & A.Gray
Shining bedstraw Native,
Endangered,
CoC: 10?,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Galium concinnum - Shining Bedstraw.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW-0


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Galium sect. Aparinoides[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Aparinoides
Galiumsect. Aparinoides Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.
Rough bedstraw,
Kidney-vine,
Pointed cleavers
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 6
Galium asprellum.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium asprellum drawing.png
Galium asprellum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.
Common marsh bedstraw,
Marsh bedstraw
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 3
Galium.palustre.-.lindsey.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.
Stiff marsh bedstraw,
Stiff three-petal bedstraw
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 5
Galium tinctorium NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium tinctorium BB-1913-1.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. trifidum

     G. brandegeei  A.Gray p.p.
Three-petal bedstraw Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7
Galium trifidum 4.JPG
Galium trifidum ssp trifidum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Bigelow 1824
ssp. obtusum

     G. trifidum var. latifolium  Torr.
     G. obtusum var. ramosum  Gleason
Bluntleaf bedstraw,
Blunt-leaved bedstraw
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7
Galium obtusum NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ITIS

NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
(Wieg.) Wieg.

     G. tinctorium var. labradoricum
Bog bedstraw,
Northern bog bedstraw
Native,
Likely secure,
CoC: 8
Galium labradoricum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Fernald & Wiegand

     G. trifidum ssp. brevipes
Limestone swamp bedstraw Native,
Likely extirpated,
CoC: 10?
Galium brevipes BB-1913.png
Galium brevipes NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Galium sect. Kolgyda[edit]

Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium aparine as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.

Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Kolgyda
Galiumsect. Kolgyda Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L. 1753
Catchweed bedstraw,
Cleavers,
Stickywilly,
Scratch bedstraw
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 0
Galium aparine 2004-04-07.jpg
Galium aparine NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NX?
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Dandy

Galium tricorne Stokes p.p.
Rough-fruited corn bedstraw,
Roughfruit corn bedstraw
Introduced
Galium tricornutum - Flora batava 1893.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngNsr-slika-276.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX



NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Galium sect. Hylaea[edit]

Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium triflorum as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.

Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Hylaea
Galiumsect. Hylaea Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.

1803. Galium triflorum  Michx.
1803. Galium jalapense  Schltdl.
1935. Galium triflorum
   var.
asprelliforme Fernald
Three-flowered bedstraw,
Fragrant bedstraw,
Sweet-scented bedstraw

Gaillet à trois fleurs,
Gaillet odorant
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7

WL: FACU

Perennial,
Herb-vine
Galium triflorum 0807042 4x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 (L.) Scop.

Asperula odorata
Sweet bedstraw,
Sweetscented bedstraw,
Sweet woodruff
Introduced,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 48%[1]
Woodruff1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Galium sect. Leiogalium[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Leiogalium
Galiumsect. Leiogalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

1753. Galium mollugo  L.
1762. Galium erectum  Huds.
1768. Galium album  Mill.
     Galium mollugo ssp. erectum Briq.
     Galium mollugo var. erectum Domin
     Galium album var. erectum Domin
White bedstraw,
Smooth bedstraw,
False baby's-breath,
Wild madder,
Whorled bedstraw

Gaillet mollugine,
Caille-lait blanc
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
IO,
NE-3[1]
20140929Galium mollugo1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA 
IPN 
Images, wsp
 L.

1762. Galium sylvaticum  L.
Scotch-mist,
Wood bedstraw,
Baby's breath

Gaillet des bois,
Gaillet des forêts
Introduced
Galium sylvaticum (Wald-Labkraut) IMG 3333.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngGalium sylvatica kz1.jpg
Galium sylvaticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.

1762. Galium aristatum  L.
Awned bedstraw Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
Galium aristatum flowering plant 001 4x3.jpg
Galium aristatum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-
NEW-0
ITIS

BNA 
IPN 
Images, wsp
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Galium sect. Galium[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Galiumsect. Galium
Galiumsect. Galium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.
ssp. verum

G. verum var. verum
Lady's bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Yellow spring bedstraw
Introduced
CublesuSJ2012 (91).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. wirtgenii

G. verum var. wirtgenii
G. wirtgenii
Wirtgen's bedstraw Introduced
Galium wirtgenii.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 Retz.

Galium mollugo ×
Galium verum

1795. Galium × pomeranicum  Retz.
1804. Galium × ochroleucum  Wolf ex Schweigg.
1850. Galium × ambiguum  Gren. & Godr.
1903. G. × ochroleucum var. ambiguum Rouy
Pale yellow bedstraw Introduced,
N. America native
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XN


Trop.


Images, wsp
Genus Sherardia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Sherardia
Sherardia Field madder N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.
Blue field madder,
Blue fieldmadder,
Cultivated field madder
Introduced
Sherardia arvensis Kaldari 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
Genus Rubia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Rubiaceae – subfam. Rubioideae – tribe Rubieae – genus Rubia
Rubia Rubia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Rubia tinctoria L. orth. var.
Dyer's madder,
Indian madder,
Madder
Introduced,
Impersistent
Rubia tinctorum 001.JPGImg spacer 2x87.pngRubia tinctorum 002.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0





Images, wsp

Family Loganiaceae[edit]

The Loganiaceae is a mostly-tropical family with no members that are native to or reported to have naturalized in New York.

Genus Spigelia[edit]

Spigelia marilandica, a native of the southeast, has been propagated in New York and sold in the "native" plant trade. According to the Agriculture Research Service, it is only considered native as far north as southern Indiana and Maryland.

Gentianales – fam. Loganiaceae – genus Spigelia
Spigelia Pinkroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution 0
 (L.) L.

1753. Lonicera marilandica  L.
1767. Spigelia marilandica  (L.) L.
Indian pink,
Woodland pinkroot
Introduced from
 southern US,
No specimens,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Forb-herb
Indianpink.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0

ARS 

NSE BNA 

Images, wsp

Family Gentianaceae[edit]

The Gentianaceae (gentian family).[1][2]

Tribe Chironieae[edit]

Genus Centaurium[edit]

Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Chironieae – genus Centaurium
Centaurium Centaury N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Rafn
European centaury Introduced
Centaurium erythraea 6238.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
 (Sw.) Druce
Branched centaury,
Branching centaury-plant
Introduced
CentauriumPulchellum.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp
  1. Gentianaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Gentianaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Genus Sabatia[edit]

Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Chironieae – genus Sabatia
Sabatia Rose-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Pursh

S. maculata (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.
S. palmeri A.Gray
S. purpusii Brandegee
S. simulata Britton
Marsh pink,
Rose of Plymouth,
Sea pink,
Saltmarsh rosegentian
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Marsh pink full.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
 (L.) Pursh

      L.
     Sabatia angularis  (L.) Pursh
Square-stemmed rose pink,
Rose pink,
Bitterbloom
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Sabatia angularis 001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 (L.) Torr.

     Sabatia gracilis  (Michx.) Salisb.
Slender marsh pink,
Slender rose gentian
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Sabatia campanulata BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
 (L.) BSP.
var. dodecandra

     Chironia dodecandra  L.
     Sabatia chloroides  (Michx.) Pursh
Large marsh pink,
Marsh rose gentian
Native,
Extirpated
SabatiaDodecendra 05-07-29.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngSabatia dodecandra BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Tribe Gentianeae[edit]

Subtribe Gentianinae[edit]

Genus Gentiana[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Gentiana
Gentiana Gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Griseb.
Fringe-topped bottle gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana andrewsii NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 Raf.
Bottle gentian,
Closed gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana.clausa NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 Froel.
Narrow-leaved gentian Native,
Vulnerable
Gentiana linearis 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 L.
Soapwort gentian,
Soap gentian,
Harvestbells
Native,
Endangered
Gentiana saponaria 001.jpg
Nymap.svg






Images, wsp
 Pringle
Downy gentian Native,
Likely extirpated
Gentiana puberulenta.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN





Images, wsp

Subtribe Swertia[edit]

Genus Bartonia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Bartonia
Bartonia Screwstem N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Sagina virginica  L.
1801. Bartonia tenella  Willd.
1888. Bartonia virginica  (L.) BSP
1895. Bartonia moseri  B.L.Rob.
Yellow screwstem,
Virginia screwstem,
Yellow bartonia

Bartonie de Virginie
Native,
Likely secure
Bartonia virginica BB-1913.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngBartonia virginica tip 2x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.

IPN 
Images, wsp
ssp. paniculata
Twining screwstem Native,
Endangered
Bartonia paniculata drawing 1.png
Bartonia paniculata ssp paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1





Images, wsp
Genus Frasera[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Frasera
Frasera Green-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

Frasera officinalis
Frasera verticillata
Frasera walteri
Swertia caroliniensis
American columbo,
Yellow gentian,
Carolina gentian
Native,
Threatened
Frasera caroliniensis drawing 1.png
Frasera caroliniensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Genus Gentianella[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Gentianella
Gentianella Dwarf-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Small
ssp. quinquefolia
Agueweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Stiff gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentianella quinquefolia 001.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngGentianella quinquefolia BB-1913.png
Gentianella quinquefolia ssp quinquefolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Genus Gentianopsis[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Gentianopsis
Gentianopsis Fringed-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (Froel.) Ma
Greater fringed gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentianopsis crinita NRCS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngGentiana crinita.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 (Raf.) Holub
Lesser fringed gentian Native,
Endangered
Gentianopsis virgata BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Genus Halenia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Gentianaceae – tribe Gentianeae – genus Halenia
Halenia Spurred-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Sm.) Griseb.
Spurred gentian Native,
Endangered
Halenia deflexa NPS-1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngHalenia deflexa-linedrawing.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN





Images, wsp

Family Apocynaceae[edit]

The Apocynaceae (dogbane or periwinkle family).[1][2]

Subfamily Rauvolfioideae[edit]

Tribe Vinceae[edit]

A very common New York ground cover, both cultivated and naturalized is Vinca minor, known commonly as periwinkle or myrtle. It is often found in wooded areas were old homesteads once stood and along ditches and stream banks where floodwaters have carried the rhizomes downstream from their previous location.

Subtribe Vincinae[edit]
Genus Vinca[edit]

While Vinca minor is very common outside of cultivation and is considered to be moderately invasive, Vinca major rarely naturalizes in New York State.

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Rauvolfioideae – tribe Vinceae – genus Vinca
Vinca Periwinkle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1753. Vinca minor  L.
Lesser periwinkle,
Common periwinkle,
Myrtle,
Running-myrtle

Petite pervenche,
Pervenche mineure
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 57%[3],
CP-3[4]
Vinca minor001.jpg
Vinca minor nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 



Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Vinca major  L.
Greater periwinkle,
Bigleaf periwinkle,
Large-leaved periwinkle

Grande pervenche
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Rarely naturalizing
Apocynaceae - Vinca major-1.JPG
Vinca major nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
  1. Apocynaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Apocynaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).
  3. New York non-native plant invasiveness assessmentVinca minor: Moderate (57).
  4. Appendix 3. Plant species that are considered moderately to highly invasive to natural areas in the central Finger Lakes region. Policy on the use of non-native plants in Cornell Plantations' accessioned collections (2009)

Tribe Amsonieae[edit]

Genus Amsonia[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Rauvolfioideae – tribe Vinceae – genus Amsonia
Amsonia Bluestar N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Walter
var. tabernaemontana

1762. Tabernaemontana amsonia  L.
1788. Amsonia tabernaemontana  Walter
1894. Amsonia amsonia  (L.) Britton
Eastern bluestar,
Texas-star
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var tabernaemontana nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Walter
var. salicifolia (Pursh) Woodson

1814. Amsonia salicifolia  Pursh
1838. Ansonia salicifolia  (Pursh) Raf.
1928. A. tabernaemontana var. salicifolia (i)
Eastern bluestar,
Willowleaf Bluestar
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana0.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var salicifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 Woodson
Bluestar,
Ozark bluestar
Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia illustris.jpg
Amsonia illustris nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Subfamily Apocynoideae[edit]

Tribe Apocyneae[edit]

Genus Apocynum[edit]

Apocynum, or dogbane, is generally considered to be a weedy native genus.

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Apocynoideae – tribe Apocyneae – genus Apocynum
Apocynum Dogbane N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Apocynum cannabinum  L.
1770. Apocynum sibiricum  Jacq.
1789. Apocynum hypericifolium  Aiton
1902. Apocynum suksdorfii  Greene
1912. Apocynum ithacense  Greene
Hemp dogbane,
Clasping-leaved dogbane,
Indian hemp,
American-hemp

Apocyn chanvrin,
Apocyn à feuilles
  de millepertuis
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 2
Apocynum cannabinum 6801.JPG
Apocynum cannabinum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp

1753. Apocynum androsaemifolium  L.
1894. Apocynum pumilum  (A.Gray) Greene
1901. Apocynum ambigens  Greene
1906. Apocynum scopulorum  Greene
Spreading dogbane,
Bitter-root,
Common dogbane,
Creeping dogbane

Apocyn à feuilles
  d'androsème,
Herbe à la puce
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 2
Spreading dogbane Apocynum androsaemifolium close.jpg
Apocynum androsaemifolium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
Greene (pro sp.)

Apocynum androsaemifolium ×
Apocynum cannabinum

1893. Apocynum × floribundum  Greene
1897. Apocynum × medium  Greene
1901. Apocynum × milleri  Britton
1930. Apocynum × jonesii  Woodson
Intermediate dogbane,
Jones' dogbane,
Hybrid of
 hemp dogbane &
 spreading dogbane

Apocyn moyen
Native,
Secure,
CoC: x
Apocynum × floribundum (as A. medium) BB-1913.png
Apocynum × floribundum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
Can

Trop.


Images, wsp

Subfamily Periplocoideae[edit]

Genus Periploca[edit]

Silkvine (Periploca graeca) is native to Eastern Europe and has been reported to have naturalized in Erie and Monroe counties. The plant is invasive in Northeastern Spain. It is capable of rooting vegetatively from small pieces of stem.[1]

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Periplocoideae – genus Periploca
PeriplocaTourn. ex. L. Silk-vine N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Periploca graeca  L.
1820. Periploca graeca  Schult.
Silkvine,
Silk vine,
Grecian silkvine

Bourreau des arbres
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Woody vine
Fleurs de Périploque de Grèce.jpg
Periploca graeca nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA 
IPN 
Images, wsp

Subfamily Asclepiadoideae[edit]

The New York Flora Atlas includes Asclepias, Cynanchum, and Periploca in Asclepiadaceae. It includes the three Vincetoxicum species as Cynanchum.[1]

Tribe Asclepiadeae[edit]

Subtribe Asclepiadinae[edit]
Genus Asclepias[edit]

The milkweed genus Asclepias is here separated into two clades according to Fishbein, et. al. (2011).[2] Each of these clades contains milkweeds that support monarch butterfly developmemt. In New York, these are:

  • common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
  • swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
  • butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
  • whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)
  • poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) also supports monarchs west of the Mississippi, where it is native, but the benefit of planting it in New York for this purpose could be questioned.

Asclepias clade incarnata/verticillata
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Asclepiadinae – genus Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.
ssp. incarnata

1753. Asclepias incarnata  L.
Western swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed,
Rose milkweed

Asclépiade incarnate,
Asclépiade rouge
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 4
P1000400 Asclepias incarnata (Asclepiadaceae) Flower.JPG
Asclepias incarnata ssp incarnata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson

1798. Asclepias pulchra  Ehrh. ex Willd.
1840. Asclepias maritima  Raf. non Jacq.
1921. A. incarnata var. neoscotica
1954. A. incarnata var. pulchra
Eastern swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed
Native,
Vulnerable,
CoC: 4
BB-3389 Asclepias pulchra.png
Asclepias incarnata ssp pulchra nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0
NEW 

Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias verticillata  L.
    
    
Whorled milkweed,
Eastern whorled milkweed,
Horsetail milkweed
Native,
Rare,
CoC: 9
Asclepias verticillata (9388551493) 4x3.jpg
Asclepias verticillata nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
Asclepias clade syriaca/speciosa
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Asclepiadinae – genus Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.

1762. Asclepias syriaca  L.
1840. Asclepias serica  Raf.
1844. Asclepias cornuti  Decne.
1904. Asclepias kansana  Vail
1935. Asclepias syriaca var. kansana
Common milkweed,
Kansas milkweed,
Silkweed,
Virginia silk

Asclépiade commune,
Cochons de lait,
Herbe à coton
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 0
Asclepias syriaca sl 2.jpg
Asclepias syriaca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 Jacq.

1767. Asclepias quadrifolia  Jacq.
1818. Asclepias vanilla  Raf.
1840. Asclepias quadrifolia
   var.
oppositifolia Raf.
Fourleaf milkweed,
Four-leaved milkweed,
Whorled milkweed

Asclépiade à quatre feuilles
Native,
Secure,
CoC: 7
Asclepias quadrifolia 001.jpg
Asclepias quadrifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias tuberosa  L.
1753. Asclepias decumbens  L.
    
Butterfly-weed,
Butterfly milkweed,
Orange milkweed,
Pleurisy root

Asclépiade tubéreuse,
Asclépiade de l'intérieur
Native,
Likely secure,
CoC: 2
Asclepias tuberosa 002.JPG
Asclepias tuberosa ssp interior nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA 

Images, wsp
Sm.

1797. Asclepias amplexicaulis  Sm.
1803. Asclepias obtusifolia  Michx.
1832. Asclepias rotundifolia  Raf.
1930. Asclepias gladewitzii  Farw.
Clasping milkweed,
Blunt-leaved milkweed
Native,
Likely secure,
CoC: 2
Asclepias amplexicaulis (19733015086).jpg
Asclepias amplexicaulis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.

1756. Asclepias exaltata  L.
     Asclepias bicknellii
     Asclepias phytolaccoides
Poke milkweed,
Tall milkweed

Asclépiade très grande,
Grande asclépiade
Native,
Likely secure,
CoC: 6
Asclepias exaltata (7487167116) 4x3.jpg
Asclepias exaltata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA 

Images, wsp
Purple milkweed,
Eastern purple milkweed
Native,
Threatened,
USFS-CA,
CoC: 2,
NYNHP: 2[1]

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias purpurascens0.jpg
Asclepias purpurascens nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp
Green comet milkweed,
Short green milkweed,
Green-flowered milkweed,
Green milkweed

Asclépiade à fleurs vertes
Native,
Threatened,
CoC: 10
Asclepias viridiflora NPS-1.jpg
Asclepias viridiflora nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 

BNA 

Images, wsp
White milkweed,
Redring milkweed
Native,
Endangered,
CoC: 10,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Asclepias variegata.jpg
Asclepias variegata nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NEW 


BNA 

Images, wsp

Asclepias laurifolia
Red milkweed Native,
No recent reports,
CoC: 10
Asclepias rubra (9341530955).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngAsclepias rubra (9341532801).jpg
Asclepias rubra nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N



BNA 

Images, wsp
Vail

Asclepias amplexicaulis ×
Asclepias syriaca

1904. Asclepias intermedia  Vail
    
    
Intermediate milkweed,
Hybrid of
 clasping milkweed &
 common milkweed
Native,
Unranked
Asclepias amplexicaulis (14329407319).jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngAsclepias syriaca sl 3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-?
USDA-NN



BNA 

Images, wsp
 Torr.

1827. Asclepias speciosa  Torr.
1837. Asclepias douglasii  Hook.
1931. Asclepias giffordii  Eastw.
Showy milkweed,
Greek milkweed

Belle asclépiade
Introduced from
 w. North America,
N. America native
Asclepias speciosa (5258351154).jpg
Asclepias speciosa nymap.svg
NYFA-P
USDA-NN
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
Asclepias speciosa × syriaca[3]

Asclepias speciosa ×
Asclepias syriaca
Hybrid
 Showy milkweed &
 Common milkweed
Native,
Introduced,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa showy milkweed flowers.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngAsclepias syriaca sl 3.jpg
Nymap.svg




BNA 

Images, wsp
Subtribe Cynanchinae[edit]

Many sources, including the New York Flora Atlas still include the Vincetoxicum species in Cynanchum.

Genus Cynanchum[edit]
Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Cynanchinae – genus Cynanchum
CynanchumL. Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Michx.) Pers.

1803. Gonolobus laevis  Michx.
1805. Cynanchum laeve  Pers.
1818. Enslenia albida  Nutt.
1894. Ampelamus albidus  Britton
2001. Ampelamus laevis  Krings
Honeyvine,
Smooth swallowwort,
Climbing milkweed

Dompte-venin glabre
Introduced,
US South native
Cynanchum laeve NRCS-1.jpg
Cynanchum laeve nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp
Subtribe Tylophorinae[edit]
Genus Vincetoxicum[edit]

Vincetoxicum includes the two very highly invasive alien vines black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), also known as dog-strangling vines, which are both well-established in parts of New York State. Aside from their general invasiveness and the subsequent loss of habitat for native plants, these milkweed relatives have been implicated in luring monarch butterflies away from native milkweed as a place to lay eggs. Because only milkweed can supprort monarch larvae, those that hatch from eggs laid on the swallow-wort cannot survive.

As with some other invasive plants, when swallow-wort is first introduced in an area, its rate of spread is fairly slow, so the rate of future spread and the difficulty of controlling it is often underestimated. A phenomenon called the Allee effect is responsible for increasing the growth rate of individual swallow-wort plants as their population increases and the population of competing plants declines, up to a limit of course.[1] The root cause of this effect is not certain, but a likely contributor is allelopathy on the part of the invasive swallow-worts, which both produce the phytotoxin -(-) antofine.

Gentianales – fam. Apocynaceae – subfam. Asclepiadoideae – tribe Asclepiadeae – subtr. Tylophorinae
Vincetoxicum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 (L.) Moench

1753. Asclepias nigra  L.
1802. Vincetoxicum nigrum  Moench
1805. Cynanchum nigrum  Pers. nom. illeg.
1991. Cynanchum louiseae  Kartesz & …
Black swallow-wort,
Black dog-strangling vine,
Climbing poison,
Louise's swallow-wort

Dompte-venin noir,
Cynaque noir,
Cynanche noire
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 90%[2],
Prohibited[3],
CP-2[4]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Cynanchum louiseae 3800.JPG
Vincetoxicum nigrum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA 

Images, wsp
(Kleopow) Barbar.

1929. Cynanchum rossicum  Kleopow
1950. Vincetoxicum rossicum  Barbar.
1952. Antitoxicum rossicum  Pobed.
auct. Cynanchum medium  non R.Br.
auct. Vincetoxicum medium  non Dcne.
Pale swallow-wort,
European swallow-wort,
Dog-strangling vine (DSV)

Dompte-venin de Russie
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 88%[5],
Prohibited[3],
CP-3[6]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Vincetoxicum rossicum SCA-5116 4x3.jpg
Vincetoxicum rossicum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA 

Images, wsp
 Medik.

1753. Asclepias vincetoxicum  L.
1790. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria  Medik.
1794. Vincetoxicum officinale  Moench
1805. Cynanchum vincetoxicum  (L.) Pers.
1883. Vincetoxicum vincetoxicum  H.Karst.
1961. Alexitoxicon vincetoxicum  H.P.Fuchs
White swallow-wort,
Pale swallow-wort,
White dog-strangling vine,
Poison-rope swallowwort

Dompte-venin officinal
Introduced,
Questionable[7]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Slakine kregzdune1.JPG
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA 

Images, wsp