Flora of New York/Gentianales

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Ericales
Flora of New York — Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Contents

Order Garryales[edit]

The order Garryales...[1]

Family Eucommiaceae[edit]

The Eucommiaceae (hard rubber tree family) contains a single living species.[1]
  1. Eucommiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Eucommia[edit]

Although a number of extinct Eucommia species were native to North America, the only living species, Eucommia ulmoides, is native to central China but has been planted worldwide. It is known for being a very cold-tolerant rubber-producing tree. It has been reported as naturalized in Indiana and Ohio, but not in New York State.[1]
Garryales — Eucommiaceae — Eucommia
Eucommia hard rubber tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

1890. Eucommia ulmoides Oliv.
Hardy rubber tree
Hard rubber tree
Chinese rubber tree
Gutta-percha tree

Introduced,
Not naturalized

Deciduous,
Tree
Eucommia ulmoides - San Francisco Botanical Garden - DSC09825.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm



BNA

Red 
Images, wsp

Order Gentianales[edit]

The order Gentianales...[1]
Order Family Subfamily Tribe Subtribe Genera G T
Gentianales Rubiaceae Cinchonoideae Naucleeae Cephalanthus (button bush) 1 1
Rubioideae Morindeae Mitchella (partridge berry) 1 1
Spermacoceae Diodia (buttonweed)
Houstonia (bluet)
Oldenlandia (clustered bluets)
3 6
Rubieae Rubia (madder)
Sherardia (field-madder)
Asperula (woodruff)
Cruciata (bedstraw)
Galium (bedstraw, wild-licorice, cleavers)
5 29
Loganiaceae Spigelia (Indian pink, pinkroot) 1 1
Gentianaceae Chironieae Centaurium (centaury)
Sabatia (rose gentian, pink)
2 6
Gentianeae Gentianinae Gentiana (gentian) 1 5
Swertiinae Bartonia (screwstem)
Frasera (green-gentian)
Gentianella (dwarf gentian)
Gentianopsis (fringed-gentian)
Halenia (spurred-gentian)
5 7
Apocynaceae Rauvolfioideae Vinceae Vincinae Vinca (periwinkle) 1 2
Amsonieae Amsonia (bluestar) 1 3
Apocynoideae Apocyneae Apocynum (dogbane) 1 3
Periplocoideae Periploca (silk vine) 1 1
Asclepiadoideae Asclepiadeae Asclepiadinae Asclepias (milkweed) 1 12
Cynanchinae Cynanchum (honeyvine) 1 1
Tylophorinae Vincetoxicum (swallow-wort) 1 3

Family Rubiaceae[edit]

The Rubiaceae (coffee or madder family).[1][2]
  1. Rubiaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Rubiaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).

Subfamily Cinchonoideae[edit]

Tribe Naucleeae[edit]

Cephalanthus[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Cinchonoideae — Naucleeae — Cephalanthus
Cephalanthus Buttonbush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Cephalanthus occidentalis L.
1828. C. occidentalis var. pubescens
1849. C. occidentalis var. californicus
1917. C. berlandieri Wernham
Buttonbush,
Common buttonbush,
Eastern buttonbush,
Button willow,
Honey bells
Céphalanthe occidental,
Céphalante occidental,
Bois-bouton,
Bois-noir
Native, C:7,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Tree, shrub,
Sun - part shade
Cephalanthus occidentalis-Buttonbush.jpg
Cephalanthus occidentalis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.

LBJ

Images, wsp

Subfamily Rubioideae[edit]

Tribe Morindeae[edit]

Mitchella[edit]
Mitchella repens L.
partridgeberry
Mitchella consists of just two species, one from eastern Asia and the other, Mitchella repens (partridgeberry), is native to eastern North America.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Morindeae — Mitchella
Mitchella Mitchella N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Mitchella repens L.
1862. Perdicesca repens (L.) Prov.
Partridgeberry,
Partridge-berry,
Two-eyed berry,
Twinberry,
Squaw vine
Pain-de-perdrix
Native, C:6,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Part shade - shade
Mitchella repens kz1.jpg
Mitchella repens nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

Tribe Spermacoceae[edit]

Diodia[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Diodia
Diodia Buttonweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Walter

1788. Diodia teres Walter
1913. Diodella teres (Walter) Small
2014. Hexasepalum teres
(Walter) J.H.Kirkbr.
Rough buttonweed,
Buttonweed,
Poorjoe
Native, C:0,
Secure

FACU-UPL

Annual,
Herb-forb
Diodia teres.jpg
Diodia teres var teres NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 


LBJ

Images, wsp
Houstonia[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Houstonia
Houstonia Bluet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 L.

Azure bluet Native,
Secure
Houstonia caerulea - Azure Bluet.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
 Gaertn.

Longleaf bluet,
Longleaf summer bluet,
Houstonie à longues feuilles
Native,
Secure
Houstonia longifolia - Long Leaf Bluet 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ITIS




Images, wsp
 L.
var. calycosa A.Gray

1813. Hedyotis lanceolata Poir.
1830. Anotis lanceolata (Poir.) DC.
1884. Houstonia purpurea var. calycosa
1901. Houstonia calycosa (A. Gray) C. Mohr
1901. Houstonia lanceolata (Poir.) Britton
1954. Hedyotis purpurea var. calycosa
Midwestern purple bluet,
Purple bluet,
Venus' pride
Native,
Endangered
Houstonia purpurea - Venus Pride.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z1
USDA-N0

ITIS
Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.
var. purpurea

Hedyotis purpurea
Purple bluet Native,
Endangered
The botanical cabinet (No 1621) (8613661466).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z






Images, wsp
Oldenlandia[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Spermacoceae — Oldenlandia
Oldenlandia Oldenlandia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Clustered bluets,
Clustered mille graines
Native,
Endangered
Oldenlandia uniflora BB-1913.png
Oldenlandia uniflora NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Tribe Rubieae[edit]

Galium[edit]
There are about 24 species of Galium or bedstraw in New York State.[1][2]
Galium sect. Platygalium[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Platygalium
Galiumsect. Platygalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.

1753. Galium boreale L.
1800. G. hyssopifolium Hoffm.
1818. G. septentrionale Roem.& Schult.
1819. G. strictum Torr.
1830. G. boreale var. hyssopifolium
1830. G. boreale var. intermedium
Northern bedstraw,
Boreal bedstraw,
Crosswort
Gaillet boréal
Native, C:6,
Secure
Galium boreale - Katarina nad Ljubljano 1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
 (Torr.) Torr.

1819. G. circaezans var. lanceolatum
1824. G. lanceolatum (Torr.) Torr.
Lanceleaf wild licorice,
Lanceleaf licorice bedstraw,
Torrey's wild licorice,
Spear wild licorice
Gaillet lancéolé
Native, C:7,
Secure
Galium lanceolatum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Michx.
var. circaezans

    G. bermudense
    G. circaeoides
    G. rotundifolium var. circaezans
Licorice bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, C:7,
Secure
Galium circaezans var circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Note: IWF
 Michx.
var. hypomalacum

Licorice bedstraw,
Forest bedstraw,
Wild licorice
Native, C:7,
Vulnerable
Galium circaezans drawing.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. pilosum

Hairy bedstraw Native, C:6,
Likely secure
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Aiton
ssp. puncticulosum
(Michx.) Torr. & A.Gray

1788. Galium purpureum Walter
1791. Galium walteri J.F.Gmel.
1803. Galium puncticulosum Michx.
1805. Galium punctatum Pers.
1841. Galium pilosum
var. puncticulosum Torr.& A.Gray
Hairy bedstraw Native,
No records
Galium pilosum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-D
USDA-N0
NEW 

Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Steller ex Schult. & Schult.f

Boreal bedstraw Native, C:10?,
Endangered
Galium kamtschaticum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Torrey & A.Gray

Shining bedstraw Native, C:10?,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Galium concinnum - Shining Bedstraw.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW-0


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Aparinoides[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Aparinoides
Galiumsect. Aparinoides Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.

Rough bedstraw,
Kidney-vine,
Pointed cleavers
Native, C:6,
Secure
Galium asprellum clump.jpg
Galium asprellum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

Common marsh bedstraw,
Marsh bedstraw
Native, C:3,
Secure
Galium palustre 1a.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

Stiff marsh bedstraw,
Stiff three-petal bedstraw
Native, C:5,
Secure
Galium tinctorium NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. trifidum

    G. brandegeei A.Gray p.p.
Three-petal bedstraw Native, C:7,
Secure
Galium trifidum 2898.JPG
Galium trifidum ssp trifidum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Bigelow 1824
ssp. obtusum

    G. trifidum var. latifolium Torr.
    G. obtusum var. ramosum Gleason
Bluntleaf bedstraw,
Blunt-leaved bedstraw
Native, C:7,
Secure
Galium obtusum NRCS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
(Wieg.) Wieg.

    G. tinctorium var. labradoricum
Bog bedstraw,
Northern bog bedstraw
Native, C:8,
Likely secure
Galium labradoricum BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Fernald & Wiegand

    G. trifidum ssp. brevipes
Limestone swamp bedstraw Native, C:10?,
Likely extirpated
Galium brevipes BB-1913.png
Galium brevipes NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW 


NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Kolgyda[edit]
Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium aparine as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Kolgyda
Galiumsect. Kolgyda Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L. 1753

Cleavers,
Catchweed bedstraw,
Stickywilly,
Scratch bedstraw
Native, C:0,
Secure
20130601Labkraut Holunder Hockenheim.jpg
Galium aparine NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NX?
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Dandy

Galium tricorne Stokes p.p.
Rough-fruited corn bedstraw,
Roughfruit corn bedstraw
Introduced Galium tricornutum - Flora batava 1893.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX



NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Hylaea[edit]
Galium triflorum Michx.
three-flowered bedstraw
Note that BONAP lists most Galium species, including Galium triflorum as noxious weeds in New York, Pennsylvania and New England. This is likely based on prohibited-seed lists that don't distinguish between Galium species.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Hylaea
Galiumsect. Hylaea Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Michx.

1803. Galium triflorum Michx.
1803. Galium jalapense Schltdl.
1935. Galium triflorum
var. asprelliforme Fernald
Sweet-scented bedstraw,
Three-flowered bedstraw,
Fragrant bedstraw
Gaillet à trois fleurs,
Gaillet odorant
Native, C:7,
Secure

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-vine
Galium triflorum 10232.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 (L.) Scop.

Asperula odorata
Sweet bedstraw,
Sweetscented bedstraw,
Sweet woodruff
Introduced from
 temperate Eurasia,
Somewhat invasive,
NYIS: 48%[1]
GaliumodoratumWaldmeister.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 
ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Leiogalium[edit]
Galium album Mill.
hedge bedstraw
Although most sources show the hedge bedstraw species Galium mollugo as being widepread in the Northeast and the similar Galium album being less common, if not rare, the New York Flora Atlas now excludes Galium mollugo from New York State and shows Galium album as common, having moved its Galium mollugo records to Galium album.
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Leiogalium
Galiumsect. Leiogalium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 Mill.

1753. Galium mollugo L. misapplied
1762. Galium erectum Huds.
1768. Galium album Mill.
    Galium mollugo ssp. erectum
1926. Galium mollugo var. erectum
    Galium album var. erectum
Hedge bedstraw
White bedstraw
False baby's breath
Whorled bedstraw
Wild madder

Gaillet mollugine,
Caille-lait blanc
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
Potentially invasive,
IO,
NE-3[1]
Galium album1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1762. Galium sylvaticum L.
Scotch-mist,
Wood bedstraw,
Baby's breath
Gaillet des bois,
Gaillet des forêts
Introduced Galium sylvaticum (Wald-Labkraut) IMG 3333.JPG
Galium sylvaticum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Galium (excluded taxa) Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution X
L.

1753. Galium mollugo L.
1880. Rubia mollugo (L.) Baill.

Introduced,
N.Y. excluded
20170731Galium mollugo2.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
 L.

1762. Galium aristatum L.
Awned bedstraw Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa,
N.Y. excluded
Galium aristatum flowering plant 001 4x3.jpg
Excluded nymap.svg
NYFA-XCLD
USDA-
NEW-0
ITIS

BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp
  1. Category 3 Plants - widespread non-native species - Eastern Region invasive plants, ranked by degree of invasiveness as based on information from States (1998) US Forest Service
Galium sect. Galium[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Galium sect. Galium
Galiumsect. Galium Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 24
 L.
ssp. verum

1753. Galium verum L.
1879. G. verum var. verum
1885. G. verum ssp. verum
Lady's bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Yellow Spring bedstraw
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
 northern Africa
CublesuSJ2012 (91).JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 

Trop.



Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. wirtgenii (F.W. Schultz) Oborný

1854. Galium wirtgenii F.W.Schultz
1879. G. verum var. wirtgenii
1885. G. verum ssp. wirtgenii
Wirtgen's bedstraw Introduced Galium wirtgenii.jpg
Galium wirtgenii NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW 

Trop.



Images, wsp
 Retz.

Galium mollugo ×
Galium verum

1795. Galium × pomeranicum Retz.
1804. Galium × ochroleucum
Wolf ex Schweigg.
1850. Galium × ambiguum Gren. & Godr.
1903. G. × ochroleucum var. ambiguum
Pale yellow bedstraw Introduced,
N. America native
Galium x pomeranicum eF.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XN


Trop.



Images, wsp
Galium sect. Asperula[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Asperula
Galiumsect. Asperula Woodruff N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
(L.) F. Herm.

1753. Asperula arvensis L.
1844. Asperula setosa Jaub. & Spach
1904. G. sherardiiflorum (L.) E.H.L.Krause
1844. Asperula arvensis var. setosa
1956. G. arvense (L.) F. Herm.
Blue woodruff Introduced Asperula arvensis1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XW

ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Galium sect. Cruciata[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Cruciata
Galiumsect. Cruciata Bedstraw N.Y. Status Images Distribution n
 (Bellardi) Ehrend.

1789. Galium pedemontanum (Bellardi) All.
1788. Vaillantia pedemontana Bellardi
1961. Cruciata pedemontana (Bellardi) Ehrend.
Piedmont bedstraw,
Yellow bedstraw,
Piedmont Crosswort
Introduced Cruciata pedemontana sl2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-


Trop.



Images, wsp
 Opiz

1771. Galium cruciata (L.) Scop.
1852. Cruciata laevipes Opiz
1958. Cruciata chersonensis Ehrend.
Smooth bedstraw Introduced 20140507Cruciata laevipes3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0


Trop.



Images, wsp
Sherardia[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Sherardia
Sherardia Field madder N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Blue field madder,
Blue fieldmadder,
Cultivated field madder
Introduced Sherardia arvensis Kaldari 01.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
Rubia[edit]
Gentianales — Rubiaceae — Rubioideae — Rubieae — Rubia
Rubia Rubia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

Rubia tinctoria L. orth. var.
Dyer's madder,
Indian madder,
Madder
Introduced,
Impersistent
Rubia tinctorum 001.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0






Images, wsp

Family Loganiaceae[edit]

The Loganiaceae is a mostly-tropical family with no members that are native to or reported to have naturalized in New York.

Spigelia[edit]

Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink
Spigelia marilandica, a native of the southeastern U.S., has been propagated in New York and sold in the "native" plant trade. According to the Agriculture Research Service, it is only considered native as far north as southern Indiana and Maryland.
Gentianales — Loganiaceae — Spigelia
Spigelia Pinkroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution 0
 (L.) L.

1753. Lonicera marilandica L.
1767. Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.
Indian pink,
Woodland pinkroot
N. America native
 southern US,
No specimens,
Cultivated

Perennial,
Forb-herb
Spigelia marilandica kz2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-0
USDA-N0

ARS 

NSE BNA


Images, wsp

Family Gentianaceae[edit]

The Gentianaceae (gentian family).[1][2]

Tribe Chironieae[edit]

Centaurium[edit]

Centaurium erythraea
common centaury

  1. Gentianaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.
  2. Gentianaceae USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) PLANTS Database (2013).
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Chironieae — Centaurium
Centaurium Centaury N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 Rafn

Common centaury,
European centaury
Introduced CentauriumErythraea3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp
 (Sw.) Druce

Branched centaury,
Branching centaury-plant
Introduced Centaurium pulchellum flowers and buds Hompelvoet RF.JPG
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX






Images, wsp

Sabatia[edit]

Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Chironieae — Sabatia
Sabatia Rose-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
 Pursh

    S. maculata (Benth.) Benth. & Hook.f.
    S. palmeri A.Gray
    S. purpusii Brandegee
    S. simulata Britton
Sea pink,
Marsh pink,
Rose of Plymouth,
Saltmarsh rosegentian
Native,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[1]
Sabatia stellaris WFNY-166a.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 (L.) Pursh

1753. Chironia angularis L.
1814. Sabatia angularis (L.) Pursh
Square-stemmed rose pink,
Rose pink,
Bitterbloom
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[2]
Sabatia angularis - Rose Pink.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
 (L.) Torr.

    Sabatia gracilis (Michx.) Salisb.
Slender marsh pink,
Slender rose gentian
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Sabatia campanulata BB-1913.png
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0






Images, wsp
 (L.) BSP.
var. dodecandra

    Chironia dodecandra L.
    Sabatia chloroides (Michx.) Pursh
Large marsh pink,
Marsh rose gentian
Native,
Extirpated
Sabatia dodecandra WFNY-f024.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Tribe Gentianeae[edit]

Subtribe Gentianinae[edit]

Gentiana[edit]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Gentiana
Gentiana Gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 Griseb.

Fringe-topped bottle gentian Native,
Likely secure
GentianaAndrewsii.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
 Raf.

Bottle gentian,
Closed gentian
Native,
Likely secure
BottledGentian.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
 Froel.

Narrow-leaved gentian Native,
Vulnerable
Gentiana linearis 2.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
 L.

Soapwort gentian,
Soap gentian,
Harvestbells
Native,
Endangered
Gentiana saponaria 001.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
 Pringle

Downy gentian Native,
Likely extirpated
Gentiana puberulenta.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp

Subtribe Swertiinae[edit]

Bartonia[edit]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Bartonia
Bartonia Screwstem N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
(L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.

1753. Sagina virginica L.
1801. Bartonia tenella Willd.
1888. Bartonia virginica (L.) BSP
1895. Bartonia moseri B.L.Rob.
Yellow screwstem,
Virginia screwstem,
Yellow bartonia
Bartonie de Virginie
Native,
Likely secure
Bartonia virginica tip 2x3.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can

Trop.

IPN 

Images, wsp
ssp. paniculata

Twining screwstem Native,
Endangered
Bartonia paniculata drawing 1.png
Bartonia paniculata ssp paniculata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1






Images, wsp
Frasera[edit]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Frasera
Frasera Green-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1

    Frasera officinalis
    Frasera verticillata
    Frasera walteri
    Swertia caroliniensis
Columbo
American columbo
Green gentian
Yellow gentian
Carolina gentian
Native,
Threatened
Frasera caroliniensis.jpg
Frasera caroliniensis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-NN






Images, wsp
Gentianella[edit]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Gentianella
Gentianella Dwarf-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Small
ssp. quinquefolia

Agueweed,
Gall-of-the-earth,
Stiff gentian
Native,
Likely secure
Gentianella quinquefolia 001.jpg
Gentianella quinquefolia ssp quinquefolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
Gentianopsis[edit]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Gentianopsis
Gentianopsis Fringed-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 (Froel.) Ma

Greater fringed gentian Native,
Likely secure
Gentiana crinita.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
 (Raf.) Holub

Lesser fringed gentian Native,
Endangered
Gentianopsis virgata.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW 



LBJ

Images, wsp
Halenia[edit]
Gentianales — Gentianaceae — Gentianeae — Swertiinae — Halenia
Halenia Spurred-gentian N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Sm.) Griseb.

Spurred gentian Native,
Endangered
Halenia deflexa NPS-1.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN






Images, wsp

Family Apocynaceae[edit]

The Apocynaceae (dogbane or periwinkle family).[1][2][3]

Subfamily Rauvolfioideae[edit]

Tribe Vinceae[edit]

A very common New York ground cover, both cultivated and naturalized is Vinca minor, known commonly as periwinkle or myrtle. It is often found in wooded areas were old homesteads once stood and along ditches and stream banks where floodwaters have carried the rhizomes downstream from their previous location.
Subtribe Vincinae[edit]
Vinca[edit]
While Vinca minor is very common outside of cultivation and is considered to be moderately invasive, Vinca major rarely naturalizes in New York State.
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Rauvolfioideae — Vinceae — Vinca
Vinca Periwinkle N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.

1753. Vinca minor L.
Lesser periwinkle,
Common periwinkle,
Myrtle,
Running-myrtle
Petite pervenche,
Pervenche mineure
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Moderately invasive,
NYIS: 57%[1],
CP-3[2]
Vinca minor001.jpg
Vinca minor nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 




Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Vinca major L.
Greater periwinkle,
Bigleaf periwinkle,
Large-leaved periwinkle
Grande pervenche
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Rarely naturalizing
Apocynaceae - Vinca major-1.JPG
Vinca major nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.



Images, wsp

Tribe Amsonieae[edit]

Amsonia[edit]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Rauvolfioideae — Vinceae — Amsonia
Amsonia Bluestar N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 Walter
var. tabernaemontana

1762. Tabernaemontana amsonia L.
1788. Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter
1894. Amsonia amsonia (L.) Britton
Eastern bluestar,
Texas-star
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var tabernaemontana nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Walter
var. salicifolia (Pursh) Woodson

1814. Amsonia salicifolia Pursh
1838. Ansonia salicifolia (Pursh) Raf.
1928. A. tabernaemontana var. salicifolia
(Pursh) Woodson
Eastern bluestar,
Willowleaf Bluestar
Introduced from
 southern US,
N. America native
Amsonia tabernaemontana0.jpg
Amsonia tabernaemontana var salicifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA


Images, wsp
 Woodson

Bluestar,
Ozark bluestar
Introduced,
N. America native
Amsonia illustris.jpg
Amsonia illustris nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0






Images, wsp

Subfamily Apocynoideae[edit]

Tribe Apocyneae[edit]

Apocynum[edit]

Apocynum, or dogbane, is generally considered to be a weedy native genus.

Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Apocynoideae — Apocyneae — Apocynum
Apocynum Dogbane N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 L.

1753. Apocynum cannabinum L.
1770. Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.
1789. Apocynum hypericifolium Aiton
1902. Apocynum suksdorfii Greene
1912. Apocynum ithacense Greene
Hemp dogbane,
Clasping-leaved dogbane,
Indian hemp,
American-hemp
Apocyn chanvrin,
Apocyn à feuilles
  de millepertuis
Native, C:2,
Secure
Apocynum cannabinum - Indian Hemp.jpg
Apocynum cannabinum nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

1753. Apocynum androsaemifolium L.
1894. Apocynum pumilum (A.Gray) Greene
1901. Apocynum ambigens Greene
1906. Apocynum scopulorum Greene
Spreading dogbane,
Bitter-root,
Common dogbane,
Creeping dogbane
Apocyn à feuilles
  d'androsème,
Herbe à la puce
Native, C:2,
Secure
Spreading Dogbane (3629265769).jpg
Apocynum androsaemifolium NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Greene (pro sp.)

Apocynum androsaemifolium ×
Apocynum cannabinum

1893. Apocynum × floribundum Greene
1897. Apocynum × medium Greene
1901. Apocynum × milleri Britton
1930. Apocynum × jonesii Woodson
Intermediate dogbane,
Jones' dogbane,
Hybrid of
 hemp dogbane &
 spreading dogbane
Apocyn moyen
Native, C:x,
Secure
Apocynum × floribundum (as A. medium) BB-1913.png
Apocynum × floribundum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
Can

Trop.



Images, wsp

Subfamily Periplocoideae[edit]

Periploca[edit]

Silkvine (Periploca graeca) is native to eastern Europe and is listed as invasive in Northeastern Spain. It is capable of rooting vegetatively from small pieces of stem.[1]
Vouchered plant specimens have been collected from Erie and Monroe counties, but it is not thought to have naturalized there.[1] It has also been reported along roadsides in Suffolk County, NY, and Fairfield County, CT, but it is uncertain whether those plants were cultivated or naturalized.[2]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Periplocoideae — Periploca
PeriplocaTourn. ex. L. Silk-vine N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Periploca graeca L.
1820. Periploca graeca Schult.
Silkvine,
Silk vine,
Grecian silkvine
Bourreau des arbres
Introduced from
 Eurasia,
Potentially invasive

Perennial,
Woody vine
Fleurs de Périploque de Grèce.jpg
Periploca graeca nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-X0
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
NSE BNA
IPN 

Images, wsp

Subfamily Asclepiadoideae[edit]

The New York Flora Atlas includes Asclepias, Cynanchum, and Periploca in Asclepiadaceae. It includes the three Vincetoxicum species as Cynanchum.[1]
  1. Asclepiadaceae Troy Weldy & David Werier (2013) New York Flora Atlas. New York Flora Association, Albany, New York.

Tribe Asclepiadeae[edit]

Subtribe Asclepiadinae[edit]
Asclepias[edit]
The milkweed genus Asclepias is here separated into two clades according to Fishbein, et. al. (2011).[1] Each of these clades contains milkweeds that support monarch butterfly developmemt. In New York, these are:
  • common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
  • swamp milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
  • butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa)
  • whorled milkweed (Asclepias verticillata)
  • poke milkweed (Asclepias exaltata)

Showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa) also supports monarchs west of the Mississippi, where it is native, but the benefit of planting it in New York for this purpose could be questioned.


Asclepias clade incarnata/verticillata[edit]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Asclepiadinae — Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.
ssp. incarnata

1753. Asclepias incarnata L.
Western swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed,
Rose milkweed
Asclépiade incarnate,
Asclépiade rouge
Native, C:4,
Secure

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
P1000398 Asclepias incarnata (Asclepiadaceae) Leaf.JPG
Asclepias incarnata ssp incarnata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.
ssp. pulchra (Ehrh. ex Willd.) Woodson

1798. Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. ex Willd.
1840. Asclepias maritima Raf. non Jacq.
1921. A. incarnata var. neoscotica
1954. A. incarnata var. pulchra
Eastern swamp milkweed,
Swamp milkweed
Native, C:4,
Vulnerable

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias incarnata subsp. pulchra (9521976873).jpg
Asclepias incarnata ssp pulchra nymap.svg
NYFA-3?
USDA-N0
NEW 
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias verticillata L.
    
    
Whorled milkweed,
Eastern whorled milkweed,
Horsetail milkweed
Native, C:9,
Rare

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Asclepias verticillata - Flickr - peganum.jpg
Asclepias verticillata nymap.svg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS

NSE BNA


Images, wsp
Asclepias clade syriaca/speciosa[edit]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Asclepiadinae — Asclepias
Asclepias Milkweed N.Y. Status Images Distribution 12
 L.

1762. Asclepias syriaca L.
1840. A. serica Raf.
1844. A. cornuti Decne.
1904. A. kansana Vail
1935. A. syriaca var. kansana
Common milkweed,
Kansas milkweed,
Silkweed,
Virginia silk
Asclépiade commune,
Cochons de lait,
Herbe à coton
Native, C:0,
Secure
Asclepias syriaca prg 1.jpg
Asclepias syriaca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Jacq.

1767. Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq.
1818. A. vanilla Raf.
1840. A. quadrifolia
var. oppositifolia
Fourleaf milkweed,
Four-leaved milkweed,
Whorled milkweed
Asclépiade à quatre feuilles
Native, C:7,
Secure
Four-leaf Milkweed - Flickr - pellaea.jpg
Asclepias quadrifolia NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias tuberosa L.
1753. Asclepias decumbens L.
    
Butterfly-weed,
Butterfly milkweed,
Orange milkweed,
Pleurisy root
Asclépiade tubéreuse,
Asclépiade de l'intérieur
Native, C:2,
Likely secure
Asclepias tuberosa 003.JPG
Asclepias tuberosa ssp interior nymap.svg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS

BNA


Images, wsp
Sm.

1797. A. amplexicaulis Sm.
1803. A. obtusifolia Michx.
1832. A. rotundifolia Raf.
1930. A. gladewitzii Farw.
Clasping milkweed,
Blunt-leaved milkweed
Native, C:2,
Likely secure
Asclepias amplexicaulis (14329407319).jpg
Asclepias amplexicaulis NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1756. Asclepias exaltata L.
1762. A. syriaca var. exaltata
1788. A. polystachya Walter
1814. A. phytolaccoides
G.F. Lyon ex Pursh
1904. A. bicknellii Vail
Poke milkweed,
Tall milkweed
Asclépiade très grande,
Grande asclépiade
Native, C:6,
Likely secure

FACU-UPL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Asclepias exaltata (2985661678).jpg
Asclepias exaltata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
L.

1753. Asclepias purpurascens L.
1753. A. amoena L.
1794. A. compressa Moench
1832. A. dasypus Raf.
1840. A. gonalis Raf.
Purple milkweed,
Eastern purple milkweed
Asclépiade pourprée
Native, C:2,
Threatened,
USFS-CA,
NYNHP: 2[1]

FACU

Perennial,
Herb-forb
Purple Milkweed plant.JPG
Asclepias purpurascens nymap.svg
NYFA-2-3
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
 Raf.

1808. Asclepias viridiflora Raf.
1819. As. lanceolata E.Ives (i)
1824. As. viridiflora var. lanceolata
1829. Acerates viridiflora
(Raf.) Pursh ex Eaton
1841. Acerates lanceolata Steud.
1946. As. viridiflora var. linearis
Green milkweed,
Green comet milkweed,
Short green milkweed,
Green-flowered milkweed
Asclépiade à fleurs vertes
Native, C:10,
Threatened,
NYNHP: 2[2]
Asclepias viridiflora - Green Comet Milkweed.jpg
Asclepias viridiflora nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp

White milkweed,
Redring milkweed
Native, C:10,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Asclepias variegata.jpg
Asclepias variegata nymap.svg
NYFA-1
USDA-N
NEW 


BNA


Images, wsp
 L.

1753. Asclepias rubra L.
1788. A. cordata Walter (i)
1803. A. laurifolia Michx.
1814. A. acuminata Pursh
1818. A. periplocaefolia Nutt.
1903. A. rubra var. laurifolia
Red milkweed,
Tall pink bog milkweed
Native, C:10,
No recent reports

OBL

Perennial,
Herb-forb,
Sun - part shade
Asclepias rubra (9341532801).jpg
Asclepias rubra nymap.svg
NYFA-Z
USDA-N
NEW-0Can-0
ITIS

BNA
LBJ

Images, wsp
Vail

Asclepias amplexicaulis ×
Asclepias syriaca

1904. Asclepias intermedia Vail
    
    
Intermediate milkweed,
Hybrid of
 clasping milkweed &
 common milkweed
Native,
Unranked
Asclepias amplexicaulis (14329407319).jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-?
USDA-NN



BNA


Images, wsp
 Torr.

1827. Asclepias speciosa Torr.
1837. Asclepias douglasii Hook.
1931. Asclepias giffordii Eastw.
Showy milkweed,
Greek milkweed
Belle asclépiade
Introduced from
 w. North America,
N. America native,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa showy milkweed plant.JPG
Asclepias speciosa nymap.svg
NYFA-P
USDA-NN
Can
ARS ITIS
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
A. speciosa × syriaca

Asclepias speciosa ×
Asclepias syriaca

Hybrid
 Showy milkweed &
 Common milkweed
Native,
Introduced,
No reports
Asclepias speciosa showy milkweed flowers.jpg
Nymap.svg




BNA


Images, wsp
Note: [4]
Subtribe Cynanchinae[edit]
Many sources, including the New York Flora Atlas still include the Vincetoxicum species in Cynanchum.
Cynanchum[edit]
Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Cynanchinae — Cynanchum
CynanchumL. Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Michx.) Pers.

1803. Gonolobus laevis Michx.
1805. Cynanchum laeve Pers.
1818. Enslenia albida Nutt.
1894. Ampelamus albidus Britton
2001. Ampelamus laevis Krings
Honeyvine,
Smooth swallowwort,
Climbing milkweed
Dompte-venin glabre
Introduced,
US South native
Cynanchum laeve NRCS-1.jpg
Cynanchum laeve nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NX
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp
Subtribe Tylophorinae[edit]
Vincetoxicum[edit]
Vincetoxicum includes the two very highly invasive alien vines black swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum nigrum) and pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum), also known as dog-strangling vines, which are both well-established in parts of New York State. Aside from their general invasiveness and the subsequent loss of habitat for native plants, these milkweed relatives have been implicated in luring monarch butterflies away from native milkweed as a place to lay eggs. Because only milkweed can supprort monarch larvae, those that hatch from eggs laid on the swallow-wort cannot survive.

As with some other invasive plants, when swallow-wort is first introduced in an area, its rate of spread is fairly slow, so the rate of future spread and the difficulty of controlling it is often underestimated. A phenomenon called the Allee effect is responsible for increasing the growth rate of individual swallow-wort plants as their population increases and the population of competing plants declines, up to a limit of course.[1] The root cause of this effect is not certain, but a likely contributor is allelopathy on the part of the invasive swallow-worts, which both produce the phytotoxin -(-) antofine.


Gentianales — Apocynaceae — Asclepiadoideae — Asclepiadeae — Tylophorinae — Vincetoxicum
Vincetoxicum Swallow-wort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 3
 (L.) Moench

1753. Asclepias nigra L.
1802. Vincetoxicum nigrum Moench
1805. Cynanchum nigrum Pers. nom. illeg.
1991. Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & …
Black swallow-wort,
Black dog-strangling vine,
Climbing poison,
Louise's swallow-wort
Dompte-venin noir,
Cynaque noir,
Cynanche noire
Introduced from
 southern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 90%[1],
Prohibited[2],
CP-2[3]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Cynanchum louiseae 3800.JPG
Vincetoxicum nigrum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
(Kleopow) Barbar.

1929. Cynanchum rossicum Kleopow
1950. Vincetoxicum rossicum Barbar.
1952. Antitoxicum rossicum Pobed.
auctCynanchum medium non R.Br.
auctVincetoxicum medium non Dcne.
Pale swallow-wort,
European swallow-wort,
Dog-strangling vine (DSV)
Dompte-venin de Russie
Introduced from
 eastern Europe,
Very highly invasive,
NYIS: 88%[4],
Prohibited[2],
CP-3[5]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Vincetoxicum rossicum SCA-5116 4x3.jpg
Vincetoxicum rossicum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
NEW Can
ARS 

BNA


Images, wsp
 Medik.

1753. Asclepias vincetoxicum L.
1790. Vincetoxicum hirundinaria Medik.
1794. Vincetoxicum officinale Moench
1805. Cynanchum vincetoxicum (L.) Pers.
1883. Vincetoxicum vincetoxicum H.Karst.
1961. Alexitoxicon vincetoxicum H.P.Fuchs
White swallow-wort,
Pale swallow-wort,
White dog-strangling vine,
Poison-rope swallowwort
Dompte-venin officinal
Introduced,
Questionable[6]

Perennial,
Forb-herb, vine
Slakine kregzdune1.JPG
Vincetoxicum hirundinaria nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX
Can
ARS 
Trop.
BNA


Images, wsp

Ericales
Flora of New York — Gentianales
Solanales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index