Flora of New York/Nymphaeales…Piperales

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Pinales
Flora of New York — Nymphaeales, Magnoliales, Laurales, Piperales
Acorales & Alismatales
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


This page is the start of the angiosperms or flowering plants, which comprise the bulk of this guide. It starts with the order Nymphaeales and continues with the three orders of the Magnoliidae that are found in New York.

Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Nymphaeales Cabombaceae Brasenia (water-shield)
Cabomba (fanwort)
2 2
Nymphaeaceae Nupharoideae Nuphar (pond lily) 1 4
Nymphaeoideae Nymphaea (waterlily) 1 2
Magnoliales Magnoliaceae Magnolia (magnolia)
Liriodendron (tulip tree, tulip poplar)
2 6
Annonaceae Annonoideae Asimina (pawpaw) 1 1
Laurales Calycanthaceae Calycanthoideae Calycanthus (sweet-shrub) 1 2
Lauraceae Cinnamomeae Lindera (spicebush)
Sassafras (sassafras)
Persea (avocado)
3 3
Piperales Aristolochiaceae Asaroideae Asarum (wild ginger)
Hexastylis (heartleaf)
2 2
Aristolochioideae Aristolochia (birthwort)
Endodeca (snakeroot)
Isotrema (dutchman's pipe)
3 4
Saururaceae Saururus (lizard's tail) 1 1

Order Nymphaeales[edit]

The order Nymphaeales contains the aquatic flowering plant families Hydatellaceae, Cabombaceae, and Nymphaeaceae. Only the latter two have taxa found outside of cultivation in New York. Aside from Amborella, a shrub endemic to New Caledonia, the Nymphaeales are considered to be the oldest lineage of angiosperms. Most estimates put the age of the Nymphaeales at well over 100 million years.[1]

Family Cabombaceae[edit]

Two Cabombaceae (water-shield family) species are found in New York. One, Cabomba caroliniana, is rare in most of the state but has the potential to be a highly invasive exotic plant.

Genus Brasenia[edit]

The only extant species of Brasenia (B. schreberi) is native to New York, as well as much of the rest of the world.

Cabombaceaegenus Brasenia
Brasenia Brasenia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 J.F.Gmel.

1791. Brasenia schreberi  J.F.Gmel.
1803. Hydropeltis purpurea  Michx.
1814. Brasenia peltata  Pursh
1862. Cabomba peltata  F.Muell. nom. illeg.
1890. Brasenia purpurea  Casp.
Schreber's watershield,
Water-shield,
Purple wen-dock,
Water-target

Brasénie de Schreber
Native,
Secure
BraseniaAlt.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngBrasenia schreberi drawing.png
Brasenia schreberi NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS 
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Genus Cabomba[edit]

Although native to the southeastern United States, Cabomba caroliniana (Carolina fanwort) is considered to be an alien invasive plant in the Northwest and Northeast, including New York, where it is listed as highly invasive.

Cabombaceaegenus Cabomba
Cabomba Fanwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 A.Gray

1837. Cabomba caroliniana  A.Gray
1903. C. caroliniana
   var.
pulcherrima R.M.Harper
1953. C. pulcherrima  (R.M. Harper) Fassett
Carolina fanwort,
Fanwort,
Purple fanwort,
Carolina watershield,
Green cabomba

Cabomba de Caroline
Introduced from
 southeast US,
 South America,
Highly invasive,
NYIS: 72%[1],
Prohibited[2]
Cabomba caroliniana 5447126.jpg
Cabomba caroliniana nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp

Family Nymphaeaceae[edit]

Six Nymphaeaceae (water-lily family) taxa in two genera are found in New York. All are native to the region and appear to be fairly secure.

Subfamily Nupharoideae[edit]

Genus Nuphar[edit]
Nymphaeaceaesubfam. Nupharoideaegenus Nuphar
Nuphar Pond-lily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 4
ssp. advena

(=) Nuphar lutea ssp. advena
Broad-leaved yellow pond-lily,
Broad-leaved yellow cow-lily,
Broad-leaved spatterdock,
Broad-leaved bull-head lily
Native,
Secure
American Spatterdock.jpg
Nuphar advena ssp advena NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp

(=) Nuphar microphylla
(=) Nuphar lutea ssp. pumila
Small yellow pond-lily,
Small yellow cow-lily,
Dwarf spatterdock
Native,
Secure
Nuphar pumilum2.jpg
Nuphar pumila NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp

(=) Nuphar lutea ssp. variegata
(=) Nuphar fraterna
(=) Nymphaea americana
(=) Nymphaea fraterna
Common yellow pond-lily,
Common cow-lily,
Common spatterdock,
Northern yellow pond-lily
Native,
Secure
Nuphar variegatum.jpg
Nuphar variegata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp

Nuphar pumila ×
Nuphar variegata

(=) Nuphar lutea ssp. rubrodisca
Hybrid yellow pond-lily,
Peck's yellow pond-lily
Native,
Likely secure
Nuphar topView DSCN9622.JPG
Nuphar × rubrodisca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-3-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp

Subfamily Nymphaeoideae[edit]

Genus Nymphaea[edit]
Nymphaeaceaesubfam. Nymphaeoideaegenus Nymphaea
Nymphaea Waterlily N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
ssp. odorata

1789. Nymphaea odorata  Aiton
1806. Castalia odorata  (Aiton) Wood
White water-lily,
American white water-lily,
Fragrant water-lily,
Sweet-scented white water-lily,
Pond-lily,
Great white water-lily
Native,
Secure

Perennial,
Forb-herb
Nymphaea odorata0.jpg
Nymphaea odorata ssp odorata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N

ARS 



Images, wsp
ssp. tuberosa

1994. Nymphaea odorata ssp. tuberosa
Tuberous white water-lily,
Large white water-lily,
American white waterlily
Native,
Likely secure
Nymphaea odorata (2).jpg
Nymphaea odorata ssp tuberosa NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5?
USDA-N

ARS 



Images, wsp

Order Magnoliales[edit]

The order Magnoliales Bromhead ...

Family Magnoliaceae[edit]

The Magnoliaceae (magnolia family) has traditionally been separated into the two subfamilies Magnolioideae and Liriodendroideae. Magnolioideae contained a number of genera including Magnolia s.s., the largest genus. Liriodendroideae contained the single genus Liriodendron. Phylogenetic research has shown Magnolia s.s. to be non-monophyletic. Therefore it was suggested that rather than breaking Magnolia into numerous new genera, all other genera in Magnolioideae would be placed in Magnolia s.l. to create a single monophyletic genus. This leaves the two subfamilies with one genus apiece, making Magnoliaceae subfamilies redundant. So, they are not used here.[1][2]

Genus Magnolia[edit]

Magnoliaceaegenus Magnolia
Magnoliasubg. Yulania Magnolia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 (L.) L.

1753. Magnolia virginiana var. acuminata L.
1759. Magnolia acuminata  (L.) L.
1803. Magnolia cordata  Michx.
1886. M. acuminata var. cordata (Michx.) Sarg.
1903. Tulipastrum cordatum  (Michx.) Small
Cucumber tree,
Mountain magnolia,
Cucumber magnolia,
Blue magnolia
Native,
Secure
Magnolia Accuminata (Ausschnitt) am Eingangstor zum Schloss Fürstenried (München).JPG
Magnolia acuminata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS 
Trop.


Images, wsp
Magnoliasubg. Magnolia Magnolia N.Y. Status Images Distribution 5
 L.
var. virginiana
Sweet-bay,
Northern sweet-bay,
Swamp-bay,
Magnolia-bay,
Laurel-magnolia,
Beaver-tree

Laurier doux
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Sweetbay Magnolia Magnolia virginiana Flowers 2816px.jpg
Magnolia virginiana var virginiana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-1
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS 



Images, wsp
Umbrella-tree,
Umbrella magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
Magnolia tripetala-IMG 4377.jpg
Magnolia tripetala NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-N0
NEW 




Images, wsp
 Walter
Fraser magnolia,
Mountain magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
Magnoliafraseri rt1.jpg
Magnolia fraseri NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
 Michx.
Big-leaved magnolia,
Cowcumber magnolia
Introduced,
US South native
M.macrophylla var. ashei 200706.jpg
Nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Genus Liriodendron[edit]

Magnoliaceaegenus Liriodendron
Liriodendron Tulip tree N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Liriodendron tulipifera  L.
1903. L.t. fo. aureomarginatum (Dippel) Schelle
1903. L.t. fo. integrifolium (G. Kirchn.) Schelle
Tuliptree,
Tulip tree,
American tuliptree,
Tulip poplar,
Yellow poplar

Bois jaune
Native,
Secure
Liriodendron tulipifera.jpg
Liriodendron tulipifera NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS 



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Family Annonaceae[edit]

The Annonaceae (custard apple family) is the largest family of the Magnoliales, but contains primarily tropical plants. Only one of its more than 2000 species has been discovered growing outside of cultivation in New York.

Subfamily Annonoideae[edit]

Genus Asimina[edit]

The native range of the pawpaw (Asimina triloba) extends only into western New York, but the tree can persist where cultivated in other parts of the state and may naturalize there.

Annonaceaesubfam. Annonoideaegenus Asimina
Asimina Pawpaw N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Dunal

1753. Annona triloba  L.
1796. Annona pendula  Salisbury
1803. Orchidocarpum arietinum  Michx.
1806. Porcelia triloba  (L.) Pers.
1817. Asimina triloba  (L.) Dunal
1838. Uvaria triloba  (L.) Torr.& A.Gray
Pawpaw,
Dog banana,
Indian banana

Asiminier trilobé,
Asiminier
Native,
Threatened
Asimina triloba0.jpg
Asimina triloba NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-2
USDA-N
Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.
NSE BNA 
IPN
Images, wsp

Order Laurales[edit]

The order Laurales ... [1]

Family Calycanthaceae[edit]

The Calycanthaceae (strawberry-shrub family) ...

Genus Calycanthus[edit]

Calycanthaceaesubfam. Calycanthoideae
Calycanthus Sweet-shrub N.Y. Status Images Distribution 2
 L.
var. floridus
Eastern sweetshrub,
Hairy sweet-shrub,
Hairy strawberry bush,
Hariy bubby-bush,
Hairy Carolina-allspice
Introduced from
 southeast US,
US South native
Calycanthus floridus - sweet shrub - desc-flower.jpg
Calycanthus floridus var floridus nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-N

ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp
 L.
var. glaucus (Willd.) Torr. & A.Gray
Eastern sweetshrub,
Smooth sweet-shrub,
Smooth strawberry bush,
Smooth bubby-bush,
Smooth Carolina-allspice
Introduced from
 southeast US,
US South native
Calycanthus floridus.jpg
Calycanthus floridus var glaucus nymap.svg
NYFA-X0
USDA-N

ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 

Images, wsp

Family Lauraceae[edit]

The Lauraceae (laurel family) contains only two species spicebush and sasafrass that are native to the State of New York.

Tribe Cinnamomeae[edit]

Genus Lindera[edit]

Lindera is primarily native to eastern Asia, but of its nearly 100 species, only three (northern, southern, and bog spicebush) are native to eastern North America. And of the three, only northern spicebush (Lindera benzoin), is native as far north as New York.

Lauraceaetribe Cinnamomeaegenus Lindera
Lindera Spicebush N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Blume

1753. Laurus benzoin  L.
1831. Benzoin odoriferum
1836. Benzoin aestivale  Nees
1851. Lindera benzoin  (L.) Blume
1939. Lindera benzoin
   var.
pubescens Rehder
Spicebush,
Northern spicebush,
Benzoin-bush,
Benjamin-bush,
Fever-bush,
Wild allspice

Benjoin,
Laurier faux-benjoin
Native,
Secure,
Shrub, small tree
Lindera benzoin 01471.jpg
Lindera benzoin NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS
FNA Trop.


Images, wsp
Genus Sassafras[edit]

Sassafras has only three extant species. Two are native to eastern Asia, and one, Sassafras albidum is native to much of eastern North Americam including New York.

Lauraceaetribe Cinnamomeaegenus Sassafras
Sassafras Sassafras N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (Nutt.) Nees

1753. Laurus sassafras  L.
1818. Laurus albida  Nutt.
1831. Sassafras officinale  Nees & C.H.Eberm.
1836. Sassafras albidum  (Nutt.) Nees
1891. Sassafras variifolium  Kuntze
1936. S. albidum var. molle (Raf.) Fernald
Sassafras,
White sassafras,
Silky sassafras,
Ague tree,
Mitten tree

Sassafras officinal,
Gombo filé
Native,
Secure
2014-08-25 18 04 50 Early fall coloration in Sassafras foliage along the Appalachian Trail about 9.5 miles northeast of the Delaware Water Gap in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, New Jersey.JPG
Sassafras albidum NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-N
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Genus Persea[edit]

A specimen of the avocado plant (Persea americana) was collected from a composte pile in Orange County in 1996. As this subtropical species would not be able to naturalize in New York, placing it in the New York Flora was probably an error.

Lauraceaetribe Cinnamomeaegenus Persea
Persea Red bay N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 Mill.

1753. Laurus persea  L.
1768. Persea americana  Mill.
1892. Persea persea  (L.) Cockerell
1950. Persea nubigena  L.O.Williams
1953. Persea gigantea  L.O.Williams
Avocado

Avocatier
Introduced from
 Mexico,
 Mesoamerica,
 Venezuela,
Impersistent,
Composte-pile waif
Avocado fruitnfoliage.jpg
Persea americana NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Xm
USDA-X0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp

Order Piperales[edit]

The order Piperales

Family Aristolochiaceae[edit]

The Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort family)

Subfamily Asaroideae[edit]

Genus Asarum[edit]
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Asaroideaegenus Asarum
Asarum Wild ginger N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

A. acuminatum (Ashe) E.P.Bicknell
A. reflexum E.P.Bicknell
Canadian wildginger,
Wild ginger,
Asarabacca
Native,
Secure
Asarum canadense.jpg
Asarum canadense NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Genus Hexastylis[edit]
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Asaroideaegenus Hexastylis
HexastylisRaf. Heartleaf N.Y. Status Images Distribution 0
(Britten & Baker f.) Small
var. shuttleworthii

Asarum shuttleworthii Britten & Baker f.
Largeflower heartleaf Introduced,
US South native
Hexastylis shuttleworthii BB-1913.png
Hexastylis shuttleworthii var shuttleworthii NY-dist-map.png

USDA-N0





Images, wsp

Subfamily Aristolochioideae[edit]

Genus Endodeca[edit]
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Aristolochioideaegenus Endodeca
EndodecaRaf. Snakeroot N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 (L.) Raf.

1753. Aristolochia serpentaria  L.
1818. Aristolochia hastata  Nutt.
1828. Endodeca serpentaria  Raf.
1894. Aristolochia nashii  Kearney
1897. Aristolochia convolvulacea  Small
Snakeroot,
Serpentary,
Virginia snakeroot,
Virginia serpentary
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[1]
Aristolochia serpentaria drawing.png
Endodeca serpentaria nymap.svg
NYFA-2
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 

Note [2]
Images, wsp
  1. New York Natural Heritage Program. 2013. Online Conservation Guide for Endodeca serpentaria. Endangered, S2/G4.
  2. The New York Flora Atlas segregates Isotrema macrophyllum, Isotrema tomentosum, and Endodeca serpentaria from Aristolochia into Isotrema and Endodeca, respectively, while other sources, as of yet, have left them in Aristolochia.
Genus Isotrema[edit]
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Aristolochioideaegenus Isotrema
IsotremaRaf. Pipevine N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(Lam.) C.F. Reed

1783. Aristolochia macrophylla  Lam.
1822. Hocquartia macrophylla  Dumort.
1965. Isotrema macrophyllum  C.F.Reed
auct.. Aristolochia durior  non. Hill
Dutchman's-pipe,
Largeleaf dutchman's-pipe,
Pipevine
Introduced,
US South native,
(PA to GA native)
PodražecVelkolistýMosėdis.jpg
Isotrema macrophyllum nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 
Note [1]
Images, wsp
(Sims) H.Huber 1960

1811. Aristolochia tomentosa Sims
1960. Isotrema tomentosum H.Huber
Woolly Dutchman's-pipe,
Wooly pipevine,
Common Dutchman's-pipe
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent
AristolochiaTomentosa.jpg
Isotrema tomentosum nymap.svg
NYFA-Xm
USDA-N0
NEW 
ARS ITIS
FNA 
NSE BNA 
Note [1]
Images, wsp
  1. a b The New York Flora Atlas segregates Isotrema macrophyllum, Isotrema tomentosum, and Endodeca serpentaria from Aristolochia into Isotrema and Endodeca, respectively, while other sources, as of yet, have left them in Aristolochia.
Genus Aristolochia[edit]
Aristolochiaceaesubfam. Aristolochioideaegenus Aristolochia
Aristolochia Birthwort N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Aristolochia clematitis  L.
Birthwort,
Heartwort

Aristoloche clématite,
Sarrasine
Introduced from
 Eurasia
20120624Oftersheimer Duenen073.jpg
Aristolochia clematitis nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-XX

ARS ITIS
FNA 


Images, wsp

Family Saururaceae[edit]

The Saururaceae (Lizard's tail family)

Genus Saururus[edit]

Saururaceaegenus Saururus
Saururus Lizard's tail N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
 L.

1753. Saururus cernuus  L.
Lizard's tail,
Water-dragon,
Swamp root

Saurure penché,
Lézardelle penchée,
Saurure penchée
Native,
Secure
Saururus cernuus 002.JPG
Saururus cernuus NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp