False Friends of the Slavist/Russian

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Русский язык (Russian)

(c. 250 million native speakers)
Ложные друзья слависта в русском языке



адрес
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 37 million speakers of Ukrainian.
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘address’ is shared by Pol. аdres.
  • The Russian meaning ‘congratulatory letter’ (адрес, поздравительное послание) is shared by Ukr. адрес, Pol. аdres.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
Алжир
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Algiers’ is shared by Pol. Algier, Bg. Алжир.
  • The Russian meaning ‘Algeria’ is shared by Bg. Алжир.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
ангельский
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘of angels, angel-like’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘English’ (английский) is attested in Pol. angielski.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
арбуз
  • is a complete false friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘watermelon’ is shared by Pol. arbuz.
  • The meaning ‘pumpkin’ (тыква) is attested in Blr. гарбуз, Ukr. гарбуз.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
баба
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 11.5 million native speakers of Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 17.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘pejorative of a woman’ is shared by Pol. baba.
  • The Russian meaning ‘old woman’ is shared by Pol. baba, Cr. baba, Bo. baba, Sb. баба.
  • The meaning ‘grandmother’ (бабушка) is attested in Bo. baba, baka, Sb. баба, бака.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
бабка
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘old woman’ is shared by Blr. бабка, Pol. babka, Bg. бабка.
  • The meaning ‘a cake’ (кулич) is attested in Blr. бабка, Pol. babka.
  • The meaning ‘rough boletus (a mushroom)’ (подберёзовик) is attested in Blr. бабка.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
банка

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  • The Russian meaning (Br.) tin, (Am.) can’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘bank, credit bank’ (банк) is attested in Sln. banka, Cr. banka, Bo. banka, Sb. банка.
  • The meaning ‘container, can’ (кувшин) is attested in Pol. bańka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
белизна
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘whiteness’ is shared by Ukr. білизна, Cr. bjelina, Bo. bjelina, Sb. белина, Mk. белина, Bg. белина.
  • The meaning ‘linen, laundry’ (бельё) is attested in Blr. бялізна, Ukr. білизна, Pol. bielizna.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
берёзовик
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘rough boletus (a mushroom)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘birch-juice’ (берёзовый сок) is attested in Blr. бярозавік.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
беседа
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Belarusian, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘talk’ is shared by Pol. biesiada, Bg. беседа.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Sln. beseda.
  • The meaning ‘party, ceremony’ (пир, пирушка) is attested in Blr. бяседа.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
благой
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘good’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘bad’ (плохой) is attested in Blr. благі.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
богатырь
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian.
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;

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[NB: No information yet for Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
более
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in Slovenian
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘more’ is also found in Sln. bolj.
  • The meaning ‘better’ (лучше) is attested in Sln. bolje, Cr. bolje, Bo. bolje, Sb. боље.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
бор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Slovenian, Bulgarian, Polish;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 48 million speakers of Slovenian, Bulgarian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘a wood of pine-trees’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘boron’ is shared by Sln. bor, Bg. бор, Pol. bor.
  • The meaning ‘pine-tree’ (сосна) is attested in Sln. bor, Bg. бор.
  • The meaning ‘a wood of old coniferous trees’ is attested in Pol. bór.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
брак

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  • The Russian meaning ‘marriage’ is shared by Cr. brak, Bo. brak, Sb. брак, Mk. брак, Bg. брак.
  • The Russian meaning ‘defect, flaw’ is shared by Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
  • The Russian meaning ‘rejects, refuse, waste’ is shared by Ukr. брак, Pol. brak, Bg. брак.
  • The meaning ‘lack, want, shortage’ (недостаток, нехватка) is attested in Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
брать
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian.
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘take’ is shared by Pol. brać.
  • The meaning ‘read’ (читать) is attested in Sln. brati.
  • The meaning ‘collect’ (собирать) is attested in Sln. brati.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
булка
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘roll, white bread’ is shared by Blr. булка, Ukr. булка, Pol. bułka.
  • The meaning ‘bride’ (невеста) is attested in Bg. булка.
  • The meaning ‘young woman’ (девушка) is attested in Bg. булка.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
быстрый
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘fast, quick’ is shared by Pol. bystry.
  • The meaning ‘clear’ (ясный, чистый) is attested in Sln. bister.
  • The meaning ‘lively, awake’ (живой, бодрый) is attested in Sln. bister.
  • The meaning ‘clever, astute’ is attested in Pol. bystry.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
выгода
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘profit’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘comfort’ (удобство, уют) is attested in Blr. выгода, Pol. wygoda.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
век
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 17.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 12 million native speakers of Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘age, epoch’ is shared by Pol. wiek, Cz. věk, Sln. vek, Mk. век, Bg. век.
  • The Russian meaning ‘century’ (век, столетие) is shared by Pol. wiek, Cz. věk, Sln. vek, Cr. vijek, Bo. vijek, Sb. век, Mk. век, Bg. век.
  • The meaning ‘age (of a person)’ (возраст) is attested in Pol. wiek, Cz. věk.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
веселье
  • is a complete false friend for about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;

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  • The Russian meaning ‘fun, joy’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘wedding’ (свадьба) is attested in Blr. вясельле, Ukr. весілля, Pol. wesele.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
вещь
  • is a complete false friend for about 59.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 24 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘matter’ is shared by Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘clever’ (ловкий) is attested in Sln. vešč, Cr. vješt, Bo. vješt, Sb. вешт, Mk. вешт.
  • The meaning ‘message’ (весть) is attested in Pol. wieść.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вещь
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 24 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘matter, thing’ is shared by Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Bg. вещ.
  • The meaning ‘assembly’ (собрание) is attested in Pol. wiec.
  • The meaning ‘already’ (уже) is attested in Cr. već, Bo. već, Sb. већ.
  • The meaning ‘more’ (больше) is attested in Sln. več.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
видеть
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
власть
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘power’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘home country’ (родина) is attested in Cz. vlast.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
вонь
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘stench, stink’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘scent, fragrance’ (аромат) is attested in Pol. woń, Cz. vůně.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
враг
  • is a complete false friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 91 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘enemy’ is shared by Blr. вораг, Ukr. ворог, Pol. wróg, Mk. враг, Bg. враг.
  • The meaning ‘devil, demon’ (чёрт) is attested in Sln. vrag, Cr. vrag, Bo. vrag, Sb. враг, Mk. враг.
  • The meaning ‘murderer’ (убийца) is attested in Cz. vrah, Slk. vrah.
  • The meaning ‘slyboots, smartie’ (хитрец) is attested in Mk. враг.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вредный
  • is a complete false friend for about 59.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘harmful’ is shared by Bg. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘precious’ (ценный) is attested in Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan, Sb. вредан.
  • The meaning ‘able, clever’ (ловкий, умелый) is attested in Mk. вреден, Bg. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘nasty, repulsive’ (гадкий, отвратительный) is attested in Pol. wredny.
  • The meaning ‘insidious, deceitful’ (фальшивый, коварный) is attested in Pol. wredny.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
время
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
выход
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘exit’ is shared by Blr. выхад, Ukr. вихід, Cz. východ, Slk. východ.
  • The meaning ‘east’ (восток) is attested in Cz. východ, Slk. východ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
глава
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 50 million speakers of Czech, Slovenian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘head’ (глава (arch.), голова) is shared by Cz. hlava, Sln. glava, Pol. głowa.
  • The Russian meaning ‘chapter’ (глава (в книге)) is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘chief, boss’ (глава (начальник)) is shared by Sln. glava, šef.
  • The Russian meaning ‘dome, vault’ (глава (купол)) is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
говор
  • is a complete false friend for about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 45 million speakers of Ukrainian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘dialect’ is shared by Blr. гаворка, Ukr. говір, Bg. говор.
  • The Russian meaning ‘talking’ is shared by Blr. гаворка.
  • The meaning ‘speech’ (речь) is attested in Cr. govor, Bo. govor, Sb. говор, Bg. говор.
  • The meaning ‘noise’ (шум) is attested in Pol. gwar.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
година

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
гора
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 112.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘mountain’ is shared by Blr. гара, Ukr. гора, Pol. góra, Cz. hora, Slk. hora, Sln. gora, Cr. gora, Bo. gora, Sb. гора.
  • The meaning ‘forest’ (лес) is attested in Slk. hora, Bg. гора.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
город
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘town’ is shared by Blr. горад.
  • The meaning ‘vegetable garden’ (огород) is attested in Ukr. город.
[NB: No information yet for Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
град
  • is a complete false friend for about 12 million native speakers of Czech, Slovenian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘town’ (град (arch.), город) is shared by Cr. grad, Bo. grad, Sb. град.
  • The Russian meaning ‘hail’ is shared by Pol. grad, Cr. grad, Bo. grad, Sb. град.
  • The meaning ‘fortress’ (крепость) is attested in Cz. hrad, Sln. grad.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
гроб
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘coffin’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘grave’ (могила) is attested in Pol. grób.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
грудастая

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  • The Russian meaning ‘big-breasted’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘granular’ (зернистый, гранулёзный) is attested in Cr. grudast, Bo. grudast, Sb. грудаст.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
дворец
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian Cr. палац, Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘palace’ is shared by Cr. dvorac, Bo. dvorac, Sb. дворац, Mk. дворец, Bg. дворец.
  • The meaning ‘railway station’ (вокзал) is attested in Ukr. двірець, Pol. dworzec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
дева
  • is a complete false friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘maiden’ is shared by Sb. дева.
  • The meaning ‘camel’ (верблюд) is attested in Cr. deva, Bo. deva, Sb. дева.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
дело
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘matter, affair’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘act, deed’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘battle’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘case, lawsuit’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘file, document’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘canon’ (пушка) is attested in Cz. dělo.
  • The meaning ‘composition, work of art’ is attested in Pol. dzieło.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
диван
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘settee, sofa’ is shared by Cz. divan, Slk. diván, Sln. divan, Cr. divan, Bo. divan, Sb. диван.
  • The meaning ‘carpet’ (ковёр) is attested in Blr. дыван, Pol. dywan.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
доить
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to milk’ is shared by Pol. doić.
  • The meaning ‘to breast-feed’ (кормить грудью) is attested in Cr. dojiti, Bo. dojiti, Sb. дојити.
  • The meaning ‘to suckle’ (кормить грудью) is attested in Cr. dojiti, Bo. dojiti, Sb. дојити.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
доктор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘doctor, physician’ (доктор, врач) is shared by Ukr. доктор, Pol. doktor.
  • The Russian meaning ‘habilitated doctor’ (доктор наук) is shared by Ukr. доктор.
  • The meaning ‘PhD, DSc’ (кандидат наук) is attested in Pol. doktor.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
дума
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘thought’ (дума (arch.), мысль) is shared by Blr. думка, дума, Ukr. дума.
  • The Russian meaning ‘East Slavonic folk song’ is shared by Blr. дума, Ukr. дума.
  • The Russian meaning ‘parliament’ is shared by Blr. дума, Ukr. дума.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Bg. дума.
  • The meaning ‘pride’ (гордость) is attested in Pol. duma.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
Дунай
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 81.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Danube’ is shared by Pol. Dunaj, Cz. Dunaj, Slk. Dunaj, Cr. Dunaj, Bo. Dunaj, Sb. Дунај, Mk. Дунав, Bg. Дунав.
  • The meaning ‘Vienna’ (Вена) is attested in Sln. Dunaj.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
дыня
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 58.5 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘sweet melon’ is shared by Ukr. диня, Sln. dinja, Cr. dinja, Bo. dinja, Sb. диња, Mk. диња.
  • The meaning ‘watermelon’ (арбуз) is attested in Bg. диня.
  • The meaning ‘pumpkin’ (тыква) is attested in Pol. dynia.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
ел
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘ate/eaten’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘drove/driven, rode/ridden, went/gone’ (ехал) is attested in Cz. jel.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
ети/еть
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to fuck’ (ети, еть, ебать) is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to drive, to ride, to go’ (ехать) is attested in Cz. jeti.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
жена

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
живот

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
жид
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Jew (pejoratively)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘Jew (ethnically)’ (еврей) is attested in Pol. Żyd, Cz. Žid.
  • The meaning ‘Jew (religiously)’ (иудей) is attested in Pol. żyd, Cz. žid.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
жизнь
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘life’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘thirst’ (жажда) is attested in Cz. žízeň.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
жито
  • is a complete false friend for about 99 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘grain, cereals, (Br.) corn’ is shared by Sln. žito, Cr. žito, Bo. žito, Sb. жито.
  • The meaning ‘rye’ (рожь) is attested in Ukr. жито, Pol. żyto, Cz. žito, Slk. žito, raž.
  • The meaning ‘wheat’ (пшеница) is attested in Slk. pšenica, žito, Bg. жито.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
за
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘in, during (a time span)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘in, after (a time span)’ (через) is attested in Pol. za.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
забыть
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to forget’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to hit into’ (забить) is attested in Ukr. забити.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
завод
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 12 million native speakers of Czech, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘factory, works’ is shared by Cz. závod, Mk. завод, Bg. завод.
  • The meaning ‘contest’ (состязание) is attested in Cz. závod.
  • The meaning ‘occupation, profession, trade’ (профессия) is attested in Pol. zawód.
  • The meaning ‘institute’ (заведение) is attested in Sln. zavod, Cr. zavod, Bo. zavod, Sb. завод, Mk. завод.
  • The meaning ‘disappointment’ (разочарование) is attested in Pol. zawód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
заказ
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘order’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘prohibition’ (запрет) is attested in Pol. zakaz, Cz. zákaz.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
запах
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘smell (neutral)’ is shared by Pol. zapach.
  • The meaning ‘bad smell, stench’ (вонь, дурной запах) is attested in Cz. zápach.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
запомнить
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech(?Belarusian?);
  • is a true friend for about 20 million native speakers of (?Belarusian?), Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to memorize’ is shared by Blr. запомніць, Sln. zapomniti, Mk. запомни, Bg. запомня.
  • The meaning ‘to forget’ (забыть) is attested in Pol. zapomnieć, Cz. zapomenoutBlr. запамятаць.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
захват
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘conquest, capture’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘delight’ (восторг) is attested in Ukr. захват.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
заход
  • is a complete false friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘sunset’ is shared by Pol. zachód, Sln. zahod, Mk. заод.
  • The meaning ‘west’ (запад) is attested in Pol. zachód, Sln. zahod.
  • The meaning ‘toilet’ (туалет) is attested in Cz. záchod, Slk. záchod, Cr. zahod, Bo. zahod, Sb. заход.
  • The meaning ‘trouble, effort’ (труд, усилия) is attested in Pol. zachód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
зерно
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 40 million native speakers of Slovenian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘corn, kernel’ is shared by Sln. zrno, Bg. зърно, Pol. ziarno.
  • The meaning ‘berry’ (ягода) is attested in Bg. зърно.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
злодей
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘criminal’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘thief’ (вор) is attested in Cz. zloděj, Pol. złodziej.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
играть

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
искусство
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 8 million speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
исход
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘result’ is shared by Bg. изход.
  • The Russian meaning ‘resort, way out’ is shared by Bg. изход.
  • The meaning ‘exit’ (выход) is attested in Bg. изход.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
кал
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘faeces, excrement’ is shared by Pol. kał.
  • The meaning ‘dirt, mud’ (грязь) is attested in Cr. kal, Bo. kal, Sb. кал.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
кит
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘whale’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘putty, cement’ (замазка) is attested in Pol. kit.
  • The meaning ‘cat’ (кот) is attested in Ukr. кіт.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
князь
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 62.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘prince, duke’ is shared by Blr. князь, Ukr. князь, Cr. knez, Bo. knez, Sb. кнез.
  • The meaning ‘priest’ (священник (ксёндз)) is attested in Pol. ksiądz, Cz. kněz.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
ковчег
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Czech, Slovak.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
колёса
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘wheels’ is shared by Pol. koła, Cr. kola, Bo. kola, Sb. кола.
  • The meaning ‘car, cart’ (телега) is attested in Cr. kola, Bo. kola, Sb. кола.
  • The meaning ‘motorcar’ (автомобиль) is attested in Cr. kola, Bo. kola, Sb. кола.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
колония
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘colony’ is shared by Pol. kolonia, Cr. kolonija, Bo. kolonija, Sb. колонија.
  • The meaning ‘Cologne’ (Кёльн) is attested in Pol. Kolonia.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
корица

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cinnamon’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘crust’ (корка) is attested in Cr. korica, Bo. korica, Sb. корица.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
край
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 66.5 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 2 million speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 24 million native speakers of Belarusian, Czech, Slovak.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
краска
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedo-nian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
красный
  • is a complete false friend for about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘red’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘beautiful’ (красивый) is attested in Cz. krásný, Slk. krásny.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
кресло
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 61 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘armchair’ is shared by Ukr. крісло, Cz. křeslo, Slk. kreslo, Bg. кресло.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стул) is attested in Blr. крэсла, Pol. krzesło.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
крик
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cry, shout’ is shared by Pol. krzyk.
  • The meaning ‘jack’ (домкрат) is attested in Bg. крик.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
криминалист
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘criminologist’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘criminal’ (уголовный преступник) is attested in Pol. kryminalista.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
куча
  • is a complete false friend for about 9.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘heap’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘hut’ (хижина, избушка, шалаш) is attested in Sln. koča.
  • The meaning ‘house’ (дом) is attested in Cr. kuća, Bo. kuća.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
лекарство
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘medicament’ is shared by Pol. lekarstwo.
  • The meaning ‘medical science’ (медицина) is attested in Cr. ljekarstvo, Bo. ljekarstvo, Sb. лекарство.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
лень

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  • The Russian meaning ‘laziness’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘idler, do-nothing’ (лентяй) is attested in Pol. leń.
  • The meaning ‘lazy’ (ленивый) is attested in Cr. lijen, Bo. lijen, Sb. лен.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
лето

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  • The Russian meaning ‘summer’ is shared by Blr. лета, Ukr. літо, Pol. lato, Cz. léto, Slk. leto, Cr. ljeto, Bo. ljeto, Sb. лето, Mk. лето, Bg. лято.
  • The Russian meaning ‘year (in the plural), e.g. 30 years’ (лето (30 лет)) is shared by Pol. lato (30 lat), Cz. léto (30 lét), Slk. leto (30 let), Sln. leto (30 let).
  • The meaning ‘year (in the sg.)’ (год) is attested in Sln. leto.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
лист
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 51.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Slovak;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 50,000 speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 39.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘sheet of paper’ is shared by Ukr. лист, Cz. list, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Mk. лист, Bg. лист.
  • The Russian meaning ‘leaf’ is shared by Blr. ліст, Ukr. лист, Ka. lëst, Cz. list, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Mk. лист, Bg. лист.
  • The meaning ‘letter’ (письмо) is attested in Blr. ліст, пісьмо, Ukr. лист, Pol. list, Ka. lëst, Slk. list.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
листопад
  • is a complete false friend for about 55,000 native speakers of Upper Sorbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 101 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo.]
лицо
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 46 million speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 11.5 million native speakers of Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘face’ is shared by Pol. lico, Sln. lice, Cr. lice, Bo. lice, Sb. лице.
  • The Russian meaning ‘person’ is shared by Bo. lice, osoba, Sb. лице, особа.
  • The meaning ‘cheek’ (щека) is attested in Pol. lico, Sln. lice.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
личный
  • is a complete false friend for about 40 million native speakers of Slovenian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘personal’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘beautiful’ (миловидный, симпатичный) is attested in Sln. ličen.
  • The meaning ‘numerous’ is attested in Pol. liczny.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
луг

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  • The Russian meaning ‘meadow’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘lye’ (щёлок, щёлочь) is attested in Pol. ług, Cr. lug, Bo. lug, Sb. луг.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
лук
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘onion’ is shared by Cr. luk, Bo. luk, Sb. лук.
  • The Russian meaning ‘bow (weapon)’ is shared by Pol. łuk, Cr. luk, Bo. luk, Sb. лук.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
лыжи
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘skis’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘skates’ (коньки) is attested in Pol. łyżwy.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
любить
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 75 million speakers of Ukrainian, Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
люлька

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  • The Russian meaning ‘tobacco pipe’ (люлька (редко), трубка) is shared by Blr. люлька, Cr. lula, Bo. lula, Sb. лула, Mk. луле, Bg. лула.
  • The Russian meaning ‘cradle’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
майка
  • is a complete false friend for about 65.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Slovenian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘gym shirt’ is shared by Blr. майка.
  • The meaning ‘mother’ (мать) is attested in Cr. majka, Bo. majka, Sb. мајка, Mk. мајка, Bg. майка.
  • The meaning ‘dam, female animal’ (матка) is attested in Mk. мајка, Bg. майка.
  • The meaning ‘nut (to screw on a bolt)’ (гайка) is attested in Bg. майка.
  • The meaning ‘underpants’ (majtki) is attested in Pl. majtki
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
масса
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 118.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘mass’ is shared by Blr. маса, Ukr. маса, Pol. masa, Cz. masa, Slk. masa, Sln. masa, Cr. masa, Bo. masa, Sb. маса, Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (стол) is attested in Mk. маса, Bg. маса.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
матка
  • is a complete false friend for about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 85 million speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
машина

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  • The Russian meaning ‘machine’ (машина, мотор) is shared by Pol. maszyna, Cr. mašina, Bo. mašina, Sb. машина.
  • The Russian meaning ‘car’ (машина, автомобиль) is unique.
  • The meaning ‘locomotion’ (паровоз) is attested in Cr. mašina, Bo. mašina, Sb. машина.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
медь
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘copper’ is shared by Ukr. мед, Bg. мед, Pol. miedź.
  • The meaning ‘honey’ (мёд) is attested in Bg. мед.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
Мексика
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
местный
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
меч
  • is a complete false friend for about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 63 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘sword’ is shared by Blr. меч, Ukr. меч, Cz. meč, Mk. меч, Bg. меч.
  • The meaning ‘match, game’ (матч) is attested in Pol. mecz, Cr. meč, Bo. meč, Sb. меч, Mk. меч.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
мещанин
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘petty bourgeois’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘Philistine’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘inhabitant, townsman’ (горожанин) is attested in Pol. mieszczanin.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
мир

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  • The Russian meaning ‘world’ (мир, свет) is unique.
  • The Russian meaning hist. municipality, parish, commune’ is shared by Cz. mír, občina.
  • The Russian meaning ‘peace’ is shared by Pol. mir (arch.), pokój, zgoda , Ka. mir, Cz. mír, Cr. mir, Bo. mir, Sb. мир.
  • The Russian meaning ‘quiet, stillness’ (мир, покой) is shared by Pol. mir (arch.), spokój , Ka. mir, Cz. mír, Cr. mir, Bo. mir, Sb. мир.
  • The meaning ‘authority, prestige’ (авторитет, уважение) is attested in Pol. mir.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
мотор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘motor’ is shared by Pol. motor.
  • The meaning ‘motorbike’ (мотоцикл) is attested in Pol. motor.
  • The meaning ‘contriver’ (инициатор) is attested in Pol. motor.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
мразь

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  • The Russian meaning

is unique.

  • The Russian meaning

is unique.

  • The meaning

(мороз) is attested in Cr. mraz, Bo. mraz, Sb. мраз.

  • The meaning

(измороз) is attested in Cr. mraz, Bo. mraz, Sb. мраз.

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
мрак
  • is a complete false friend for about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘darkness’ is shared by Cr. mrak, Bo. mrak, Sb. мрак.
  • The meaning ‘cloud’ (облако) is attested in Cz. mrak, Slk. mrak.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
муж
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 65 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 63.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
наглый

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
направо
  • is a complete false friend for about 27.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 99.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Kashu-bian, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to the right’ is shared by Blr. направа, Ukr. направо, Pol. na prawo, Ka. w prawo, w prawą, Cz. napravo, Slk. napravo.
  • The meaning ‘straight on’ (прямо) is attested in Cr. pravo, Bo. pravo, Sb. право, Mk. (на)право, Bg. (на) право.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
неделя

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
образ
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 46 million speakers of Polish, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk.]
обход
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘round, circuit’ is shared by Pol. obchód.
  • The meaning ‘shop’ (магазин) is attested in Cz. obchod.
  • The meaning ‘party’ (праздник, торжество) is attested in Pol. obchód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
обыватель
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘petty bourgeois’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘Philistine’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘inhabitant’ (

) is attested in Pol. .

  • The meaning ‘citizen’ (гражданин) is attested in Pol. obywatel.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
овощи
  • is a complete false friend for about 71.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘vegetables’ is shared by Ukr. овочі.
  • The meaning ‘fruits’ (фрукты) is attested in Pol. owoce, Cz. ovoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće, Sb. воће.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
олово
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘tin, pewter’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘lead’ (свинец) is attested in Cz. olovo, Pol. ołów.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
ольха
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘alder’ is shared by Pol. olcha.
  • The meaning ‘fir-tree’ (пихта, ель) is attested in Bg. елха.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
орать
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to scream’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to plough’ (пахать) is attested in Blr. араць, Pol. orać.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
орган
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46 million native speakers of Bulgarian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘organ (e.g. in the body)’ is shared by Bg. орган, Pol. organ.
  • The meaning ‘organ (musical instrument)’ (орган) is attested in Bg. орган, Pol. organy.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
отец
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 8 million speakers of Belarusian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘father’ (отец (в семье)) is shared by Pol. ojciec.
  • The Russian meaning ‘Father (addressing a priest)’ (отец (служитель культа)) is shared by Blr. айцец, Pol. ojciec.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
отказ
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘denial’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘answer’ (ответ) is attested in Blr. адказ.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
охотник
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 75 million speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘volunteer’ (охотник (редко), доброволец) is shared by Ukr. охочий, Pol. ochotnik.
  • The Russian meaning ‘hunter’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘amateur’ (любитель; охотник до...) is attested in Ukr. охочий.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
палец
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a complete false friend for about 18 million native speakers of Czech, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘finger’ is shared by Pol. palec.
  • The meaning ‘thumb’ (большой палец) is attested in Cz. palec, Bg. палец.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
памятник
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 50,000 native speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 51 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
память
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 56 million native speakers of Czech, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘memory’ is shared by Cz. paměť, Bg. памет, Pol. pamięć.
  • The Russian meaning ‘computer memory’ is shared by Cz. paměť, Bg. памет, Pol. pamięć.
  • The meaning ‘reason, intellect’ (разум) is attested in Cr. pamet, Bo. pamet, Sb. памет.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk.]
папа
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 55.5 million speakers of Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘dad’ is shared by Pol. papa.
  • The Russian meaning ‘the Pope’ (папа римский) is shared by Cr. papa, Bo. papa, Sb. папа.
  • The meaning ‘cardboard, pasteboard’ (папка, картон) is attested in Pol. papa.
  • The meaning ‘bye-bye!’ (пока!) is attested in Ukr. папа!, Pol. papa!, Cr. papa!, Bo. papa!, Sb. папа!.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
пара

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
пепельница
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 54 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘ash-tray’ is shared by Pol. popielniczka, Cz. popelník, Slk. popolník.
  • The meaning ‘Ash Wednesday’ (среда на первой неделе великого поста) is attested in Sln. Pepelnica, Cr. Pepelnica.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk., Bg.]
пёс
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cur, tyke’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘male dog’ is shared by Pol. pies.
  • The meaning ‘dog’ (собака) is attested in Pol. pies.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
Петроград
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 27.5 million native speakers of Czech, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
писарь
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Bulgar-ian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘scribe’ is shared by Pol. pisarz, Sln. pisar, Cr. pisar, Bo. pisar, Bg. писар.
  • The meaning ‘writer’ (писатель) is attested in Pol. pisarz.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk.]
писать

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to påå’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to write’ (писать) is attested in Pol. pisać, Cr. pisati, Bo. pisati, Sb. писати.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
писец
  • is a complete false friend for about 45.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘scribe’ is shared by Sln. pisec.
  • The meaning ‘writer’ (писатель) is attested in Cr. pisac, Bo. pisac, Polish pisarz.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
письмо
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘letter’ is shared by Cr. pismo, Bo. pismo, Sb. писмо.
  • The meaning ‘font, handwriting’ (шрифт, почерк) is attested in Pol. pismo, Cz. písmo, Cr. pismo, Bo. pismo, Sb. писмо.
  • The meaning ‘document’ (документ) is attested in Pol. pismo.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
плоть
  • is a complete false friend for about 67.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
повесть
  • is a complete false friend for about 100.5 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • is a true friend for about 18 million native speakers of Belarusian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘novelette’ is shared by Blr. аповесць, Mk. повест, Bg. повест.
  • The meaning ‘novel’ (роман) is attested in Ukr. повість, Pol. powieść.
  • The meaning ‘history’ (история) is attested in Cr. povijest, Bo. povijest.
  • The meaning ‘fame, reputation’ (звание) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť.
  • The meaning ‘legend’ (сказание, былина) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť, Sln. povest.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
погань

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  • The Russian meaning ‘rabble, riff-raff’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘faeces, excrement’ (кал, помёт) is attested in Cr. pogan, Bo. pogan, Sb. поган.
  • The meaning ‘dirt, mud’ (грязь) is attested in Cr. pogan, Bo. pogan, Sb. поган.
  • The meaning ‘chase, pursuit’ is attested in Pol. pogoń.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
под
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 53.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘under’ is shared by Cr. pod, Bo. pod, Sb. под, Pol. pod.
  • The meaning ‘floor, ground’ (пол) is attested in Cr. pod, Bo. pod, Sb. под.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
покой

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo., Bo.]
полдень
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 45.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
полночь
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 45.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘midnight’ is shared by Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ, Cz. půlnoc, Slk. polnoc, Sln. polnoč, Cr. ponoć, Bo. ponoć, Sb. поноћ, Mk. полноќ, Bg. полунощ.
  • The meaning ‘north’ (север) is attested in Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
понос
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘diarrhoea’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘pride’ (гордость) is attested in Sln. ponos, Cr. ponos, Bo. ponos, Sb. понос.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
посол
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘ambassador’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘member of parliament’ (депутат) is attested in Pol. poseł.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
постель
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 48 million speakers of Polish, Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘bed linen, bed sheets’ is shared by Pol. pościel.
  • The Russian meaning ‘bed’ is shared by Cz. postel.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
проба
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;

is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘probe’ is shared by Mk. проба, Bg. проба.
  • The meaning ‘to test’ (пробовать) is attested in Mk. проба, Pol. próba.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
прозвище
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 46 million native speakers of Bulgarian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘nickname’ is shared by Bg. прозвище, Pol. przezwisko.
  • The meaning ‘surname’ (фамилия) is attested in Ukr. прізвище.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
простак

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  • The Russian meaning ‘fool, stupid’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘lout, ruffian’ (грубиян, невежа) is attested in Cr. prostak, Bo. prostak, Sb. простак, Pol. prostak.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
просто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 45.5 million native speakers of Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
профессор
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
пушка

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cannon’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘rifle’ (ружьё, винтовка) is attested in Sln. puška, Cr. puška, Bo. puška, Sb. пушка.
  • The meaning (Br.) tin, (Am.) can’ (банка) is attested in Pol. puszka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
разбой
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘robbery’ is shared by Pol. rozbój.
  • The meaning ‘weaver’s loom’ (ткацкий стан) is attested in Bg. разбой.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
рано
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘early’ is shared by Cr. rano, Bo. rano, Sb. рано.
  • The meaning ‘in the morning’ (с утра) is attested in Pol. rano.
  • The meaning ‘morning’ (утро) is attested in Pol. rano.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
рассказ
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘story’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘command’ (приказ) is attested in Pol. rozkaz.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
реляция
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘report, account (military)’ is shared by Pol. relacja.
  • The meaning ‘report, account’ (отчёт, сообщение, показание) is attested in Pol. relacja.
  • The meaning ‘relation(ship)’ (отношение) is attested in Pol. relacja.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
речь

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  • The Russian meaning ‘speech’ is shared by Cz. řeč, Slk. reč, Mk. реч, Bg. реч.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Cr. riječ, Bo. riječ, Sb. реч.
  • The meaning ‘matter’ (вещь) is attested in Blr. рэч, Ukr. річ, Pol. rzecz, Sln. reč.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
родина

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
рок

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  • The Russian meaning ‘destiny, fate’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘year’ (год) is attested in Pol. rok, Cz. rok.
  • The meaning ‘fixed time, set term, deadline’ (срок) is attested in Sln. rok, Cr. rok, Bo. rok, Sb. рок, Mk. рок.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
российский
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Croatian, Bosnian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
русский
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
русый
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘blond, fair’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘sandy, red’ (рыжеватый, рыжий) is attested in Sln. rus, Cr. rus, Bo. rus, Sb. рус.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
рыхлый
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘loose, spongy’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘quick’ (быстрый) is attested in Cz. rychlý.
  • The meaning ‘forthcoming, impending’ is attested in Pol. rychły.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
с утра
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘in the morning’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘tomorrow’ (завтра) is attested in Cr. sutra, Bo. sutra, Sb. сутра.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
сад
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘garden’ is shared by Cz. sad, Slk. sad.
  • The meaning ‘orchard’ (фруктовый сад) is attested in Pol. sad.
  • The meaning ‘fruit’ (плод, фрукт) is attested in Sln. sad.
  • The meaning ‘now’ (теперь, сейчас) is attested in Cr. sad, Bo. sad, Sb. сад.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
сбор
  • is a complete false friend for about 40 million native speakers of Macedonian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 2 million speakers of Slovenian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘assembly’ is shared by Sln. zbor.
  • The Russian meaning ‘collecting, collection’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘choir’ (хор) is attested in Sln. zbor.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (слово) is attested in Mk. збор.
  • The meaning ‘Protestant community or church’ is attested in Pol. zbór.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Bg.]
свет
  • is a complete false friend for about 7.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 58 million speakers of Polish, Czech, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘world’ (свет, мир) is shared by Pol. świat, Cz. svět, Sb. свет.
  • The Russian meaning ‘light’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘very far/long’ (очень далеко/долго) is attested in Pol. świat.
  • The meaning ‘council’ (совет) is attested in Cr. svjet, savjet, Bo. svjet, savjet, Sb. свет.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
серб
  • is a complete false friend for about 55,000 native speakers of Upper Sorbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Serb’ is shared by Pol. Serb.
  • The meaning ‘Sorb’ (лужичанин, лужицкий серб) is attested in USo. Serb.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
сербский
  • is a complete false friend for about 55,000 native speakers of Upper Sorbian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Serbian’ is shared by Pol. serbski.
  • The meaning ‘Sorbian (Lusatian)’ (лужицкий, сербо-лужицкий) is attested in USo. serbski.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
синий

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  • The Russian meaning ‘dark blue’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘grey-blue, greyish’ (сизый, сероватый) is attested in Cr. sinji, Bo. sinji, Sb. сињи, Pol. siny.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
склад
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘storehouse’ is shared by Ukr. склад, Pol. skład.
  • The Russian meaning ‘turn, habit, mentality’ is shared by Ukr. склад.
  • The Russian meaning ‘body, constitution’ is shared by Ukr. склад.
  • The Russian meaning ‘syllable’ (склад (устар.), слог) is shared by Ukr. склад.
  • The meaning ‘shop, store’ (магазин) is attested in Pol. skład.
  • The meaning ‘harmony’ (согласие, гармония) is attested in Cr. sklad, Bo. sklad, Sb. склад.
  • The meaning ‘composition’ (состав) is attested in Ukr. склад, Pol. skład.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
склеп
  • is a complete false friend for about 50 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37.0 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Kashubian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘tomb, vault’ is shared by Ukr. склеп, Ka. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘decision’ (решение) is attested in Sln. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘shop’ (магазин) is attested in Pol. sklep.
  • The meaning ‘cellar’ (подвал) is attested in Ukr. склеп, Ka. sklep, Cz. sklep.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
скоро
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘soon, quickly’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘almost’ (почти) is attested in Cz. skoro.
  • The meaning ‘since, when’ is attested in Pol. skoro.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
сливки
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cream’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘plums’ (сливы) is attested in Pol. śliwki.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
словенский
  • is a complete false friend for about 28 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • is a true friend for about 100.6 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Lower Sorbian, Upper Sorbian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Slovenian’ is shared by Blr. славенскі, Ukr. словінський, Pol. słoweński, Ka. słowensczi, LSo. słowjeński, USo. słowjenski, Sln. slovenski, Cr. slovenski, Bo. slovenski, Bg. словенски.
  • The meaning ‘Slovak’ (словацкий) is attested in Cz. slovenský, Slk. slovenský.
  • The meaning ‘Slavonic’ (славянский) is attested in Sb. словенски, Mk. словенски.
[NB: Information complete.]
слово
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 107 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Macedonian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘word’ is shared by Blr. слова, Ukr. слово, Pol. słowo, Cz. slovo, Slk. slovo, Bg. слово.
  • The meaning ‘letter (of the alphabet)’ (буква) is attested in Cr. slovo, Bo. slovo, Sb. слово.
  • The meaning ‘leave-taking, farewell’ (прощание) is attested in Sln. slovo.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
слушать
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 55.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
слышать
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 48 million speakers of Polish, Czech.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to hear’ is shared by Pol. słyszeć, Cz. slyšet.
  • The Russian meaning ‘to smell, to feel a smell’ (слышать (носом)) is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
сметана
  • is a complete false friend for about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘sour cream’ is shared by Ukr. сметана.
  • The meaning ‘cream’ (сливки) is attested in Pol. śmietana, Sln. smetana.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
среда
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 46 million speakers of Bulgarian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘Wednesday’ is shared by Pol. środa.
  • The Russian meaning ‘environment’ is shared by Bg. среда.
  • The meaning ‘middle, centre’ (середина) is attested in Bg. среда.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
ставка
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 38 million speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘rate’ is shared by Pol. stawka.
  • The Russian meaning ‘stake’ is shared by Pol. stawka.
  • The Russian meaning ‘headquarters’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘strike’ (забастовка) is attested in Cz. stávka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
сто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 111 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘a hundred’ is shared by Blr. сто, Ukr. сто, Pol. sto, Cz. sto, Slk. sto, Sln. sto, Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто, Mk. сто, Bg. сто.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (стол) is attested in Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
стол
  • is a complete false friend for about 12 million native speakers of Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 116.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘table’ is shared by Blr. стол, Ukr. стіл, Pol. stół, Cz. stůl, Slk. stôl, Cr. stol, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стул) is attested in Sln. stol, Mk. стол, Bg. стол.
  • The meaning ‘canteen’ (столовая) is attested in Bg. стол.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
столица

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  • The Russian meaning ‘capital’ is shared by Blr. сталіца, Ukr. столиця, Pol. stolica, Ka. stolëca, Bg. столица.
  • The meaning ‘chair’ (стул) is attested in Cz. stolice, Slk. stolica, Cr. stolica, Bo. stolica, Sb. столица, Mk. столица.
  • The meaning ‘professorship’ (кафедра) is attested in Sln. stolica.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
страна

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
строй
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘structure’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘line (mil.)’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘machine’ (машина, механизм) is attested in Cz. stroj.
  • The meaning ‘attire’ (наряд) is attested in Pol. strój.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
студень
  • is a complete false friend for about 14 million native speakers of Belarusian, Croatian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘jelly’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘November’ (ноябрь) is attested in Cr. studeni.
  • The meaning ‘January’ (январь) is attested in Blr. студзень.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
стул
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘chair’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (стол) is attested in Pol. stół, Cz. stůl.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
существовать
  • is a complete false friend for about 6 million native speakers of Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘exist’ is shared by Bg. съществувам.
  • The meaning ‘participate’ (участвовать) is attested in Cr. suučestvovati.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Mk.]
трудный
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk.]
труп

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  • The Russian meaning ‘carcass (of an animal)’ is shared by Cr. trup, Bo. trup, Sb. труп.
  • The Russian meaning ‘dead body’ is shared by Pol. trup.
  • The meaning ‘trunk, body’ (туловище) is attested in Cr. trup, Bo. trup, Sb. труп.
  • The meaning ‘trunk (of a tree)’ (ствол (дерева)) is attested in Cr. trup, Bo. trup, Sb. труп.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
туча

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  • The Russian meaning ‘rainy cloud’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘hail’ (град) is attested in Sln. toča, Cr. tuča, Bo. tuča.
  • The meaning ‘rainbow’ (радуга) is attested in Pol. tęcza.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
тыква
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 29.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘pumpkin’ is shared by Sln. tikva, Cr. tikva, Bo. tikva, Sb. тиква, Mk. тиква, Bg. тиква.
  • The meaning ‘sweet melon’ (дыня) is attested in Cz. tykev.
  • The meaning ‘Lagenaria’ (Лагенария) is attested in Pol. tykwa.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
угол
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 10 million speakers of Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘corner’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘angle’ is shared by Cz. úhel.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
урод
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘malformed person’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘monster’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘beauty’ (красота) is attested in Ukr. врода, Pol. uroda.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
урок
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Czech, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘lesson’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘tribute, interest’ (оброк, проценты) is attested in Cz. úrok.
  • The meaning ‘charm, attraction’ (обаяние) is attested in Pol. urok.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
утро
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘morning’ is shared by Cr. jutro, Bo. jutro, Sb. јутро.
  • The meaning ‘tomorrow’ (завтра) is attested in Pol. jutro.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
федерация
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘federation’ is shared by Bg. федерация, Pol. federacja.
  • The meaning ‘spring-suspension’ (рессоры) is attested in Bg. федерация.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
холод
  • is a complete false friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cold(ness)’ is shared by Pol. chłód.
  • The meaning ‘coolness’ (прохлада) is attested in Sln. hlad, Cr. hlad, Bo. hlad, Sb. хлад, Pol. chłód.
  • The meaning ‘shadow’ (тень) is attested in Cr. hlad, Bo. hlad, Sb. хлад.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Mk., Bg.]
худой
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘lean’ is shared by Pol. chudy.
  • The Russian meaning ‘bad, wretched’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘poor’ (бедный) is attested in Cz. chudý.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
цветень
  • is a complete false friend for about 85 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Czech;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘pollen’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘April’ (апрель) is attested in Ukr. квітень, Pol. kwiecień.
  • The meaning ‘May’ (май) is attested in Cz. květen.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
чайка
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 8 million native speakers of Belarusian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘seagull’ is shared by Blr. чайка.
  • The meaning ‘peewit, lapwing’ (чибис) is attested in Pol. czajka, Cz. čejka.
[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
час
  • is a complete false friend for about 101 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 21.5 million native speakers of Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘hour’ is shared by Bo. čas, Sb. час, Mk. час, Bg. час.
  • The meaning ‘time’ (время) is attested in Blr. час, Ukr. час, Pol. czas, Cz. čas, Slk. čas, Sln. čas.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
частный
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘private’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘narrow’ (тесный) is attested in Pol. ciasny.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
чек

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  • The Russian meaning ‘cheque’ is shared by Pol. czek, Cr. ček, Bo. ček, Sb. чек.
  • The Russian meaning ‘sales slip’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
человек
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 40 million native speakers of Slovenian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘man, human being’ is shared by Sln. človek, Pol. człowiek.
  • The meaning ‘husband’ (муж) is attested in Ukr. чоловік.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
чёрствый
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘hard, dry’ is shared by Pol. czerstwy.
  • The meaning ‘fresh’ (свежий) is attested in Cz. čerstvý.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk., Bg.]
читать
  • does not have all its Russian meanings in the mother tongue of about 55.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Polish.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to read’ is shared by Cr. čitati, Bo. čitati, Sb. читати, Pol. czytać.
  • The Russian meaning ‘to recite’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
чуять
  • is a complete false friend for about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian.

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  • The Russian meaning ‘to feel’ is unique.
  • The Russian meaning ‘to smell (animal) (чуять (запах)) is unique.
  • The meaning ‘to hear’ (слышать) is attested in Bg. чувам.
  • The meaning ‘to keep’ (беречь) is attested in Bg. чувам.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb., Mk.]
шина
  • is a complete false friend for about 57.5 million native speakers of Polish, Kashubian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Macedonian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 16 million native speakers of Belarusian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

map

[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
шкаф
  • is a complete false friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

map

  • The Russian meaning ‘cupboard’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘tub, vat’ (ушат, чан) is attested in Cr. škaf, Bo. škaf, Sb. шкаф.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Mk., Bg.]
штука
  • is a complete false friend for about 35.5 million native speakers of Czech, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

map

  • The Russian meaning ‘piece’ is shared by Pol. sztuka.
  • The meaning ‘art’ (искусство) is attested in Pol. sztuka.
  • The meaning ‘pike’ (щука) is attested in Cr. štuka, Bo. štuka, Sb. штука, Bg. щука.
  • The meaning ‘stucco’ (штукатур) is attested in Cz. štuka.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Mk.]
ягода

map

[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
Ø

There is no Russian word like Blr. ліпень, Ukr. липень, Pol. lipiec, Cr. lipanj.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Blr. чэрвень, Ukr. червень, Pol. czerwiec, Cz. červenec.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Blr. зрок, Cz. zrak, Slk. zrak, Sln. zrak, Cr. zrak, Bo. zrak, Sb. зрак, Mk. зрак.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Blr. дадатны, Ukr. додатний, Pol. dodatni, Cr. dodatni, Bo. dodatni, Sb. додатни.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Cr. šuma, Bo. šuma, Sb. шума, Mk. шума, Bg. шума.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Ka. rujan, Cz. říjen, Cr. rujan.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Pol. piwnica, Cz. pivnice, Cr. pivnica, Bo. pivnica, Sb. пивница.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Pol. je, Cr. je, Bo. je, Sb. је.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Pol. lepiej, Cr. ljepše, Bo. ljepše, Sb. лепше.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Pol. doba, Cz. doba, Slk. doba, Sln. doba, Cr. doba, Bo. doba, Sb. доба, Bg. доба.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Ukr. травень, Sln. traven (mali, veliki), Cr. travanj.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Ukr. серпень, Pol. sierpień, Cz. srpen, Sln. srpen (mali, veliki), Cr. srpanj.

map

Ø

There is no Russian word like Ukr. лікарня, Cz. lékárna, Slk. lekáreň, Sln. lekarna.

map

More Russian-Slavonic false friends:

  • Julian Birbrajer. Friends and false friends: A dictionary of "false friends" between Polish and Russian with an English translation of all entries. Stockholm 1987.
  • Jovanka Čemerikić, Guy Imart, Victoria Tikhonova-Imart. Paronymes russo/serbo-croates ("amis" et "faux-amis"). Aix-en-Provence 1988.
  • Степан Митрофанович Грабчиков. Межъязыковые омонимы и паронимы: Опыт словаря русско-белорусских омонимов и паронимов. Минск 1980.
  • Михайло Петрович Кочерган. Словарь русско-украинских межъязыковых омонимов ("ложные друзья переводчика") - Словник російсько-українських міжмовних омонімів ("фальшиві друзі перекладача"). Київ 1997.
  • Ignacy Kozielewski. Słownik wyrazów o podobnym brzmeniu a odmiennym znaczeniu w języku rosyjskim i polskim. Warszawa 1959.
  • Krzysztof Kusal. Rosyjsko-polski słownik homonimów międzyjęzykowych. Русско-польский словарь межъязыковых омонимов. Wrocław 2002 (Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis, 2462).
  • Josef Vlček. Úskalí ruské slovní zásoby: Slovník rusko-české homonymie a paronymie. Praha 1966.
  • Валентина А. Выхото. Немецко-русско-белорусский словарь: омонимия, паронимия, полисемия. Минск 2002.
  • Валянціна А. Выхота. Беларуска-рускі слоўнік: міжмоўныя амонімы, паронімы і полісемія. Мінск 2004. ISBN 985-6730-48-1.
  • Алексей Иванович Журавлев, Сергей Сергеевич Захаров. "Ложные друзья переводчика" с чешского языка. Москва 1977.

For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

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