False Friends of the Slavist/Macedonian

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Македонски (Macedonian)

(c. 2 million native speakers)
Словенски лажни пријатели со македонскиот јазик


белина
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 275.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘whiteness’ is shared by R. белизна, Ukr. білизна, Cr. bjelina, Bo. bjelina, Sb. белина, Bg. белина.
  • The meaning ‘linen, laundry’ (пресвлека) is attested in Blr. бялізна, Ukr. білизна, Pol. bielizna.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
брак
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘marriage’ is shared by R. брак, Cr. brak, Bo. brak, Sb. брак, Bg. брак.
  • The meaning ‘defect, flaw’ (мана) is attested in R. брак, Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
  • The meaning ‘rejects, refuse, waste’ (шкарт, отфрлена стока) is attested in R. брак, Ukr. брак, Pol. brak, Bg. брак.
  • The meaning ‘lack, want, shortage’ (скудност, недостиг) is attested in Ukr. брак, Pol. brak.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
век
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 17.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 260 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘age, epoch’ is shared by R. век, Pol. wiek, Cz. věk, Sln. vek, Bg. век.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘century’ is shared by R. век, столетие, Pol. wiek, Cz. věk, Sln. vek, Cr. vijek, Bo. vijek, Sb. век, Bg. век.
  • The meaning ‘age (of a person)’ (возраст) is attested in Pol. wiek, Cz. věk.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
вешт
  • is a complete false friend for about 312 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘clever, diligent’ is shared by Sln. vešč, Cr. vješt, Bo. vješt, Sb. вешт.
  • The meaning ‘message’ (вест) is attested in Pol. wieść.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
враг

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘enemy’ is shared by R. враг, Blr. вораг, Ukr. ворог, Pol. wróg, Bg. враг.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘devil, demon’ is shared by Sln. vrag, Cr. vrag, Bo. vrag, Sb. враг.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘slyboots, smartie’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘murderer’ (убиец) is attested in Cz. vrah, Slk. vrah.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
вреден
  • is a complete false friend for about 307.5 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘able, clever’ is shared by Bg. вреден.
  • There is also Macedonian meaning ‘worthy’.
  • The meaning ‘harmful’ (штетен) is attested in R. вредный, Bg. вреден.
  • The meaning ‘precious’ (драгоцен) is attested in Sln. vreden, Cr. vrijedan, Bo. vrijedan, Sb. вредан.
  • The meaning ‘nasty, repulsive’ (гаден, одвратен) is attested in Pol. wredny.
  • The meaning ‘insidious, deceitful’ (фалшив, лажан, лукав) is attested in Pol. wredny.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
година
  • is a complete false friend for about 349 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 25.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
дворец
  • is a complete false friend for about 75 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 283.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘palace’ is shared by R. дворец, Blr. дварэц, Cr. dvorac, Bo. dvorac, Sb. дворац, Bg. дворец.
  • The meaning ‘railway station’ (железничка станица) is attested in Ukr. двірець, Pol. dworzec.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
диња
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Polish, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 306.5 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘sweet melon’ is shared by R. дыня, Ukr. диня, Sln. dinja, Cr. dinja, Bo. dinja, Sb. диња.
  • The meaning ‘watermelon’ (лубеница) is attested in Bg. диня.
  • The meaning ‘pumpkin’ (тиква) is attested in Pol. dynia.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
Дунав
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 329.5 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘Danube’ is shared by R. Дунай, Pol. Dunaj, Cz. Dunaj, Slk. Dunaj, Cr. Dunaj, Bo. Dunaj, Sb. Дунај, Bg. Дунав.
  • The meaning ‘Vienna’ (Виена) is attested in Sln. Dunaj.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
жена
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 333 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 43.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘woman’ is shared by Ukr. жінка, Cz. žena, Slk. žena, Sln. žena, ženska, Cr. žena, Bo. žena, Sb. жена, Bg. жена.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘wife’ is shared by R. жена, Blr. жонка, Pol. żona, Cz. žena, Slk. žena, Sln. žena, Cr. žena, Bo. žena, Sb. жена, Bg. жена.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
живот
  • is a complete false friend for about 39 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 296 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 41.5 million native speakers of Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
завод
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 287.5 million speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘factory, works’ is shared by R. завод, Cz. závod, Bg. завод.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘institute’ is shared by Sln. zavod, Cr. zavod, Bo. zavod, Sb. завод.
  • The meaning ‘contest’ (натпреварување) is attested in Cz. závod.
  • The meaning ‘occupation, profession, trade’ (занимање, струка) is attested in Pol. zawód.
  • The meaning ‘disappointment’ (разочарување) is attested in Pol. zawód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
заод
  • is a complete false friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 40 million native speakers of Polish, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘sunset’ is shared by R. заход, Pol. zachód, Sln. zahod.
  • The meaning ‘west’ (запад) is attested in Pol. zachód, Sln. zahod.
  • The meaning ‘toilet’ (клозет, нужник) is attested in Cz. záchod, Slk. záchod, Cr. zahod, Bo. zahod, Sb. заход.
  • The meaning ‘trouble, effort’ (труд, мака, напор) is attested in Pol. zachód.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
запомни
  • is a complete false friend for about 48 million native speakers of Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 268 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Slovenian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘to memorize’ is shared by R. запомнить, Blr. запомніць, Sln. zapomniti, Bg. запомня.
  • The meaning ‘to forget’ (заборава) is attested in Pol. zapomnieć, Cz. zapomenout.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
збор
  • is a complete false friend for about 252 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘word’ is unique.
  • The meaning ‘assembly’ (собир, состанок) is attested in R. сбор, Sln. zbor.
  • The meaning ‘collecting, collection’ (збирка) is attested in R. сбор.
  • The meaning ‘choir’ (хор) is attested in Sln. zbor.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Cr., Bo., Sb., Bg.]
зрак
  • is a complete false friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • is a true friend for about 10 million native speakers of Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Ukrainian, Polish, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘ray, beam’ is shared by Sb. зрак.
  • The meaning ‘air’ (воздух) is attested in Sln. zrak, Cr. zrak, Bo. zrak.
  • The meaning ‘eyesight’ (вид) is attested in Blr. зрок, Cz. zrak, Slk. zrak.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
игра

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
јагода
  • is a complete false friend for about 288 million native speakers of Russian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 18 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 25.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘strawberry’ is shared by Cz. jahoda, Slk. jahoda, Sln. jagoda, Cr. jagoda, Bo. jagoda, Sb. јагода, Bg. ягода.
  • The meaning ‘berry’ (зрно) is attested in R. ягода, Pol. jagoda, Cz. jahoda, Slk. jahoda, Sln. jagoda.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo.]
крај

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
лето
  • is a complete false friend for about 2 million native speakers of Slovenian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 304 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 70.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
лист
  • is a complete false friend for about 38 million native speakers of Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 51.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Slovak;
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 50,000 speakers of Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 287.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘sheet of paper’ is shared by R. лист, Blr. ліст, аркуш, Ukr. лист, Cz. list, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Bg. лист.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘leaf’ is shared by R. лист, Blr. ліст, Ukr. лист, Ka. lëst, Cz. list, Slk. list, Sln. list, Cr. list, Bo. list, Sb. лист, Bg. лист.
  • The meaning ‘letter’ (писмо) is attested in Blr. ліст, пісьмо, Ukr. лист, Pol. list, Ka. lëst, Slk. list.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
листопад
  • is a complete false friend for about 55,000 native speakers of Upper Sorbian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 101 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian;
  • is a true friend for about 275.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovak, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo.]
луле
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • is a true friend for about 33.5 million native speakers of Belarusian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Polish.

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[NB: No information yet for Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln.]
маж
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 313.5 million speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Polish, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 63 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘man’ is shared by Ukr. муж, Cz. muž, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, moški, Bg. мъж.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘husband’ is shared by R. муж, Blr. муж, Ukr. муж, чоловік, Pol. mąż, Cz. muž, Slk. muž, Sln. mož, Cr. muž, Bo. muž, Sb. муж, Bg. мъж.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
мајка
  • is a complete false friend for about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 17.5 million speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Polish, Slovenian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘mother’ is shared by Cr. majka, Bo. majka, Sb. мајка, Bg. майка.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘dam, female animal’ is shared by Bg. майка.
  • The meaning ‘gym shirt’ (кошула) is attested in R. майка, Blr. майка.
  • The meaning ‘nut (to screw on a bolt)’ (мутер, заврток) is attested in Bg. майка.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk.]
маса

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
матка
  • is a complete false friend for about 54 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 258 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian;
  • is a true friend for about 45 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘womb, uterus’ is shared by R. матка, Blr. матка, Ukr. матка, Bg. матка.
  • The meaning ‘mother’ (мајка) is attested in Blr. матка, Pol. matka, Cz. matka, Slk. matka.
  • The meaning ‘dam, female animal’ (мајка, женско) is attested in R. матка, Blr. матка, Pol. matka.
  • The meaning ‘nut (to screw on a bolt)’ (мутер, заврток) is attested in Cz. matka.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
меч

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Slk., Sln.]
нагло

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
недела

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[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
пара
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 43.5 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘steam’ is shared by Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. para, Cz. pára, Slk. para, Sln. para, Cr. para, Bo. para, Sb. пара, Bg. пара.
  • The meaning ‘pair’ (чифт, двајца) is attested in R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. para.
  • The meaning ‘a couple of, some’ (неколку) is attested in R. пара, Blr. пара, Ukr. пара, Pol. parę.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
пладне
  • is a complete false friend for about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 46.0 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish, Kashubian;
  • is a true friend for about 293.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
плот

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[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
повест
  • is a complete false friend for about 100.5 million native speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian;
  • is a true friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Serbian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘novelette’ is shared by R. повесть, Blr. аповесць, Bg. повест.
  • The meaning ‘novel’ (роман) is attested in Ukr. повість, Pol. powieść.
  • The meaning ‘history’ (историја) is attested in Cr. povijest, Bo. povijest.
  • The meaning ‘fame, reputation’ (глас) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť.
  • The meaning ‘legend’ (приказна, предание) is attested in Cz. pověst, Slk. povesť, Sln. povest.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
покој
  • is a complete false friend for about 46 million native speakers of Belarusian, Polish;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 266.0 million native speakers of Russian, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 20 million native speakers of Slovenian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Ukrainian, Croatian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo., Bo.]
полноќ
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 293.5 million native speakers of Russian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘midnight’ is shared by R. полночь, Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ, Cz. půlnoc, Slk. polnoc, Sln. polnoč, Cr. ponoć, Bo. ponoć, Sb. поноћ, Bg. полунощ.
  • The meaning ‘north’ (север) is attested in Blr. поўнач, Ukr. північ, Pol. północ.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
проба
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 258 million speakers of Russian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘probe’ is shared by R. проба, Bg. проба.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘to test’ is unique.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Cz., Slk., Sln., Cr., Bo., Sb.]
(на)право
  • is a complete false friend for about 349.0 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 25.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Slovenian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
просто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 83 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish;
  • is a true friend for about 293.5 million native speakers of Russian, Kashubian, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian.

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
реч

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘speech’ is shared by R. речь, Cz. řeč, Slk. reč, Bg. реч.
  • The meaning ‘word’ (збор) is attested in Cr. riječ, Bo. riječ, Sb. реч.
  • The meaning ‘matter’ (работа) is attested in Blr. рэч, Ukr. річ, Pol. rzecz, Sln. reč.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
родбина

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘relations’ is shared by Sln. rodbina, Cr. rodbina, Bo. rodbina, Sb. родбина.
  • The meaning ‘family’ (семејство) is attested in Ukr. родина, Pol. rodzina, Cz. rodina, Slk. rodina.
  • The meaning ‘motherland, home region’ (роден крај, татковина) is attested in R. родина, Blr. радзіна, Bg. родина.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
рок
  • is a complete false friend for about 298 million native speakers of Russian, Polish, Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘fixed time, set term, deadline’ is shared by Sln. rok, Cr. rok, Bo. rok, Sb. рок.
  • The meaning ‘year’ (година) is attested in Pol. rok, Cz. rok.
  • The meaning ‘destiny, fate’ (судбина) is attested in R. рок.
[NB: No information yet for Blr., Ukr., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
словенски

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[NB: Information complete.]
сто
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • is a true friend for about 359 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘a hundred’ is shared by R. сто, Blr. сто, Ukr. сто, Pol. sto, Cz. sto, Slk. sto, Sln. sto, Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто, Bg. сто.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (маса) is attested in Cr. sto, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
стол

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘chair’ is shared by Sln. stol, Bg. стол.
  • The meaning ‘table’ (маса) is attested in R. стол, Blr. стол, Ukr. стіл, Pol. stół, Cz. stůl, Slk. stôl, Cr. stol, Bo. sto, Sb. сто.
  • The meaning ‘canteen’ (кантина, менза, трпезарија) is attested in Bg. стол.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
столица

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[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
страна
  • is a complete false friend for about 250 million native speakers of Russian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 24 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak, Bulgarian;
  • does not have all its Macedonian meanings in the mother tongue of about 83.0 million speakers of Ukrainian, Polish, Kashubian, Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 19.5 million native speakers of Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘side’ is shared by Ukr. сторона, Pol. strona, Ka. strona, Cz. strana, Slk. strana, Sln. stran, Cr. strana, Bo. strana, Sb. страна, Bg. страна.
  • The Macedonian meaning ‘page’ is shared by Cz. strana, Slk. strana, Sln. stran, Cr. strana, Bo. strana, Sb. страна.
  • The meaning ‘country’ (земја) is attested in R. страна, Bg. страна.
  • The meaning ‘cheek’ (образ) is attested in Bg. страна.
  • The meaning ‘political party’ (партија) is attested in Cz. strana, Slk. strana.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
тиква
  • is a complete false friend for about 10 million native speakers of Czech;
  • is a true friend for about 277.5 million native speakers of Russian, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘pumpkin’ is shared by R. тыква, Sln. tikva, Cr. tikva, Bo. tikva, Sb. тиква, Bg. тиква.
  • The meaning ‘sweet melon’ (диња) is attested in Cz. tykev.
[NB: No information yet for Pol., Ka., LSo., USo., Slk.]
час
  • is a complete false friend for about 101 million native speakers of Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian;
  • is a true friend for about 269.5 million native speakers of Russian, Bosnian, Serbian, Bulgarian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Croatian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘hour’ is shared by R. час, Bo. čas, Sb. час, Bg. час.
  • The meaning ‘time’ (време) is attested in Blr. час, Ukr. час, Pol. czas, Cz. čas, Slk. čas, Sln. čas.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
шина
  • is a complete false friend for about 266 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Bulgarian;
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 37 million native speakers of Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 55.5 million native speakers of Polish, Kashubian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘rail’ is shared by Ukr. шина, Pol. szyna, Ka. szina, Cr. šina, Bo. šina, Sb. шина.
  • The meaning ‘tyre’ (гума) is attested in R. шина, Blr. шына, Ukr. шина, Bg. шина.
[NB: No information yet for LSo., USo.]
шума
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 8 million native speakers of Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 17.5 million native speakers of Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Slovenian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘forest’ is shared by Cr. šuma, Bo. šuma, Sb. шума, Bg. шума.
  • The meaning ‘foliage, leaves’ (лисје) is attested in Bg. шума.
  • The meaning ‘bush’ (грмушка) is attested in Bg. шума.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
Ø

There is no Macedonian word like Blr. ліпень, Ukr. липень, Pol. lipiec, Cr. lipanj.

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Ø

црвен is the Macedonian word for Blr. чэрвень, Ukr. червень, Pol. czerwiec, Cz. červenec.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like Ka. rujan, Cz. říjen, Cr. rujan.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. студень, Blr. студзень, Cr. studeni.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. слово, Blr. слова, Ukr. слово, Pol. słowo, Cz. slovo, Slk. slovo, Sln. slovo, Cr. slovo, Bo. slovo, Sb. слово, Bg. слово.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. арбуз, Blr. гарбуз, Ukr. гарбуз, Pol. arbuz.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. вещь, Pol. wiec, Cz. věc, Slk. vec, Sln. več, Cr. već, Bo. već, Sb. већ, Bg. вещ.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. стул, Pol. stół, Cz. stůl.

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Ø

споменик is the Macedonian word for R. памятник, Ukr. пам’ятник, Pol. pamiętnik, Ka. pamiãtnik, Slk. pamätník, Bg. паметник.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. дума, Blr. дума, Ukr. дума, Pol. duma, Bg. дума.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. диван, Blr. дыван, Pol. dywan, Cz. divan, Slk. diván, Sln. divan, Cr. divan, Bo. divan, Sb. диван.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. кресло, Blr. крэсла, Ukr. крісло, Pol. krzesło, Cz. křeslo, Slk. kreslo, Bg. кресло.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. выход, Blr. выхад, Ukr. вихід, Cz. východ, Slk. východ.

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гора
  • has additional meanings in the language of about 6 million native speakers of Slovak and Bulgarian;
  • is a true friend for about 352.5 million native speakers of Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Czech, Slovenian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;

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  • The Serbian meaning ‘mountain’ is shared by R. гора, Blr. гара, Ukr. гора, Pol. góra, Cz. hora, Slk. hora, Sln. gora, Cr. gora, Bo. gora, Sr. gora.
  • The meaning ‘forest’ (шума) is attested in Slk. hora, Bg. гора.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
овошје
  • is a complete false friend for about 287 million native speakers of Russian, Ukrainian;
  • is a true friend for about 61.5 million native speakers of Polish, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Slovenian, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘fruits’ is shared by Pol. owoce, Cz. ovoce, Slk. ovocie, Cr. voće, Bo. voće.
  • The meaning ‘vegetables’ (зеленчук) is attested in R. овощи, Ukr. овочі.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo.]
мрак
  • is a complete false friend for about 16 million native speakers of Czech, Slovak;
  • is a true friend for about 257.5 million native speakers of Russian, Croatian, Bosnian, Serbian;
  • does not have any formally similar counterparts in Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Bulgarian.

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  • The Macedonian meaning ‘darkness’ is shared by S.  мрак, R. мрак, Cr. mrak, Bo. mrak.
  • The meaning ‘cloud’ (облак) is attested in Cz. mrak, Slk. mrak.
[NB: No information yet for Ka., LSo., USo., Sln.]
Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. охотник, Ukr. охочий, Pol. ochotnik.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. прозвище, Ukr. прізвище, Bg. прозвище.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. краска, Blr. краска, Bg. краска.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. сливки, Pol. śliwki.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like R. цветень, Ukr. квітень, Pol. kwiecień, Cz. květen.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like Ukr. травень, Sln. traven (mali, veliki), Cr. travanj.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like Ukr. серпень, Pol. sierpień, Cz. srpen, Sln. srpen (mali, veliki), Cr. srpanj.

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Ø

There is no Macedonian word like Ukr. лікарня, Cz. lékárna, Slk. lekáreň, Sln. lekarna.

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For additional information on false friends, see the On-line hypertext bibliography by Daniel Bunčić and Ryszard Lipczuk.

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