Punjabi/Print version

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
< Punjabi
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Punjabi, a language of the Indo-European family, is native to the Punjab region. In Eastern Punjab (India), it is written in Gurmukhi script; Shahmukhi, an adapted derivative of the Perso-Arabic script, is used in Western Punjab (Pakistan). In India, it is recognized as the first official language of Punjab, while being accepted as a secondary official language in several other states. It is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan although it lacks an official status. It is spoken internationally by an estimated 100 to 125 million people and is the tenth most widely spoken language in the world. It has a place of pride in Canada, where it is the third most spoken language, and in England and Wales, where it is the fourth most spoken language. This wiki book seeks to help readers learn this fascinating language.


Gurmukhi script[edit]

Punjab was divided between the nations of India and Pakistan following the partition in 1947. While Punjabi is still spoken as a first language in the two provinces, different writing systems are in vogue on either side of the international border - Gurmukhi script in Eastern Punjab and Shahmukhi script in the Western part. This module deals with the Gurmukhi script.

Gurmukhī, which means 'from the mouth of the Guru', was standardized in the 16th century by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad. The alphabet is also called 'Pæntī' meaning 'thirty five'. Later on, new letters were added to accommodate Persian sounds. The present alphabet consists of forty one letters. The letters are systematically arranged:

  • Row 1 contains the vowels and fricatives.
  • Rows 2-6 contains phonetically arranged consonants.
  • Row 7 contains miscellaneous consonants (approximants, lateral and trill).
  • Row 8 contains the consonants added later to accommodate Persian sounds.

The arrangement of consonants in rows 2-6 is based on the Devanagari alphabet - each row contains consonants with a common place of articulation (but varying in aspiration, voicing, tone and nasalization); the rows, themselves, are ordered by the place of articulation moving in an outward fashion, beginning with the velar consonants, followed by palatals, retroflexes, dentals and ending at the labials.

A Gurmukhi vowel is called a 'mātrā'. Gurmukhi is an abugida in which all consonants have an inherent vowel. Diacritics, which can appear above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to, are used to change the inherent vowel. In the absence of a consonant, the vowel signs are indicated on the first three letters of the alphabet.

Gurmukhi also has three sub-joined conjuncts, which will be discussed later in the module. Gurmukhi also has the capability to write half consonants (lacking an inherent schwa ending) as in Devanagari; however these are infrequent, except for two consonants, which will be discussed along with the other conjuncts. Gurmukhi has its own set of numerals, 0 through 9, which have been supplanted by the Hindu-Arabic numerals. The usage of punctuation marks is almost identical to that in English, except for a vertical bar representing the end of a sentence. The script does not make any distinction between upper and lower case letters as in the Latin script.

Gurmukhi is a near phonetic script, where each sound is represented by a unique combination of consonants and vowels. Thus once the learner becomes well acquainted with the letters and the sounds they represent, transliteration into Latin script will no longer be required to supplement the Gurmukhi spellings to indicate pronunciation. Thus, it will be dispensed with in subsequent modules. It is, therefore, important that you thoroughly learn and practise the letters before moving on to the subsequent modules of the book.

First row of Gurmukhi[edit]

Gurmukhi is arranged into eight rows, first seven of five letters each and the last of six letters. The first row (ਪ੍ਰਥਮ ਵਰਗ) consists of

These letters are called urha, airhaa, eerhi, sussa and hahaa. The first three letters ੳ, ਅ and ੲ, the only letters of this kind, have no sounds of their own and act as matra (vowel) carriers. Let us first study ਹ.

Haha, the fifth letter of Gurmukhi, is pronounced the same as /h/ in English. For example, the word who will be written as ਹੂ in Gurmukhi. The matra attached with ਹ represents the /oo/ vowel as in boot. Thus we have

ਹੂ /hoo/ = who

Now have a look at another word how which will be written in Gurmukhi as

ਹਾ + ਉ = ਹਾਉ /hau/ = how

The matra attached with ਹ represents vowel /a/ as in /last/. The second letter of this example is

Urha, the first Gurmukhi letter, has no sound of its own and is used as a matra (vowel) carrier. In the above example the matra attached with ੳ represents vowel /u/ as in put. Now let us learn ਸ also

Sussa, the fourth Gurmukhi letter, is pronounced the same as /s/ in English. If we add ਸ to ਹਾਉ we get

ਹਾ + ਉ + ਸ = ਹਾਉਸ /haaus/ = house

The word eye when written in Gurmukhi illustrates the remaining two letters of the first row namely

Airha, the second letter of Gurmukhi script and

Irhi, the third letter of Gurmukhi script are both used as matra (vowel) carriers. See how eye is written in Gurmukhi

ਆ + ਇ = ਆਇ = eye

The matra attached with ਅ represents vowel /a/ as in last and the one attached with ੲ represents vowel /i/ as in list. Look at some more illustrations of the use of ਸ in transliteration of the words sigh and ice in Gurmukhi

ਸਾ + ਇ = ਸਾਇ /sai/ = sigh
ਆ + ਇ + ਸ = ਆਇਸ /aais/ = ice

Exercises[edit]

1. Practice module, accessible from navigation menu above, has been provided to help you practice writing Gurmukhi letters. Use it to write the letters of the first row in your note book as many times as you may feel comfortable. You can click one of the letters below to go to see its animation.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਹੂ
  2. ਆਇ
  3. ਹਾਉਸ
  4. ਆਇਸ
Solutions
  1. Who
  2. Eye
  3. House
  4. Ice

3. Write the above listed words in Gurmukhi and English side by side

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Us
  2. How
  3. Sigh
  4. Hiss
  5. High
Solutions
  1. ਅ + ਸ = ਅਸ
  2. ਹਾ + ਉ = ਹਾਉ
  3. ਸਾ + ਇ = ਸਾਇ
  4. ਹਿ + ਸ = ਹਿਸ
  5. ਹਾ + ਇ = ਹਾਇ

Summary[edit]

You have learnt ੳ, ਅ, ੲ, ਸ and ਹ, the five letters of the first row (ਪ੍ਰਥਮ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi script. We have specially selected examples familiar to an English knowing learner. Besides the above named letters you also encountered some of the matras (vowels) which we explained without naming them. In the next chapter you will learn the vowel sounds and the matras representing these vowels in Gurmukhi.

Punjabi Vowels[edit]

Now that you have already learnt the first five letters of the Gurmukhi script, it is time to turn attention to the vowels. Matras represent vowels in Gurmukhi. The letters ੳ, ਅ and ੲ are not consonants but are merely the matra carriers. When a consonant is not available to attach matra one of these matra carriers is used. Armed with this knowledge you can now proceed to learn the ten Gurmukhi matras.

ਅ ਆ ਇ ਈ ਉ ਊ ਏ ਐ ਓ ਔ

Here we have used letters ੳ, ਅ or ੲ only to demonstrate how matras combine with other letters. In reality they can combine with any other letter as well. However when they combine with matra carriers they individually combine with only the matra carriers as they have above. We now explain each of the above matras.

Mukta 
Mukta literally means free and therefore, has no symbol. It is equivalent to a in above or e in (British) dancer. Hence forth in this module mukta vowel will be denoted by /a/.
ਅ + ਸ = ਅਸ /as/ = us
Kanna 
Kanna is equivalent to a in alter or father. Hence forth in this module we will denote kanna vowel with /aa/.
ਸਾ /saa/ = saw
ਹਾ + ਉ = ਹਾਉ /haau/ = how
ਹਾ + ਉ + ਸ = ਹਾਉਸ /haaus/ = house
ਆ + ਇ = ਆਇ = eye
Vowels in Punjabi come in pairs, a short vowel and a long one. Here mukta and kanna form one such pair where mukta is the short vowel and kanna the long one. ਇ and ਈ; ਉ and ਊ; ਏ and ਐ; ਓ and ਔ are other pairs.
Sihari 
Sihari is equivalent to i in pin or thin. Hence forth in this module we will denote sihari vowel with /i/.
ਹਿ + ਸ = ਹਿਸ = hiss
ਆ + ਇ + ਸ = ਆਇਸ /aais/ = ice
ਆ + ਇ = ਆਇ = eye
ਉ + ਏ + ਸਿ + ਸ = ਉਏਸਿਸ = oasis
A distinct characteristic of sihari is that unlike other matras it precedes the letter it is spoken after.
Bihari 
Bihari is equivalent to ea in teacher or ee in seek. We will denote bihari vowel with /ii/ in this module. See the following examples of use of bihari.
ਸੀ = see
ਹੀ = he
Aunkarh 
Aunkarh is equivalent to u put or oo in book. We will denote aunkarh vowel with /u/ in this module. See the following examples of use of aunkarh.
ਹਾ + ਉ + ਸ = ਹਾਉਸ /haaus/ = house
ਸਿ + ਉ = ਸਿਉ = sew
Dulenkarh 
Dulenkarh is equivalent to oo in boot. We will denote dulenkarh vowel with /oo/ in this module. See the following example of use of dulenkarh.
ਹੂ /hoo/ = who
Lanv 
Lanv is equivalent to a as in hate or rate. We will denote lanv vowel with /e/ in this module.See the following examples of use of lanv.
ਏ + ਸ = ਏਸ = ace
ਹੇ = hey
Dulawan 
Dulawan is equivalent to a in matter or hat. We will denote dulawan vowel with /ae/ in this module. See the following examples of use of dulanvan.
ਅ + ਸੈ + ਸ = ਅਸੈਸ = assess
ਐ + ਸੇ = ਐਸੇ = essay
Horha 
Horha is equivalent to o sound as in English home. Horha vowel will be denoted with /o/ in this module. See the following examples of use of horha.
ਸੋ = sow
ਹੋ = hoe
NB : When horha is used with ੳ there is no space left above ੳ for placing horha and therefore whenever horha has to be used with ੳ the upper semi-circle is left open to denote horha matra. In all other cases horha is written as in ਹੋ.
Kanaorha 
Kanaorha is equivalent to o as in odd or hot. Kanaorha will be denoted with /ao/ in this wikibook. See the following examples of use of kanaorha in Punjabi words.
ਸੌ + ਸ = ਸੌਸ = sauce

Exercises[edit]

1. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi.

  1. ਸੋ
  2. ਏਸ
  3. ਆਇ
  4. ਸੌਸ
  5. ਉਏਸਿਸ
Solutions
  1. So/Sow
  2. Ace
  3. Eye
  4. Sauce
  5. Oasis

2. Write the above listed words in Gurmukhi and English alongside each.

3. Write these English words in Gurmukhi.

  1. He
  2. Sew
  3. Assess
  4. Cess
  5. Essay
Solutions
  1. ਹੀ
  2. ਸਿ + ਉ = ਸਿਉ
  3. ਅ + ਸੈ + ਸ = ਅਸੈਸ
  4. ਸੈ + ਸ = ਸੈਸ
  5. ਐ + ਸੇ = ਐਸੇ

Summary[edit]

We have devoted this lesson to learning of the ten matras which represent the vowels. However we have still not touched the diacritics which form integral part of Gurmukhi script. We will learn the diacritics in the next lesson.

Diacritics[edit]

You have already learnt the first five letters and the ten matras (vowels) of Gurmukhi. In this chapter you will learn the diacritics of Gurmukhi and their usage in Punjabi.

Diacritics are the signs that are added to vowels and consonants to add phonetic value to them. Punjabi has three diacritics namely bindi (ਆਂ), tippi (ਅੰ) and udhak (ਅੱ) used with vowels. These diacritics are lexically significant as their use changes the meaning of the words. Therefore learning correct usage of these diacritics is important.

ਆਂ - bindi 
Bindi is the dot above ਆ and
ਅੰ - tippi 
Tippi is the inverted semi-circular shape above ਅ. Bindi and tippi are used with vowels to nasalize the vowel sounds or to reinforce the following nasal sound and therefore come along with one of the matras. Both serve the same purpose but bindi is used with kanna, bihari, lanv, dulavan, horha and kanaorha whereas tippi is used exclusively with mukta, sihari, aaunkarh and dulaenkarh. See the following examples.
ਆ + ਉਂ + ਸ = ਆਉਂਸ = ounce
ਹੈਂ + ਸ = ਹੈਂਸ = hence
ਸੈਂ + ਸ = ਸੈਂਸ = sense
ਸਾ + ਇੰ + ਸ = ਸਾਇੰਸ = science
ਸਿੰ + ਸ = ਸਿੰਸ = since
ਐ + ਸੰ + ਸ = ਐਸੰਸ = essence
ਅੱ - udhak 
Udhak is used to reinforce the sound of the consonant that follows. It is interesting to note that udhak comes with the letter preceding the letter to be reinforced.
ਸੈੱ + ਸ = ਸੈੱਸ = cess
ਅ +ਸੈੱ + ਸ = ਅਸੈੱਸ = assess
ਸੈਂ + ਸੱ + ਸ = ਸੈਂਸੱਸ = census

Exercises[edit]

1. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi.

  1. ਆਉਂਸ
  2. ਐਸੰਸ
  3. ਸਾਇੰਸ
  4. ਅਸੈੱਸ
Solutions
  1. Ounce
  2. Essence
  3. Science
  4. Assess

2. Write the above listed words in Gurmukhi and English side by side.

3. Write these English words in Gurmukhi.

  1. Hence
  2. Census
  3. Since
  4. Cess
  5. Sense
Solutions
  1. ਹੈਂ + ਸ = ਹੈਂਸ
  2. ਸੈਂ + ਸੱ + ਸ = ਸੈਂਸੱਸ
  3. ਸਿੰ + ਸ = ਸਿੰਸ
  4. ਸੈੱ + ਸ = ਸੈੱਸ
  5. ਸੈਂ + ਸ = ਸੈਂਸ

Summary[edit]

So you have learnt the first five letters, the ten matras and three diacritics of Gurmukhi. You are now ready to move on to the others rows of Gurmukhi letters. In the next lesson you will learn the five velars of Gumukhi script.

Second row - the Velars[edit]

Now that you are armed with the knowledge of letters ੳ, ਅ, ੲ, ਸ and ਹ along with the vowels and the diacritics let us move on to the second row (ਕ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi script. The letters of this row are called velars because they are articulated at velum. Velum is the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth. The back part of the tongue called dorsum touches the velum for their articulation and hence they are also occasionally called dorsals.

The second row of Gurmukhi consists of the following five letters.

These letters are called ਕ - kukka, ਖ - khukha, ਗ - gugga, ਘ - ghugga and ਙ - ngunga. Their pronunciation is ਕ - /k/, ਖ - /kh/, ਗ - /g/, ਘ - /gh/ and ਙ - /ng/. We now consider each of them one by one.

Kukka 
The sixth letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to /k/ in English. This illustration will explain its usage.
ਕੇ + ਕ = ਕੇਕ = cake
See how ਹ that you learnt in first lesson and ਕ combine to give hook and hockey.
ਹੁ + ਕ = ਹੁਕ = hook
ਹਾ + ਕੀ = ਹਾਕੀ = hockey
Khukha 
The seventh letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to /kh/ as in Kazakh. This sound is rarely used in English but is quite prevalent in Punjabi. The word khaki contains both the letters ਕ and ਖ
ਖਾ + ਕੀ = ਖਾਕੀ = khaki
If you have difficulty pronouncing ਖ try this - while producing /k/ sound throw out lots of breath from the throat, the resultant sound shall be ਖ. Sounds so produced, that is by throwing breath out with a rush, are called aspirated sounds.
The second letter ਜ਼ in the following example is equivalent to /z/.
ਕ + ਜ਼ਾ + ਖ = ਕਜ਼ਾਖ = Kazakh (Kazakh language or a Kazakhstan national)
Gugga 
The eighth letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to /g/. The words gas and hug when written in Gurmukhi will further illustrate its use.
ਗੈ + ਸ = ਗੈਸ = gas
ਹੱ + ਗ = ਹੱਗ = hug
Ghugga 
There is no English equivalent of ਘ, the ninth letter of Gurmukhi. ਘ sound is produced by combining ਕ sound with a tone in the initial position and a tone with ਗ sound elsewhere. The nearest English equivalent of ਘ is /gh/ and nearest examples illustrating the use ਘ will be ghost and Ghana. In the examples below the letters ਟ and ਨ represent /t/ and /n/ sounds to be introduced later.
ਘੋ + ਸ + ਟ = ਘੋਸਟ = ghost
ਘਾ + ਨਾ = ਘਾਨਾ = Ghana
Ngunga 
The tenth letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to /ng/ as in sing. The use of this letter is becoming scarce in Punjabi. It never comes at the initial position in any Punjabi word. The words sing and king will be written in Gurmukhi as
ਸਿੰ + ਙ = ਸਿੰਙ = sing
ਕਿੰ + ਙ = ਕਿੰਙ = king

Exercises[edit]

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the second row in your note book as many times as you may feel comfortable. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਹੁਕ
  2. ਹੱਗ
  3. ਹਾਂਗਕਾਂਗ
  4. ਕੇਕ
  5. ਕਾਂਗੋ
  6. ਕਿੰਙ
  7. ਖਾਕੀ
  8. ਸੇਕ
  9. ਕਿਸ
Solutions
  1. Hook
  2. Hug
  3. Hongkong
  4. Cake
  5. Congo
  6. King
  7. Khaki
  8. Sake
  9. Kiss

3. Write the above listed words in Gurmukhi and English side by side.

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Gas
  2. Hockey
  3. Case
  4. Kiosk
  5. Excess
  6. Egg
  7. Sick
  8. Hague
Solutions
  1. ਗੈ + ਸ = ਗੈਸ
  2. ਹਾ + ਕੀ = ਹਾਕੀ
  3. ਕੇ + ਸ = ਕੇਸ
  4. ਕਿ + ਔ + ਸ + ਕ = ਕਿਔਸਕ
  5. ਇ + ਕ + ਸੈੱ + ਸ = ਇਕਸੈੱਸ
  6. ਐੱ + ਗ = ਐੱਗ
  7. ਸਿੱ + ਕ = ਸਿੱਕ
  8. ਹੇ + ਗ = ਹੇਗ

Summary[edit]

In this lesson we have learnt the five letters of the second row (ਕ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi script. These letter are kukka (ਕ = /k/), khukha (ਖ = /kh/), gugga (ਗ = /g/), ghugga (ਘ = /gh/) and ngunga (ਙ = /ng/). We have seen that ਖ and ਘ sounds are rarely used in English and ਙ in Punjabi.

Third row of Gurmukhi - the Palatals[edit]

Let us recall that besides vowels and diacritics you have already learnt the first ten letters of Gurmukhi viz. ੳ, ਅ, ੲ, ਸ, ਹ, ਕ, ਖ, ਗ, ਘ and ਙ. We now move on to the third row (ਚ ਵਰਗ). These letters are called palatals for they are articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate, the middle part of the roof of the mouth. The palatals are

These are called ਚ - chucha, ਛ - chhuchha, ਜ - jujja, ਝ - jhujja and ਞ -neya. Their pronunciation is ਚ -/ch/, ਛ - /chh/, ਜ - /j/, ਝ - /jh/ and ਞ - /ny/.
We now briefly explain each of these

Chucha 
The eleventh letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to /ch/ of English. Now, how do you write catch in Gurmukhi? I write it for you below
ਕੈ + ਚ = ਕੈਚ = catch
This example illustrates the use of ਚ as well as ਕ which you learnt in the last chapter. Here are some more examples illustrating the use of ਚ.
ਚੈੱ + ਕ = ਚੈੱਕ = cheque
ਸੱ + ਚ = ਸੱਚ = such
Chhuchha 
There is no English equivalent of ਛ, the twelfth letter of Gurmukhi. It is the aspirated form of ਚ and is articulated the same way as ਚ with lots of breath being ejected from the mouth. Have a look at the following Punjabi example
ਛਾਂ /chhan/ = shade
Jujja 
The thirteenth letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to English /j/. Writting judge in Gurmukhi will illustrate its use.
ਜੱ + ਜ = ਜੱਜ = judge
Here are some more illustrations
ਜੱ + ਗ = ਜੱਗ = jug
ਜੈ + ਕ = ਜੈਕ = jack
Jhujja 
The fourteenth letter of Gurmukhi is not spoken in English. ਝ sound is produced by combining ਚ sound with a tone in the initial position and a tone with ਜ sound elsewhere. Its use in Punjabi is not infrequent.
ਝੱ + ਟ = ਝੱਟ /jhatt/ = instantly
ਝੁ + ਗੀ = ਝੁਗੀ /jhuggii/ = cottage
ਝੰ + ਡਾ = ਝੰਡਾ /jhandhaa/ = flag
Neya 
The twentieth letter of Gurmukhi is also not spoken in English. It is the nasalised version of /y/ sound in English and will be represented with /ny/. Its use in Punjabi is also becoming scarce. A marriage party in Punjabi is called
ਜੰ + ਞ = ਜੰਞ = marriage party

Exercises[edit]

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the third row many times in your note book. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਚਾਕ
  2. ਐੱਜ
  3. ਹੈਚ
  4. ਚੈੱਸ
  5. ਸਕੈੱਚ
  6. ਜੌਗ
Solutions
  1. Chalk
  2. Edge
  3. Hatch
  4. Chess
  5. Sketch
  6. Jog

3. Write the above listed words in Gurmukhi and English side by side.

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Jaw
  2. Jockey
  3. Inch
  4. Eschew
  5. Chick
  6. Each
  7. Junk
Solutions
  1. ਜਾ
  2. ਜੌ + ਕਿ = ਜੌਕਿ
  3. ਇੰ + ਚ = ਇੰਚ
  4. ਇ + ਸ + ਚੂ = ਇਸਚੂ
  5. ਚਿ + ਕ = ਚਿਕ
  6. ਈ + ਚ = ਈਚ
  7. ਜੰ + ਕ = ਜੰਕ

Summary[edit]

In this chapter we have learnt the alphabets of the third row (ਚ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi. The letters are ਚ called chucha, ਛ called chhuchha, ਜ called jujja, ਝ called jhujja and ਞ called neya. In the next lesson we will learn the alphabets of the fourth row.

Fourth row of Gurmukhi - the Retroflexes[edit]

This chapter will be devoted to the fourth row (ਟ ਵਰਗ ) of Gurmukhi consisting of five letters called the Retroflexes. They are so called because of the manner of articulation by touching the roof of the mouth by a curled up tongue with a flap.

The Gurmukhi retroflexes are

These are called ਟ - tainka, ਠ - thutha, ਡ - dudda, ਢ - dhuda and ਣ -nhanha. They are pronounced as ਟ - /t/, ਠ - /th/, ਡ - /d/, ਢ - /dh/ and ਣ - /nh/. Each of these letters is explained below.

Tainka 
The twenty first letter of Gurmukhi is equivalent to English /t/. Transcription of tank and test shall demonstrate its use.
ਟੈਂ + ਕ = ਟੈਂਕ = tank
ਟੈ + ਸ + ਟ = ਟੈਸਟ = test
Thutha 
The twenty second letter is not spoken in English. Nevertheless there are words in some Asian languages which are familiar to and are spoken by speakers of English language and which illustrate the use of this sound. For example the word thug will be written in Gurmukhi as under
ਠੱ + ਗ = ਠੱਗ = thug
Kathmandu is the capital city of Nepal. The first part (we will come back to the other part later) Kath of Kathmandu will be written in Gurmukhi as
ਕ + ਠ = ਕਠ = Kath
ਠ is an aspirated form of /t/. This implies that its sound is produced the same way as /t/ but by simultaneously exhaling lots of breath. So speaking /t/ continuously and throwing lots of breath out of the mouth will correctly produce this sound.
Dudda 
ਡ is equivalent to English /d/. The words desk and date will demonstrate its use.
ਡੈ + ਸ + ਕ = ਡੈਸਕ = desk
ਡੇ + ਟ = ਡੇਟ = date
Dhudda 
ਢ sound is produced by combining ਟ sound with a tone in the initial position of a word and with a tone and ਡ sound elsewhere. This is how the word Dhaka, the Bangladesh capital, will be transcribed in Gurmukhi
ਢਾ + ਕਾ = ਢਾਕਾ = Dhaka
Nahnha 
The last letter ਣ of this row is not spoken in English. It is similar to /n/ except that instead of tongue touching the teeth, it touches the roof of the mouth with a flap. To produce the sound ਣ /nh/ continue to repeat /n/ and simultaneously touch the roof of the mouth with a flap. Haryana, a state of India, will be written as
ਹ + ਰਿ + ਆ + ਣਾ = ਹਰਿਆਣਾ /Hariaanhaa/ = Haryana
No Punjabi word starts with this letters.

Exercises[edit]

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the fourth row many times in your note book as you did earlier. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਟੈਸਟ
  2. ਏਇਟ
  3. ਕਾਇਟ
  4. ਕਠਮੰਡੂ
  5. ਗੈਸਟ
Solutions
  1. Test
  2. Eight
  3. Kite
  4. Kathmandu
  5. Guest

3. Write the following words in Gurmukhi and English.

  1. ਡਾਇਜੈਸਟ
  2. ਢਾਕਾ
  3. ਡੈਡਿਕੇਇਟ
  4. ਡਿਸਾਇਡ
  5. ਠੱਗ
Solutions
  1. ਡਾਇਜੈਸਟ - Digest
  2. ਢਾਕਾ - Dhaka
  3. ਡੈਡਿਕੇਇਟ - Dedicate
  4. ਡਿਸਾਇਡ - Decide
  5. ਠੱਗ - Thug

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Seed
  2. Toast
  3. Stick
  4. Daddy
  5. Cheat
  6. Diet
  7. Dictate
  8. Toad
  9. Dust
  10. Sudan
Solutions
  1. ਸੀ + ਡ = ਸੀਡ
  2. ਟੋ + ਸ + ਟ = ਟੋਸਟ
  3. ਸ + ਟਿ + ਕ = ਸਟਿਕ
  4. ਡੈ + ਡੀ = ਡੈਡੀ
  5. ਚੀ + ਟ = ਚੀਟ
  6. ਡਾ + ਇ + ਟ = ਡਾਇਟ
  7. ਡਿ + ਕ + ਟੇ + ਟ = ਡਿਕਟੇਟ
  8. ਟੋ + ਡ = ਟੋਡ
  9. ਡੱ + ਸ + ਟ = ਡੱਸਟ
  10. ਸੂ + ਡਾ + ਨ = ਸੂਡਾਨ

Summary[edit]

In this lesson we have learnt the five letters of the fourth row of Gurmukhi script. We found that ਠ thutha, ਢ dhudda and ਣ nahnha sounds are not spoken in English but we found a way to produce these sounds by relating them to other similar sounds. We also found that letter ਣ never occupies the initial position in any Punjabi word.

Fifth row of Gurmukhi - the Dentals[edit]

We have already learnt the velars, palatals and retroflexes besides the vowel carriers and ਸ and ਹ. We now move on to the fifth row (ਤ ਵਰਗ ) of Gurmukhi consisting of the dentals. The dentals are so called because of the fact that they are articulated with the tongue touching the upper teeth.

The Gurmukhi dentals are

These are called ਤ - tutta, ਥ - thuththa, ਦ - dudda, ਧ - dhudda and ਨ - nunna. They are pronounced ਤ - /t/, ਥ - /th/, ਦ - /d/, ਧ - /dh/ and ਨ - /n/. Each of these letters is explained below.

Tutt
ਤ sound is not found in English. It is produced the same way as /t/ except that instead of the tongue touching the roof of the mouth it touches the teeth. The world famous monument of love Taj is spelt in Gurmukhi as
ਤਾ + ਜ = ਤਾਜ = Taj
Tibet will be written in Gurmukhi as under
ਤਿੱ + ਬ + ਤ = ਤਿੱਬਤ = Tibet
ਤ /t/ is a dental sound. It is produced the same way as /t/ but by placing the tongue against the upper teeth, as is done to produce th sound in then. To produce ਤ sound repeat the /t/ sound and continue to do so by placing the tongue against the upper teeth. This will produce the ਤ sound.
Thuthth
ਥ is same as /th/ in thank. Let us see some examples of its use in English words
ਥੈਂ + ਕ = ਥੈਂਕ = thank
ਥੀ + ਸਿ + ਸ = ਥੀਸਿਸ = thesis
ਥਿੱ + ਕ = ਥਿੱਕ = thick
Dudd
ਦ is equivalent to /th/ as in the. Here are some examples of its use in English words
ਦਿੱ + ਸ = ਦਿੱਸ = this
ਦੈ + ਟ = ਦੈਟ = that
Dhuddaa 
ਧ has no equivalent in English. ਧ sound is produced by speaking ਤ combined with a tone in an initial position of a word and a tone with ਦ sound elsewhere.
ਬੁੱ + ਧਾ = ਬੁੱਧਾ /Budhaa/ = Buddha
Nuna 
ਨ is equivalent to /n/. Let us see some examples of use of ਨ in English words written in Gurmukhi
ਨੈੱ + ਟ = ਨੈੱਟ = net
ਨਿ + ਬ = ਨਿਬ = nib
ਨੋ + ਟ = ਨੋਟ = note

Exercises[edit]

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the fifth row many times in your note book as you did earlier. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਤਾਜ
  2. ਸੋਵੀਅਤ
  3. ਥੈਂਕ
  4. ਦੈਂਸ
  5. ਨਾਇਨ
Solutions
  1. Taj
  2. Soviet
  3. Thank
  4. Thence
  5. Nine

3. Write these words in Gurmukhi and English side by side.

  1. ਥਿੱਕ
  2. ਕਜ਼ਾਖਸਤਾਨ
  3. ਨਥਿਙ
  4. ਥੀਸਿਸ
  5. ਬੁੱਧਾ
Solutions
  1. ਥਿੱਕ - Thick
  2. ਕਜ਼ਾਖਸਤਾਨ - Kazakhstan
  3. ਨਥਿਙ - Nothing
  4. ਥੀਸਿਸ - Thesis
  5. ਬੁੱਧਾ - Buddha

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Tibet
  2. Noon
  3. Thatch
  4. Sooth
  5. Than
  6. Then
  7. Notice
  8. Nuisance
  9. Thin
  10. Night
Solutions
  1. ਤਿੱ + ਬ + ਤ = ਤਿੱਬਤ
  2. ਨੂ + ਨ = ਨੂਨ
  3. ਥੈ + ਚ = ਥੈਚ
  4. ਸੂ + ਨ = ਸੂਨ
  5. ਦੈ + ਨ = ਦੈਨ
  6. ਦੈੱ + ਨ = ਦੈੱਨ
  7. ਨੋ + ਟਿ + ਸ = ਨੋਟਿਸ
  8. ਨ + ਊ + ਸੰ + ਸ = ਨਊਸੰਸ
  9. ਥਿ + ਨ = ਥਿਨ
  10. ਨਾ + ਇ + ਟ = ਨਾਇਟ

Summary[edit]

In this lesson we have learnt the five letters of the second row of Gurmukhi script. These letter are ਤ tuta, ਥ thutha, ਦ duda, ਧ dhuda and ਨ nunna. In the next lesson we will introduce the next five letters of Gurmukhi.

Sixth row of Gurmukhi - the Labials[edit]

You have already learnt the velars, palatals, retroflexes and dentals besides the vowel carriers and ਸ and ਹ. In this lesson we will learn the letters of the sixth row (ਪ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi consisting the Labials. The Labials are articulated with lips. The Gurmukhi labials are

They are called ਪ - puppa, ਫ - phupha, ਬ - bubba, ਭ - bhubba and ਮ - mumma. Their pronunciation is ਪ - /p/, ਫ - /ph/, ਬ - /b/, ਭ - /bh/ and ਮ - /m/.
Each of them is explained below.

Puppa 
This is how words peach and pass are written in Gurmukhi
ਪੀ + ਚ = ਪੀਚ = peach
ਪਾ + ਸ = ਪਾਸ = pass
Phupha 
ਫ is equivalent to /ph/. For illustration of the use of ਫ see these example
ਫੋ + ਟੋ = ਫੋਟੋ = photo
NB : We have used /ph/ to denote that this sound which is produced by closing both lips (bilabial) is aspirated version of the plosive /p/. The English /f/ or /ph/ are in fact labio-dental fricatives. See Phonetics for more details.
Bubba 
ਬ is equivalent to /b/. The words bus and biscuit are written in Gurmukhi as
ਬੱ + ਸ = ਬੱਸ = bus
ਬਿ + ਸ + ਕੁ + ਟ = ਬਿਸਕੁਟ = biscuit
Bhubba 
There is no equivalent of ਭ in English. ਭ sound is produced by combining ਪ with tone in initial position of a word and a tone with ਬ sound elsewhere. Here are some Punjabi examples.
ਭਾ + ਰ = ਭਾਰ /bhaar/ = weight
ਭਾ + ਗ = ਭਾਗ /bhaag/ = part
ਭਾ + ਲੂ = ਭਾਲੂ /bhaloo/ = bear
Mumma 
Let's now go to the last letter of this row which is ਮ and is equivalent to /m/. We have already seen Gurmukhi transcription of Pyjama(ਪ + ਜਾ + ਮਾ = ਪਜਾਮਾ) above which illustrates use of ਮ. Here are some examples.
ਮਿੰ + ਟ = ਮਿੰਟ /mint/ = minute
ਮੈ + ਨ = ਮੈਨ = man

Exercises[edit]

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the fifth row many times in your note book as you did earlier. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਪਾਸ
  2. ਪੀਚ
  3. ਬੱਸ
  4. ਬੀਸਟ
  5. ਬੂਮ
Solutions
  1. Pass
  2. Peach
  3. Bus
  4. Beast
  5. Boom

3. Write the following words in Gurmukhi and English.

  1. ਬਜਟ
  2. ਮੱਟਨ
  3. ਪਿਕਨਿਕ
  4. ਮੈਚ
  5. ਬੀਕ
Solutions
  1. ਬਜਟ - Budget
  2. ਮੱਟਨ - Mutton
  3. ਪਿਕਨਿਕ - Picnic
  4. ਮੈਚ - Match
  5. ਬੀਕ - Beak

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Aim
  2. Boot
  3. Peach
  4. Pakistan
  5. Bharat
  6. Madam
  7. Matter
  8. Bucket
  9. Mikhail
  10. Concept
Solutions
  1. ਏ + ਇ + ਮ = ਏਇਮ
  2. ਬੂ + ਟ = ਬੂਟ
  3. ਪੀ + ਚ = ਪੀਚ
  4. ਪਾ + ਕਿ + ਸ + ਤਾ + ਨ = ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ
  5. ਭਾ + ਰ + ਤ = ਭਾਰਤ
  6. ਮੈ + ਡ + ਮ = ਮੈਡਮ
  7. ਮੈ + ਟ + ਰ = ਮੈਟਰ
  8. ਬੱ + ਕ + ਟ = ਬੱਕਟ
  9. ਮਿ + ਖਾ + ਇ + ਲ = ਮਿਖਾਇਲ
  10. ਕ + ਨ + ਸੈ + ਪ + ਟ = ਕਨਸੈਪਟ

Summary[edit]

In this lesson we have learnt the five letters of the second row of Gurmukhi script. These letter are ਪ puppa, ਫ phupha, ਬ bubba, ਭ bhubba and ਮ mumma. In the next lesson we will introduce the next five letters of Gurmukhi.

Seventh row of Gurmukhi - the Last Group[edit]

The last six chapters were devoted to learn the velars, palatals, retroflexes, dentals and labials. In this chapter we will learn the letters of the seventh row (ਯ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi consisting of the Semi vowels. The letters of the seventh row of Gurmukhi are

They are called ਯ - yaiia, ਰ - raaraa, ਲ - lallaa, ਵ - vavaa and ੜ - rhaarhaa. Their pronunciation is ਯ - /y/, ਰ - /r/, ਲ - /l/, ਵ - /v/ and ੜ - /rh/.
Each of them is explained below.

Yaiiaa 
This is how words yak and yes are written in Gurmukhi
ਯਾ + ਕ = ਯਾਕ = yak
ਯੈੱ + ਸ = ਯੈੱਸ = yes
Raaraa 
ਰ is equivalent to /r/. For illustration of the use of ਰ see these examples
ਰੈ + ਟ = ਰੈਟ = rat
ਰੇ + ਡੀ + ਓ = ਰੇਡੀਓ = radio
Lallaa 
ਲ is equivalent to /l/. The words lava and jail are written in Gurmukhi as
ਲਾ + ਵਾ = ਲਾਵਾ = lava
ਜੇ + ਲ = ਜੇਲ = jail
Vavvaa 
ਵ is equivalent to /v/. Notice the words vest and velar in Gurmukhi below.
ਵੈ + ਸ + ਟ = ਵੈਸਟ = vest
ਵੈ + ਲ + ਰ = ਵੈਲਰ =velar
Rhaarhaa 
Last letter ੜ has no English equivalent. We will denote it with to /rh/. Have a look at a Punjabi example.
ਵਾ + ੜ = ਵਾੜ = fence
ਮਾ + ੜਾ = ਮਾੜਾ = weak, bad

Exercises[edit]

1. Use Practice module to write the letters of the seventh row many times in your note book as you did earlier. You can click one of the letters below to go to relevant page of the practice module.

2. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਯੈੱਸ
  2. ਰੇਡੀਓ
  3. ਲੈਟਰ
  4. ਵੈਸਟ
  5. ਯੀਸਟ
Solutions
  1. Yes
  2. Radio
  3. Letter
  4. West
  5. Yeast

3. Write the following words in Gurmukhi and English.

  1. ਲੇਮ
  2. ਵਿੰਡ
  3. ਰੀਡ
  4. ਯੀਲਡ
  5. ਵਾਇਟ
Solutions
  1. ਲੇਮ - Lame
  2. ਵਿੰਡ - Wind
  3. ਰੀਡ - Read
  4. ਯੀਲਡ - Yield
  5. ਵਾਇਟ - White

4. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Leap
  2. Rate
  3. Yellow
  4. Wax
  5. Lake
  6. Welding
  7. Loom
  8. Yak
  9. Lady
  10. Wet
Solutions
  1. ਲੀ + ਪ = ਲੀਪ
  2. ਰੇ + ਟ = ਰੇਟ
  3. ਯੈ + ਲੋ = ਯੈਲੋ
  4. ਵੈ + ਕ + ਸ = ਵੈਕਸ
  5. ਲੇ + ਕ = ਲੇਕ
  6. ਵੈ + ਲ + ਡਿੰ + ਗ = ਵੈਲਡਿੰਗ
  7. ਲੂ + ਮ = ਲੂਮ
  8. ਯੈ + ਕ = ਯੈਕ
  9. ਲੇ + ਡੀ = ਲੇਡੀ
  10. ਵੈੱ + ਟ = ਵੈੱਟ

Summary[edit]

In this lesson you have learnt the five letters ਯ, ਰ, ਲ, ਵ and ੜ. We are left with only the last row which you will learn in the next chapter.

Eighth row of Gurmukhi - the Neo-group[edit]

In the previous chapters we have learnt all the letters of original Penti, the velars, the palatals, the retroflexes, the dentals, the labials and the semi vowels in addition to the vowel carriers and ਸ and ਹ. Here we will learn the letters of the eighth row (ਨਵੀਨ ਵਰਗ) of Gurmukhi. This group of letters is called the Neo group because the letters have been added to Gurmukhi to represent sounds borrowed from Persian and other foreign languages. The Neo group consists of the following letters

ਸ਼ ਖ਼ ਗ਼ ਜ਼ ਫ਼ ਲ਼

These are called ਸ਼ - susse pair bindi, ਖ਼ - khukhe pair bindi, ਗ਼ - gugge pair bindi, ਜ਼ - jujje pair bindi , ਫ਼ - phuphe pair bindi and ਲ਼ - lulle pair bindi. ਸ਼ is pronounced as /sh/, ਖ਼ as /khh/, ਗ਼ as /ghh/, ਜ਼ as /jhh/ , ਫ਼ as /phh/ and ਲ਼ as /lh/.

ਸ਼ - sasse pair bindi 
This is how words shark and shore are written in Gurmukhi
ਸ਼ਾ + ਰ + ਕ = ਸ਼ਾਰਕ = shark
ਸ਼ੋ + ਰ = ਸ਼ੋਰ = shore
ਖ਼ - khakke pair bindi 
This sound is not found in English. However here are some Punjabi examples
ਖ਼ + ਤ = ਖ਼ਤ = letter
ਤ + ਖ਼ + ਤ = ਤਖ਼ਤ = throne
ਖ਼ + ਰ + ਗੋ + ਸ਼ = ਖ਼ਰਗੋਸ਼ = rabbit
ਸ਼ਾ + ਖ਼ = ਸ਼ਾਖ਼ = branch
ਗ਼ - gagge pair bindi 
This sound is also not found in English. However here are some Punjabi examples
ਗ਼ + ਮ + ਲਾ = ਗ਼ਮਲਾ = flower pot
ਜ਼ - jajje pair bindi 
This sound is equivalent to /z/. Here are some examples
ਜ਼ਿ + ਪ = ਜ਼ਿਪ = zip
ਜੈ + ਬ + ਰਾ = ਜ਼ੈਬਰਾ = zebra
ਫ਼ - fufe pair bindi 
As in
ਫ਼ਾ + ਰ + ਸੀ = ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀ = faarsi(persian)
ਲ਼ - lulle pair bindi 

Some of these letters merely represent the sounds borrowed from foreign languages but the use of others is lexically significant for that changes the word meanings. For example

ਗਲ = talk and ਗਲ਼ = decompose
ਸੇਰ = a unit of measurement and ਸ਼ੇਰ = lion

Exercises[edit]

1. Read these English words written in Gurmukhi

  1. ਸ਼ੈੱਡ
  2. ਸ਼ਾਉਟ
  3. ਐਸ਼
  4. ਗੱਸ਼
Solutions
  1. Shed
  2. Shout
  3. Ash
  4. Gush

2. Write these English words in Gurmukhi

  1. Shop
  2. Shoe
  3. Rush
  4. Blush
  5. Push
Solutions
  1. ਸ਼ੌ + ਪ = ਸ਼ੌਪ
  2. ਸ਼ੂ
  3. ਰੱ + ਸ਼ = ਰੱਸ਼
  4. ਬ + ਲੱ + ਸ਼ = ਬਲੱਸ਼
  5. ਪੁ + ਸ਼ = ਪੁਸ਼

Summary[edit]

In this lesson we have learnt the five letters of the second row of Gurmukhi script. These letter are ਸ਼ susse pair bindi, ਖ਼ khukhe pair bindi, ਗ਼ gugge pair bindi, ਜ਼ jujje pair bindi , ਫ਼ phuphe pair bindi and ਲ਼ lulle pair bindi. We have now learnt the complete Gurmukhi alphabet:

ੳ ਅ ੲ ਸ ਹ
ਕ ਖ ਗ ਘ ਙ
ਚ ਛ ਜ ਝ ਞ
ਟ ਠ ਡ ਢ ਣ
ਤ ਥ ਦ ਧ ਨ
ਪ ਫ ਬ ਭ ਮ
ਯ ਰ ਲ ਵ ੜ
ਸ਼ ਖ਼ ਗ਼ ਜ਼ ਫ਼ ਲ਼

Conjuncts[edit]

Three consonants are used in Punjabi as conjuncts. These are half haha - ਹ੍ as in ਨ੍ਹ = ਨ+ਹ੍; half rara - ਰ੍ as in ਪ੍ਰ = ਪ+ਰ੍; and half vava - ਵ੍ as in ਸ੍ਵ = ਸ+ਵ੍. They are used only as inferior conjugates in the conjugal pair of consonants. The principal use of such conjuncts is in the words borrowed from other languages like Sanskrit, English etc. Here are some examples of the use of conjugate haha

ਜਿੰਨ੍ਹਾ /jinnaa/ = whom
ਯਗ੍ਹਾ /jaggaa/ = place
ਵਜ੍ਹਾ /vajjaa/ = reason

In the above examples the conjugate haha is not spoken as normal haha but a low tone following the conjugate full consonant. Let us now see some illustrations of the use of conjugate rara.

ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ /amrit/ = nectar
ਪ੍ਰਿੰਟਰ /printar/ = printer
ਪ੍ਰੋਫੈਸਰ /profesar/ = professor

Here are some illustrations of conjugate vava

ਸ੍ਵੈਮਾਨ /svemaan/ = self-respect
ਸ੍ਵੈਜੀਵਨੀ /svejiivanii/ = auto-biography
ਸ੍ਵੀਕਾਰ /sviikaar/ = accept

Among these conjugate consonants half vava i.e. ਵ੍ is used only with ਸ (ਸ੍ਵ).

In the above examples where ever a lag matra is added to a conjunct the matra actually combines with the conjugate diacritic which is invariantly spoken before the full consonant.

Exercises[edit]

Write three examples each of conjugate haha, rara and vava.

solutions
  1. ਜਿੰਨ੍ਹਾ
  2. ਯਗ੍ਹਾ
  3. ਵਜ੍ਹਾ
  4. ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ
  5. ਪ੍ਰਿੰਟਰ
  6. ਪ੍ਰੋਫੈਸਰ
  7. ਸ੍ਵੈਮਾਨ
  8. ਸ੍ਵੈਜੀਵਨੀ
  9. ਸ੍ਵੀਕਾਰ

Muharni[edit]

Welcome to Muharni, the next big step in learning Punjabi. Muharni is an integral part of practice of Punjabi phonology. Here you will learn how to speak Punjabi words through practice. But if you have not mastered the Gurmukhi script you are strongly advised to go back to the Gurmukhi script module and practise thoroughly before returning. In this module you will be expected to have the basic skills of using the Gurmukhi letters, matras and other diacritics.

While learning Gurmukhi you came across many English examples to illustrate the sounds represented by the Gurmukhi letters. We now gradually introduce you to Punjabi words and through them the Punjabi phonology. Muharni is the traditional way of learning sounds by actually speaking them. It consists of the letters of Gurmukhi script in its natural order each letter followed by a word starting with that letter. It is recited as a rhyme. The result is that while you learn some Punjabi words you also acquire some proficiency in Punjabi phonology. After you have picked up the sounds from each letter of Gurmukhi letters you will be presented each letter of Gurmukhi as it combines with the matras. This will equip you with every sound of Punjabi language whether consonant or vowel.

The Muharni module will consist of 9 chapters and shall be finished in two weeks. You are expected to practice thoroughly each chapter before moving to the next. The eighth chapter contains all the words learnt in other chapters. Each of the first eight chapters has sound files to help you speak the words of Muharni. You can assume that you are ready to move to the next module if you can speak all the words of the muharni at a stretch. The ninth chapter gives you a complete list of consonants as they combine with vowels.

First Row[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - first row.

Exercises[edit]

1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text.

2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.

1. ਹਾਥੀ, 2. ਅਨਾਰ, 3. ਊਠ, 4. ਇੱਟ, 5. ਸੱਪ
Solutions
  1. ਊਠ
  2. ਅਨਾਰ
  3. ਇੱਟ
  4. ਸੱਪ
  5. ਹਾਥੀ

Second Row[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - second row.

Exercises[edit]

  1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text. Play the sound file for help in speaking.
  2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.
  1. ਗੇਂਦ, 2. ਕਬੂਤਰ, 3. ਘੋੜਾ, 4. ਖੰਭ
Solutions
  1. ਕਬੂਤਰ
  2. ਖੰਭ
  3. ਗੇਂਦ
  4. ਘੋੜਾ

Third Row[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - third row.

Exercises[edit]

  1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text. Play the sound file for help in speaking.
  2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.
  1. ਜਹਾਜ਼, 2. ਝੰਡਾ , 3. ਚਾਕੂ, 4. ਛੱਤਰੀ
Solutions
  1. ਚਾਕੂ
  2. ਛੱਤਰੀ
  3. ਜਹਾਜ਼
  4. ਝੰਡਾ

Fourth row - the Retroflexes[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - fourth row.

Exercises[edit]

1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text. Play the sound file for help in speaking.

2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.

1. ਠੋਡੀ, 2. ਢੋਲ, 3. ਡਾਕੀਆ, 4. ਟਮਾਟਰ
Solutions
  1. ਟਮਾਟਰ
  2. ਠੋਡੀ
  3. ਡਾਕੀਆ
  4. ਢੋਲ

Fifth row - the Dentals[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - fifth row.

Exercises[edit]

1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text. Play the sound file for help in speaking.

2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.

1. ਥੈਲਾ, 2. ਧੌਣ, 3. ਤੋਤਾ, 4. ਨੱਕ, 5. ਦੰਦ
Solutions
  1. ਤੋਤਾ
  2. ਥੈਲਾ
  3. ਦੰਦ
  4. ਧੌਣ
  5. ਨੱਕ

Sixth row - the Labials[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - sixth row.

Exercises[edit]

1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text. Play the sound file for help in speaking.

2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.

1. ਭਾਲੂ, 2. ਪਪੀਤਾ, 3. ਮੱਛੀ, 4. ਬੰਦੂਕ, 5. ਫੁੱਲ
Solutions
  1. ਪਪੀਤਾ
  2. ਫੁਲ
  3. ਬੰਦੂਕ
  4. ਭਾਲੂ
  5. ਮੱਛੀ

Seventh row - the Semi-vowels[edit]

Look at the following pictures. The caption below each picture describes in Punjabi the object in the picture. Once you have recognized the objects, use your knowledge of Gurmukhi to read the captions. The captions contain the initial letter of the object name besides the object name in Punjabi and in English. Follow this by loudly reading each caption without the English word. Take the help of the sound file if necessary. Practise it repeatedly till you master it i.e. till you are able to fluently speak it.

Play

for following Muharni - seventh row.

Exercises[edit]

1. Practise speaking the words of the Muharni given above in the text. Play the sound file for help in speaking.

2. Write the following words in alphabetical order.

1. ਵੱਛਾ, 2. ਰੇਸ਼ਮ, 3. ਲੂੰਬੜੀ, 4. ਯੱਕਾ
Solutions
  1. ਯੱਕਾ
  2. ਰੇਸ਼ਮ
  3. ਲੂੰਬੜੀ
  4. ਵੱਛਾ

Vocabulary[edit]

Welcome to the Vocabulary module of Punjabi wikibook! Vocabulary is important stage of language acquisition and precedes script learning during mother tongue acquisition. We have however started with Gurmukhi script as this wikibook teaches Punjabi as a formalised process rather than informal.

The only prerequisite for this module is knowledge of Gurm ukhi script. If you have not mastered it you are strongly advised to go back to the Gurmukhi script module and practise thoroughly before returning. In this module you will be expected to have basic skill of using the letters, matras and the diacritics and to read the printed/written Punjabi words.

The module has been divided into twenty chapters, each chapter consisting of a classified group of words. Every chapter starts with general information on the group and at places the leading member of the group. You are expected to devote about an hour to each lesson/session in which you will learn about 15 to 30 words each. After you are through with this module you will have a wealth of around 500 commonly spoken Punjabi words enough for you to start learning Punjabi conversation.

During the course of the module you will also learn some linguistic patterns and rules of grammar. The linguistic pattern or rules of grammar are not required to be memorized and can be dropped during first reading.


1 ਗੁਲਾਬੀ = Pink 2. ਲਾਲ (ਸੂਹਾ) = Red (dark) 3. ਨੀਲਾ = blue 4 ਪੀਲਾ = yellow

ਰੰਗ: Colors رنگ[edit]

ਤਿਰੰਗਾ - the Tricolor: National Flag of India

Color in Punjabi is ਰੰਗ. The picture shows the National Flag of India, called ਤਿਰੰਗਾ - the Tricolor. The three strips have the following colors

  1. ਕੇਸਰੀ = safron (Top strip)
  2. ਚਿੱਟਾ = white (Middle strip)
  3. ਹਰਾ = green (Lower strip)

The ਕੇਸਰੀ color represents bravery, the ਚਿੱਟਾ (white also called ਸਫੈਦ) color peace and ਹਰਾ (green) color symolizes progress. In the middle of the flag is Ashok Chakra in ਨੀਲਾ (blue) color having twenty four spokes portraying the prevalence of righteousness all 24 hours of the day.

The following are some more colors in Punjabi

  1. ਰਤਾ, ਰਤੀ = red لال
  2. ਪੀਲਾ,ਪੀਲੀ = yellow پیلا
  3. ਗੁਲਾਬੀ = pink گلابی
  4. ਸੁਨਿਹਰਾ = golden سنہرا
  5. ਚਾਂਦੀ= silver
  6. ਭੂਰਾ,ਭੂਰੀ = brown
  7. ਨਾਭੀ = maroon
  8. ਸੂਹਾ = bright shining red سوہا
  9. ਸੰਤਰਾ,ਨਾਰੰਗੀ = orange
  10. ਜਾਮਨੀ/ਭੇਂਗਨੀ = purple
  11. ਕਾਲਾ,ਕਾਲੀ = black
  12. ਭੂਸਲਾ, ਭੂਸਲੀ = grey
  13. ਊਦਾ, ਊਦੀ = violet
  14. ਗੋਰਾ, ਗੋਰੀ = light coloured
  15. ਹਨੇਰਾ, ਹਨੇਰੀ = dark

ਲਾਲ color is associated with danger while ਸੂਹਾ color is generally associated with bridal wear. Many young Sikhs prefer ਨਾਭੀ color turbans (sikh head-wear).

Exercises[edit]

1. Write the Punjabi names of the colors found in the Tricolor.

Solutions
  1. Safron: ਕੇਸਰੀ
  2. White: ਚਿੱਟਾ ,ਚਿੱਟੀ
  3. Green: ਹਰਾ ,ਹਰੀ
  4. Blue: ਨੀਲਾ, ਨੀਲੀ (Ashoka Chakra's color)

2. What are the following colors called in Punjabi

  1. Pink
  2. Purple
  3. Golden
  4. Red
Solutions
  1. Pink: ਗੁਲਾਬੀ
  2. Purple: ਜਾਮੁਨੀ
  3. Golden: ਸੁਨਿਹਰਾ
  4. Red: ਲਾਲ

Conclusion[edit]

In this chapter you were introduced to Punjabi vocabulary through colors. Colors make excellent adjectives like-

  1. ਲਾਲ ਦੁਪੱਟਾ = red head scarf
  2. ਗੁਲਾਬੀ ਗੱਲ੍ਹ = pink cheek
  3. ਸੁਨਹਿਰਾ ਭਵਿਖ = golden future
  4. ਨਾਭੀ ਪੱਗ = maroon turban
  5. ਕਾਲਾ ਕਾਂ = black crow

Next chapter shall be devoted to the introduction to birds of Punjab.

ਪੰਛੀ - Birds[edit]

ਮੋਰ - Peacock

Bird is called ਪੰਛੀ in Punjabi. ਮੋਰ i.e. peacock, a symbol of grace, joy, beauty and love, is the National bird of India. It looks beautiful when it fans its tail feathers. Here are some more birds.

  1. ਤੋਤਾ = parrot
  2. ਬਟੇਰਾ = quail
  3. ਬਗਲਾ = egret
  4. ਕਬੂਤਰ = pigeon
  5. ਤਿੱਤਰ = partridge
  6. ਬੁਲਬੁਲ, ਕੋਇਲ = nightingale
  7. ਬਾਜ = hawk
  8. ਚੀਲ = vulture
  9. ਇੱਲ, ਚੀਲ = kite
  10. ਚਿੜੀ = sparrow
  11. ਘੁੱਗੀ = dove
  12. ਟਟੀਹਰੀ = lapwing, Skylark
  13. ਗਟਾਰ = common myna
  14. ਬਤਖ਼ = duck
  15. ਹੰਸ = swan
  16. ਕੁੱਕੜ = cock, rooster, cockerel
  17. ਉੱਲੂ = owl
  18. ਕਾਂ = crow
  19. ਸਾਰਸ = crane
  20. ਚੱਕੀਰਾਹਾ = common hoopoe,
  21. ਕਠਫੋੜਾ = woodpecker

Exercises[edit]

1. Write names of ten birds in Punjabi.
2. Regular Punjabi nouns end with kanna(ਆ). Plurals of regular nouns are formed by replacing kanna(ਾ) with lanv( ੇ). Now write the plural forms of the following regular Punjabi nouns.

  1. ਤੋਤਾ
  2. ਬਟੇਰਾ
  3. <