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ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - Participle[edit | edit source]

A derivative of a root verb when used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb is called a participle. Let us examine the following four sentences or phrases

  • ਸਿਪਾਹੀ ਮਰਦੇ ਗਏ - sepoys went on dying.
  • ਮਰਦੇ ਨੂੰ ਬਚਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ - the dying (person) was saved.
  • ਮਰਦੇ ਸਿਪਾਹੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਚਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ - the dying sepoy was saved.
  • ਸਿਪਾਹੀ ਨੇ ਮਰਦਿਆਂ ਵੀ ਹਥਿਆਰ ਨਹੀਂ ਸੁਟੇ - sepoy did not lay down arms even while dying.

In the first example ਮਰਦੇ is used as a verb of the subject ਸਿਪਾਹੀ. Now contrast it with the second example where ਮਰਦੇ is used as a noun rather than a verb. In the third example the same word ਮਰਦੇ is used as an adjective of the noun ਸਿਪਾਹੀ. Finally ਮਰਦਿਆਂ, a derivative of the same root verb ਮਰ is used as an adverb. Thus a derivative from a verb may be used as a noun, an adjective or an adverb besides a verb.

Participles are classified into four classes viz., (a) ਭਾਵਾਰਥ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - infinitive participle, (b) ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - present participle, (c) ਭੂਤ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - past participle and (d) ਪੂਰਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - perfect participle.

ਭਾਵਾਰਥ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - infinitive participle[edit | edit source]

Rule 1. ਭਾਵਾਰਥ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ or infinitive participle is obtained from the root verb by adding ਨਾ or ਣਾ and though it coverys an action like a verb it has no tense i.e. it does not tell us the time of the action. See for example
  • ਭਾਗਾਂ ਵਾਲਿਆਂ ਦਾ ਮਰਨਾ ਸੁਖਾਲਾ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ (persons with good deeds die easy).
Here ਮਰਨਾ is used as a noun and therefore is an infinitive participle. See another example
  • ਤੁਹਾਡਾ ਸਾਡੇ ਘਰ ਆਉਣਾ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਚੰਗਾ ਲੱਗਿਆ (we liked your coming to our house).
Here ਆਉਣਾ is also used as a noun and therefore is an infinitive participle.

ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - present participle[edit | edit source]

Rule 2. The present participle is formed by adding ਦਾ and its variants (ਦੀ, ਦੇ, ਦੀਆਂ) to the root verb. In the following examples
  • ਮਰਦੇ ਨੂੰ ਬਚਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ and ਮਰਦੇ ਸਿਪਾਹੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਚਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ
the participle ਮਰਦੇ is in the present tense and therefore it is the ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - present participle. See one more example
  • ਉਹਨੇ ਪੜ੍ਹਦੇ ਬੱਚੇ ਨੂੰ ਸਕੂਲੋਂ ਹਟਾ ਲਿਆ (he made the studying child drop out from school).
Here ਪੜਦੇ in ਪੜ੍ਹਦੇ ਬੱਚੇ is an adjective and therefore present participle.
Rule 3. An important exception to the above rule is when the root verb ends in a vowel or a vowel followed by ਹ. In such cases the vowel gets nasalized to as in ਰੋਂਦਾ from ਰੋ, ਪੀਂਦਾ from ਪੀ, ਖਾਂਦਾ from ਖਾ, ਖੋਂਹਦਾ from ਖੋਹ, ਪੀਂਦਾ from ਪੀ etc.
Rule 4. The present participle of some verbs ending in ਆ is formed by adding ਉ to the root verb, nasalizing it and then adding ਦਾ or its variants as in ਆਉਂਦਾ from ਆ, ਗਾਉਂਦਾ from ਗਾ, ਨ੍ਹਾਉਂਦਾ From ਨ੍ਹਾ, ਪਾਉਂਦਾ from ਪਾ etc. The present participle changes according to number/gender.

ਭੂਤ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - past participle[edit | edit source]

Rule 5. When the root verb ends in ਆ past participle is formed by adding ਇਆ to the root verb as in ਗਾਇਆ from ਗਾ, ਪਾਇਆ from ਪਾ.
Rule 6. If the root verb ends with a consonant the past participle is formed by adding sihari to the end consonant followed by ਆ as in ਸੁਣਿਆ from ਸੁਣ, ਲਿਖਿਆ from ਲਿਖ, ਤੁਰਿਆ from ਤੁਰ etc.
Rule 7. Like present participle the past participle also changes by number/gender. A distinguishing feature however is that the past participle changes according to the number/gender of the subject if the verb is intransitive or the object if it is transitive.

ਪੂਰਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ - perfect participle[edit | edit source]

See this example: ਵਿਦਿਆਰਥੀ ਨੇ ਪੜ੍ਹ ਕੇ ਸੁਣਾਇਆ - student narated by reading. Here ਪੜ੍ਹ ਕੇ indicates an action which is completed. It modifies the verb ਸੁਣਾਇਆ and therefore is participle. The participle which indicates a completed action is called perfect participle
Rule 8. Perfect participle is formed by the adding ਕੇ to the root verb.
Rule 9. Unlike the present and past participles perfect participle does not have number/gender variations.

We have dealt with participles at some length. The reason is that besides the above uses of the participles, the same participle forms are used in verbs which we shall examine in tenses. We now give below some more examples.

ਮੂਲ ਕਿਰਿਆ
root verb
ਭਾਵਾਰਥ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ
infinitive participle
ਵਰਤਮਾਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ
present participle
ਭੂਤ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ
past participle
ਪੂਰਨ ਕਿਰਦੰਤ
perfect participle
ਖਾ ਖਾਣਾ ਖਾਂਦਾ ਖਾਧਾ ਖਾ ਕੇ
ਜਾ ਜਾਣਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਗਿਆ ਜਾ ਕੇ
ਚੜ੍ਹ ਚੜ੍ਹਨਾ ਚੜ੍ਹਦਾ ਚੜ੍ਹਿਆ ਚੜ੍ਹ ਕੇ
ਪੜ੍ਹ ਪੜ੍ਹਨਾ ਪੜ੍ਹਦਾ ਪੜ੍ਹਿਆ ਪੜ੍ਹ ਕੇ
ਡੁੱਬ ਡੁੱਬਣਾ ਡੁੱਬਦਾ ਡੁੱਬਿਆ ਡੁੱਬ ਕੇ
ਡਿਗ ਡਿਗਣਾ ਡਿਗਦਾ ਡਿਗਿਆ ਡਿਗ ਕੇ
ਹੱਸ ਹੱਸਣਾ ਹੱਸਦਾ ਹੱਸਿਆ ਹੱਸ ਕੇ
ਡਰ ਡਰਨਾ ਡਰਦਾ ਡਰਿਆ ਡਰ ਕੇ
ਆਉਣਾ ਆਉਂਦਾ ਆਇਆ ਆ ਕੇ
ਗਾ ਗਾਉਣਾ ਗਾਉਂਦਾ ਗਾਇਆ ਗਾ ਕੇ