Mirad Version 2
Mirad, formerly known as Unilingua, is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, and is pronounced mee-RAHD, is categorized by constructed language experts as taxonomic, because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the wordstock of Mirad is considered a priori, meaning that there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.
The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry, where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.
Mirad is constructed on the following principles:
- Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, semantic, or grammatical value.
- Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
- Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
- Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
- Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
- Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
- Word opposites differ only in the stem vowel (iva = happy; uva = sad).
This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:
- The letter w was added to indicate the passive voice of verbs and to disambiguate numbers.
- The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun.
- The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show.
- The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair.
- The letter h was added, mainly to create a systematic set of determiners like this, that, every.
- Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
- Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
- The definite article ha (the) was introduced.
- Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
- The writing system now consists only of letters of the Roman alphabet, with no diacritics.
Table of Contents
Phonology and Orthography
- There is a direct, one-to-one correlation between Mirad sounds (phonology) and the way these sounds are written (orthography).
- Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English. Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
UPPERCASE A B C* D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q* R S T U V W X Y Z LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z MIRAD NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
- * Not used in "native" Mirad words.
- Spelling a word aloud means uttering the word's Mirad letter names in succession left to right. If the letter is a majuscule, then the letter name is preceded by aga big; if miniscule, by oga small, eg.:
- anxwa → a ni xu wu a
- Mirad → aga mi i ro a da
- The letters c (pronounced as ch in English chair) and q (pronounced variably, depending on the context) are used only to represent foreign words and names. For example, Ce is used to represent Che in Che Guevara.
- Text in Mirad is written from left to right with spaces between words. Capitalization and punctuation are described later.
- There are 20 consonant phonemes.
- The following IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) chart shows the consonant phonemes (minimal meaningful sounds) in Mirad:
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal /m/ /n/ Plosive voiced /b/ /d/ /g/ unvoiced /p/ /t/ /k/ Affricate voiced unvoiced (/t͡ʃ/)* Fricative voiced /v/ /z/ /ʒ/ unvoiced /f/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/ Approximate /l/ /j/ /w/ Flap /ɽ/
- Note: The phonemes /j/ and /w/ are considered glides. The phonemes /r/ and /l/ and liquids. The plosives are unaspirated as in French and Spanish, meaning that there is not puff of breath following them.
- * Used only in foreign words.
- The consonant graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above consonant phonemes are as follows:
PHONEME /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /ɽ/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /ʃ/ /j/ /z/ GRAPHEME b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w x y z
- In Mirad, every letter has a one-to-one correspondence with a single phoneme (ideal sound). Mirad does not use digraphs like sh or ph to represent sounds. There are no double consonants, although sometimes a consonant will come together with the same consonant in the same word, but not the same syllable. There are no silent consonants. Also, there are no letters with diacritical marks like é or ^çla;.
- The letter x is pronounced like an sh in English.
- The letter h is never silent. It is used to form the determiners in Mirad and is also used to simulate foreign sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach.
- The letter j is pronounced like the Zh in Russian Zhivago.
- The letter s is always unvoiced as English ss and never sounds like a z.
- The letter g is always a hard sound as in English gap, not as in English wage.
- The letter c is used only in foreign words and represents the unvoiced affricate sound t͡ʃ like the ch in English church. For example, the Mirad name for China is Cinam.
- The letters in Mirad correspond one-to-one with phonemes. There are no cases of sounds being represented by paired consonant as in English ph, sh, ch, or th.
- The letter y is the consonant phoneme /j/ and is pronounced [j] like the y in English yes when it begins a syllable, but when it ends a syllable it is a phonetically the glide /ɪ/ as in the word bay = /bay/ = [baɪ], as in English bye.
- The unvoiced plosives p, t, and k are pronounced without the puff of breath that sometimes follows them in their English counterparts. The corresponding consonants in French are exact equivalents.
- The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and for certain other purposes. It is pronounced as English w or the ou in French oui. German speakers are cautioned not to confuse it with the German letter w, which is pronounced in a manner closer to an English v.
- Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
IPA ARTICULATION NEAREST EQUIVALENTS b b unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy c tʃ unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words) d d unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog f f unvoiced bilabial fricative English fog g g unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i) h h glottal fricative English house (or a glottal stop or other similar sounds like German Bach j ʒ voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage k k unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English kite (without aspiration) or French comment l l voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell. m m voiced bilabial nasal English mother n n voiced alveolar nasal English nobody p p unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English pan (without aspiration) q - - (Only used in foreign words, where it has various guttural pronunciations) r r alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma s s unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose) t t unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English top (without aspiration) v v voiced bilabial fricative English very w w voiced labio-velar approximant English water, French oui x ʃ unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher y j voiced palatal approximant English yard (except when post-iotacizing a vowel to create a vowel diphthong like oy) z z voiced alveolar fricative English zone. German speakers, beware. Mirad z is pronounced like a German s, as in Sohn, not like z as in zehn, which sounds more like ts.
Note: If you see a blank here instead of an IPA symbol, it probably means that the font you are using to display characters in your browser does not support these characters.
- There are 5 vowel phonemes, each of which can be followed by a y-glide, producing vowel diphthongs.
- This IPA chart shows the Mirad vowel phonemes:
Front Central Back High /i/ /u/ Mid /e/ /o/ Low /a/
The graphemes (alphabetic letters) in Mirad used to represent the above vowel phonemes (minimal meaningful sounds) are as follows:
PHONEME /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ GRAPHEME a e i o u
- Mirad vowels can be divided into simple and diphthongs, which are post-y-glided.
- Simple Vowels
- The simple vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some close examples in Spanish and French, and not-so-close examples in English.
VOWEL IPA* SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH a a mano la ah! e e hecho été day (without the y-glide) i i si oui see (without the y-glide) o o no eau so (without the w-glide) u u tu vous too (without the w-glide)
- Vowel diphthongs
- Vowels in Mirad can be post-y-glided, that is, followed by the glide consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a syllable. For example, igay and eyna contain post-y-glided vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-RA-ya) does not, since the y begins a syllable. Following is a chart showing how these diphthongs are pronounced:
IPA /PHONEMIC/ [PHONETIC] ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION SPANISH/FRENCH PRONUNCIATION ay /aj/ [aɪ] bye hay ( Sp. there is) ey /ej/ [eɪ] day (with y-glide) rey ( Sp. king) iy /ij/ [iɪ] see (with y-glide) bille (Fr. marble) oy /oj/ [oɪ] boy hoy (Sp. today) uy /uj/ [uɪ] gooey muy (Sp. very)
- Note: Syllables starting with a y (ya, ye, etc.) and those starting with a w (wa, we, etc.) form a set of what are known as pre-y-glided vowels and pre-w-glided vowels. Such vowels, along with the post-y-glided vowels form a set of glided vowels that are treated functionally as a unique class of vowels in word-building, which is explained more fully later.
- Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-y-glide or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the glides r, l, and w, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide or non-y consonants, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
CASE EXAMPLE SYLLABIFIED 1 ama.... hot a-ma 2 ayma.... warm ay-ma 3 aymsea.... warming up aym-se-a 4 prexwa.... exploded pre-xwa 5 upayo.... will have come u-pa-yo 6 vyaa.... true vya-a 7 vyaay.... truly vya-ay 8 vay.... indeed vay 9 tambwa.... settled tam-bwa
- For the purpose of this section, glides consist of y or w and liquids of r or l.
- Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
ALLOWABLE SYLLABIC PATTERNS EXAMPLES V[y] o, ay C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre V[y]C iyt, mayn C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, twob, toyb, xwer V[lr]C alx, arx, yalp, yarp, vart Vm[psx] mamp, yomx C?Vn[ktsxftszg] yank, yanx, anx, Englam
- Two non-glide/liquid consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.
- Two glides or liquids cannot come together in one syllable except in foreign-imported words.
- Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel. In this case, final y is treated like a consonant, and so a word ending in ay is stressed on that syllable (since the a is non-final). The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked teja vital te-ja igay quickly i-gay Mirad Mirad Mi-rad booka tired bo-o-ka bookan fatigue bo-o-kan tejea alive te-je-a oyse lacks oy-se
- Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
- The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
- Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
- All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
- The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English Amerikam America Amerikama American Amerikat an American Amerikad American English Ivan Ivan Dropek ay Poos War and Peace At Mirade. I speak Mirad. Hyat be ha mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon. Ati tambeseya Boston. We were living in Boston. His se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine. Ha Anxwa Doobi gey dyunxwe ha AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.
- Punctuation and the rules governing it are basically the same as in English. The most common punctuation marks are:
PUNCTUATION MARK NAME . period , comma ; semi-colon : colon ' single quote " double quote ( left parens ) right parens -- dash ! exclamation point ? question mark * asterisk
- One difference with English is the part of a sentence in Mirad that introduces a direct quotation uses a colon (:) instead of a comma as practiced in English, eg.:
- It da: "At voy te."....He said, "I don't know."
Types of Nouns
- Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in these various ways:
- common vs. proper
COMMON PROPER tam...house Emer...Venus yagsim...bench Fransam...France dyes...book Notre Dame...Notre Dame tej...life Tot...God
- concrete vs. abstract
CONCRETE ABSTRACT tab...body ifon...love mil...water oyman...coolness deuz...song deuzen...singing
- countable vs. mass
COUNTABLE MASS pat...bird pattel...bird food patayeb...feather patayebyan...plumage meg...rock mil...water
- gender-neutral vs. feminine vs. masculine
GENDER-NEUTRAL FEMININE MASCULINE tob...human being toyb...woman twob...man edeb...royal person edeyb...queen edweb...king ted...parent teyd...mother twed...father
- singular or plural
SINGULAR PLURAL dom...city domi...cities gon...part goni...parts jub...day jubi...days
- inanimate (things) or animate (humans and animals)
INANIMATE ANIMATE mam...sky pot...animal tom...building aut...person job...time tobot...child
- Nouns also include gerunds, i.e. abstract nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen singing < deuzer to sing or osexen destruction < osexer to destroy.
- In Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a CONSONANT. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat bird ⇒ pati birds).
- The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.
Pluralization of Common Nouns
- A singular countable common noun always ends in a consonant and is made plural by suffixing the plural marker vowel i. So, the plural of pur car is puri cars. In noun phrases, for example, where a noun is modified by an article and adjective, only the noun is pluralized, that is, there is no agreement across word boundaries as in many European languages (la belle fleur →les belles fleurs).
SINGULAR PLURAL tam...house tami...houses toyb...woman toybi...women tej...life teji...lives ha via dom...the beautiful city ha via domi...the beautiful cities
- In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ha the; There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Spanish. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
MIRAD ENGLISH SPECIFICITY tam a house indefinite, no article ha tam the house definite ha tami the houses definite, plural tej life general, no article fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article ha tej (...at bayse) the life (...I have) specific Fransad French general, no article Ivan Ivan person's name, no article Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article Ha yivani hu yat ifie. The freedoms we enjoy. abstraction specified Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
- Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."
- Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take a definite article only in a few cases like ha Anxwa Doebi the United States, which is really composed of common nouns. Otherwise, a country name like Fransam does not take a definite article, just as it does not in English.
Modifiers: Placement and Agreement
- Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Mirad English ha ewa aga tami the two big houses gla ifxea taxi many pleasant memories hya fia tob every good man ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads gra vua sexen too much ugly construction ata aja teji My past lives
- Nouns can be
- linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
- juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
- compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
- hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
LINKAGE EXAMPLE CONSTRUCTION Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and) ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or) hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but) dunnyan boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without) tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of) ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of) job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of) dyen ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about) dropek jaxeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jaxeni (preparations) dom yautpur....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yautpur (bus) tojvaf....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun vaf (wish) jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league) maj-moj...a day-and-night two or more equal nouns hyphenated
- The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person, eg. ha tam bi Sam (Sam's house = the house of Sam). The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Prepositions or Conjunctions.
- Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Word Formation.
Noun Derivational Suffixes
- Nouns can be divided into:
- simple nouns such as pur vehicle
- compound nouns such as naadpur train < naad rail + pur vehicle
- derived nouns such as fabyan forest < fab tree + -yan, a suffix meaning collection
- Derived nouns are formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
SUFFIX MEANING BASE ONTO WHICH
SUFFIX IS ADDED
EXAMPLES -ag big noun tam house → tamag mansion
tyal meal → tyalag banquet
tilar spoon → tilarag ladle
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem vi abeautiful → via beauty
afair → yevan fairness, equity
ahuman → toban humanity, humanness, manhood -ayg big and cute noun tam house → tamayg cozy mansion
epet dog → epetayg wolfie
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla English → Anglad English (language)
Mira of the world → Mirad Mirad (world speech)
thorse → aped neigh, whinny -ef need of noun tel food → telef hunger
afast → igef emergency
til drink → tilef thirst
-en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifi erenjoy → ifien enjoyment
ersing → deuzen singing
eract → axen action, acting -es smaller counterpart thing noun tom building → tomes apartment
saun kind → saunes sample
dreuz poem → deuzes stanza
mek dust, powder → mekes speck, gain
-et smaller counterpart person noun twob man → twobet boy
toyb woman → toybet girl
-if love of, -philia noun tel food → telif gourmandise
doab homeland → doabif patriotism
dyes book → dyesif bibliophilia, love of books
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man light → manig flash
pyex stroke → pyexig swat
erdive, fly down → yopapig swoop -im room, chamber various stems fyadil erto pray → faydilim chapel
erto cook → magelim kitchen
erto dress → tofim dressing room -in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot god → totin religion, theism
anude → otofin nudism
yufr- terror → yufrin terrorism
-n abstract noun various stems ze in the middle of → zen center
za in front of → zan face
byi since, starting with → byin source
go less → gon part
-(a)m place, house, building various stems nun- merchandise → nunam store
til drink → tilam bar, tavern
erto pray → fyadilam church -(e)m place various stems ho-? what-? → hom? where?
yex work → yexem worksite
ab on, above → abem top, surface
alateral → kum side -ob, -oyb (f.) offspring, baby of noun tob human being → toboyb baby girl
apet horse → apetob foal
yopet goat → yopetob kid
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet horse → apetog pony
tyal meal → tyalog snack
gorbun cut → gorbunog cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam house → tamoyg cottage
apayt chicken → apaytoyg chickadee
mimpar boat → mirparoyg dingy
instrument, tool, machine, etc. usu. verb stem p erto go → pur car
erto write → drar pencil
erto cut → gobrar knife
erto lift → yablur elevator, lift
yablar lift, crane
dop military → dopar gun
dopur machine gun
dopir artillery, cannon
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas first one, first thing
otwa unknown → otwas mystery, an unknown
tejea living → tejeas living thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems if erto love → ifon love
ov against → ovon obstacle
astrong → azon force
adifficult → yikson problem -(s)un object, thing, result of an action various stems vyu adirty → vyun spot
ersettle → tambiun settlement
ershred → gofrun scrap, shred
hyo not a single → hyosun not a single thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat second one, second person
fya- holy → fyat holy one, saint
ujna last → ujat last one, last person
Amerika American → Amerikat an American
-tun science of, -ology noun tot god → tottun theology
tob man → tobtun anthropology
vob plant → vobtun botany
-tut scientist, -ologist, -ist noun tot god → tottut theologist
tob man → tobtut anthropologist
vob plant → vobtut botanist
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf hydrophobia
totin religion → totinuf hatred of religion
toyb woman → toybuf misogyny
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant, -ist verb stem bek ertreat → bekuyt nurse
ertravel → poput traveler
erwin → akut winner -yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teat erto see → teatyaf ability to see
erto think → texyaf cognition
erto understand → testyaf comprehension
erto spend → nosyaf spending power
erto know → tyaf conscience -yag big and ugly noun tetwid uncle → tetwidyag dirty old uncle
toyb woman → toybyag hag
-yan collection, grouping, -ary noun tob man → tobyan mankind
mar star → maryan constellation
fab tree → fabyan forest
dyes book → dyesyan library
-yef duty to verb stem dud erto answer → dudyef responsibility
erto ache → byokyef punishment -yik difficulty to verb stem teeter to hear → teetyik difficulty hearing
erto breathe → tiexyik difficulty breathing, asthma
-yog little and ugly noun tam house → tamyog shack
epat duck → epatyog ugly duckling
kod secret → kodyog little dirty secret
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teat erto see → teatyof blindness
erto hear → teetyof deafness
erto move → pasyof paralysis
erto sleep → tujyof insomnia -yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet snake → lopyetyuf fear of snakes
mil water → milyuf hyrophobia
-yuk ease of verb stem pes erto wait → pesyuk patience
erto fool → kovyoxyik gullibility, foolhardiness
- Nouns in Mirad are gender-neutral, unless those relating to people, animals, and sometimes clothing, are altered to be specifically male/male-oriented or female/female-oriented. To create the male or male-oriented form of an otherwise gender-neutral noun, prefix the vowel of the semantically-significant syllable with the letter w. To create the female or female-oriented form, suffix the vowel of the semantically-significant syllable with y. If the noun is an agent noun with the suffix -ut, that is, a noun that means "one who does something as an occupation or behavior", the ending -ut is changed to -uyt for the female form, but the male form stays the same. The reason for this is that the addition of a w to the agentive ending could be confused with the verbal passive marker w (see the chapter on Verbs. The chart below shows how this works:
NEUTRAL MALE/MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE/FEMALE-ORIENTED tob....human being, person twob....man toyb....woman tobet....child twobet....boy toybet....girl tad....spouse twad....husband tayd....wife ejtad....step spouse ejtwad....step-husband ejtayd....step-wife ajtad....ex-spouse ajtwad....ex-husband ajtayd....ex-wife ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother datif....sweetheart dwatif....boyfriend daytif....girlfriend yapet....pig yapwet....boar yapeyt....sow ideb....monarch idweb....king ideyb....queen apat....fowl apwat....rooster apayt....hen tiuv....underwear tiwuv....briefs tiuyv....panties vapet....antelope vapwet....deer vapeyt....doe deuzut....singer deuzut....singer deuzuyt....songstress toos....gender twoob....male tooyb....female
- For gender specification in pronouns, see Pronouns, below).
- Adjectives can be of the following types:
- qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
- denominal (noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
- deverbal (verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
- preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
- deictic, like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
- numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
- quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (to much)
- pronominal, like ata (my), hota? (whose), hyeta (anyone's)
- Descriptive adjectives are the main focus of this section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participles, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal adjectives (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.
- All descriptive adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
- fi- (root qualitative morpheme) ⇒ fia good
- pur (noun meaning vehicle) ⇒ pura vehicular
- dalw- (passive stem of the verb speak) ⇒ dalwa spoken
- ab (preposition meaning on) ⇒ aba superior
- Such adjectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
- aga tam....a big house
- ha fia toyb....the good woman
- ata boka ted....my sick father
- fia telsyeb bi vafil.....a good bottle of wine
- Aata dooba doof....our national flag
- Ata tejea tyedi.....my living relatives
- doba xeut state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
- pata bok avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
- Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.
Comparison of Adjectives by Degree
- As in English, descriptive adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINER COMPARISON ga more ga fia (vyel) better (than) ge as, equally ge fia (vyel) as good (as) go less go fia (vyel) less good (than) gla very gla fia very good glay so glay fia so good gle rather/quite gle fia rather/quite good glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good gra too gra fia too good gre enough gre fia good enough gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good/not good enough gwa most gwa fia (bi, be) best (of, in) gwe average gwe fia good on average gwo least gwo fia (bi, be) least good (of, in)
- The relative conjunction vyel is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison or than in a non-equalitative comparison. Examples:
- Ata tam se ga aga vyel etas. My house is bigger than yours.
- Hia tam voy se ge aga vyel atas. This house is not as big as mine.
- His se ha gwa aga tam bi aata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
- Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.
Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives
- Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative and often other adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
ADJECTIVE ABSTRACT QUALITY fia good fian goodness yeva just yevan justice uja final ujan finality joga young jogan youth teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity dooba nation dooban nationality tojbuwa lethal tojbuwan lethality
Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives
- Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing the vowel o. This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
- Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
- Here are some examples:
NORMAL NEGATED ega.... normal oega.... abnormal twa.... known otwa.... unknown geyla.... similar ogeyla.... dissimilar iva.... happy oiva.... unhappy data.... friendly odata.... unfriendly
yodata.... inimical, enemy-like
Adjectival Derivational Endings
- All descriptive adjectives end in at least the suffix a. Many adjectives are derived from other parts of speech, using one of more of the following derivational endings.
ENDING TRANSITION TYPE MEANING BASE WORD DERIVED ADJECTIVE -a N->ADJ relating to, of fyaat god
-aya / -ika N->ADJ full of, -ful, -ous mil water
milaya watery, aquaous
-oya / -uka N->ADJ empty of, -less, -free teb head
-yena N->ADJ like, -ish, -y fyaat god
fyaatyena godly, godlike
tobyena manly, virile
-ea V->ADJ -ing, -ent, -ant ags- grow
agsea growing, crescent
tejea living, alive
kyasea changing, variant
-yea V->ADJ -ive, tending to dal- talk
-wa V->ADJ -ed dal- talk
-oa V->ADJ -about to, apt to toj- die
tajb- give birth
tajboa about to deliver
-ua V->ADJ -able, potentially V tojb- kill
akujua potentially successful
Pronominalization of Adjectives
- Adjectives can be pronominalized (converted to a pronoun) by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN fia.... good fias.... a good thing
fiasi.... good things
fiat.... a good person
fiati.... good persons
aga.... big agas.... something big
agasi.... big ones
agat.... a big person
agati.... big persons
joga.... young, new jogas.... something new, novelty
jogasi.... new ones
yogat.... young person, youth
jaga.... old jagas.... antique
jagasi.... old ones
jagat.... elderly person
awas.... one (of them)
ewasi.... two (of them)
awat.... one (of them)
ewati.... two of them
hia.... this hias.... this one
hiasi.... these (things)
hiat.... this one
gla.... much, many glas.... a lot (of stuff)
glasi.... many (things)
glati.... many (people)
- Hia tyoyaf se ogre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
- Ati fu daler bay ha gwa jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
- At fe teaxer ha jogas, voy ha jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
- Ha ujnati so ha ijnati. The last shall be the first.
- Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
- Adverbs can be derived from descriptive adjectives by adding y to the a ending.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB fia good fiay well yeva fair yevay fairly uja final ujay finally joga new jogay newly teyda maternal teyday maternally
- At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
- Iyt deuze fi..... She sings well.
- At upo ig..... I'll come quickly.
- Otherwise, the full adverb form is used, eg.:
- Weti yefe ugay fiaser.....You guys must slowly improve.
- At tojo ivay, tea hav at beaye fia tej.....I will die happily knowing that I've had a good life.
- There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives, or because they already end in ay. Here are the most common examples:
yob....down yub....near yib....far ab....on eb....between
ob....off ub....toward ib....away bay....with/along boy....without byu....as far (as) byi....since vay....indeed vey....perhaps voy....not zay....ahead zey....across
ze....to the middle
zoy....back zu....to the left zi....to the right uz....on a curve iz....straight, directly yuz....around yiz....beyond gay....also gey....even goy....no more gaj....still goj....no longer yan....together yon....apart jay....beforehand, already jey....currently joy....afterwards, next
- The words in the above chart that are underlined can also serve as prepositions (See Prepositions).
- The words underlined below are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
- At teaxa yab..... I looked up. (= At yabteaxa.)
- Duhev et hyej upo zoy?..... Will you ever come back. (= ...zoyupo?)
- Et po yib be tej...... You will go far in life. (= Et yipo...)
- At voy se eta ted.....I am not your father.
- Pu zu, jogat!....Go left, young man! (= Zuypu...)
- Aat vay sa hum.....We were indeed there.
- It pa oyeb.....He went outside. (= It oyepa.)
- Iyt gay deuze.....She also sings.
- Yit yexe gey be moji.....They work even nights.
- Ha tobob gaj tujeye.....The baby is still sleeping.
- Aat yefe yexer yan.....We must work together. (= ...yanyexer.)
- His vey upo yon.....This may come apart. (= ...yonupo.)
- Hit se jay toja.....This one is already dead.
- Many of the above adverbs can be prefixed to verbs, nouns, and even adjectives to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
- yeb (in) + per (go) = yeper (to enter) [NOT: yebper]
- oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (to take out) [NOT: oyebbier]
- yab (up) + per (go) = yaper (to rise) [NOT: yabper]
- yob (up) + kima (sloped) = yobkima (downward-sloping)
- yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (to approach) [NOT: yubper]
- yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (to telephone)
- yiz (beyond) + per (go) = yizper (to surpass)
- yuz (around) + pipen (sailing) = yuzpipen (circumnavigation)
- zay (ahead) + paser (move) = zaypaser (to advance)
- ze (to the middle) + jaga (aged) = zejaga (middle-aged)
- zye (through) + teatyafwa (visible) = zyeteatyafa (transparent)
- zey (across) + mep (road) = zeymep (bridge)
- zoy (back) + nogea (gradual) = zoynogea (retrogressive)
- iz (straight) + nad (line) = iznad (vector)
- zi (to the right) + kum (side) = izkum (right side)
- zu (far) + tuyab (hand) = zutuyaba (left-handed)
- uz (on a curve) + nad (line) = uznad (curve)
- yan (together) + up (come) = yanup (a meeting)
- yon (apart) + ber (put) = yonber (to separate)
Word Order of Adverbs
- The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
- It deuze viay..... He sings beautifully.
- Et yefe xer gwa ig..... You must do it as quickly as possible.
- Et hyoj ako gwaika ivan..... You will never gain perfect happiness.
- At voy te. (OR) At te voy. .... I don't know.
Comparison of Adverbs by Degree
- Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of quantitative determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
POSITIVE +/=/- COMPARATIVE +/- SUPERLATIVE fiay.... well ga fiay vyel.... better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
ge igay vyel....as well as
go fiay vyel....less well than
gwa fiay....(the) best (Lit: most good-ly, as well as possible
gwo fiay....(the) least well
- Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context. Determiners can be categorized in Mirad as the following types:
TYPE ENGLISH EXAMPLES Quantitative more, less, very Numerical one, half, first Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
- Furthermore, as for part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.
- Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
- specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
- specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
- specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
- From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
- Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
- Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
- Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
- The following table presents most of these word forms:
ADVERB / ADJECTIVE SINGULAR INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL ANIMATE PRONOUN DEGREE: How...(big / quickly)?
AMOUNT: How much...(money)?
NUMBER: How many...(books)?
AMOUNT: How much...(+ STUFF)? NUMBER: How many...(+ THINGS)? NUMBER: How many...(+ PEOPLE)? ga more gas more (stuff) gasi many (things) gati many (people) ge as, as much, as many ges as much (stuff) gesi as many (things) geti as many people go less, fewer gos less (stuff) gosi fewer (things) goti fewer (people) gla very, much, many
glay so, so much, so many
glas much (stuff)
glays so much stuff)
glasi many (things)
glaysi so many (things)
glati many (people)
glayti so many (people)
gle rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles quite a lot (of stuff) glesi quite a lot (of things) qleti quite a few (people) glo slightly, a little, few glos a little bit glosi a few (things) gloti few (people) gra too, too much, too many gras too much (stuff) grasi too many (things) grati too many (people) gre enough gres enough (stuff) gresi enough (things) greti enough (people) gro insufficiently, too little, too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people) gwa most gwas the most (stuff) gwasi the most (things) gwati most people gwe so, so much, so many gwes so much (stuff) gwesi so many (things) gweti so many (people) gwo least gwos the least (stuff) gwosi the least (number of) gwoti the least number (of people)
- Examples Using Quantitative Determiners
- Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
- At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
- Et sa gra uga.....You were too slow.
- Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
- Twobi dale ge igay vyel toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
- Aat yexe ga igay vyel yet.....We work faster (= more quickly) than you.
- Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
- Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
- Gra nas noxwa....Too much money was spent.
- Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun (= things or people):
- At ayse gro sari....I've got too few tools.
- Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
- Aat efe gla ga valdibuti.....We need many more policemen.
- Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something (= stuff):
- Gas ilokeye.....More (stuff) is leaking.
- Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much (stuff).
- Yat kexo gwas.....We will seek as much (stuff) as possible.
- Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
- Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
- At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but too few.
- Pronouns referring to a countable number of people:
- Grati xaye vyosi be hia yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this work site.
- Glati dyunwe oy gloti kebiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.
- Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
- Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:
- The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
- The units are formed from the plain and pre-iotated vowels:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
- The numerals 5-9 are pre-iotated versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
- The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
- By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91 ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
- By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
- All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
- asa 101
- asale 112
- usyulyu 199
- The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
- aro 1,000
- aro a 1,001
- ero isi 2,300
- yoro yasula 5,641
- The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
- emlo 2,000,000
- umlo 4,000,000
- The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
- yamro 6 billion
- The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
- iro asyulyo 3,195
- yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
- alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922
Cardinal Numerical Determiners
- Cardinal numerical determiners are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical determiner goes first. Cardinal numerical determiners are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added to the last monosyllabic number simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numeric determiner is 2 or higher in value, then the noun is pluralized. Unlike English, "zero" is followed by a singular noun.
Mirad English Wa Behavior Pluralization Behavior owa tam no houses, zero houses The number is monosyllabic,
so wa is suffixed.
The number is less than 2,
so the noun is singular.
awa tam one house, a house " " ewa tami two houses " The number is greater than 2,
so the noun is pluralized.
iwa tami three houses " " uwa tami four houses " " yowa tami five houses " " yawa tami six houses " " yewa tami seven houses " " yiwa tami eight houses " " yuwa tami nine houses " " alo tami ten houses The number is polysyllabic,
so no wa is suffixed.
" ase tami a hundred two houses " " ero iwa tami two thousand three houses The number i is monosyllabic,
so wa is suffixed.
" iro alo tami three thousand ten houses The number alo is polysyllabic,
so wa is not suffixed.
- Cardinal numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun thing or suni things. The t ending is short for aut person or auti persons. For example:
- Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas (= awa sun). You have one house. I have one too.
- At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay ewasi (= ewa suni). I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
- Esa asoti (= aso auti) yeb ha duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
- Aat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi huti. We must choose twenty-four females from those people.
Ordinal Numerical Determiners
- Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Determiner o.... zero oa.... zeroth a.... one aa.... first e.... two ea.... second i.... three ia.... third alo.... ten aloa.... tenth asu.... 104 asua.... 104th
- The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
- anapa.... first, first in order, primary*
- enapa.... second, second in order, secondary
- inapa.... third, third in order, tertiary
- alanapa.... eleventh, eleventh in order
- There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
- ijna.... initial, first, original
- ujna.... last, final
- ajna.... past, ex-, former
- ojna.... future
- ejna.... present, current
- jana.... previous, last
- jona.... next, following
- Ordinal numerical determiners and adjectives can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Adjective Adverb aa.... first aay.... firstly anapa.... first anapay.... primarily ea.... second eay.... secondly ujna.... last ujnay.... finally
- Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
- ha aas.... the first thing
- ha aat.... the first person
- ha aati.... the first people
- hua aayt.... that first female
- ha eas.... the second thing
- eat.... another / a second person
- ha ujnati so ha ijnati.... the last shall be first
- Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
- hua uwa aga tami.... those four big houses
- ha aa alo oga tami.... the first ten little houses
- ata anapa ewa oga tobobi.... my first two little children
Fractional Numerical Determiners
- Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -yn for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
CARDINAL NUMBER FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB o.... zero oyn.... a void, vacuum oyna.... non-existant -- oy(n)-.... devoid of oynxer.... annihilate a.... one ayn.... whole
ha ayn.... the whole
ayna.... entire, whole aynay.... entirely ay(n)-.... holo-, whole-, all- aynxer.... integrate e.... two eyn.... a half eyna.... half eynay.... halfway ey(n)-.... half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynxer.... halve i.... three iyn.... a third iyna.... third iynay.... by a third iy(n)-.... terci- iynxer.... cut in third u.... four uyn.... a quarter uyna.... quarter uynay.... quarterly uy(n)-.... quadri- uynxer.... quarter alo.... ten aloyn.... a tenth aloyna.... tenth aloynay.... by a tenth aloy(n)-.... deci- aloynxer.... decimate aso.... hundred asoyn.... hundredth, percent asoyna.... hundredth asoynay.... by a hundredth asoy(n)-.... centi- asoynxer.... cut by a hundred
- Here are some examples:
- His uxo ha oynxen bi yata mir..... This will cause the anihilation of our world.
- Ha ayna mir te ayv et..... The whole world knows about you.
- Has se gas ev ha ayn bi hasa goni..... It is more than the whole of its parts.
- Fransad se ayn-druna dalyen..... France is a holophrastic language.
- Et yafe bier eyn..... You can take half.
- Yat yefo eynxer eta yexnix..... We will have to halve your salary.
- Hus sa eyn-vyan..... That was a half-truth.
- Eso eyn-zyunida dropek..... There is going to be a hemispheric war.
- Duhev his se eyn-utexea dopar?.... Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
- Iynxu hua ableyavol..... Cut that pie in thirds.
- It yeyfe bixwer ay uynxwer..... He should be drawn and quartered.
- Hia nas se aloyn bi has yat baysa zojab..... This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
- Ha dep aloynxwu..... The army would be decimated.
- Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan baksa..... Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
- Hia tom se anay asoynge aga vyel hua tom..... This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
- The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
- Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi..... You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
- Iyt eynay tikabeloka..... She almost (=halfway) threw up.
- Words like half of it, a third of them:
- Eynas sa fia.....Half of it was good.
- Eynasi sa fua.....Half of them (things) were bad.
- Esa uwa tobi se hua fukyes. Eynati toja.....There were four people in that accident. Half (of them) died.
- Iynati bi eti se vyasa.....A third of you are right.
- Uynati bi ati yantexe.....A quarter of us agree.
- Alo asoynasi bi hia dyesi fyunxwa.....Ten percent of these books were ruined.
Multiplicative Numerical Determiners
- Multiplicative numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal number if the number is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
CARDINAL NUMBER MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER o.... zero oon.... null oona.... nil on-.... zero- onxer.... cancel, zero out a.... one aon.... single aona.... single aonay.... singly an-.... uni-/mono- anxer unify e.... two eon.... twosome, double eona.... double eonay.... doubly en-.... di-/bi- enxer double i.... three ion.... threesome, triplet iona.... triple ionay.... triply in-.... tri-- inxer.... triple u.... four uon.... quartet uona.... quadruple uonay.... quadruply un-.... quadri-/tetra- unxer.... quadruple yo.... five yoon.... quintet yoona.... quintuple yoonay.... quintuply yoon-*.... quinti-/penta- yoonxer*.... quintuple ya.... six yaon.... sextet yaona.... sextuple yaonay.... sextuply yaon-*.... sexi-/hexa- yaonxer*.... sextuple alo.... ten alon.... decade alona.... decadic alonay.... by a multiple of ten alon-.... deca- alonxer.... multiply by ten aso.... hundred ason.... hundredfold asona.... hundredfold asonay.... by a hundredfold ason-.... hecato- asonxer.... multiply by a hundred
- * An extra o is added to these prefixes to avoid ambiguity with yan meaning together and yon meaning apart.
- The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
- Aleoni bi pati yizpapa..... Dozens of birds flew by.
- By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
- aonat.... solo, single
- aonatser.... become single
- eonat.... duo, pair, twosome, couple
- eonatser.... couple up, copulate
- ionat.... trio, threesome, trinity
- Ionatin.... Trinitarianism
- uonat.... quartet, foursome
- yoonat.... quintet, group of five people
- yoonati.... quintets
- By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
- aun.... unit
- auna.... unitary, individual
- aunser.... unite
- aunyan.... series
- aunyana.... serial
- eun.... pair
- euna.... even, paired, binary
- oeuna.... odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
- oeunat.... odd man out
- eunxer.... even out
- Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
- Yat naptyoyapa be eonati yez ha mep..... We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
- Asonati upo bay aat bu is ovdal..... Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
- Hia ivxel xwe enyabay..... This celebration happens biennially.
- Iyt se untubokat..... She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
- Diwe sagu ha auni..... Please count the units.
- Eet gafisa aronay!.... You all have improved a thousandfold!
- Tob se entyoyaba sat..... Man is a bipedal creature.
- Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
- anzyus.... monocycle
- enzyus.... bicycle
- ingun.... triangle
- ungun.... quadrangle
- Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon apart and yan together.
- yoongona.... quintipartite BUT: yonper.... separate, go apart
- yaongun.... hexagon BUT: yanuper.... meet, come together
- There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
- Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
- Using xag meaning frequency
- Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING hogla jodi? hoxag? how often?, how many times? hagla jodi haxag as many times, as often hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions higla jodi hixag this often, this many times hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times huugla jodi huuxag so often, so many times hyogla jodi hyoxag never, on no occasion hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times ga jodi gaxag (vyel) more often (than) ge jodi gexag (vyel) as many times (as), as often (as) go jodi goxag (vyel) less often (than) gla jodi glaxag many times, often gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom gra jodi graxag too often gre jodi grexag often enough gro jodi groxag too seldom gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible owa jod -- never, at no time, zero times awa jod -- once, one time ewa jodi -- twice, two times iwa jodi -- thrice, three times alo jodi -- ten times
- The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT gaber.... add gab.... addition gabwas.... addend gabeas.... adder gab.... plus, + gabsin.... plus sign gabix.... sum galer.... multiply gal.... multiplication galwas.... multiplicand galeas.... multiplier gal.... times, x galsin.... times sign galix.... product garer.... exponentiate, raise gar.... power garwas.... number being raised gareas.... exponent gar.... raised to the power of garsin.... exponent garix.... raising result gober.... subtract gob.... subtraction gobwas.... subtrahend gobeas.... subtractor gob.... minus, - gobsin.... minus sign gobix.... difference goler.... divide gol.... division, fraction golwas.... dividend goleas.... divisor gol.... divided by, ÷ golsin.... division sign golix.... quotient gorer.... cut, uproot gor.... cut, root gorwas.... radicand goreas.... radical gor.... lower to the power of, √ gorsin.... radical sign gorix.... root lowering result geler.... equal gel.... equation gelwas.... thing being equated geleas.... equator gel.... equal to, as, like gelsin.... equal sign gelix.... equation results
- Examples of mathematical expressions:
- E gab e gele u..... Two plus two equals four.
- E gal i gele ya..... Two times three equals six.
- I gar e gele yu..... Three to the second power equals nine.
- E gob e gele o..... Two minus two equals zero.
- Yu gol i gele i..... Nine divided by three equals three.
- Yu gor i gele i..... Nine cubed equals three.
- Aso gor e gele alo..... One hundred squared equals ten.
- Decimal expressions like 2.5 use the word nod point as in English.
- Hia bavol kyinse ga vyel 10.8 (alo nod yiwa) aronkyiki.....This tomato weighs more than 10.8 (ten point eight) kilograms.
- The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:
Basic Calendar Units
- Time is divided using the following basic terms:
MIRAD ENGLISH job time jab year jeb season jib month jub day jwob hour jwab minute jweb second
- Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical morphemes to some of the time units above:
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA arojab millenium year x 1,000 asojab century year x 100 alojab decade year x 10 eynjab half year year x 1/2 uynjab quarter year x 1/4 yejub week day x 7 eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
- This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
MIRAD ENGLISH hijub
ha jana yejub
ha jona yejub
ja ewa yejubi
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jo ewa yejubi
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next
Seasons of the Year
- Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
MIRAD ENGLISH jeab spring jeeb summer jeib autumn, Fall jeub winter
- Examples of usage:
- be jeab.... in spring
- ja jeeb.... before summer
- ju jeib.... until autumn
- ji jeub.... since winter
- je ha jeb.... during the season
- ub ha uj bi jeeb.... toward the end of summer
- eb jeab ay jeeb.... between spring and summer
- jeeba gemoj.... vernal equinox
- jeiba fayebi.... autumn leaves
- jeba til.... seasonal drink
- jeubyena jebmalyen.... wintry climate
- jeabyena malyen.... spring-like weather
- jeuben.... hibernation
Months of the Year
- Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
MIRAD ENGLISH jiab January jieb February jiib March jiub April jiyob May jiyab June jiyeb July jiyib August jiyub September jilob October jilab November jileb December
- Some expressions using the months:
- be jilob.... in October
- ja jiyab.... before June
- ja zajiyeb.... by next July
- hijib.... this month
- zojib.... last month
- zajib.... next month
- bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis... month-to-month rent
- jibay... monthly
- jibi joy... months later
- jiba sindryen.... monthly magazine
- hujiba jobnis.... that month's rent
- hya ionjib.... every trimester
- jiber.... menstruate
Days of the Week
- Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
MIRAD ENGLISH juab Monday jueb Tuesday juib Wednesday juub Thursday juyob Friday juyab Saturday juyeb Sunday
- Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
MIRAD ENGLISH hojub? which day hajub hu... the day that... hejub someday hijub today hujub that day hyijub (on) the same day hyajub every day hyejub any day zajub yesterday zojub tomorrow ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day jazojub the day before yesterday jozajub the day after tomorrow hya ea jub every other/second day hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
- Examples of Usage:
- be juyob....on Friday
- ju juib....until Wednesday
- ji zojub.... since yesterday
- lojo jubuj.... by [Lit: not after] day's end
- jo zajub.... after tomorrow
- je ha jub.... during the day
- bi juab bu juub... from Monday to Friday
Parts of the Day
- Here are the principal parts of a day:
|maj....daytime, day||moj....nighttime, night|
|bi maj....A.M.||bi moj....P.M.|
|amaryap....sunrise, sunup||amaryop....sunset, sundown|
zoimaj.... yesterday morning
zoimoj.... yesterday evening
|jwaimaj....early morning||jwaimoj....early evening|
|jwoimaj....late morning||jwoimoj....late evening|
|ujmaj....dusk, day's end||gwomoj...late night|
- Examples of Usage:
- At tijpa ja ijmaj.....I woke up before dawn.
- At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa joeymaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
- It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
- Be gwa umaji, at teaxe teasibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.
- The following is a how a date (jud) is normally expressed:
- be juab, 11 jieb 2018 JoK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
- A date like 2018 can be expressed as twenty eighteen (elo alyi) or two thousand eighteen (ero alyi).
- The day in the above expression is pronounced ali.
- The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
- The acronym for B.C. is JaK, short for Ja Krist (before Christ).
- The acronym for A.D. is JoK, short for Jo Krist (after Christ).
- Other date expressions follow:
- be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
- ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
- eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (elo awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
- hyaje hua alojab....throughout that decade
- At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
- Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
- Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.
- Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
- The usual time-of-day question is Se hojwob? What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
- The typical answer is in the format Se aa/ea... jwob gab/gob alo/ali... bi maj/moj. (Lit: (It) is (the) first/second... hour plus/minus ten/eleven...of day/night.
- Here are some typical answers:
- Se aa jwob..... It is one o'clock. [Lit: It is (the) first hour.] [NOTE: The article "the" is left unexpressed.]
- Se ea jwob..... It is two o'clock. [Lit: It is (the) second hour.]
- Se alea jwob..... It is twelve o'clock. [Lit: It is (the) twelfth hour.]
- Se ia jwob bi maj*..... It is three o'clock A.M. [Lit: It is third hour of daytime.]
- Se aloa jwob bi moj**..... It is ten o'clock P.M. [Lit: It is tenth hour of nighttime.]
- * bi maj (a.m.) can be abbreviated as bma
- ** bi moj (p.m.) can be abbreviated as bmo
- Se ua jwob (gab) alo..... It is four ten..... [Lit: It is fourth hour (plus) ten.]
- Se iloa jwob gob ali..... It is thirteen minutes til three. [Lit: It is thirteenth hour minus thirteen.]
- Se yoa jwobi gab uyn..... It is quarter after five. [Lit: It is fifth hour plus a quarter.]
- Se yoa jwobi gob uyn..... It is quarter past five. [Lit: It is fifth hour minus a quarter.]
- Se yaa jwobi gab eyn..... It is six thirty. [Lit: It is sixth hour plus a half.]
- Se yaa jwobi gab ilo..... It is six thirty. [Lit: It is sixth hour plus thirty.]
- Se yaa jwobi gob eyn..... It is thirty minutes til six. [Lit: It is sixth hour minus thirty.]
- Se yaa jwobi gob ilo..... It is thirty minutes til six. [Lit: It is sixth hour minus a half.]
- Se vyavay yea jwob gab alo bi moj..... It is exactly 7:10 P.M.. [Lit: It is exactly seventh hour plus ten of nighttime.]
- Et sa alo jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes. [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
- Has ijo jub 5:30 (= yaa jwob gab ilo) bmo (= bi moj).....It will begin around 5:30 (= five thirty [Lit: five hours plus thirty]) p.m.
- Puu him loga jwoa ev 3 (= ia) j. (= jwob)....Get here no later than 3 (= three) o'clock.
- Ha yautpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
- Ha jwobar izeade 2:30 (= ea jwob gab ilo).....The clock says [Lit: indicates] 2:30.
- Yit pua be 3a j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
- Mirad normally uses a 12-hour system with distinction between a.m. and p.m., but military 24-hour time can also be used in particular situations, in which case the a.m./p.m. distinction is not needed.
- Yanpu at be iloa jwob gab alyo..... Meet me at 13:15. (= 1:15 p.m.)
- The word jwab (hour, o'clock) can be abbreviated as j., as in the following:
- Yanpu at be 13a j..... Meet me at 13:00 (hours) [Lit: at (the) 13th h.]
- The word gab (plus) can be omitted, as in:
- At teato et be yoa j. alyo..... I'll see you at five fifteen / quarter past five.
- Note the following clock time idioms:
MIRAD ENGLISH jwa early jwe on time jwo late Se vyavay eloa jwob. It is exactly two o'clock. yub eymaj around noon ub eymoj toward midnight yeb jwebi within seconds ji alo jwabi ten minutes ago lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock. jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour Hia pop efxe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: necessitates) 2 1/2 hours. ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock. je ha jana 12 jwabi for the last 12 minutes ja / lojo 10a j. before / by 10 o'clock (= the tenth hour) lojo 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours. jo 10a j. after 10 o'clock. jo 10 jwobi. after 10 hours / 10 hours later / 10 hours ago
- Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
- The typical question is:
- Et se hojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
- A typical answer is:
- At se eli jaga....I am twenty-three years old.
- The following chart shows other age expressions, many of which are agglutinations of the deictic morphemes beginning with h:
AGE hojaga?.... how old? hajaga.... of the age hejaga.... of some age hijaga.... this old hujaga.... that old huujaga.... so old jaga....old
gle jaga.... rather old, oldish gla jaga.... very old gra jaga.... too old, super-aged gro jaga.... under-aged, minor ge jaga.... as old, of the same age awa jab jaga.... one year old
ewa jabi jaga.... two years old
alo jabi jaga.... ten years old
ga jaga vyel et.... older than you ga joga vyel at.... younger than me ge joga vyel iyt.... as young as her ha gwa jagat bi ata tedetyan....the youngest of my siblings grojagat....a minor alojagat....a ten-year-old aloyjagat....a teenager jogat....a boy, a youth
grejat....an adult, someone of age
yiloyjagat...an octogenarian asoyjagat....a centenarian
- Some other examples of usage:
- Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
- At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
- His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
- Egaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
- At se ga jaga vyel ha meybi.....I am as old as the hills.
- Teaxu ata gwa joga tobob.....Look at my youngest child.
- Yat ife aata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
- Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.
- This section is currency-dependent and remains under construction.
- Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words as to their context, including what grammarians often call demonstratives.
- Categories of adjectival, pronominal, and adverbial deictic determiners:
- Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns like this, that, those, that one
- The definite article 'the (which is really a kind of demonstrative, like those above.)
- Indefinite adjectives and pronouns like any, some, all, something, such, etc.
- Adverbs of time like when, now, ever
- Adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere
- Adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow
- Adverbs of kind like so, age this year old
- Adverbs of direction like that way, any which way
- Adverbs of reason why?, for that reason, for no reason
- Adverbs of degree this (well), so (good), how (bad)
- Adverbs of frequency like how often, so often, never
- Adverbs of age like this old, how old?, of any age
Deictic Determiner Prefixes
- There are twelve deictic determiner prefixes, which are joined to base morphemes to derive adjectival, pronominal, and adverbial determiners.
CATEGORY DEICTIC PREFIX INTERROGATIVE ho-...?....what? DEFINITE ha-....the INDEFINITE1 he-....some, a certain PROXIMAL
NEGATIVE hyo-....no, not any DISTRIBUTIVE2 hya-....every, all, each INDETERMINATE3 hye-....any, whatever IDIODEICTIC4 hyi-....the same, the very ALLODEICTIC5 hyu-....the other, another, else
- 1 Sometimes referred to as assertive existential.
- 2 Sometimes referred to as universal.
- 3 Sometimes referred to as elective existential
- 4 Idiodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "same-specifying" and refers to words that point reflexively to the same entities, such as at the same time, in the same way, the same person, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as negative alternative.
- 5 Allodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "other-specifying" and refers to words that point outwardly to other entities, such as somebody else, some other time, in other ways, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as positive alternative.
- Here is a table showing the deictic determiner prefixes attached to elements ending in -a to form various adjectival deictic determiners:
ADJECTIVE OF SELECTION ADJECTIVE OF KIND PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVE INTERROGATIVE hoa?....which? hoyena?....what kind of? hota?....whose? DEFINITE ha....the hayena....the kind of hata....the one's INDEFINITE hea....some, a certain heyena....some kind of, a certain kind of heta....someone's PROXIMAL
hiyena....this kind of, such (a), like this, like these
hiiyena....the following kind of
hiita....the following person's
huua...such a, such
huyena....that kind of, like that, like those, such
huuyena....such a kind of
huuta....such a person's
NEGATIVE hyoa....not, not a, not any hyoyena....no kind of, no such hyota....nobody's DISTRIBUTIVE hya (short for hyaa)....every, all, each hyayena....every kind of, all kinds of hyata....everybody's INDETERMINATE hyea....any, whatever hyeyena....any kind of, whatever kind of hyeta....anybody's IDIODEICTIC hyia....the same hyiyena....the same kind of hyita....the same one's ALLODEICTIC hyua....the other hyuyena....some other kind of hyuta....someone else's
- Note: The definite deictic determiner adjective ha (actually, short for haa) is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the.
- Note also: The distributive deictic determiner adjective hya (every) is shortened from hyaa.
- The pronominal adjectives can also incorporate gender in such a way that they refer to female or male persons specifically. This done by inserting the letter w before the characteristic vowel for males and the letter y after the characteristic vowel for females. Incorporating gender this way is relatively rare and only used in cases with the distinction is relative to the context:
- Hwita tam se ga aga.....This guy's house is bigger.
- At voy bee huytia dyuni.....I don't have those women's names.
- Usage examples of deictic determiner adjectives:
- Hoa tam se etas?.... Which house is yours?
- Hoyena dyezuni ifxe et?.... What kind of movies do you like?
- Hota tef okwa?.... Whose hat was lost?
- Ha tob ta atia dyuni..... The man knew our names.
- Hayena dini at ife, et ufe..... The kind of stories I love, you hate.
- Hea mepi eejdyunwo..... Certain streets will be renamed.
- Heyena fukyes uxaye parnyan..... Some kind of accident has cause a traffic jam.
- Heta abtaf akwa be ha zatem...... Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
- Hia dyes se ata gafias..... This book is my favorite.
- Hiia duni se yofwa..... The following words are prohibited.
- Hiiyena xeyen voy afwu.....The following sort of behavior would not be allowed.
- Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo..... This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
- Hita tim so yovoza..... This guy's room will be blue.
- Hua mas efwe egvozilbwer..... That wall needs to be repainted.
- Huua dini yufxe jogati.....Such stories scare children.
- Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at..... Such words should not be used in front of me.
- Huta tam magseye..... That guy's house is on fire.
- Hyoa din se ga tesike..... No story is more important.
- Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe..... No such meaning can be inferred.
- Hyota jatexdras sa ga fia..... Nobody's plan is better.
- Hya mepi izpe Roma..... All roads lead to Rome.
- Hya tob yefe xer ita gon..... Every man must do his part.
- Hyayena telami ese be hia mep..... All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
- Hyata tej se uka bi yabi ay yobi..... Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
- Hya ewa domi agxaye..... Both cities have grown.
- Hyea voz so fia..... Any color will be fine.
- Hyeyena til se beuwa..... Any kind of drink is available.
- Hyeta ved se ge ifa vyel atas..... Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
- Hyea tim et fe et yafe bayser..... Whatever room you want, you can have.
- Hyia fukyesi kyese glajodi..... The same accidents occur frequently.
- Hyiena dyezuni teaxuwa zajub..... The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
- Hyita dyun yixwa gajod..... The same person's name was used again.
- Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea..... The other movie was more entertaining.
- Hyuena mos teasu ga fia..... Another kind of furniture would look better.
- Hyuta texyen se ga fyia..... Someone else's opinion is equally valid.
- Ha dyuni bi hiyti voy dodraye..... These women's names have not be make public.
- Ha dyuni bi hwiiti voy dodrowe.....The following males' names will not be publicized.
- If the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun. For example:
- Ati tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank the glass of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank a glass of wine.
- Ati tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank the glass of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank (some) glasses of wine.
- Ati tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank one glass of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank the one glass of wine.
- Ati tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank one glass of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank both glasses of wine.
- Ati tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
- Ati tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
- Ati tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil..... We drank the second glasses of wine.
- Ati tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil..... We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
- If an indefinite article sense is needed for clarity, the words awa (one) or hea (some, a certain) can be used, eg.:
- At igtease awa tob yiztyoyaber.....I glimpsed a man walk by.
- Hwit zoyupo hea juab....He will come back on a / a certain / some Monday.
Pronominal Deictic Determiners
- The following chart shows deictic determiners used as pronouns. Note that the suffix -s (short for sun) is used pronouns referring to things, while -t (short for tob) is used for those referring to persons. The suffix -i pluralized either of these. The distinction between a form like what? and a selective form like which? is made by using the full adjectival form (with -a-) in the selective forms. So, for example, hot? is who?, but hoat? is which one? (referring to a person). The determiners referring to persons can optionally be made specifically male with the insertion of the letter w before the stem vowel or specifically female with the insertion of the letter y before the stem-ending t:
NUMBER GENDER SELECTIVE PERSON
INTERROGATIVE hos?....what (thing)?
DEFINITE has....it, the thing
hasi....they, them, the things
hwaat...the male one
haayt....the female one
hwaasi...the male ones
haaysi....the female ones
hat....the person, he, him
hati....the persons, they, them
hwati....the males, they, them
hayti....the females, they, them
heas....a certain one
heat....a certain one
hweat....a certain male
heayt....a certain female
hwiati....these of the males
hiayti...these of the females
hiti....these people, they, them
hitas....this person's, his
hitasi....this person's (things), theirs
PROXIMAL IMMEDIATE hiis....the following
hiisi....the following (things)
hiias....the following one
hiiasi....the following ones
hiiat....the following person
hwiiat....the following male
hiiayt....the following female
hiiati....the following ones
hwiiati...the following males
hiiayti....the following females
hiit....the following person
hwiit...the following male
hiiyt....the following female
hiiti....the following (people)
hwiiti....the following males
hiiyti....the following females
hiitas....the following person's (thing)
hwiitas....the following male's
hiiytas....the following female's
hiitasi....the following person's (things)
hwiitasi....the following male's
hiiytasi....the following female's
hwuat....that one of the males
huayt....that one of the females
huati....those people, they
hut....that person, he, him
hwut....that guy, he, him
huyt...that female, she, her
huti....those people, they, them
hutas....that person's, his
hutasi....that person's (things), his
EMPHATIC huus....such, such a thing
huuas....such a one
huuat....such a person
huut....such a person
hwuut....such a male
huuyt....such a female
huutas....such a person's
huutasi....such people's (things)
hyoas....not a one
hyoat....not a one
DISTRIBUTIVE hyas....everything, all
hyaasi....all of them
hyaati....all of them
INDETERMINATE hyes....anything, whatever
hyeasi....any of them
IDIODEICTIC hyis....the same thing
hyisi....the same things
hyis....the same one
hyiasi....the same ones
hyiat....the same one
hyiati....the same one
hyit....the same person
hywit....the same guy
hyiyt....the same woman
hyiti....the same people
hywiti....the same men
hyiyti....the same women
hyitas....the same person's
hyitasi....the same person's (things)
ALLODEICTIC hyus....something else
hyuas....the other one
hyuasi....the other ones
hyuat....the other one
hywut...the other guy
hyuyt....the other woman
hywuti....the other guys
hyuyti....the other women
hyutasi....someone else's (things)
- Here is a chart of pronominal deictic determiners of kind formed from the corresponding adjectival determiners of kind (eg. hoyena?....what kind of...?):
KIND OF THING
KIND OF THINGS
KIND OF PERSON
KIND OF PEOPLE
INTERROGATIVE hoyenas?....what kind of thing?
hoyenasi?....what kind of things?
hoyenat?....what kind of person?
hoyenati?....what kind of people?
DEFINITE hayenas....the kind of thing
hayenasi....the kind of things
hayenat....the kind of person
hayenati....the kind of people
INDEFINITE heyenas....some kind of thing
heyenasi....some kind of things
heyenat....some kind of person
heyenati ....some kind of people
PROXIMAL hiyenas....this kind of thing, such a thing
hiyenasi....these kinds of things, such things
hiyenat....this kind of person, such a person
hiyenati....these kinds of people, such people
PROXIMAL IMMEDIATE hiiyenas....the following kind of thing
hiiyenasi....the following kinds of things
hiiyenat....the following kind of person
hiiyenati....the following kinds of people
DISTAL huyenas....that kind of thing, such a thing
huyenasi....such things, such things
huyenat....that kind of person, such a person
huyenati....those kind of people, such people
EMPHATIC huuyenas....such a thing
huuyenasi....such kinds of things
huuyenat....such a person
huuyenati....such kinds of people
NEGATIVE hyoyenas....no such thing
hyoyenasi....no such things
hyoyenat....no such person
hyoyenati....no such people
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayenas....every kind of thing
hyayenasi....all kinds of things
hyayenat....every kind of person
hyayenati....all kinds of people
INDETERMINATE hyeyenas....any kind of thing
hyeyenasi....any kinds of things
hyeyenat....any kind of person
hyeyenati....any kinds of people
IDIODEICTIC hyiyenas....the same kind of thing
hyiyenasi....the same kinds of things
hyiyenat....the same kind of person
hyiyenati....the same kinds of people
ALLODEICTIC hyuyenas....some other kind of thing
hyuyenasi....other kinds of things
hyuyenat....some other kind of person
hyuyenati....other kinds of people
- Any of the above animate deictic determiners can be made to refer specifically to males or females with the ending -wat or -wati for males and -ayt or -ayti for females. For example: any kind of males would be translated with hyeyenwati. Every kind of female would be translated with hyayenayt.
Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms
- The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner hot? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart hoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
- The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
- Hot aka zajuba ek?.... Who won yesterday's game?
- Hoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?.... Which one of the winners was the best?
- Hota tam se hus?.... Whose house is that?
- Hotas se hus?.... Whose is that?
- Hotia deuzi et gaife?.... Whose songs do you prefer?
- Hotias et gaife?.... Whose do you prefer?
- Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
- Hosi se eta gaifuni?.... What are your preferences?
- Hoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which songs are your best?
- Hoasi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which ones are your best?
- Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?.... Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
- Hiiti yaneko hijub..... The following people will compete today.
- Hoati se gwa fia?'.... Which ones are best?
- Hoti et teexe gwa jodi?.... Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
- Huat hu at teexe gwaxag draye ejna deuz..... The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
- Ejna deuz? At voy teste haas hu et tede..... New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
- Hias. This one.
- Vo. Huasi se ga fia..... No. Those are better.
- His se jub av ivxelen..... This is a day for celebration.
- Va. Hia jub. At tese hijub..... Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
- Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat! Those were the days, my friend!
- Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
- Hot aka ha igpek?.... Who won the race?
- Hyas uja fi..... Everything ended well.
- Hyasi uje..... All things come to an end.
- Hyayenasi vey kyesu..... All sorts of things might happen.
- Hyos yoka at..... Nothing surprised me.
- Hyot ta adut hu ako..... Nobody knew who would win.
- Huaytihu fu pier yefe..... Those females who would like to leave may.
- Hyet yefe eker hia ifek..... Anyone can play this game.
- Huyenasi voy afwo..... Such things will not be permitted.
- Hua twob voy taxe hia toyb..... That man does not remember this woman.
- Huti yanyexe fi..... Those guys work well together.
- Huuyti hyaj yubixe tezex.....Such females always attract attention.
- At jay teataye hiyenasi..... I've seen such things before.
- Huyenwat voy vabiwu..... A man like that would not be accepted.
- Hoyenasi weet iyfe xer je ha maj..... What kinds of things do you guys like to do during the day?
Placement of Interrogative Deictic Determiners
- In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, eg.:
- Hoa ewa oga nyefi bewe et?.... Which two small bags belong to you?
- In interrogative sentences, the interrogative deictic determiner (question word) often starts out the sentence, as in English.
- Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
- Hot et teata aay hijub?.... Who(m) did you see first today?
- Interrogative deictic determiners can also go at the end of sentence:
- Eta dyun se hos?.... What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?
Distributive Deictic Determiners Incorporating Numerical Information
- Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN hawa* the only hawas the only thing
hawasi the only things
hawat the only one (person)
hawati the only ones
hawata the only person's hawatas the only one's
hawatasi the only one's (things)
hyawa* each hyawas each one hyawat each person hyawata each person's hyawatas each one's
hyawatasi each one's (things)
hyaewa both hyaewasi both (things) hyaewati both (people) bi hyaewati both person's has bi hyaewati both person's
hasi bi hyaewati both persone's (things)
hyaiwa all three hyaiwasi all three (things) hyaiwati all three (people) hyaiwata all three person's has bi hyaiwati all three person's
hasi bi hyaiwati all three person's (things)
ohyawa not every ohyawas not everything ohyawat not everyone ohyawata not every person's ohyawatas not everyone's
ohyawatasi not everyone's (things)
hyoawa not a single hyoawas not a single thing hyoawat not a single person hyowata not a single person's hyowatas not a single person's
hyowatasi not a single person's (things)
hyeawa either hyeawas either one hyeawat either one (person) hyeawata either one's hyeawatas either one's
hyeawatasi either one's (things)
hyeewa any two hyeewasi any two things hyeewati any two people bi hyeewati any two person's has bi hyeewati any two persons'
hasi bi hyeewati any two persons' (things)
hyeowa neither hyeowas neither one hyeowat neither person hyeawata neither person's hyeowatas neither one's
hyeowatasi neither one's (things)
hyuawa another hyuawas another one hyuawat another hyuawata another's hyuawatas another's
hyuawatasi another's (things)
hyuowa no other hyuowas nothing else hyuowat nobody else hyuowata no other's hyuowatas no other's
hyuowatasi no other's (things)
- *Hawa and hyawa are short for haawa and hyaawa, respectively.
- Examples using the above numerically-based deictic determiners:
- Ohyawat se iva bay eta vaod..... Not everyone is happy with your decision.
- Hyaewasi yafwe uxer yata efi..... Both (things) can serve our needs.
- Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at..... Either room will satisfy me.
- Hyeowas oivlaxo at..... Neither one will dissatisfy me.
- Note: Hyua means the other, while hyuawa means another, eg.:
- At fu hyua til.....I would like the other drink., vs.
- At fu hyuawa til.....I would like another drink.
- Similarly, hya means every, all, while hyawa means each, eg.:
- Hya dom bee tebixea suni teaxer.....Every city has interesting things to see.
- Hya domi bee tebixuni.....All cities have things of interest.
- Hyawa dom bee tebixun.....Each city has something of interest.
- Also, ha means the, while hawa means the only, eg.:
- Hawa twob nazea ata tezex se et.....The only man worth my attention is you.
- Ha twob hu at gwa ife se et.....The man I most love is you.
- By appending y to hawa, we get the adverb haway only, solely, eg;
- Haway et nize ata tezex.....Only you deserve my attention..
- The singular person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
- Hyawata tej se ge glatesa vyel hyutas..... Each one's life is as important as another's.
- Hyeowata dyun se vyama..... Neither person's name is real.
- However, the plural person pronouns in the above chart use the preposition bi (of) to form possessives, eg.:
- Ha teji bi hyaiwati se kyebukuwa..... The lives of all three are in danger.
- The above singular possessive adjectives can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
- Hyawatas se glatesa..... Each one's is important.
- Hyeowatas se vyama..... Neither's is real.
- The plural possessive adjectives can be nominalized with the use of bi, eg:
- Hyaiwasi bi huti se kyebukuwa..... All three of theirs' are in danger.
- Correlative Distributive Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
- Hyeawa A ey B.... either A or B
- Hyeowa A oy B.... neither A nor B
- Hyaewa A ay B.... both A and B
- Hawa A, voy B.... only A, not B
Adverbial Deictic Determiners
- This tables shows a correlated set of pro-adverbs built through the agglutination of basic deictic determiners. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed pro-verbs relating to age, frequency, and so forth.
nog ~ gla1
how?, in what way?
honog? ~ hogla
how?, to what degree?
the way, how
the place, where
the time, when
hanog ~ hagla
as, to the degree
for the reason (that), because
as often (...as)
somehow, in some way
for some reason
with some frequency
this way, so
hinog ~ higla
so, this, to this extent
for this reason, hence
in the following way
hiinog ~ hiigla
to the following extent
for the following reason
as often as follows
that way, thus
'hunog ~ hugla
so, that, to that extent
for that reason, therefore, so
in such a way, so, thus
at such a place
at such a time
huunog ~ huugla
so, to such an extend
for such a reason
hyonog ~ hyogla
not at all
for no reason
totally, in every way
hyanog ~ hyagla
for every reason
hyenog ~ hyegla
however, to any degree
for whatever reason
with whatever frequency
IDIODEICTIC hyiyen (hu)
likewise, as, in the same way (that)
at the same place
at the same time
'hyinog ~ hyigla;
as, to the same extent
for the same reason
some other time
hyunog ~ hyugla
for some other reason
not as often
- Note 1: -nog and -gla forms are synonymous.
- Note 2 hoxag? and other frequency forms can be also expressed as hogla jodi? how many times.
- Some of these pro-adverb determiners are agglutinated abbreviations for longer, full forms:
- hom....where < ho + nem = what place
- hoj....when < ho + job = what time
- hoyen....how < ho + byen = what manner
- hot....who < ho + tob = what human being
- The longer, expanded forms of pro-adverbs can be used at any time. For example:
- At egteato et hejob.....I will see you again sometime.
- Hosun se eta dyun?....What is your name?
- Et yeyfe axer hubyen.....You shouldn't act that way.
- It should be noted that all of these pro-adverb determiners, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe him. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tambeseya hum., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tambeseya be hum., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at is meant. For example, from where? is expressed as bi hom? Similarly, until then would be expressed as byu huj.
- Here are some examples of how adverbial determiners are used:
- Hom et tambese?.... Where do you live? < Et tame be HOa neM? You live at what place.)
- At tame hum..... I live there.
- Et tame hum hu ha mep uje..... You live where the road ends.
- Hom weti peye?.... Where are you guys going?
- Et yafe per hyem hu et fu..... You can go anywhere.
- Bi hom et se?.... Where are you from?
- Hoj et taja?.... When were you born?
- At voy tajaya huj..... I had not been born then.
- Et yeyfe duder hiiyen..... You should respond in the following way.
- Ot voy yefe daler huuyen..... One must not talk in such a manner.
- Et pia hesav..... He left for some reason.
- Hoyen et iyfe hia vafil?.... How do like this wine?
- Voy se fia axer hiyen..... It is not good to act this way.
- Hosav et tadsa huunog jwa?.... Why did you marry so late?
- Ha tob pia hyosav..... The man left for no reason.
- Hwat pia hasav hu it efa per hyum.....The guy left because( ~ [for] the reason that) he needed to go elsewhere.
- The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
- Hoyen it xa hus?.... How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be hoa byen...? In what way...?) (ADVERB OF MANNER)
- Hoyen et xeye?.... How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (ADVERB OF MANNER)
- Hoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
- Honog (= Hogla) aga it se?.... How big is he?.... (ADVERB OF DEGREE)
- Huunog (= Huugla) iyfla et se!.... How nice you are!.... (ADVERB OF EMPHATIC DEGREE)
- The conjunction as is expressed most often using pro-adverbs of manner:
- Xu hayen hu at de..... Do as I say. = (in) the way that...
- Xu hyiyen hu at xe..... Do as I do. = (in) the same way that...
- Xu hiiyen:.... Do as follows: = (in) this hereby manner...
- However, the particle gel (like, as) can be substituted:
- Xu gel at de..... Do as I say.
- Many of the pro-adverb determiners in the above chart can be relativized by adding the relative marker hu after the base form, eg:
- At teaso et haj hu et puo him.....I will see you when you get here.
- It xa has hasav hu tosa yefa.....He did it because (for the reason that) he felt compelled.
- Hyem hu et po, et so ga iva.'....Wherever you go, you'll be happier.
- See more about this in the section on relative clauses under Verbs.
Quantitative Deictic Determiners
- The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
ADVERBIAL / ADJECTIVAL
INTERROGATIVE hogla? how?/how much?/how many? hoglas? how much? hoglasi? how many hoglati? how many (people)? DEFINITE hagla how/as much/as many haglas as much haglasi as many haglati as many (people) INDEFINITE hegla somewhat/some/some heglas some heglasi some heglati some (people) PROXIMAL higla this/this much/this many higlas this much higlasi this many higlati this many (people) DISTAL hugla that/that much/that many huglas that much huglasi that many
huyglasi so many
huglati that many (people) EMPHATIC huugla so very, so much, so many huuglas so much huuglasi so many huuglati so many (people) NEGATIVE hyogla not at all/no/no hyoglas none of it hyoglasi none of them hyoglati none DISTRIBUTIVE hyagla totally/all/all hyaglas all of it hyaglasi all of them hyaglati all INDETERMINATE hyegla however/any/any hyeglas any of it hyeglasi any of them hyeglati any number of them IDIODEICTIC hyigla as/as much/as many, equally hyiglas the same amount hyiglasi the same number hyiglati as many (people) ALLODEICTIC hyugla not as much/not as much/not as many hyuglas a different amount hyuglasi a different number of things hyuglati a different number of people
- Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
- Et deuze huugla fi..... You sing so well.
- At se hegla booka..... I am somewhat tired.
- Hogla pati et teata hijub?.... How many birds did you see today?
- At teata vyavay hugla tami..... I saw exactly that many houses.
- Iyt fe hyiglas vyel et..... She wants the same amount as you.
- Hoglati yantexe yet?.... How many (people) agree with you?
- Hyoglati yantexe..... None agree.
- Iit fu heglasi..... They would like some (of them).
- Et yafe bier hyeglasi et fe..... You can take however many you want.
- At se huugla booka.....I am so tired.
- NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
- hegla = gle = henog (somewhat, to some degree)
- hyigla = ge = hyinog (as, equally, to the same degree)
- The determiners hogla and huugla can be used as exclamatory adverbs, eg.:
- Hogla et agsaye!.... How you have grown!
- Hua twob jagsaye huugla!.... That man has aged so much!
- Hia jotul se huugla fiteluza!.... This dessert is sooo delicioius!
- For a discussion of possessive determiners like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Possessive Adjectives under Pronouns.
- Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
- In Mirad, pronouns can be:
- personal or deictic
- ordinary or reflexive
- animate or inanimate
- specific or generic
- ungendered or feminine
- Personal pronouns in Mirad are by nature animate and refer to people and other animate creatures, such as dogs, angels, gods, babies, and monsters. They can be analyzed into the following categories:
CATEGORY ELEMENTS PERSON LEVEL 1. first, 2. second, 3. third NUMBER 1. singular, 2. plural GENDER 1. gender-neutral, 2. male, 3. female SPECIFICITIES 1. specific, 2. generic, 3. reflexive, 4. emphatic, 5. reciprocal
- This chapter deals only with personal pronouns and not with deictic pronouns like this person, whoever, and those. Such pronouns are discussed in the chapter on Determiners. Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here below are charts showing the basic personal animate pronouns, split into gender-neutral, masculine, and feminine, including the generic and person-non-specific reflexive pronouns. The emphatic, reciprocal, and person-specific-reflexive forms of personal pronouns are treated separately in a later section.
- GENDER-NEURAL PRONOUNS:
SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON SPECIFIC at....I, me ati....we, us SECOND PERSON SPECIFIC et....you eti....you, you all THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC it....he, him, she, her, it iti....they, them THIRD PERSON GENERIC ot....one oti....they, them, people THIRD PERSON REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself uti.......selves
- NOTE: The generic and reflexive pronouns ot and ut do not express gender and are therefore not seen in the next two charts.
- NOTE: The Mirad third person specific pronoun it can refer to any animate or pseudo-animate creatures such as animals, babies, dolls, angels, gods, monsters, etc. and be translated by English "it". However, Mirad it cannot refer to non-animate things such as tables, ideas, abstractions, etc. A deictic pronoun is used in such cases, as discussed in the chapter on Determiners.
- Gender does not have to be expressed in Mirad personal pronouns, but the following charts show how to express gender if it is needed:
- MASCULINE PRONOUNS:
(Pefix with w)
SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON wat....I, me wati....we, us SECOND PERSON wet....you weti....you, you all THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC wit....he, him witi....they, them
- FEMININE PRONOUNS:
SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON ayt....I, me ayti....we, us SECOND PERSON eyt....you eyti....you, you all THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iyt....she, her iyti....they, them
- NOTE: The generic pronouns ot, oti and the reflexive pronouns ut, uti do not express gender. The third person generic pronouns ot and oti are used as English one and they, people (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
- Ot yefe xer ha yakwas..... One must do what is expected.
- Oti de hav et vyode hoj..... They/People say you never lie.
- The gender-neutral third person pronouns it and iti can refer to any sex, but are masculine by default or out of context. In practice iyt (she/her) is the only gendered pronoun used commonly. The others are rarely used. The first person plural pronoun ati can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others." There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
- Xu at fibun..... Do me a favor.
- At so dat..... I will be a friend.
- Hov tojbu it..... Don't kill him/her.
- At ta hav iyt upo..... I knew she would come.
- Fyadilu av ayti..... Pray for us (women).
- NOTE: The English inanimate pronoun it, when referring to a thing or abstraction, is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is discussed in the chapter on Determiners.
Reflexive Personal Pronouns
- Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed postfixing the reflexive pronoun ut or uti depending on whether the pronoun is singular or plural. The gender of the pronoun is reflected in the first personal pronoun morpheme, not the ut morpheme. The generic pronoun ot is also invariable in terms of gender.
FIRST PERSON atut.... myself watut.... my male self aytut.... my female self atiuti.... ourselves watiuti....our male selves aytiuti.... our female selves SECOND PERSON etut.... yourself wetut....your male self eytut.... your female self etiuti.... your female selves wetiuti....your male selves eytiuti.... your female selves THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC itut.... himself/herself witut....himself iytut.... herself itiuti.... themselves witiuti....their male selves iytiuti.... their female selves THIRD PERSON GENERIC otut.... oneself -- -- otiuti.... people themselves -- --
- Examples of usage:
- Wat yafe teater watut be ha sinzyef.....I (a male) can see myself (as a male) in the mirror.
- Iyt yubteaxa iytut.....She examined herself.
- Tyeu etut!....Know thyself.
- It tojbu itut.....He/she would kill him/herself.
- Ot yefe ifer otut.....One must love oneself.
- Oti glaxag voy ife otiuti.....People often don't love themselves.
- Eti ufe etiuti.....You hate yourselves.
- The reflexive pronoun ut self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
- tojber.... kill → uttojber.... commit suicide
- vyixer.... clean → utvyixer.... wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
- exer.... function → utexer.... function automatically, self-run
- izber.... pilot → utizber.... auto-pilot, self-drive
- exut.... operator → utexut.... automaton
- deber.... rule → utdebea.... autocratic, self-ruling
- tejdin.... biography → uttejdin.... autobiography
- fider.... praise → utfider.... boast (= self-praise)
Emphatic Personal Pronouns
- Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the singular determiner hyit (the very one)or the plural determiner hyiti (the very ones), eg.:
EMPHATIC PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON at hyit.... I myself, me myself ati hyiti.... we ourselves, us ourselves SECOND PERSON et hyit.... you yourself eti hyiti.... you yourselves THIRD PERSON it hyit.... the person him or herself
wit hyit.... he himself
iyt hyit.... she herself
iti hyiti.... they themselves
witi hyiti....the males themselves
iyti hyiti....the females themselves
Note: Gender is not express in hyit or hyiti. Only the personal pronouns expresses gender optionally.
- At hyit voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
- At jateate eyti hyiti be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you gals yourselves on that stage.
- Iyt hyiti voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.
Reciprocal Personal Pronouns
- The reciprocal pronoun one another, each other is translated with hyuit, which is a melding of hyut (the other person) and hyit (the same person).
- Ati yefe ifer hyuit..... We must love one another.
- This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a possessive adjective by suffixing a, as in hyuita....one another's, mutual, reciprocal:
- Wati yefe fiyzaxer hyuita fwasi. We guys must respect one another's wishes.
- Note the following:
- hyuita....mutual, reciprocal
- hyuitif....Mutual love
- huitan....mutuality, reciprocity
- atin.... egoism
- ha at....the ego
- ha it....the id
- ha ut....the self
- ha aybat....the superego
- ha hyut....the other
- Possessive adjectives, which can also be referred to as pronominal determiners, are derived from basic and reflexive personal pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the end of the pronoun, as follows:
- at...I → ata...my
- atut...myself → atuta...my own
- ati...we → atia...our
- atiuti...ourselves → atiutia...ourselves
- iytut....herself → iytuta...her own
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES SINGULAR BASIC PLURAL BASIC SINGULAR REFLEXIVE PLURAL REFLEXIVE FIRST PERSON NEUTRAL-GENDER
FIRST PERSON FEMALE
FIRST PERSON MALE
atuta my own
aytuta my own
watuta my own
atiutia our own
aytutia our own
watiutia our own
SECOND PERSON NEUTRAL-GENDER
SECOND PERSON FEMALE
SECOND PERSON MALE
etuta your own
eytuta your own
wetuta your own
etiutia your own
eytiutia your own
wetiutia your own
THIRD PERSON NEUTRAL-GENDER
THIRD PERSON FEMALE
THIRD PERSON MALE
ituta his/her own
iytuta her own
wituta his own
itiutia their own
iytiutia their own
witiutia their own
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's otia people's otuta one's own otiutia people's own
- The above possessive adjectives an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s thing possessed, or si things possessed, as follows:
BASIC POSSESSED THING BASIC POSSESSED THINGS REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THING REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THINGS FIRST SINGULAR NEUTRAL-GENDER POSSESSOR
FIRST SINGULAR FEMALE POSSESSOR
FIRST SINGULAR MALE POSSESSOR
atas mine, my thing
atasi mine, my things
atutas my own, my own thing
aytutas my own
watutas my own
atutasi my own, my own things
aytutasi my own
watutasi my own
SECOND SINGULAR NEUTRAL-GENDER POSSESSOR
SECOND SINGULAR FEMALE POSSESSOR
SECOND SINGULAR MALE POSSESSOR
etasi yours, your (things)
etutas your own
eytutas your own
wetutas your own
etutasi your own, your own things
eytutasi your own
wetutasi your own
THIRD SINGULAR NEUTRAL-GENDER POSSESSOR
THIRD SINGULAR FEMALE POSSESSOR
THIRD SINGULAR MALE POSSESSOR
itasi his/her (things)
iytasi her (things)
witasi his (things)
itutas his/her own (thing)
iytutas her own (thing)
witutas his own (thing)
itutati their own (things)
iytutasi their own (things)
witutasi their own (things)
THIRD SINGULAR GENERIC POSSESSOR otas one's otasi one's , one's things otutas one's own otutasi one's own (things) FIRST PLURAL GENDER-NEUTRAL POSSESSOR
FIRST PLURAL FEMALE POSSESSOR
FIRST PLURAL MALE POSSESSOR
atiasi ours, our things
atiutias our own
aytiutias our own
watiutias our own
atiutiasi our own (things)
aytiutiasi our own
watiutiasi our own
SECOND PLURAL GENDER-NEUTRAL POSSESSOR
SECOND PLURAL FEMALE POSSESSOR
SECOND PLURAL MALE POSSESSOR
etiasi yours, your things
etiutias your own
eytiutias your own
wetiutias your own
etiutiasi your own (things)
eytiutiasi your own
wetiutiasi your own
THIRD PLURAL GENDER-NEURAL POSSESSOR
THIRD PLURAL FEMALE POSSESSOR
THIRD PLURAL MALE POSSESSOR
itiasi theirs, their things
itiutias their own
iytiutias their own
witiutias their own
itiutiasi their own (things)
iytiutiasi their own
witiutiasi their own (things)
- Ati yefe ovmasber atiutiasi.....We must protect our own.
- Etasi naze ga vyel atasi.....Yours are worth more than mine.
- Weti, biku wetiuta soni.....You guys, mind your own business.
- Ayti fe ayseraytiutia nig.....We gals want to have our own space.
Translating various uses of it in English
- When translating English it referring to animate creatures such as babies, animals, dolls, angels, ghosts, and monsters, the Mirad third person personal pronoun it is used, eg:
- At eke bay ha epet avhas hu at iyfe it..... I play with the dog because I like it.
- When translating English it referring to an inanimate object or abstraction, a Mirad deictic "thing" determiner like has (the thing) or hus (that) is used, eg:
- At teasa ha dyezun ay at iyfa has gla.....I saw the movie and I liked it a lot.
- Ha mes sa yija oy at voy ta hus.....The door was open but I didn't know it (= that).
- The possessive forms of has is hasa its, for example:
- At iyfe ha dyes ay at ife hasa abdyun..... I like the book and I love it's title.
- If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it referring to an object or abstraction, then the pronoun hasi is used.
- Ha sini se via ay at ife hasi..... The dogs are beautiful and I love them.
- The possessive form of hasi they/them is hasia their, eg.:
- Ha tefi se via oy hasia naxi se otwa..... The hats are beautiful, but their prices are unknown.
- If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
- Mamilo..... It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
- Se fia hav et upa..... It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
- Sa via jub bay et..... It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
- Voy se yuka yaprer hia meb..... It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)
Referring to Third Persons with Deictic Determiners
- The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
THING PERSON FEMALE MALE DEFINITE SINGULAR
has it/this/the thing
hasi they/them/these/the things
hasa its/this/the thing's
hat the person/he/she/him/her
hati the people/they/them
hata the person's/his/her
hayti they/them/the females
hayta her/the female's
hwat he/him/the male person
hwati they/them/the males
hwata his/the male's
his it/this/this thing
hisi they/them/these/these things
hisa its/this/this thing's
hit this person/he/she/him/her
hiti these people/they/them
hita this person's/his/her
hiyti they/them/these females
hiyta her/this female's
hwit he/him/this male person
hwiti they/them/these males
hwita his/this male's
hus it/this/that thing
husi they/them/these/those things
husa its/this/these thing's
hut this person/he/she/him/her
huti these people/they/them
huta this person's/his/her
huyti they/them/those females
huyta her/that female's
hwut he/him/that male
hwuti they/them/those males
hwuta his/that male's
- Mirad does not force you to indicate gender in animate pronouns. The gender-neutral forms in the PERSON column are ordinarily sufficient. The forms in the MALE and FEMALE column are optional and used only when a distinction is needed.
- Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
- Huyt voy se tadsa..... She (that woman) is not married.
- At hoj teataye hiti..... I have never seen them (these people).
- Huytiasi se ga aga vyel atasi..... Theirs (= those females') are bigger than mine.
- Hom et koxa has?.... Where did you hide it (the thing)?
- Hoyen et ijtya it (or: hat)?....How did you meet him (or: the person)?
- At tyaye huyt yagjob..... I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
- The above pronouns answer the questions hos? what?, hosi? what things?, hot? who(m)?, or hoti? what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat? which one?, hoayti? which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas? which one/thing?, and hoasi? which ones/things?
SELECTIVES THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS DEFINITE haas the one haasi the ones haat the one haati the ones PROXIMAL hias this one hiasi these hiat this one hiati these DISTAL huas that one huasi those huat that one huati those
- Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
- Duhev et fu hias ey huas?.... Would you like this one or that one?
- Huayt se haat..... She (that female person) is the one.
- At iyfe hiasi ga vyel huasi..... I like these more than those.
- Compare the following two examples:
- Hoas et fu? Hias..... Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
- Hos et fu? His..... What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)
- Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Verbs, under the section "Free Relative Clauses".
- Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as beer to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, and the stem is the infinitive minus the wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
- This shows how the STEM is derived:
PRESENT INFINITIVE VERB FORM STEM INFINITIVE ENDING beer to have be- -er poser to (come to a) stop pos- -er xer to do x- -er xwer to happen, be done (PASSIVE) x- -wer
- Verbs are inflected with the following morphological categories:
- STATES: finite, non-finite
- TENSES: present, past, future, tenseless1
- ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, potential
- VOICES: active, passive, reflexive, reciprocal
- MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
Note 1: The term "tenseless" means that tense is not marked. For example, in Mirad, Pu! is the imperative of the verb per to go. It means Go! and in tenseless. The -u ending is a tenseless hypothetical mood marker.
- In effect, the PERSON/NUMBER category is not listed above, because this caterory does not affect the morphology of the Mirad verb form itself. The Mirad verb form stays the same for all PERSONS/NUMBERS. That information is contained in the subject pronouns governing the verb. In English, for example, the verb "be" has several different forms in the present tense verb form depending on the PERSON/NUMBER (I am, you are, he is, we are, etc.) The following chart shows how the English pattern differs from the corresponding single Mirad verb form se for all persons and numbers:
PERSON NUMBER ENGLISH
1st SINGULAR I am at se 2nd SINGULAR you are et se 3rd SINGULAR he/she/it is it se 1st PLURAL we are ati se 2nd PLURAL you are eti se 3rd PLURAL they are iti se
- In addition, verbs can be described in terms of the following opposing lexical categories:
STATIVE DYNAMIC ser.... to be xer....to do INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE agaser....to grow large agaxer....to magnify SUBJECT-DIRECTED PATIENT-DIRECTED bier....to take buer....to give REFLEXIVE NON-REFLEXIVE utvyixer....to wash up (wash oneself) vyixer....to wash ACTIVE PASSIVE xer....to do xwer....to happen, to be done INCHOATIVE CAUSATIVE tujper....fall asleep tujber....put to sleep AUTONOMOUS DYNAMIC yijer....to open (by itself) yijber....to (make it) open RECIPROCAL NON-RECIPROCAL hyuittujber....to kill one another tujber....to kill GESTURAL LOCOMOTIVE baser....to stir, budge paser....to move SUBJECT-ORIENTED OBJECT-ORIENTED teetyiker....to be hard of hearing teetyikwer....to be hard to hear
- Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
- INFINITIVES: the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
- GERUNDS: verbal nouns, ending in en
- PARTICIPLES: verbal adjectives, ending in a
- Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
STEM ENDING INFINITIVE ags er agser to grow agx er agxer to magnify p er per to go x wer xwer to happen, be done
- The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:
INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified
- The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND agaxer...to magnify agax- agaxen... magnifying, magnification agaxwen being magnified bayser... to possess bays- baysen... possessing, possession bayswen....being possessed saxer... to create, make, form sax- saxen... forming, creation saxwen being created
- Some examples:
- Ha saxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi..... The forming (or: formation) of this star took millions of years.
- Iyta deuzen sa gla via..... Her singing was very beautiful.
- Popen se jesta yex..... Traveling is hard work.
- Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti..... Being heard well is important for actors.
- Teaten se vyatexen......Seeing is believing.
- Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles are definited by aspect (progressive, perfect, imminent, potential) and voice (active, passive). The template for a participle is "STEM+[e(a)ou]+(w)+a". The first letter of the participial ending is the aspect marker: e for progressive, a for perfect (see note 1 below), o for imminent, or u for potential 2. This is followed by a w if the participle is in the passive voice. The last letter of the ending is the adjectival marker -a.
- Here is a table of participles:
ASPECT VOICE INFINITIVE PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE deuzer.... to sing deuzea.... singing ha deuzea pat.... the singing bird3 PERFECT ACTIVE pier.... to depart pi(a)a.... departed ha pia topi.... the departed souls IMMINENT ACTIVE tajber.... to give birth tajboa.... about to give birth ha tajboa toyb.... the woman about to give birth POTENTIAL ACTIVE tojber.... to kill tojbua.... with potential to kill tojbua til.... a lethal potion PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE ebdalwer.... to be discussed ebdalewa.... being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen.... the book being discussed PERFECT PASSIVE yujbwer.... to be closed yujb(a)wa.... closed ha yujbwa mes.... the closed door IMMINENT PASSIVE osexwer.... to be destroyed osexowa.... about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed POTENTIAL PASSIVE tilwer.... to be drunk tiluwa.... drinkable tiluwa mil.... potable water
- Note 1: In passive participles, the perfect aspect vowel a is usually omitted for brevity's sake, unless the verb stem ends in one of the liquid sounds l or r, which would make the pronunciation difficult. For example, the perfect passive participle of xer is xwa but the pefect passive participle of xler is xlawa. In active perfect participles, the double aa is usually reduced to a, as in ha pia topi the departed souls (rather than ha piaa topi. In poetry, the perfect aspect vowel a can be omitted or retained optionally in the perfect active or passive participle.
- Note 2: The potential aspect, represented by the vowel u is much like the conditional in English, but is not considered a tense in Mirad. For example, tojbu means would kill and the participle tojbua means lethal (referring to something that "would/has the potential to kill" ). More about this in a later section.
- Note 3: There is another form of the progressive participle that falls in the lexical, rather than morphological category, in that such forms are listed in the dictionary as adjectives. For example, in the phrase The animals bothering our bird feeder..., the participle bothering would be oboxea in Mirad. By inserting the letter y between the verb stem and the participial ending, the participle become an adjective denoting a propensity or habit, as in bothersome (oboxyea). Such participles are invariably in the active voice. Most such adjectives in English end in -ive as in repulsive or -ly as in wiggly or -ous as in circuitous. Such adjectives in Mirad are listed in the dictionary and end in -yea.
- Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
- Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay..... She entered the room singing.
- Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia..... The speech having been finished, he left.
- Also, the above participles can be converted into abstract nouns by suffixing n. Examples:
- tiluwa.... drinkable → tiluwan.... potability
- tojbua.... lethal → tojbuan.... lethality
- mansea.... shining → he mansean bi iyta deuzen.... the brilliance of her singing
- aakaxyea.... inventive → aakaxyean....inventiveness
- Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for people or living things. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
- xwa.... known → xwas.... what is known, a fact
- xwa.... known → xwasi.... facts, information
- oxwa.... unknown → oxwas.... what is not known, a mystery
- osexea.... destroying → osexeas.... a destroyer
- tojbua.... lethal → tojbuas.... something lethal, a lethal thing
- tojboa moribund → tojboati....people about to die, fatal cases
- tejea living → tejeat a living person
- tejea living → tejeasi living things
- There is a special tenseless, nominalized, animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer, Xant, Xist), which refers to a person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
- sexut.... builder
- nuut.... supplier
- tojbut.... killer
- ifut.... lover
- akuti.... winners
- Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut the winner.
- In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
- Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person subject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he/she/it is, etc.
- There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
- Indicative Mood
- The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
- The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, future, and tenseless, indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, -o, and -u, respectively.
- Hypothetical Mood
- Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
- a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
- a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
- an unrealized situation, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (It is important that you be early.)
- an imagined if-then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (If I were rich, I would be happy.)
- There are five aspects in the Mirad verb system.
- the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
- the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
- the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
- the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
- the POTENTIAL aspect, i.e. an action potentially happening.
- The Simple Aspect (default)
- Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional. Five tenses can be expressed in the simple aspect, PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE, and what's called TENSELESS, that is, irrespective of time, i.e. unmarked for tense.
- Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (per to go and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 per VERB #2 ser INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE At pe. I go At se. I am INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At pa. I went At sa. I was INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At po. I will go At so. I will be HYPOTHETICAL TENSELESS SIMPLE ACTIVE At pu. I would go [CONDITIONAL]
Hav ati pu!.... Let's go! [HORTATIVE]
Pu tam!.... Go home! [IMPERATIVE]
Hav hyat pu!.... May everyone go! [JUSSIVE]
Se fia hav et pu.....It is well that you go. [SUBJUNCTIVE]
At su..... I would be
Hav has su..... Let it be.
Su fia!.... Be good!
Hav hyat su iva!.... May everyone be happy!
Se glatesa hav et su jwaa....It's important that you be early.
- The Simple Indicative Present Tense
- The simple indicative present instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
- At yexe be tam. .... I work at home.
- Hia tom se nam. .... This building is a store.
- The Simple Indicative Past Tense
- The simple indicative past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time. The simple past contrasts in aspect with the past progressive (I was doing something) or the present perfect (I have done something), or past potential (I would have done something). The simple past is punctual, that is, it describes an event that occurred at a particular point in time.
- Iyt taja be yibmem. .... She was born abroad.
- At ujba ha dyes ji iwa jwobi. .... I finished the book three hours ago.
- His kyesa exag hijub..... This happened twice today.
- The Simple Indicative Future Tense
- The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
- Iti tadso zajab..... They are going to get married next year.
- Hua kaxon ujako. .... That solution will work.
- The Simple Hypothetical Tenseless Tense
- A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
- Upu him!....Come here! (IMPERATIVE)
- Hov upu! ....Don't come! (NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE)
- Ha edeb fu teater et. .... The king would like to see you. (CONDITIONAL)
- Hev at su et, at dolu. .... If I were you, I would be quiet. (CONDITIONAL)
- Hav eyt ujaku be eytia yexnadi. .... May all you women succeed in your careers. (HORTATIVE)
- Hav ati ijbu bay fyadil. .... Let's begin with a prayer. (JUSSIVE)
- Se glatesa hav et puu jwa. .... It's important that you arrive early. (SUBJUNCTIVE)
- Se glatesa hov et puu jwo.....It's important that you not arrive late. (NEGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE)
- A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
- Hypothetical verb forms ending in -u can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the following syntactical patterns in the sentence:
- Generally, if a verb form ending in -u begins a sentence and has no subject, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!.
- If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers hav, hev, or hov, then it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per. I would like to go..
- If the subject of the verb is preceded by hev if, then it is a CONDITIONAL clause as in Hev at su nasikat... If I were a rich man..
- If the subject is preceded by Hav that/let/may or hov don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Hav et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Hav ati fyadilu. Let us pray. or a prohibition like Hov tilu his! Don't drink this!.
- If the sentence consists merely of a SUBJECT + VERB ending in -u, the meaning is CONDITIONAL, eg.: At voy xu hus. I would not do that.
- Hypothetical verb forms ending in -u can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the following syntactical patterns in the sentence:
- Mirad has four voices: ACTIVE, PASSIVE, REFLEXIVE and RECIPROCAL.
- Active Voice
- The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
- Passive Voice
- A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
- The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE ACTIVE
At fe xer fi.
I want to do well.
to be done
Ese hyos xwer.
There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE sexea
Ha yansyem sexea hia tom...
The firm constructing this building...
His se sexewa.
This is under construction.
At xe fi be tistam.
I do well in school.
Huyenasi hoj xwe.
Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPLE xaa
Iyt, xaa hya iyta yex,...
She, having done all her work,...
Hyas se xwa.
Everything is done.
Hot tojba hwut?
Who killed that guy?
Hoj it tojbwa?
When was he killed?
Hav it bakxwu.
May he be healed.
- Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobob tajbwa zajub. The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobob taja zajub. The child was born yesterday.)
- Reflexive Voice
- A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
- tojber to kill → uttojber to kill oneself
- vyilxer to wash → utvyilxer to wash up
- teater to see → utteater to see oneself
- yalber to lift → utyalber to lift oneself → Utyalbu! Lift yourself up!
- tyeer to know → utter to know oneself → Uttyeu! Know thyself!
- Reciprocal Voice
- A verb is made reciprocal by prefixing the reciprocal pronoun hyuit one another, for example:
- tojber to kill → hyuittojber to kill one another
- vyilxer to wash → hyuitvyilxer to wash one another
- teater to see → hyuitteater to see one another
- Both the reflexive pronoun and reciprocal pronoun can be used as standalone objects. However, the plural form uti is used if the subject is plural, for example:
- Iyti vyilxa uti.....They (f.) washed up. (= washed selves).
- Ha twobeti dizeuda hyuit.....The boys laughed at one another.
- The word hyuit is a portemanteau of hyit the same one combined with hyut the other one.
- Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
- SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
- PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
- PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
- IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
- POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.
The Simple Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple atemporal hypothetical ( = conditional) refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SIMPLE PRESENT INDICATIVE At xe.... I do Has xwe.... It is done SIMPLE PAST INDICATIVE At xa.... I did Has xwa.... It was done SIMPLE FUTURE INDICATIVE At xo.... I will do Has xwo.... It will be done SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL At xu.... I would do Has xwu.... It would be done
Note: Absence of tense (ATEMPORAL) + HYPOTHETICAL mood = CONDITIONAL
The Progressive Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE at xeye.... I am doing Has xewe.... it is being done PROGRESSIVE PAST INDICATIVE at xeya.... I was doing Has xewa.... it was being done PROGRESSIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE at xeyo.... I am going to be doing Has xewo.... it will be happening PROGRESSIVE HYPOTHETICAL at xeyu.... I would be doing Has xewu.... it would be happening
The Perfect Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PERFECT PRESENT INDICATIVE At xaye.... I have done Has xawe.... It has been done PERFECT PAST INDICATIVE At xaya.... I had done Has xawa.... It had been done PERFECT FUTURE INDICATIVE At xayo.... I will have done Has xawo.... It will have been done PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL At xayu.... I would have done Has xawu.... It would have been done
The Imminent Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. Not that only indicative mood imminent tenses are ever used.
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE IMMINENT PRESENT INDICATIVE At xoye.... I am about to do Has xowe.... It is about to be done IMMINENT PAST INDICATIVE At xoya.... I was about to do Has xowa.... It was about to be done
The Potential Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. The future potential and hypothetical potential aspects are never used.
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE POTENTIAL PRESENT INDICATIVE At xuye I am to do Has xuwe It is to be done, it is doable POTENTIAL PAST INDICATIVE At xuya I was to do Has xuwa It was to be done, it was doable
Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System
- The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
to be done, to happen
|to have done|
to have been done, to have happend
being done, happening
xawa ∼ xwa
|about to do|
about to happen
|bound to do|
being done, happening, event
is done, happens
was done, happened
will be done, will happen
(CONDITIONAL / IMPERATIVE)
|would do, do!|
would be done, would happen, be done!
is being done, is happening
was doing, was happening
|will be doing|
will be happening
|would be doing|
would be happening
has been done, has happened
had been done, had happened
|will have done|
will have been done, will have happened
|would have done|
would have been done, would have happened
|is about to do|
is about to be done, is about to happen
|was to be done|
was to be done, was to happen
|is supposed to do|
is supposed to happen
|was supposed to do|
was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen
- Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to how the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed, There are four predicate types in Mirad:
- These types can be combined, such as "negative interrogative" or "affirmative declarative", etc.
- A simple, non-negative statement is affirmative declarative, such as Ha meir yuzpe ha maar.....The earth goes around the sun.
- The following sections discuss non-declarative and non-affirmative predicate types.
Making Predicates Interrogative
- To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duhev Say whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos? What?, Hot? Who(m)?, or Hom? where?. Note that the Du in Duhev means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duhev...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word hev without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duhev is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos? What? and Hom? Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE Et se tadxwa..... You are married. Duhev et se tadxwa?.... Are you married? (= Say whether you are married.) Ha mari se manika..... The stars are bright. Duhev ha mari se manika?.... Are the stars bright? (= Say whether the stars are bright.) Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?.... Who won? Iyt aka glas.....She won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?.... How much did she win? It paye..... He has gone. Hom it paye?.... Where has he gone?
- Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
- Et tambese ha yubem?.... You live in the neighborhood?
- The yes-no tag vao can be placed at the end of a declaration to make it a question, eg.:
- Et tambese ha yubem, vao?....You live in the neighborhood, right?
- Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duhev usually are answered with va yes, ve maybe, or vo no or their equivalents.
YES-NO QUESTION ANSWER Duhev eta dyun se John?.... Is your name John? Vo, se Bill..... No, it's Bill. Duhev eta apet aka?.... Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka....Yes. Mine won indeed. Duhev et texe hav ha maalyen gafiso hijub?.... Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve..... Maybe. Fe per bay at?.... Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.... Maybe tomorrow. Et tadso, vao?....You're going to get married, right? Vey va, vey vo.....Maybe yes, maybe no.
Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations
- The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe.... Yes, I indeed/do/really agree. DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po..... Maybe. I may/possibly will go. NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva..... No. I would not be happy.
Mixing Them Up
- The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
- Duhev et voy se tadxwa?.... Aren't you married?
- Hosav iyt se voy tadxwa?.... Why isn't she married?
- Vey voy mamilo..... It may not rain.
- At vay voy tadso iyt..... I will certainly not marry her.
- Et peyo, vao?.... You will go, right?
- Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa..... No. That may indeed be wrong.
- Et te ha dud, vao?.... You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
- Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
- At voy te. .... I don't know.
- At te voy. .... I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]
- Note that vao? is a particle meaning yes or no?, right?, n'est-ce pas?
Imperative and Hortative Expressions
- An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the tenseless hypothetical mood ending in -u without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
- Ipu !.... Go away!
- Tiju !.... Wake up!
- Su fiat !.... Be a good person!
- Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer vas that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive mood.
- Hav ati fadilu..... Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
- Hav weti aku hia ifek..... May you guys win this game.
- Hav ha edeb yagteju..... Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
- The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
- Hov (et) dalu at huyen..... Don't (you) speak to me that way.
- Hov iti oku..... May they not lose.
- Hov ati toxu it..... Let's not forget him.
- Hav, hev, and hov are part of a whole system of complementizers:
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZERS MEANING MIRAD
INTERROGATIVE duhev...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duhev eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John? CONDITIONAL hev if, whether Hev et te, du has.
At utdide hev it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless Ohev et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win. POSITIVE/HORTATIVE hav that, so that, let, may At ta hav it upo.
Hav aat dilo.
Hav et su iva.
At xa has hav et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE hov Don't, let...not, lest Hov teaxu at.
Hov aat su uva.
At pio hov et futipsu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.
RELATIVE hu who, whom, that, which Ha toybi hu ifaye et...
Ha toyb hu et ife.
Koxon hu at yofe onyafxer.
The women who have loved you.
The woman (whom) you love.
A problem (that/which) I cannot solve.
- The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer hav that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
- Ha ideb dila hav at tyoibu za it..... The king asked that I kneel before him.
- Se igefwa hav et upu gwa ig..... It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
- Dirwa hav hyat dolu..... It was ordered that everyone be silent.
- A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest.
- Su bikaya hov et pyosu..... Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
- The conditional complementizer hev if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
- At sexu tam hev at su nasika....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
- Hos et xu hev et baysu ga nas?...What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
- Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
- Ha ideb dila at tyoiber za it..... The king asked me to kneel before him.
- Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig..... It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
- Hyat dirwa doler..... Everyone was ordered to be silent.
- Su bikaya voy pyoser..... Be careful not to fall.
If-Then Conditional Clauses
- A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer hev if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
IF-CLAUSE THEN-CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Hev ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE Hev et ta,
If you knew,
you kept quiet.
FUTURE INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE Hev et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL Hev at su nasika,
If I were rich,
Hev et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nusbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.
you would understand.
PAST HYPOTHETICAL PAST HYPOTHETICAL Hev at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
- Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."
If/Whether Subordinate Clauses
- Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer hev whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE At utdide
hev it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE At voy te
I don't know
hev iit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE At voy te
I don't know
hev et ujako.
if / whether you will succeed.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL At utdide
hev et yantexu.
if / whether you would agree.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE At voy ta
I didn't know
hev wit se taduwa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE At dida
hev iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
PAST INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL At dida
hev it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST HYPOTHETICAL At dida
hev it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
- The negative conditional complementizer ohev unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Ot voy ujake
One does not succeed
ohev ot yexe jestay.
unless one works hard.
FUTURE INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Et voy teato at
You won't see me
ohev et upo.
unless you come (= will come).
- Relative clauses are of two types:
- Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
- Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.
Bound Relative Clauses
- The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
- Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jabi, bayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
- Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
- Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
- Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
- Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
- Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya oyb it ji gla jabi....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
- Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
- Ha toybi hu at deuza av iyti fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
- Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/iyta/itia/iytia (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
- Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
- Ata yubati, hu itia tam sa jay ga aga vyel atias, agaxa itia puram gajod....Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
- If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
- Ha dyesi hu at dyea (hasi) zamaj sa hyasi fia....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good.
Free Relative Clauses
- Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS MIRAD...ENGLISH EXAMPLE THING(S) has hu...what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu...what/those which/the things that
hyes hu...whatever/anything that
hyesi hu...whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu...everything that/all that
hyasi hu...all (things) that
hyos hu...nothing (that)
hyosi hu...none of the things (that)
haas hu...which one
haasi hu...which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futipxa at....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu...who//the person (who)
hati hu...those who/the ones who
hyet hu...whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu...whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu...everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu...all those who
hyot hu...nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu...no ones (that/who)
haat hu...which one
haati hu...which ones
Hat hu et teata pia....The one you saw left.
Hati hu at tye yantexe....Those (people) I know agree.
At teapo hyet hu at fe....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtyea sa fiyena....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hata hu ifpot his se....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe....I know which ones (people) I like least.
RELATIVE ADVERBS MIRAD ADVERB...ENGLISH ADVERB EXAMPLE PLACE ham hu...where
hu...bi ham...from where, whence
hu...bu ham...to where, whither
Ati tambese ham hu ha maalyen se yugra....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu...when
Du at haj hu et puo....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu...how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu...however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu...how, to what extent
hyigla hu...as, to the same degree as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se....You'll never know how happy I am.
At yofe poper hyigla (~ge) yib hu et yafe....I cannot travel as far as you can.
QUANTITY hagla hu...how much, how many
hyegla hu...however much, however many
hyigla hu...as much/many as
Duhev et te hagla nas hu it bayse?...Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla tami hu yat sexa....You guys asked us however many houses we built.
Et nixo hyigla (~ ge) nas hu at xe....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON hasav hu...why, for what reason
hyesav hu...why ever, for whatever reason
Duhev et te hasav hu it xa hus....Do you know why he did that?
Ati voy teste hyesav hu et xu hus....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
- If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
- RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu atia mer yuzpe dyunwe ha maar. The star that our planet goes around is called the sun.
- NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha maar, hu atia mer yuzpe, se vay haway hea mar. The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a (= some) star.
Indirect and Direct Discourse
- As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.
- Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer hav (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad hav complementizer can never be omitted.
- At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would (= will) come.
- Ata ted da hav it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut..... My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
- Se vyaa hav at gra tele..... It is true that I eat too much.
- At jada hav et puo jwa..... I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
- The conditional complementizer hev if, whether and the negative complementizer hov lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.
- Direct discourse works as in English, except that a colon (:) is used instead of a comma. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
- Iyt da: "At voy fe per." She said, "I don't want to go."
- At dida it: "Hot so eta aadezut?". I asked him, "Who will be your lead actor?"
- Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
- Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
- Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE xer do ser be agxer grow (something) agser grow (up) amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up puxer throw puser jump per go ber put aber put on aper get on yaber raise yaper rise poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop yuber bring yuper approach yeber insert yeper enter
- At agxe vobi..... I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
- Ha vobi agseye ig..... The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
- Poxu ha pur!.... Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
- Ha pur posa..... The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
- At yaba ha mis..... I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
- Ha maar yapaye..... The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].
Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity
- Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer to sleep vs. tujper to fall asleep. The transitive forms can be either active or passive.
INTRANSITIVE STATIC INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC TRANSITIVE ACTIVE TRANSITIVE PASSIVE Ha mes yija....The door opened. Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open. At yijba ha mes....I opened the door. Ha mes yijbwa bey yelput.....The door was opened by an intruder Ha mes yuja.....The door closed. Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned. At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door. Ha mes yeyfe yujbwer ja sumjob.....The door should be closed by bedtime. Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started. Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately. At ijba ata tyal.....I started my meal. Ha tyal ijbwa jwa.....The meal was started early. Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended. Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end. A ujba ha dyes.....I finished the book. Ha dyes hyoj ujbwa.....The book never got finished. Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening. Ha tob tojpa.....The man dropped dead. Hot tojba ha twob?....Who killed the man? Ha twob tojbwa bey ita tayd.....The man was killed by his wife. Teju.....Live!. Tejpu!.....Come alive!. Yat efe tejber ha twob.....We need to revive the man. Ha twob yofwa tejbwer.....The man could not be revived. Ha tobot taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Hoj ha tobot tajpo?....When will the baby pop out? Iyt tajba awa twobot zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday. Ha twobot tajbwa jo eymoj.....The baby boy was birthed after midnight. At tija jwe.....I woke up on time. It voy tijpa.....He did not come to.. At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early. At voy fe tijbwo gra jwa.....I don't want to be woken too early. At tujeya.....I was sleeping. At tujpeya.....I was falling sleep. At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep.. Ha tobot tujbwo glojo.....The baby will be put to sleep soon.
- Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
- At tujboye atut..... I am going to kill myself.
- Tyeu etut!.... Know thyself!
- It gobla itut bay goblar..... He cut himself with a knife.
- Ot yefe yuxer otut..... One must help oneself.
- Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
- uttujber.... commit suicide (= self-kill)
- utboler.... support oneself (= self-support)
- utdider.... wonder (= self ask)
- Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
- Et efe vyilxer etut..... You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
- Et efe utvyilxer.....You need to wash up [= self-wash].
Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs
- Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home.
It pa Paris. He went to Paris.
der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name.
Du at has. Tell it to me.
peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me. buer give (to) Buu at hua dyes. Give me that book.
- As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu at hus....Give me that. or Buu hus bu at. Give that to me. See more about this in the chapter on Syntax.
Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs
Derived from Adjectives
- Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
- To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE -xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC aga
to copy, equate
- To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE -ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC aga
to get bigger
to unite, become united
to become separate
- Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
- Ansu ey eet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
- At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
- Hisi agaxo has hu et teate. These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
- Hia tobot agseye ig. This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
- Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom. My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]
Derived from Nouns
- Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE mog ash mogxer
to become ashes
yan collection yanxer
to get together
tad spouse tadxer
to get married
yom ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
to freeze/become ice
mag fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
to burn, get burned
uk void ukxer
become empty, empty out
Derived from Verbs
- Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
- At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj..... I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
- Et voy yafe puxer at..... You cannot make me go.
- It tojbuxa iit..... He had them killed.
- At efe vyilxuxer ata par..... I need to have my car washed.
- Et upuxwa him avhes..... You were made to come here for some reason.
- At bakambuxo et..... I will have you hospitalized.
- Et voy yafe deuzuxer at..... You cannot make me sing.
- At ivteuduxwa..... I was tickled (= made to laugh).
- Eta deuz ivteuduxa aat..... Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
- Hav het ivasuxu weet..... May someone get you guys to be happy.
- The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED bier to take buer to give nier to consume nuer to supply nyier to order nyuer to deliver nunier to buy nunuer to sell nazunier win a prize nazunuer award a prize noysier pay off noysuer charge ojbier borrow ojbuer lend tadier get married taduer marry off papier take flight papuer send off flying pipier set sail pipuer dock simbier take a seat simbuer offer a seat tampier leave home tampuer arrive home tamier settle in tamuer shelter nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell telier to eat teluer to feed gonbier to participate gonbuer to share tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show taxier to memorize taxuer to remind alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak ifier to enjoy ifuer to please dier to ask duer to suggest tier to learn tuer to inform pier to depart puer to arrive kebier to choose kebuer to distribute tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill byier to originate byuer to target mempier to take off mempuer to land sinier visualize sinuer display xier to result xuer to cause yifier to get up the courage yifuer to encourage yafonier to gain power yafonuer to empower tyier to become acquainted with tyuer to acquaint tepizier to pay attention to tepizuer to draw attention to
Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes
- Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB ab on aber apply aper get on, mount ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount eb between eber block eper intervene yab up yaber raise yaper rise yob down yober take down yoper descend yub near yuber bring near yuper approach yib far yiber take away yiper go far away yeb in yeber insert yeper enter yeb in yepuxer throw in yepuser jump in oyeb out oyeber expose oyeper exit oyeb out oyepuxer eject oyepuser jump out zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper revolve zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour av for avdaler plead avper pursue ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene yan together yanber compose yanper meet yon apart yonber separate yonper separate iz direct izber lead izper head uz curved uzber divert uzper diverge yuz around yuzbexer surround yuzper circulate yiz beyond yizber transfer yizper surpass
- The prefix eg- anew, again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
- ember to position → egember to reposition, replace
- der to say → egder to repeat
- sanxer to shape, form → egsanxer to reshape, reform
- The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
- saxer to build, construct → losaxer to destroy, deconstruct
- yonxer to unite → loyonxer to disunite
- xer to do → loxer to undo
- The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
- nadxer to align → vyonadxer to misalign
- der to say → vyoder to misstate, lie
- utbier to appropriate → vyoutbier to misappropriate
- The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
- exer to operate → yanexer to cooperate
- tamer to dwell → yantamer to cohabit
- napber to put in order → yannapber to coordinate
- The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
- teaper to visit → zoyteaper to revisit
- uper to come → zoyuper to return, come back
- buxer to push → zoybuxer to repel, push back
- puxer to throw → zoypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison
- The prefix az- (from aza strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
- yujber to close → azyujber to lock
- der to say → azder to emphasize
- duer to suggest → azduer to urge
- dizeuder to laugh → azdizeuder to guffaw
- By contrast, the prefix oz- (from oza weak) is used as a softener, eg.:
- der to utter → ozder to whisper
- duer to suggest → ozduer to hint
- dizeuder to laugh → ozdizeuder to chuckle
- uvteuder to moan → ozuvteuder to whimper
- The prefix ja- before is used as the English prefix pre-, fore-, or ante-, eg.:
- der to tell → jader to foretell, predict
- teater to see → jateater to foresee, preview
- ter to know → jater to presage, have foreknowledge of
- yever to judge → jayever to prejudge
- juder to date → jajuder to antedate
- By contrast, jo- after is used as the English prefix post-, eg.:
- juder to date → jojuder to postdate
- texer to think → jotexer to reflect on, review
- der to say → joder to mourn, regret
- ibler to obtain → joibler to inherit
- The prefix gra- too much is used for actions that are excessive, eg.:
- telier to eat → gratelier to overeat
- fer to want → grafer to cover
- der to say → grader to exaggerate
- daler to talk → gradaler to yammer
By contrast, the prefix gro- to little is used for actions that are underdone, eg.:
- fyinder to value → grofyinder to underestimate
- mageler to cook → gromageler to undercook
- Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.
Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs
- Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
POSITIVE NEGATIVE afer may
efer need ofer may not
oyfer might not
fer want ufer hate
yafer can, be able
yayfer might, could
yefer must, have to
yeyfer ought, should
yoyfer could not, might not
yifer dare yufer be afraid yiver have a right, be free yuver be bound
- If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
- At fe per..... I want to go.
- At fu per..... I would like to go.
- Et yafe aker..... You can win.
- Et yafu aker..... You could win.
- Yet yefe iper..... You must leave.
- Yet yefu iper..... You ought to leave.
- Post-iotating the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
- At ife et. ....I love you.
- At iyfe et. ....I like you.
- Et yefe iper..... You must leave.
- Et yeyfe iper..... You should leave.
- Iyt yafe aker..... She can win.
- Iyt yayfe aker..... She might win.
- At ufa uda tuz..... I hated that art.
- At uyfa uda tuz..... I disliked that art.
- By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
- Hua toyb yufxa at..... That woman scared me.
- Hua toyb yulfxa at..... That woman intimidated me.
- Hua toyb yurfxa at..... That woman terrorized me.
- Hia yex efwo..... This work will be necessary.
- Hia yex elfwo..... This work will be critical.
- Hia yex erfwo..... This work will be indispensable.
- Su yifa..... Be brave.
- Su yilfa..... Be bold.
- Su yirfa..... Be heroic.
- Et yuve buer nas..... You are supposed to give money.
- Et yulve buer nas..... You are bound to give money.
- Et yurve buer nas..... You are absolutely compelled to give money.
- Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
- Et afe oyeper ay ifeker..... You may go out and play.
- Aat efa tujer..... We needed to sleep.
- Ot ofe mavier him..... One is prohibited to smoke here.
- Mavier him ofwe..... Smoking here is prohibited.
- At ife dyeer..... I love to read.
- He et fe yebuper?.... Do you want to come in?
- At fu teaper et edjub..... I would like to visit you some day.
- It ufaye hyaj teaxwer..... He has always hated being looked at.
- Duhev et iyfe per tilami?.... Do you like going to bars?
- At uyfe tijer gra jwa..... I dislike waking up too early.
- Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu..... You can do whatever you like.
- Et yefer xer ad vyaas..... You must do the right thing.
- Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay..... You should not talk so loud.
- At yeyfa ter ga fi..... I should have known better.
- At voy yifu der hyea fuas..... I would not dare say anything bad.
- Hov yufu der has hu et tesde..... Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
- Et yive dier yevanavdut..... You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
- Aat voy yuve kyoejer..... We are not bound to stick around.
Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms
- All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented." The participial adjective yafa able is subject-oriented and refers to a person, whereas the passived adjective yafwa possible is patient-oriented and refers to a thing or event. Here is a chart of the principal modal verbs and corresponding participial adjectives with this subject/object-orientation distinction shown:
MODAL TYPE SUBJECT-ORIENTED SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED VERB ADJECTIVE VERB ADJECTIVE PERMISSION afer.... may afa.... allowed afwer.... be permitted afwa.... permissable NECESSITY efer.... need efa.... needful efwer.... be necessary efwa.... necessary, required PROHIBITION ofer.... be unallowed ofa.... prohibited ofwer.... be prohibited ofwa.... banned POSSIBILITY yafer.... be able yafa.... able yafwer.... be possible yafwa.... possible OBLIGATION yefer.... must yefa.... obliged yefwer.... be obligatory yefwa.... obligatory DUTY yeyfer.... should yeyfa.... supposed, duty-bound yeyfwer'.... be supposed yeyfwa.... due IMPOSSIBILITY yofer.... be unable yofa.... unable yofwer.... be impossible yofwa.... impossible VOLITION fer.... want fa.... willing fwer.... be desirable fwa.... desirable, wanted LOVE ifer.... love ifa.... enamored ifwer.... be loved ifwa.... lovable HATE ufer.... hate ufa.... averse ufwer.... be hated ufwa.... odious RISK yifer.... dare yifa.... daring, brave yifwer.... be safe yifwa.... safe FEAR yufer.... be afraid yufa.... afraid yufwer.... be a danger yufwa.... frightening JOY iver.... enjoy iva.... glad ivwer.... be a joy ivwa.... enjoyable SORROW uver.... be sorry uva.... sorry, sad uvwer... be a shame uvwa.... regrettable
- Examples of subject-oriented forms:
- At se yafa xer hes..... I am capable of doing anything.
- Et ofe teater hia dyezun..... You are not allowed/are prohibited to see this film.
- Duhev at afe per hum?.... Am I allowed to go there?
- Yat fu ter eta dyun..... We would like to know your name.
- Piti ufe beser be mel..... Fish hate to remain on dry land.
- At ajay ifa dazer..... I once loved to dance.
- Et se iva, at yife der..... You are beautiful, I dare say.
- At yeyfa xer has ga ig..... I should have done it sooner.
- Hov yufu; At yupeye..... Fear not; I am coming.
- Et yefe puer ja eymaj..... You must arrive before noon.
- Eet yofe daler je ha dezun..... You people must not talk during the performance.
- Aat yeyfe (= se yeyfa aker..... We should (= are bound/supposed/due) to win.
- At ive teater et bakser..... I'm glad to see you get better.
- Su iva..... Be happy.
- At uvu (= su uva) teater et iper..... I would be sad to see you leave.
- Examples of patient-oriented forms:
- Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him..... It is permissible to smoke here.
- Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him..... It is prohibited to throw litter here.
- Fwe (= se fwa) hav yet dolu..... It is desired that you stop talking.
- Voy yafwe beser him gajob..... It is not possible to remain here any longer.
- Yofwa av at ivteuder..... It was not possible for me to laugh.
- Yefwe hav et piu ig..... It is essential that you leave quickly.
- He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi?.... Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
- Ga yux efwo..... More help will be needed.
- Yurx se ufwa xetyen..... Slavery is an odious practice.
- Uvwe hav wit oka..... It's a shame that he lost.
- *Ofawa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.
Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems
- Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED afxer allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer permit (something to be done) efxer require efwaxer necessitate ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant
Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes
- Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED Xyafa.... able to X, -able Xyafwa.... posssible to X Xyofa.... unable to X Xyofwa....impossible to X Xifa.... fond of Xing, Xophile Xufa.... averse to Xing, Xophobic Xyika.... hard of Xing Xyikwa.... hard to X Xyuka.... comfortable/easy Xing Xyukwa....easy to X -Xefa in need of Xing Xefwa necessary to X Xyufa afraid of Xing Xyufwa frightening to X
- This table shows some of these modal suffixes applied to actual verb and noun stems:
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyafer be able to see teatyofa blind teatyofer be blind PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa visible teatyafwer be visible teatyofwa invisible teatyofwer be invisible SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyafer be able to hear teetyofa deaf teatyofer be deaf PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa audible teetyafwer be audible teeyofwa inaudible teeyofwer be inaudiable SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa able to speak dalyafer be able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb dalyofer be mute, dumb SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa patriotic doabifer be patriotic doabufa rebellious doabufer rebel SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa sensitive tosyafer be able to feel tosyofa insensitive tosyofer be numbed PATIENT-ORIENTED tayotyafwa palpable tayotyafwer be palpable tayotyofwa numb tayotyofwer be impalbable, numb PATIENT-ORIENTED testyukwa easy to understand testyukwaxer make easily understood testyikwa hard to understand testyikwaxer make hard to understand SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa thirsty tilefer be thirsty SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa hungry telefer be hungry PATIENT-ORIENTED tejefwa vital tejefwer be vital
- Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern, as the following chart shows:
|RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE||teater see||teeter hear||teiter smell||teuter taste||tayoter feel|
|RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE||teatwer be seen||teetwer be heard||teitwer be smelled||teutwer be tasted||tayotwer be felt|
|STATIVE||teaser seem||teeser sound||teiser smell||teuser taste||tayoser feel|
|DYNAMIC/ACTIVE||teaxer look at||teexer listen||teixer sniff||teuxer taste||tayoxer touch|
|DYNAMIC/PASSIVE||teaxwer be looked at||teexwer be listened to||teixwer be sniffed||teuxwer be tasted||tayoxwer be touched|
|CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE||teatuer show||teetuer make hear||teixuer make smell||teuxuer offer a taste||tayoxuer make feel|
|CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE||teatuwer be shown||teetuwer be made to hear||teituwer be made to smell||teutuwer be given a taste||tayotuwer be made to feel|
catch sight of
|teetier catch the
|teitier get a whiff of||teutuer get a taste of||tayotier get the sensation of|
|INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE||teatiwer be perceived||teetiwer be heard||teitiwer be whiffed||teutiwer be tasted||tayotiwer be felt|
|teatyofer be blind||teetyofer be deaf||teityofer be unable to smell||teityofer be unable to taste||tayotyofer be insensitive|
|teatyofwer be invisible||teetyofwer be inaudible||teityofwer be undetectable
|teityofwer be insipid||tayotyofwer be undetectable|
|NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE||teatyofxer blind||teetyofxer deafen||teityofxer desensitize
|teutyofxer desensitize to
|NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE||teatyofwaxer make invisible||teetyofwaxer make inaudible||teityofwaxer make odorless||teutyofwaxer render tasteless||tayotyofwaxer numb|
- Examples of usage:
- At teatyofxwa bey ha mani. I was blinded by the lights.
- Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea. The noise was deafening.
- Hia tit se gla teatiyafa. This pupil is very perceptive.
- Hua bekil se teityofwa. That medecine is odorless (impossible to smell).
- Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni. Make the spots invisible.
- Ha magmeb yonprex tayotyafwa zya ha mir. The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.
- Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.
- Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE SPATIAL ab.... on, upon eb.... between ob.... off, off of ayb.... over, above eyb.... among, amid oyb.... under, below bu.... to be.... at bi.... from, of byu.... as far as, up to byi.... since, starting with ub.... toward ib.... away from za.... in front of ze.... at the middle of zo.... behind, in back of zu.... (to the) left (of) zi.... (to the) right (of) zya.... throughout zye.... through
TEMPORAL ja.... before je.... during, while jo.... after ju.... until ji.... since RELATIONAL bay.... with bey.... by boy.... without av.... for vyel.... than, as, compared to, about ov.... against ay.... and ey.... or oy.... but, except MATHEMATICAL gab.... plus, + gob.... minus, - gal.... times, × gel.... like
gol, ÷.... divided by gar.... to the power of, ˆ gor.... to the minus power of,√
- Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
- Ha dyes se ab ha sem..... The book is on the table.
- Hov et pyosu ob ha abtamas!.... Don't fall off the roof!
- Ha pati papa ayb ata tam..... The birds flew over my house.
- It kosa oyb ha yagsim..... He hid under the bench.
- Simbiu eb hut ay at..... Take a seat between that person and me.
- Yat teje eyb fiati..... We live among good people.
- Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?.... What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
- His se ifek bi kyen..... This is a game of luck.
- Duhev et sa be hua duzun zomoj?.... Were you at that concert last night?
- Iit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil..... We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
- Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis..... She walked up to/as far as the door.
- Ha twob tojbwa bey gobar..... The man was killed with/by a knife.
- Et xu ga fiay ser bay at vyel boy at..... You would do better to be with me than without me.
- Teaxu ib ha amar..... Look away from the sun.
- Hov teaxu iz ub ha man..... Don't look directly toward the light.
- Iyt simpa za at. .... She sat in front of me.
- Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb..... You should sit in back of that woman.
- Embu has zu ha mis..... Put it to the left of the door.
- At simpo zi et..... I will sit to the right of you.
- Ha pat poosa ze ha tim..... The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
- Mil upeye zye ha mes..... Water is coming through the door.
- Et popo zey ewa mipi.....You will travel across two rivers.
- His xwo ja zajub. .... This will happen before tomorrow.
- Esa mapil je ha moj..... There was a storm during the night.
- Ju zamaj..... Until tomorrow morning.
- At voy teataye et ji zoyejub..... I have not seen you since last week.
- Diwe xu hes av at..... Please do something for me.
- Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti..... This book is a story about two lovers.
- Datan se ga fia vyel nas. Friendship is better than money.
- Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
- Iit yexeya ov aat..... They were working against us.
- Et ay at yeyfe ser dati..... You and I should be friends.
- Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
- Hyat oy hut ta ha dud..... Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
- Et voy se gel at..... You are not like me.
- Et se hyagla ogel at..... You are totally unlike me.
- E gab e gese u..... Two plus two equals four.
- U gob e gese e..... Four minus two equals two.
- E gal e gese u..... Two times two equals four.
- E gol e gese a..... Two divided by two equals one.
- U gar e gese asya..... Four squared (42) equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
- Alya gor e gese u..... The square root (√16) of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the minus power of two...)
Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs
- There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
yub near yib far yuz around yiz beyond iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout yab up yeb in
yob down yaz along yez flush (with) yoz perpendicular (to) zay forward, ahead zey across zoy back
- The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE yub bi near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et..... I want to sleep close to you. yib bi far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer..... The sun is far from the earth. yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam..... He would like to fly up to the sky. yab bi up from Su yab bi ha sim..... Get up from the bed. yab bey up (by way of) Aat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab..... We will walk up the hill. yab be up on Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha abtammmas..... The cat was found up on the roof. yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos..... Run down to the cellar. yob bi down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam..... The angel came down from the sky. yob bey down (by way of) Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab..... She ran down the hill. yob be down on Ha dyes kase yob be ha oybmas..... The book is down on the floor. yob ab down on Has kaxwa yob ab eta oybmos..... It was found down on your floor. yeb be in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam..... Your mother is in(side) the house. yeb bu into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip..... He jumped into the river. yeb bi in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem..... Come in from the cold outdoors. oyeb be out in/at Ha tobobi sa oyeb be ha zodeym.....The children were out in the backyard. oyeb bi out from Yepu oyeb bi ha om.....Come in out from the cold. oyeb bu out to Aat fu peper oyeb bu ha meim.....We'd like to ride out to the countryside. yaz bi along Ha twob tyoyapa yaz bi ha mip.....The man walked along the river. yez bi flush with Ha simi se yez bi ha mas..... The chairs are flush with the wall. yoz bi perpendicular to Ha mampar pyosa yoz bi ha mel..... The plane fell perpendicular to the ground. yuz bi around Ha pati papa yuz bi yata tam.....The birds flew around our house. yiz bi beyond, past Et paye yiz bi ha yuznad.....You have gone beyond the perimeter. iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell! iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim..... He came right back from the office. zay bu on to, forth to, ahead to Ha naadpar popa zay bu zona doym..... The train traveled on to the next town. zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat..... She sat across from us. zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ha yexim..... I am back from the office.
Phrasal Prepositions Using Nouns
- The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
PREPOSITION OR ADVERB SPATIAL NOUN ab on abem top
abned upper surface
eb between ebem interstice
ob off obem bottom
obned lower surface
ayb above aybem area above
oyb below oybem area below
yab up yabem upstairs, upper area
yabneg top level
yob down yobem downstairs, lower area
yobneg bottom level
yeb in yebem inside, interior, indoors
yebnig inner space
oyeb out yobem outside, exterior, outdoors za in front of zam front, foreground
ze in the middle of zem middle
zenod center, hub
zo behind zom back, rear, background zi right zim right area
zikum left side
ziizon right direction
zu left zum left area
zukum left side
zuizon left direction
iz straight izmep direct route
uz indirectly uzmep detour
yub near yubem vicinity
yubkum near side
yubaj recent past
yib far yibem distance
yibkum far side
yiboj distant future
yuz around yuzem perifery
yiz beyond yizem area beyond
- The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of bi eybem bi from the midst of be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of be zim bi at the right of bu zim bi to the right of bi zim bi from the right of be zum bi at the left of bu zum bi to the left of bi zum bi from the left of be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route be yebem bi on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi to the exterior of bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of be nod bi at the point of be yebem bi at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi at the exterior of, outside be nad bay in line with be uznod bi alongside be tes bi in the sense of be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of be avson bi on behalf of be vyeson bi on the subject of bay yux bi with the aid of
Separable Verb Prefixes
- Verbal prefixes that are prepositions can usually be "unpacked", that is, treated as separate prepositions. The following table demonstrates how that works:
yuzper = per yuz...go around, circle Zyulmap yuzpa yata tam. = Zyulmap pa yuz yata tam....The tornado circled/went around our house. yobnoger = noger yob...scale down Ha yux bi yams yobnogwu. = Ha yux bi yams nogwu yob....The use of carbon should be downscaled. zaybuxer = buxer zay...advance, push forward Aat zaybuxo hia dovyabdren. = Aat buxo hia dovyabdren zay....We shall advance this legislation.
- Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. They are divided into coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Also some conjunctions consist of a combination of words.
- This chart shows the coordinating conjunctions used in Mirad:
ay and ey or oy but oey nor
- Usage examples:
- At oveko ay at ako. I will compete and I will win.
- Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et. Be still or I will spank you.
- It yeka oy it oka. He tried but he lost.
- At voy tilo oey at telo. I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.
Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions
- The above coordinating conjunctions can be associated in correlative pairs, as follows:
hyaewa...ay both...and hyeawa...ey either...or hyoawa...oey neither...nor voy hyawa...oy (gay) not only...but (also)
- At hyaewa dyede ay dre Mirad..... I both read and write Mirad.
- Et yafe hyeawa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun..... You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
- Aat hyoawa move oey tile..... We neither smoke nor drink.
- At voy hyawa deuze oy gay at daze.....I not only sing but also I dance.
- Subordinating Conjunctions introduce a dependent clause. All subordinating conjunctions must consist of at least one of the five so-called complementizers in the following chart. These complementarizers function in two ways:
- as a clause linker, where the complementizer introduces a clause that is a statement of FACT or CONDITION, or
- as a clause introducer, where the complementizer introduces a sentence that is a command/wish, a prohibition, or a yes-no question. Some of these complementizers can act in either or both roles.
- There are six complementizers, which, in and of themselves, are subordinating conjunctions. They can act as clause linkers or statement introducers, as shown in the chart below:
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZER CLAUSE LINKER STATEMENT INTRODUCER POSITIVE / HORTATIVE hav that, the fact that May... (something happen), Let... (something happen) CONDITIONAL hev if, whether -- NEGATIVE / PROHIBITIVE hov lest, that...not Don't ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless -- INTERROGATIVE Duhev...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)? RELATIVE hu that, which, who(m) --
- Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
- At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would come.
- At xa has hav et testu..... I did it so that you would understand.
- At voy ta hev et upo..... I did not know whether you would come.
- Hev et te ha dud, du has..... If you know the answer, say it.
- At yufa hov et upu..... I feared lest you come.
- At voy upo ohev et upo gay..... I will not come unless you come, too.
- Example of these conjunctions introducing different types of statements:
- Hav aat fadilu..... Let us pray. (HORTATIVE, i.e., A WISH)
- Hav iit teliu avol!.... Let them eat bread.
- Hav ha edeb yagteju..... May the king live long.
- Duhev et te ha dud?.... Do you know the answer? (YES/NO QUESTION)
- Duhev et se tadsa..... Say whether you are married.
- Hov (et) yufu..... Don't (you) be afraid. (PROHIBITIVE, i.e., AN INJUNCTION)
- Hov hus xwu..... Let that not happen.
- The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duhev (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether....
- Duhev et se tadokayt?.... Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).
Conjunctions with hav
- Other conjunctions are formed with two or more morphemes, the last being a complementizer. These contain an a preposition or adverb of place, time, cause, etc., followed by the positive complementizer hav or sometimes, the conditional complementizer hev. English can use a bare preposition as a conjunction, as in the sentence "He will grow up before you notice it." However, Mirad requires the hav or hev complementizer, much as in French, where "avant" (before) must be accompanied by "que" when followed by a clause ("Il se grandira avant que tu ne le remarque.") Here is a chart showing the most important of these conjunctions:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES ja hav.... before Du hay ja hav et pio..... Say hi before you leave. je hav.... while Je hav at so him, at xo gle yex av et..... While I'm here, I'll do some work for you. jo hav.... after At buo et has jo hav et nuso..... I will give it to you after you pay. ju hav.... until Aat voy ijo ju hav et puo him..... We won't start until you get here. ji hav.... since At voy teataya huyenas ji hav et sa hum..... I had not seen such a thing since you were there. gey hev.... even if Gey hev et yontexe, at bolo et..... Even if you disagree, I'll support you. gel hev.... as if Aat yeyfe axer gel hev aat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing. gey ov hav.... even though Gey ov hav ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.....Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it. ov hav.... (al)though At po ov hav at voy fe..... I'll go, although I don't want to. av hav.... so (that) It utifbua av hav hyuti yafu tejer..... He sacrificed himself so that others might live.
- If the conjunction contains a deictic adverb like where, when, how, etc., then the relative complementizer is attached, as in the following examples:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES haj hu.... when
(Lit: the time that...)
Haj hu et pua, ha iv ija..... When you arrived, the fun began. ham hu.... where
(Lit: the place that...)
At voy te ham hu it pa..... I don't know where he went. av has hu.... why
(Lit: for the thing that...)
Duhev et te av has hu it xa his?.... Do you know why he did it? av has hu.... because
(Lit: for the thing that...)
It xa has av has hu it fa teatuer yat hes..... He did it because he wanted to show us something. hayen hu....how, as, in the way that
(Lit: the way that...)
Xu hayen hu et fu hav hyuti alxu ub et..... Do as you'd want others to act toward you.
- In other cases, the conjunction is really just a relative adverb, and often ends in hus that:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES jo hus.... then Aat deuza jo hus hyat daza..... We sang, then everyone danced. je hus.... meanwhile Je hus, at ujba hyas..... Meanwhile, I finished everything. av hus.... so, therefore It vuda at, av hus at pia..... He insulted me, so I left. (gey) ov hus.... nevertheless, even so, despite that, yet, however At yexa kyotepay, ov hus, at ujoka.....I work diligently, yet I failed. gel hus.... likewise, also, similarly At daze. Gel hus, at deuze.....You dance; likewise, I sing. ogel hus.... otherwise, else Du hes, ogel hus, piu.....Say something, otherwise, leave.
- There are some common conjunctions that need no complementizers:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES ay....and It upa, it teata, ay it akra.....He came, he saw, and he conquered. ey (hyuyen)....or (else) Yexu kyotepay ey (hyuyen) et ujoko.....Work hard or (else) you'll fail. oy....but It tyoyafa oy iyt pa bey par.....He walked but she went by car. hyiyen....likewise, and so It aka; hyiyen at.....He won; and so did I. hyuyen....otherwise, else Xu has; hyuyen dolu.....Do it; otherwise shut up.
- Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
va yes ve maybe, perhaps vo* no
- * Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, it voy se tadsa. He is not married.
- Va. At se otadsa..... Yes. I am unmarried.
- Va. At se vay otadsa..... Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
- Va, vay..... Yes, indeed.
- Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa..... Yes and no. That may be true.
- Va ey vo?.... Yes or no?
- Ve. At te voy valay..... Maybe. I don't know for sure.
- Vo. At voy vatexe et..... No. I don't believe you.
- Vo! Dilwe hov xu has..... No! Don't do it.
- Et se Amerikama, va vo?.... You're American, yes or no?
- Hev va, (hav et) xu has..... If so, (let you) do it.
- Hev vo, hov (et) xu has..... If not, don't (you) do it.
- Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
INITIAL GREETING hay! Hello!, Hi! VOCATIVE GREETING hey! Hey!, O!, Oh! TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye! PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is... DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is... POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hyay! Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!,Hurrah!, Thanks! SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hyey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!, You're welcome! NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hyoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!, Sorry!
- Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
- Hey, Johan! Hoyen et xeye?....Hey, John, how are you doing?
- Hey, Tot! O, God!
- Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
- Hiy ha dyen et dila..... Here's the book you requested.
- Hiy Tobyan..... Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
- Hiy ata dyundraf..... Here's my caling card.
- Huy! Se xawa..... Voilà! It's done.
- Huy hos at yaka..... There's what I expected.
- Hyay et!.... Good for you!
- Hyay! Et utnaze his...... Bravo! You deserve this.
- Hyay! Et sa gla fitipa......Thanks.! You were very kind.
- Hyey via imaj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
- Hyey At ta voy hav et upo..... Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
- Hyoy at..... Woe is me.
- Hyoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay..... Pity!. Better luck next time.
- Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.
- There is a class of words in Mirad which are called alternating directionals, which are portmanteus, i.e. abbreviated combinations of opposite morphemes that mean something and something else or something or something else. For example, in English, swinging is "rocking BACK-AND-FORTH", or, questions can be of the type "YES-OR-NO". The vowels in these directionals are, for euphonic purposes, ao, eo, or ui. These alternating expressions are often used as adverbs or verbal prefixes. Here is an incomplete list of such expressions, the elements decomposed, and examples of their usage:
ALTERNATING DIRECTIONAL DECOMPOSITION EXAMPLES aob....off-and-on ab (on) + ob (of) aoper....get on and off
aober....take on and off
bui....to-and-fro / give-and-take bu (to) + bi (from)
bu- (give) + bi- take
buinax....round trip fare
gao....more-or-less ga (more) + go (less) gao more-or-less huim....here-and-there hum (there) + him (here) huimpoper....travel here and yon huis....this-and-that hus (that) + his (this) huisbier....select (between this and that) hyaos....all-or-nothing hyas (everything) + hyos (nothing) hyaoson....all-or-nothing matter hyuit....one another hyut (another) + hyit (the same person) hyuita....mutual
hyuitifer....love one another
teoj....life-or/and-death tej (life) + toj (death) teoja ebyem....life-and-death situation ui....east-west i (east) + u (west) uimera....east-west
uiz....straight and crooked uz (crooked) + iz (straight) uizpaser careen, stagger uib....toward and away ub (toward) + ib (away) uipeni comings and goings uij....stop and start uj (end) + ij (beginning) uijbar on-off switch uig....fast and slow uga slow + iga fast uigpar scooter vao....yes-and-no / yes-or-now va (yes) + vo (no) vaoder....decide
yuij....open-and-shut yuja (closed) + yija (open) yuija....open-and-shut
yaob....up-and-down yab (up) + yob (down) yaobur....elevator (up-and-down machine)
yaopyaser....jump up and down
yeob....in-and-out yeb (in) + oyeb (out) yeobar....piston (in-and-out-device) zao....front-and-back za (front) + zo (back) zaobaser....rock
zui....left-and-right zu (left) + zi (right)
- Keep in mind that if an alternative directional ends in b, the b assimilates to the first consonant of per (go) and ber put words, such that -b + b becomes b and -b + p becomes p. Thus, aob + per becomes aoper. This follows the regular manner of assimilation between any prepositional prefixes ending in -b before per and ber verbs and their derivatives.
Greetings and Other Polite Expressions
MIRAD ENGLISH Hay! Hello! Hey! Hey! Hoy! Bye! Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voila Hway!* Great! / Good for you! / Thanks! / Congratulations! Hwey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well! / Your're welcome! Hwoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!' Fijub! Good day! Fimaj! Good morning! Fimoj! Good evening! Hoyen et xeye? How are you? (Lit. How are you doing?) Fi. Ay et? Fine. And you? Iftaxwo.
Thank-you. (Lit. (It) will be fondly remembered.) Toxu.
You're welcome. (Lit. Forget (it).) Diwe. Please. (Lit. It is asked.) Yovobu (at).
Excuse (me). Fipop! Bon voyage! Su valta! Be safe! Igbaksu! Get well soon! Yanivtos!
Congratulations! (Lit: together-happy-feeling) Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday! Yanuvtos!
My condolences! (Lit: together-sad-feeling)
- hw is pronounced in Mirad like a wh in English.
- In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings and functions have been attached to consonants and vowels.
- The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of base words and derived words.
Guiding Principles for Word Formation
- The vocabulary is built on base words, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
- The meaning of each letter of the word.
- The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
- How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
- The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
- The logic of its composition.
- The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
- The words derived from base words in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules, which are spelled out below.
- Base words are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. Base words are divided into two groups:
- 1st Group: consisting of nouns
- 2nd Group: consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, determiners, and verbs.
- Base words of the 1st Group (nouns) are composed of three letters:
- The first, a consonant called the classifier
- The second, a vowel called the ordinal
- The third, a consonant called the generic
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING t o b man d o t society p o t tree
- Base words of the 2nd Group (everything but nouns) are composed of one or two letters, not including grammatical endings. If one letter, it is a consonant or sometimes a vowel. If two letters, they consist of a consonant + vowel combination or a vowel + consonant combination. Here are some examples (the hyphen at the end means that the base word does not stand alone, but is followed in usage by a grammaticatical ending such as -er (verb infinitive) or -a (adjective marker):
b-....put p-....go s-....be x-....do d-....say t-....know ab....on ob....off bu....to bi....from if-....love uf-....hate fi-....good fu-....bad va....yes vo....no vya*-....true vyo-...false a....one o....zero
- * A vowel in this case includes those preceded by one of the glides y or w. So, for purposes here, ya, ye, yi, yo, yu, wa, and other pre-glided vowels, are considered vowels.
Consonants and Their Meanings
- The classifier (initial letter) and generic (final letter) in 1st group root morphemes (nouns) are consonants. Also, 2nd group root morphemes almost always have one consonant. So, you need to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
1ST GROUP CLASSIFIER 1ST GROUP GENERIC 2ND GROUP CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS b organ, health organism gesture, position d society family communicating f vegetation textile, clothing volition, attributes g -- measurement quantity, attributes j time time time k -- health change, risk, attributes l -- element, food, liquid -- ten m nature place, building, furniture, metal temperature, light ml = million
mr = billion
n merchandise -- -- commerce p animal, vehicle motion movement r -- tool, machine -- thousand s form, image, furniture thing being, form, thing hundred t human, body person, animal intelligence, knowing v plant, color linen truth, attributes x -- -- action, doing, making z -- precious, art spatial, attributes
- The following consonants have semantic functions rather than, or in addition to semantic values:
- l and r: Liquids used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word, eg.: baer to lean, baler to press, barer to crush;
- y: Glide used 1) before a stem vowel to intensify the semantics of a word, eg. voa negative -> vyoa false, or 2) after a vowel to deintensify the semantics of a word, eg. ama hot -> ayma warm.
- h: Used functionally only in certain interjections like hoy goodbye, conjunctions like hev if, and determiners like his this, and has no semantic value.
- w: Has no semantic value of its own, but is used only 1) to form the masculine gender of nouns and pronouns, eg. tob person -> twob man, or 2) to form the passive voice of verbs, eg. uber to send -> ubwer to be sent, or 3) to form a counter buffer in otherwise monosyllabic numbers, eg. awa one, or 4) sometimes to substitute for y when this letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo late, instead of jyo.
- n: In addition to its semantic values, functions often 1) as a buffer letter, as in ana only, or 2) as a suffix to derive a nominal abstraction from an adjective, such as fian goodness from fia good, or from a verb, such axnen behaving from axner to behave.
Vowels and Their Meanings
- Vowels in Mirad have meanings or values of the following types:
- The numeric values of vowels are:
- The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-glided vowels.
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
Geo-specific vowel values
VOWEL MEANING o outer space a air, gas, sky e ground, soil, solid i liquid, water, sea u underground, mineral, substance
- In words derived from the 1st Group, vowels are the classifying and indicative elements.
Oppositional vowel values
- In 2nd Group words:
a ⇔ ya intermediate i ⇔ yi ⇑ positive
e ⇔ ye ⇑ positive
o ⇔ yo value u ⇔ yu
Positional vowel values
a u e i o
- a....on, above, north
- e....center, middle, equator
- o....off, below, south
- i....right, east
- u....left, west
Directional and Positional Vowel Values
u ---> ---> i ---> u e ye i ----> ---> yu yi ----> yu ---> ----> yi ↑
- Explanation of the above chart:
- Note: If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed), otherwise, it means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed).
a movement (free) on a movement (contact) onto ya movement (free) up, ascend ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up o movement (free) off o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath yo movement (free) down yo movement (contact) fall u movement (free) move toward the center, come u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive yu movement (free) near, approach yu movement (contact) near, reach i movement (free) from the center out, go away i movement (contact) from the center out, leave yi movement (free) away, go far yi movement (contact) from afar, originate e rest between e rest at, stay, hold ye movement in, into, enter ye (contact) contain
Special value of certain vowels
- The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
- the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
- Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon- apart.
The Meaning of 1st Group Base Words
- The meaning of the base words of the 1st Group comes from the combination of the values of the classifier and the generic consonants:
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT tob....person t = human b = organism tod....family " " " d = society tof....clothing " " " f = textile tov....lingerie " " " v = linen tol....nourishment " " " l = food tom....building " " " m = place toj....death " " " j = time
- Other examples:
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT dob....state d = society b = organism dop....military " " " p = movement dot....society " " " t = human dom....city " " " m = place nom....place n = commercial m = place nog....degree " " " g = measurement job....time j = time b organism fob....vegetation f = vegetable b = organism vob.... crop v = plant b = organism vos....flower " " " s = thing voz....color " " " z = art, precious som.... furniture s = thing m = place mos....masonry m = place s = thing mor....universe " " " r = machine mol....nature " " " l = substance pot.... animal p = movement t = human, animal pop....travel " " " p = movement bok....illness b = organ k = health, risk
- Yet others, where the ordinal is a vowel other than a numeric o and where the classifier or generic consonant are more mnemonic in nature. It could be claimed that some of the following base words are really mnemonic derivations of 2nd Group base words, but they have a distinct identity.
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT daz....dance d = society, communication z = art, precious tuz....art t = human z = art naz....value n = commerce z = art, precious nas....money n = commerce s = thing sag....number s = thing g = quantity jag....age j = time g = quantity xag....frequency x = action g = quantity mag....fire m = universe g = quantity man....light m = light n = abstraction maf....cloud m = universe f = textile maj....daytime m = universe j = time san....form s = thing n = abstraction par....carriage p = movement r' = machine
The Meaning of 2nd Group Base Word Roots
- The meaning of 2nd Group base word roots comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel. The stem vowel does not include adjectival (-a), adverbial (-ay), and verbal inflections (-er, -en, etc.).
- The stem vowel holds oppositional values like positive, intermediary, and negative.
CLASSIFIER CONSONANT POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE j = time ja....before je....during jo....after ji....since ju....until " " " aj....past ej....present oj....future ij...beginning uj....end (t = human)* taj....birth tej....life toj....death tij-....wake up tuj-....sleep " " " jwa....early jwe....on time jwo....late yij-....open yuj-....close g = measurement ga....more ge....equal go....less gi-....point gu-....angle " " " ag-....big eg-....normal og-....small ig-....fast ug....slow " " " yag-....long yeg-...average yog-....short yig-....hard yug....soft " " " gya-....thick gye-...just right gyo-....thin gyi-....solid gyu- fragile k ka-...find ke-....seek ko-....hide ki-....diagonal ku-....lateral " " " ak-....win ek-....play ok-....lose ik-....full uk-....empty " " " yak-....expect yek-...try yok-....suprise yik....difficult yuk....easy " " " kya-....change kye-....haphazard kyo-....fixed kyi-....heavy kyu-....light f-....want - - - fi-....good fu-....bad " " " fya-....holy -- fyo-....profane fyi-....worthy fyu-....waste " " " yaf-....ability yef-....duty yof-....inability yif-....bravery yuf-....fear " " " af-....permission ef....necessity of...prohibition if-....love uf-....hate v = beauty, veracity va-....yes ve-....maybe vo-....no vi-...beautiful vu-....ugly " " " vya-....true vye-....relative vyo-....false vyi-....clean vyu-....dirty " " " yav-....innocent yev-....fair yov-....guilty yiv-....free yuv-....captive z = spatial, etc. za-....front ze-....middle zo-....back zi-....right zu-....left " " " zya-....wide zye-....through zyo-....narrow zyi- flat zyu-....round " " " az-....strong ez-....moderate oz-....weak iz-....straight uz-....curved " " " yaz-....convex yez-....flush yoz-....concave yiz-....beyond yuz-....around b-....put ba-.... lean be/-.... at/hold bo-....hold up bi/-....from/take bu/-....to/give " " " ab/-....on/apply eb/-....between/block ob/-....off/remove ib/-....away/receive ub/-....toward/send " " " bya-....stand bye-....hold byo-....hang byi/-....since/originate byu/-....up to/touch " " " yab/-....up/raise yeb/-....in/insert yob/-....down/lower yib/-....far/remove yub/-....near/bring p-....go pa-....move pe-....wait po-....stop pi-....leave pu-....arrive " " " pya-....jump up pye-....encounter pyo-....fall pyi-....emanate pyu-....reach " " " yap-....rise yep-....enter yop-....descend yip-....go far yup-....approach " " " ap-.... get on ep-.... stop op-.... get off ip-....go away up-....come s-....be sa-....form si-....image su-....provide " " " as-....become es-....exist os-....cease to be x-....do xa-....execute xe-....exercise xo-....undergo xi-....result xu-....cause " " " ax-....act ex-....function ox-....abstain t-....know
tr-....be familiar with
dol-....silence di-....ask du-....suggest h- = deictic ha-....the he....some ho-....which? hi-...this hu-....that " " " hya-....all hye-....any hyo-....no hyi...same hyu...other ay....and ey....or oy....but ya-....together yo-....apart (numbers) a....one e....two o....zero i....three u....four " " " ya....six ye....seven yo....five yi....eight yu....nine (prefix) lo-....dis-
- * Mixed root. taj/tej/toj instead of yaj/yej/yoj, because the human letter root t is more intuitive.
- Note: The opposition (y)a-(y)e-(y)o is a three-way opposition with an intermediary sense, but (y)i-(y)u is two-way, without any intermediary sense.
- Derived words are formed in accordance with certain simple rules of word-building:
- These consist of the following twelve rules:
- Ordinal Vowel Scaling
- Adding Ordinal Vowels
- Swapping Generic Consonants
- Coding scientific vocabulary
- Marking Words for Gender
- Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
- Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels
- Deriving Words with a Mnemonic Pattern
- Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically
Rule #1: Compounding
- Compound words are obtained through the combination of two or more whole words. In the combining process, the determining word is placed quite simply in front of the word it determines. Compounds consist mainly of noun + noun, but there can be other part-of-speech combinations.
COMPONENTS COMPOUND mar....star + tun....science martun....astronomy mag....fire + meb....mountian magmeb....volcano dob....state + mem....land dobmem....territory tul....dish + dras....something written tuldras....menu sin....picture + dras....something written sindras....desription tam....house + kyoxer....to fix tamkyoxer....settle
Rule #2: Affixation
- All adverbs and prepositions can be used as prefixes:
COMPONENTS COMPOUND ja....before + per....to go japer....to precede jo....after + per....to go joper....to follow va....yes + der....to say vader....to affirm jo....after + dras....something written jodras....postscript za....ahead + jub....day zajub....tomorrow yon....apart mel....land yonmel....island
- Prepositional prefixes ending in b with verbs per and ber (and their derivations) lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB ya bup ber put yaber raise (NOT: yabber) ya bup per go yaper rise (NOT: yabper) a bon ber put aber put on, apply a bon per go aper get on, mount yo bdown ber put yober take down yo bdown per go yoper descend o boff ber put ober take off, remove o bon per go oper get off, dismount ye bin bux a push yebux impulse ye bin pyoser fall yepyoser collapse
- The two or three first letters of a base word can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB oz aweak der say ozder whisper yag along der say yagder ramble aj apast der say ajder evoke yog ashort der say yogder summarize tyoya bfoot per go tyoyaper walk dre erwrite sar tool dresar pencil tuyo bhand dren writing tuyodren manuscript ma msky mil water mamil rain
- 1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a' is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs. For example, aga + xer can produce agaxer to magnify or agxer to grow. Usually, the compound where the adjective suffix has been eclipsed has the more idiomatic meaning.
- Commonly used prefixes:
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES o- un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendly → odata unfriendly lo- un-, same as o but used where o is not clear
or, to express dis-, meaning to reverse an action.
gla many → logla rare
lofinuer → disqualify
yo- un-, same as o but more intense dat friend → yodat enemy av- pro- fyatin religion → avfyatina pro-religious ov- anti-, counter- dropek war → ovdropeka anti-war hyas- all-, pan-, omni- tea aware → hyastea omniscient, all-knowing ja- before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj birth → jataja pre-natal jo- after, post- judrer to date → jojudrer post-date yiz- beyond, meta- tapa physical → yiztapa metaphysical ey(n)- semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate eg- re-, again eganxer reunite, egder repeat, egvader reaffirm
- Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad
- Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza ab- away LATIN absence ibsen ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub- after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut bi- two GREEK bicameral entima by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober de- down LATIN descend yo( b)per < yob + per deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag di- two GREEK diode enmep dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye( b)bixer extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat- fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza inter- between LATIN international ebdooba intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa intro- into LATIN introduce yebber iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir mid- middle LATIN midday zejub milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat non- not LATIN nonentity oseas nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan post- after LATIN postscript jodren pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za- pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan re- again LATIN redo eejxer rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina un- not LATIN untie oyanxer under- below LATIN underarm oybtub under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
- Mirad has semantic stub suffixes, derivational suffixes, and normal semantic suffixes.
Semantic Stub Suffixes
- Semantic stub suffixes are generally formed from the last letters of a base word minus the initial consonant. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
SEMANTIC SUFFIX BASE WORD ORIGIN SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS -il....liquid, drink mil....water teabil....tear < teab....eye
teubil....saliva < teub....mouth
tayebil....sweat < tayeb....skin
mamil....rain < mam....sky
-al....gas mal....air tiebal....breath < tieb....lung -(e)l....food tel....food yapel....pork < yapet....swine
taol < taob....flesh
fel < feb....fruit
-ul....stuff mul....substance vixul....cosmetic < vix-....to beautify
bekul....medecine < bek....treatment
-yel....oil, gel, wax, pulp yel....oil kafyel....olive oil < kaf-....olive
apelatyel....wax < apelat....bee
magyel....grease < mag....fire
bekyel....salve < bek....treatment
megyel....cement < meg....stone
yanyel....paste < yan....together
-am....house tam....house apatam....chicken coop < apat....chicken
apelatam....beehive < apelat....bee
melyexam....farmhouse < melyex....agriculture
datibam....hostel < datib....guest-reception
-(e)m....place nem....place vobyexem....plantation, farm < vob....plant + yex....work
vabem....field < vab....grass
abem....top, surface < ab....above, upper
zem....middle < ze(a)....middle
-im....room tim....room tulim < tul....cuisine
tujim....bedroom < tuj....sleep
-um....cell, booth tum....compartment pexum....cage < pexer....catch
ilzyapixum....shower stall < ilzyapix....shower
-yem....place nyem....enclosure yomyem....icebox < yom....ice -yeb....container nyeb....container zyeb....bottle < zye(f)....glass
vosyeb....vase < vos....flower
-of....material nof....cloth tof....clothes < t-....human
misof....curtain < mis....window
faof....wood < fa(b)-....tree
tayof....leather < tayo(b)....skin
-ov....linen nov....linen teyov....collar < teyob....neck -ar....instrument sar....tool par....cart < p-....motion
zyupar....rotor < zyup....turn
gobrar....knife < gobrar....cut
jwobar....watch < jwob....hour
-ir....machine sir....machine drir....typewriter < dr-....write
-ur....large machine sur....engine purr....car
jwoburr....grandfather clock < jwob....hour
-(u)n....thing sun....thing dun....word < d-....utter, say
gofrun....piece, scrap < gofrer....rip, shread, tear
zyiun....plaque, plate < zyia....flat
vyun....spot < vyua....dirty
-on....abstract thing son....issue yovon....tort, wrong < yov....guilt yen....manner, kind byen....manner texyen....opinion < tex....thought
hiyen....this way, thus < hi-....this
esyen....status < es-....exist
-in....-ism tin....doctrine totin....theism, religion < tot-....god
Kristin....Christianity < Krist....Christ
vyisatin....puritanism < vysiat....puritan, clean person
otofin....nudism < otofa....nude
-uf....cylinder object fuf....pipe manuf....candle < man....light
tiibuf....artery < tiib....heart
miluf....toilet < mil....water
movuf....cheminee < mov....smoke
-uv....cylinder object fuf....pipe suv....nail, peg, stud < s-....furniture
muv....rod < m-....masonry
ab....government dab....government ditab....democracy < dit....citizen eb....leader deb....leader xeb....boss < x-....do
tameb....master of the house < tam....house
ad....language -a + d(ar)....language Fransad....French (language) uz....jewelry nuz....jewel teyobuz....necklace < teyob....neck
teebuz....earring < teeb....ear
u(er)....give buer....give tiebaluer....exhale < tieb....lung + al....air i(er)....take bier....take tiebalier....inhale < tieb....lung + al....air ui(er)....exchange buier....exchange tiebaluier....breathe < tieb....lung + al....air
- Mirad has only a few derivational suffixes, i.e. suffixes that change the part of speech.
DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX FUNCTION BASE WORD --> SUFFIXED DERIVATION -er NOUN --> VERBAL INFINITIVE sag.... count --> sager.... to count -n PRESENT TENSE VERB --> VERBAL NOUN (GERUND)
ADJECTIVE --> ABSTRACT NOUN
yexe.... (he/she/...) works --> yexen working
via.... beautiful --> vian.... beauty
yuba.... near --> yuban.... proximity, nearness
-a NOUN --> ADJECTIVE
ACTIVE VERB --> VERBAL ADJECTIVE (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
PAST PASSIVE VERB --> PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
mor.... universe --> mora.... universal
ake.... wins --> akea.... winning
teatwa....was seen -->teatwaa (or: teatwa....seen
-yea VERB STEM --> HABITUAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE) zaypas- progress --> zaypasyea....progressive -y ADJECTIVE --> ADVERB iga.... quick --> igay....quickly
tea-.... knowing-->teay.... knowingly
-ut VERB STEM --> AGENT NOUN one who Xes, -er ak-....win --> akut ....winner
- *Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
Normal Semantic Suffixes
- Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION -ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion -ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair -yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
- Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION -og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut -oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage -yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack -et (a smaller person) twob man twobet boy -es (thing of lesser importance) nas money nases change, coin -ud (child of, offspring) tob man tobud infant
- Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION -a mor universe related to, -al, -ic mora universal -aya miek dust full of, -ous, -y miekaya dusty -oya vyun spot empty of, -less, -free vyunoya spotless -ika miek dust full of, -ous, -y miekika dusty -uka miek dust empty of, -less, -free miekuka dust-free -yea vyod lie given to doing X, -ive vyodyea mendacious, given to lying -yena tat angel like, -ly, -ic tatyena angelic
- Other Semantic Suffixes
SUFFIX BASE WORD DERIVATION -tun....science, ...ology tej.... life tejtun.... biology -tut....-ologist, expert, -ist dar....language dartut....linquist -tuin....theory tob.... mar martuin.... astrology -yan....collection, aggregate fab.... tree fabyan.... forest -tyen....trade, -ics sir...machine sirtyen....mechanics -if....pet name twed....father twedif....papa ifa....-philic, -loving dyes....book dyesifa....bibliophilic ifwa....liked by tyod....people tyodifwa....popular ufa....-phobic, -hating toyb....woman toybufa....misogynous ufwa....hated by tyod....people tyodufwa....unpopular yafa....able to tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory yafwa....possible to teat-....see teatyafwa....visible yofa....unable to teat-....see teatyofa....blind yofwa....impossible to dye-....read dyeyofwa....illegible yika....hard of...ing teet-....hear teetyika....hard of hearing yikwa....hard to teet-....hear teetyikwa....hard to hear yuka....easy at...ing vatex-....believe vatexyuka....gullible yukwa....easily...ed test-....understand testyukwa....easily understood yufa....fearful of, -phobic tot....god totyufa....god-fearing yufwa....feared hyat....everybody hyatyufwa....feared by all yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose efa....needful of tel....food telefa....hungry efwa....necessary tej....life tejefa....vital yefa....requiring, -worthy dud....answer dudyefa....responsible yefwa....required, -worthy fid-....laud fidyefwa....praiseworthy afa....authorized to dokebi-....vote dokebiafa....franchised ofwa....prohibited to movi-....smoke moviofwagonem....no-smoking zone yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose yivwa....free to be ...ed kebi-....choose kebiyivwa....optional yuva....bound tam....house tamyuva....house-bound ova....resistant, anti- aagdovyab....constitution aagdovyabova....anti-constitutional ava....in favor of, pro- tyodab....democracy tyodabava....pro-democracy eva....neutral toos....gender tooseva....gender-neutral
Rule #3: Ordinal Vowel Scaling
- Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to base words of the 1st Group. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the base morpheme as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
- First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant som furniture tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree sam armoire teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop sem table tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk sim chair tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum cell dub ministry fub branch sum bed tyob leg jwob* hour fyob root jwab* minute jweb* second
- * These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but the y-glide is replaced by a w-glide for ease of pronunciation.
- Second-level Ordinal Scaling
- A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle tuyab hand tyoyab foot tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel tuyib palm tyoyib sole tuyub finger tyoyub toe tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
- Third-level Ordinal Scaling
- A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
...tuyub tuyub finger atuyub thumb etuyub index ituyub middle finger utuyub ring finger yotuyub pinky
- So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = human being FIRST-LEVEL tub arm SECOND-LEVEL tuyub finger THIRD-LEVEL atuyub thumb
- Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
- We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
...dob ...pet ...mer dob state pet animal deb leader adob empire apet horse adeb emperor edob kingdom epet bull edeb king idob principality ipet ass ideb prince udob duchy upet ram udeb duke yodob marquisate yopet goat yodeb marquis yadob county yapet pig yadeb count yedob dominion yepet dog yedeb lord
Rule #4: Overlapping
- When combining two words, if the generic (final) consonant of the first word is the same as the classifier (first) consonant of the second word, the generic consonant of the determining word is dropped. This results in overlapping.
FIRST WORD SECOND WORD PORTMANTEAU dom....city mep....road domep....boulevard pat....bird teub....mouth pateub....beak pat....bird tub....arm patub....wing teypib....tooth byok....pain teypibyok....toothache
Rule #5: Adding Ordinal Vowels
- When forming a compound word with the words of a same family of terms, if the ordinal vowel is an o, replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
- idob kingdom -> deb chief -> ideb king
- udob principality -> deb chief -> udeb prince
- By contrast, if the two words are already ordered, the vowel of the determinant (first word) is inserted between the ordinal vowel of the determined (second) wordd and the generic (final) consonant:
- mil water + mal air -> mial vapor, steam
Rule #6: Swapping Generic Consonants
- When the generic (final) consonant of a base word is replaced by that of another base word, the entire family of the latter undergoes the transformation by the new generic consonant.
human → tof clothing
|BASE WORD 1||BASE WORD 2||DERIVED WORD|
- * This is a derived, not base, word, but the principle holds.
Rule #7: Coding Chemical Elements
- When a group of elements has been classified by a cardinal enumeration following scientific rules, the indicated number replaces the classifier consonant and, with the generic consonant, forms the name of the chemical element.
|ENGLISH NAME||NUMBER OF ELECTRONS||METAL = fom
GENERIC = m
|silver||47 = ulye||m||ulyem|
|aluminum||13 = ali||m||alim|
|iron||26 = elya||m||elyam|
|METALLOID = foms
GENERIC = ms
|phosphorus||15 = alyo||ms||alyoms|
|arbon||6 = ya||ms||yams|
|GAS SUFFIX = al|
|hydrogen||1 = a||ms||al||amsal|
|nitrogen||7 = ye||ms||al||yemsal|
|oxygen||8 = yi||ms||al||yimsal|
|LIQUID SUFFIX = il|
|mercury||80 = yilo||m||il||yilomil|
Rule #8: Marking Words for Gender
- Words in Mirad are neutral with respect to gender, but specifically masculine or feminine gender can be marked in animate nouns and pronouns with the use of the masculine infix w and the feminine infix y.
- To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically male, precede the ordinal (stem) vowel with w.
- To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically female, follow the ordinal (stem) vowel with y.
GENDER NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE tob....human being twob....man toyb....woman tobet....young person twobet....boy toybet....girl ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother it....he/she/it wit....he iyt....she apat....cock apwat....rooster apayt....hen
- Inanimate objects, such as items of clothing, can be "femininized" in a similar way. In such a case, the feminized form refers to an object that is for woman, rather than men, eg.:
MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED taf....suit tayf....dress tyoyav....sock tyoyayv....stockings tiav....shirt tiav....blouse
Rule #9: Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
- A series of related words can be derived from a 1st Group base word by replacing the ordinal vowel with one of the following vowels, which have certain specific meanings, usually geographical.
- Geo-specific Vowels:
- o = outer space, abstract object, initial stuff
- a = sky, air, gas
- e = land, soil, solid
- i = sea, water, liquid
- u = underground, mineral, concrete object
m...p m...m d...p p...t m...l m...r mop....orbit mom....space dop....military pot....animal mol....nature mor....universe map....wind mam....sky dap....air force pat....bird mal....air mar....star mep....road mem....land dep....army pet....land animal mel....soil mer...planet mip....river mim....sea dip....marine force pit....fish mil....water mir....world mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral mur....moon
- This vowel codification also allows generating other categories of words by infixing, just before the generic (final) consonant, a vowel having the value that is attributed to it in Rule #9.
FIRST-LEVEL DERIVATION + SPECIAL VOWEL SECOND-LEVEL DERIVATION pet....land animal i....water, sea peit....aquatic mammal pelt....insect a....air, sky pelat....flying insect mel....soil i....water, sea meil....mud mal....air i....water, sea mial....vapor
Rule #10: Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels
- The rule for deriving words with directional and positional vowels starts with the following schema:
u ---> ---> i ---> u e ye i ----> ---> yu yi ----> yu ---> ----> yi ↑
- Explanation of the above chart:
- Note: If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is an infix of the base word, otherwise a prefix.
a movement (free) on a movement (contact) onto ya movement (free) up, ascend ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up o movement (free) off o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath yo movement (free) down yo movement (contact) fall u movement (free) move toward the center, come u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive yu movement (free) near, approach yu movement (contact) near, reach i movement (free) from the center out, go away i movement (contact) from the center out, leave yi movement (free) away, go far yi movement (contact) from afar, originate e rest between e rest at, stay, hold ye movement in, into, enter ye (contact) contain
- If a vowel is underlined in the above chart, it means that it is placed after the classifying consonant in the 2nd Group base word derivation, otherwise, it is placed before that consonant. For example, if you wish to derive the 2nd Group base word ber put using the vowel a in the above chart, the result is aber to put on; if the vowel is a, then the derived result is baer to lean on.
- Examples of 2nd Group verbs and prepositions that use this kind of directional and positional vowel derivation:
ab....on yab....up aber....put on baer....lean on yaber....raise byaer....lift eb....between yeb....in
eber....stop beer....hold yeber....put in
byeer....detain ob....off yob down ober....take off boer....uphold yober....lower byoer....hang iber....receive bier....take yiber....remove byier....derive ub....toward bu....to yub....near byu....as far as uber....send buer....give yuber....bring byuer...touch aper....get on paer....move yaper....rise pyaer....get up eper....stop peer....wait yeper....get in
pyeer....get stuck oper....get off poer....hang yoper....lower pyoer....fall iper....go away pier....leave yiper....go far pyier....hail from uper....come puer....arrive yuper....approach pyuer...reach
Rule #11: Deriving Words with Mnemonic Patterns
- Sometimes part of a derived word can serve as a mnemonic pattern for forming other words having some relationship or parallelism in meaning.
- For example, eu pattern in the word for mouth, teud can be used to form many other words having an oral, acoustic, vocal, or sound-related meaning:
CLASSIFIER GENERIC teud....shout t = human d = communication teuz....voice t = human z = art deuz....song d = communication z = art seuz....tone s = thing z = art seux....sound s = thing x = action xeus....noise x = action s = thing PATTERN WORD
(t)ea- = see GENERIC teaper....visit " " " p = go teader....testify " " " d = say teaxer....look " " " x = do teaser....seem " " " s = be teater....see " " " t = know keaxer....scan ke- = seek " " x = do vyaleaxer....check vyal- = certain " " x = do yoneater....distinguish yon- = apart " " t = know beaxer....guard be- = hold " " x = do
- A syllable of a long compound can be suppressed as long as it does not cause ambiguity or confusion.
WORD 1 WORD 2 LONG COMPOUND SHORTENED COMPOUND apet....horse teuder....make a noise *apeteuder apeder....neigh ipet....donkey teuder....make a noise *ipeteuder ipeder....bray vafeb....grape il....liquid *vafebil....grape juice vafil....wine
- Sometimes, the last syllable of a compound will give birth to a new words whose derivations, through the application of this rule, will not be long.
COMPOUND NEW SHORTER WORD tilabil....breast milk bil....milk
- The shorter word bil now gives rise to other compounds:
- bilyigem....cheese factory
Rule #12: Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically
- Words which follow Rule #12 are those that are connected by a similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances and it is phonetic nuances that govern their formation.
- These nuances are obtained by:
- Addition of a subordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal vowel.
- These vowels are:
- a for a and ya
- e for e and ye
- i for i and yi
- o for o and yo
- u for u and yu
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION nad....line naad....rail dob....state doob....nation vyab....rule vyaab....system vala....safe vaala....sure
- Post-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of less' intensity:
WORD MITIGATED DERIVATION ifer....love iyfer....like iva....happy iyva....glad zyutom....tower zyutoym....turret ama....hot ayma....warm oma....cold oyma....cool
- Pre-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of greater intensity:
WORD ENHANCED DERIVATION pot....wild animal pyot....predator animal pat....bird pyat....bird of prey tod....family tyod....people oma....cold yoma....frozen nuxer....pay nyuxer....deliver
- Following the ordinal vowel or the generic consonant with the intensifying liquid l or the further intensifying liquid r:
WORD L-INTENSIFIED R-INTENSIFIED ifer....love ifler....be fond of ifrer....adore iva....happy ivla....content ivra....enchanted vaa....affirmative vala....sure vara....evident aga....big agla....great agra....capital ga....more gala....multiple gara....exponential baer....lean on baler....press barer....crush
- Adding consonants other than l or r as the generic consonant:
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION fua....bad futa....wicked gea....equal geta....identical
- Transforming the generic consonant from voiced to unvoiced or vice versa:
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION nab....row nap....order vyava....just vyafa....precise
- You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
NOUN ADJECTIVE taam home taama domestic doob nation dooba national tej life teja vital tyoyapyaf ability to walk tyoyapyafa ambulatory martun astronomy martuna astronomical PRONOUN ADJECTIVE at I, me ata my etut yourself etuta your own hiyen this kind hiyena this kind of hot? who? hota? whose? GERUND ADJECTIVE ifeken recreation ifekena recreational VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE) teje (he) lives tejea living tojo will die tojoa moribund, about to die tojbu would kill tojbua lethal twe is known twa known
- Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE -aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly voz color vozaya colorful futax resentment futaxaya resentful tiibil blood tiibilaya bloody yilf courage yilfaya courageous -oya bereft of, -less, un- voz color vozoya colorless, pale tajyaf talent tajyafoya untalented -ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya) map wind mapika windy -uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya) nas money nasuka broke, penniless -yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of tobob child tobobyena childish, infantile tot god totyena divine, godly pit fish pityena fish-like, fishy -wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE t- know twa or tawa known dal- speak dalwa or dalawa spoken, oral nisbu- sell nisbuwa sold -ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE ot- not know otea ignorant tej- live tejea living, alive tuj- die tujea dying -yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE tujb- kill tujbyea murderous tex- think texyea pensive, thoughtful tox- forget toxyea forgetful ax- act axyea active -uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE ex- operate exuwa operable tos feel tosuwa palpable tex- think texuwa conceivable tel- eat teluwa edible -yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyafa sightful, able to see dyed- read dyedyafa literate -yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyafwa visible tax- remember taxyafwa memorable teet- hear teetyafwa audible tel- eat telyafwa edible -yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyofa blind tyoyap- walk tyoyapyofa lame teet- hear teetyofa deaf dal- speak dalyofa dumb, incapable of speaking -yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyofwa invisible teet- hear teetyofa inaudible tox- forget toxyofa unforgetable dal- speak dalyofa unspeakable -ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE pot animal potifa pet-friendly hyitoob- same-gender hyitoobifa homophile tobot child tobotifa pedophile fitel food fitelifa gourmand doob nation doobifa patriotic -ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE tob human tobufa misanthropic hyut- other person hyutufa xenophobic toyb- woman toybufa misogynist
- The sense of an adjective can be negated with the prefix o or the more intensive yo:
- vlea probable → ovlea improbable
- vyafa perfect → ovyafa imperfect
- twa known → otwa unknown
- bosa calm → yobosa worried
- Note: Occasionally, the prefix lo- is used to avoid ambiguity:
- fwa wanted
- → ofwa prohibited < ofer to prohibit
- → yofwa impossible < yofer to be unable
- → lofwa unwanted < fer to want (disambiguated)
Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes
- As in English, the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin. Here are the most common:
ENGLISH PREFIX MIRAD ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES un-, a(n)-, in-, non- o- obaka unhealthy, oyezyebeya incontinent, oyelpea non-invasive, ototina atheist anti-, counter- ov- ovzuina anti-leftist, oviztida counter-intuitive pseudo- kovyo- kovyotepina pseudo-intellectual all-, pan-, omni- hyas- yadtea all-knowing, omniscient re- eg- egtajbwa re-born mis- vyo- vyoseudwa mispronounced semi-, half- eyn- eynlevelaya semi-sweet, eyntija half-awake ultra-, super- yiz-, gwa- gwadoobina ultra-nationalist, yizmola supernatural under-, hypo- gro- grojaga under-aged over-, hyper-, uber- gra- graagxwa overgrown, gratoseya hypersensitive miso- [see suffixes] multi-, many-, poly- gla- glakuma multilateral, glatadaya polygamous mal-, ill- fu- futeyenxwa ill-conceived, fusanxwa malformed well- fi- fitofabwa well-dressed quasi- yuyb- yuybdaba quasi-governmental pre-, (a)fore-, pro- ja- jateyenxwa pre-conceived, jaigdawa aformentioned post- jo- jodropeka post-war
English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison
- Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES -ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya colorful, tuzika skillful -ous full of -aya, -ika nazika precious, milaya aqueous -filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoke-filled -y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoky, -ous of, like -a totina religious, vyosa erroneous -ly like -yena totyena godly, toybyena womanly -like like -yena patyena bird-like -ish like -yena tobobyena childish -y like -yena fyabyena fruity -ic like -yena tuzyena artistic, silyena acidic -ic of, related to -a tuna scientific, , beka therapeutic -ical of, related to -a zyunida spherical, iztexa logical -ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna biological -ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina militarist(ic), nasyanina capitalist(ic) -ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa xenophonic, tobyanufa misanthropic -ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobobifa pedophilic, tobifa philanthropic -al like -yena pyotyena bestial -al of, pertaining to -a teja vital, amana thermal -less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka lifeless, toboboya childless -free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka ice-free, vyosoya, error-free
- Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-y-gliding the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB fia good fiay well vyaa true vyaay truly gyua easy gyuay easily iga quick igay quickly auta personal autay personally
- For brevity's sake, the stem of de-adjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
- It tyoyape ig. He walks fast.
- Iti xa has fi. They did it well.
- Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
- Here are the principal such adverbs:
SPECIAL ADVERB vay.... indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va.... yes) vey.... possibly, may, might (cf. ve.... maybe) voy.... not (cf. vo.... no) ga.... more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb) gay.... also, moreover, further, still ge.... as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb) gey.... even go.... less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb) goy.... no longer, no more gla.... very glay.... quite, rather, so gle.... so glo.... not very, not so gra.... too gre.... enough, sufficiently, over- gro.... not...enough, inadequately, under- gwa.... most, super- gwe.... average gwo.... least, sub-
- The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
- AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa..... Yes, I am indeed married.
- DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa..... Her response is possibly wrong.
- NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yuxrut..... I am not your slave.
- The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
- Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
- Et peya gra ig..... You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
- It gra dale..... He talks [=VERB] too much.
- Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES yab up Ha pat papa yab bu ha mam. The bird flew up to the sky. yob down Teaxu yob bu ha mel. Look down to the ground. yub near Besu yub bi ha mas. Stay near the wall. yib far Ha tobi igpia yib bi ha yovbyokam. The people ran far from the prison. ib away Teaxu ib, diwe. Look away, please. ub this way Tyoyapu ub him. Walk toward this way. yeb in, inward, inside Kyedu hat hu ogja tyoyapa yeb! Guess who just walked in! oyeb out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye ha zames. He walked out through the front door. yuz around Yit daza yuz bi ati. They danced around us. yiz beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz bi hia tistam av yux. You must look beyond this school for help. iz....directly, straight Pu iz bu hat. Go right up to him. zi....right Uzpu zi! Turn right! zu....left Hat uzpa zu. He turned left.
- There are also adverbial expressions that are agglutinated with deictic and quantitative morphemes to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-adverbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Determiners in Deictic Pro-adverbs.
- Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.
Forming Verbs from Nouns
- Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
NOUN VERB syag count syager to count tof clothes tofer to dress tam house tamer to dwell, live, reside dyun name dyuner to name, call teud cry, shout teuder to cry, shout, exclaim taj birth tajer to be born tej life tejer to live toj house tojer to die ej present ejer to continue ij beginning ijer to begin uj end ijer to end yuj sleep tujer to sleep
- More an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
- -ser to be/become usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
- -xer to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
- -per to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
- -ber to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
- -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefiting the agent (eat = take food)
- -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefiting the patient (feed = give food)
- -der to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
- -ter to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see)
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB FORMANT VERB yav innocence der to say yavder to acquit yov shame, guilt aber to apply, put on yovaber to shame, accuse yov shame, guilt ober to remove, take off yovober to excuse, exculpate tof clothes aber to apply, put on tofaber to dress, don tof clothes ober to remove, take off tofober to undress, strip det associate ser to be, become detser to associate dat friend xer to do, make datxer to befriend san form ser to be, become sanser to form (intransitive) san form xer to do, make sanxer to form (transitive) tel food (b)ier to take telier to eat, consume tel food (b)uer to give teluer to feed, nourish if pleasure (b)ier to take ifier to enjoy if pleasure (b)uer to give ifuer to please taj birth (b)uer to give tajuer to give birth tej life (b)ier to take tejier to come alive tej life (b)uer to give tejuer to bring to life toj death (p)er to go tojper to drop dead toj death (b)er to put tojber to kill tij wakefulness (b)ier to take tijier to wake up tij wakefulness (b)uer to give tijuer to awaken tuj sleep (b)ier to take tujier to fall asleep tuj sleep (b)uer to give tujuer to put to sleep tax memory (b)ier to take taxier to recall tax memory (b)uer to give taxuer to remind yev justice der to say, tell yevder to judge vyan truth der to say, tell vyander to tell the truth vyon falsehood der to say, tell vyonder to tell a lie il liquid aker to gain ilaker to take on liquid il liquid oker to lose iloker to leak, lose liquid il liquid (b)ier to take ilier to soak up il liquid (b)uer to give iluer to pour, water il liquid ikser to get full ilikser to be soaked (intransitive) il liquid ikxer to fill up ilikxer to flood, soak (transitive) il liquid ukser to become empty ilukser to drain (intransitive) il liquid ukxer to empty ilukxer to flush (transitive) il liquid ser to be, become ilser to liquify, melt (intransitive) il liquid xer to do, make ilxer to liquify, melt (transitive) il liquid aber to apply, put on ilaber to wash (transitive) il liquid aper to get on ilaper to float (intransitive) il liquid per to go ilper to flow (intransitive) il liquid zyaber to spread ilzyaber to spray, shower (transitive) il liquid zyober to squeeze ilzyober to squirt (transitive) il liquid pyexer to strike ilpyexer to splash (with liquid) il liquid yujer to close ilyujer to plug
- Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are benefactive or causative (making someone do something).
Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser
- The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser to be, become.
- The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB aza strong azaxer fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser get strong oza week ozaxer weaken ozaser grow weaker kyia heavy kyiaxer weigh down kyiaser grow heavy kyua light kyuaxer lighten, make lighter kyiaser get lighter yana together yanaxer bring together yanaser get together
- The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB aga big agaxer magnify agaser get big agxer grow agxer grow up, mature iga fast igaxer accelerate igaser speed up igxer rush igser hurry up baka healthy bakaxer make healthy bakaser get healthy bakxer heal bakser heal sana formal sanaxer formalize sanaser become formal sanxer form, shape sanser form, take shape
Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per
- Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB ab on aber apply, put on aper mount, get on eb between eber block eper intervene ob off ober remove, take off oper dismount, get off ib away iber receive iper leave ub toward uber send uper come yab up yaber raise yaper rise yeb in
yob down yober lower yoper descend yib far yiber take away yiper move away yub near yuber bring yuper approach zay forward zayber advance zayper advance, go forward zey across zeyber take across, transfer zeyper cross, go over, transit zoy back zoyber set back, return zoyper retreat, go back, return iz straight izber guide izper aim for uz crooked uzber divert uzper turn, diverge yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper pass by yuz around yuzber take around yuzper go around
- More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
GESTURE VERB GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB MOTION VERB INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE ber put
per go baer lean on baler press
yobaler depress, suppress
baser gesticulate baxer make a gesture
abaxer caress, pat
paser move paxer move byaser stand up byaxer set up, erect pyaser jump up pyaxer shoot, launch balser budge balxer rouse
palser get excited palxer excite
barser shake balxer shake
aparxer brush beser stay bexer hold
yobexer detain, hold down
peser wait pexer trap byeser behave byexer hit pyeser run into, bump into pyexer strike, knock
yopyexer knock down
balser adhere balxer retain pelxer pound, beat
yonpelxer shatter, burst
perxer blast, bomb boser calm down
boxer quieten, quell poser stop
poxer stop byoser hang byoxer hang pyoser fall
pyoxer drop, throw down
biser originate bixer pull
yebixer push in
pixer catch bilser spring bilxer yank pilxer snag, capture
buser be destined buxer push, drive
apuser assault puxer throw, thrust
byuser bump into byuxer touch
pyuser run into pyuxer crash bulser swoop bulxer shove pulser lunge, pounce pulxer thrust
- Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX VERB baxer gesture, make a bodily motion ab on abaxer caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub iz straight izbaxer point teb head tebaxer nod va yes vatebaxer nod yes vo no votebaxer nod no ve maybe vetebaxer shrug tuyab hand tuyabaxer wave tub arm tubaxer flail, swing teubab tongue teubabaxer lick teab eye teubaxer wink patub wing patubaxer flap tiyub tail tiyubaxer wag baser gesticulate ig- fast igbaser jerk zay forward igzaybaser lurch zoy back zoybaser recoil yob down yobaser bow, bend down ku- side kubaser slide ig- fast igkubaser slip iz straight + uz curved izuzbaser sway, swagger, swish zi right + zu left zizubaser wiggle, wobble, totter
Forming Frequentative Verbs
- A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by affixing the syllable eg to the verb stem. Here are some examples:
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB paser move paseger shake, shudder pyaser jump pyaseger bounce paper fly papeger flutter, flit braser shake braseger shudder, quivver, vibrate teupixer bite teupixeger nibble ilzyaber spray ilzyabeger sprinkle
Forming Hybrid Words with Alternating Components
- Expressions with alternating components like back-and-forth, up-and-down, etc. are formed in a peculiar, hybrid way. The following table shows this formation and how such words can be used, especially as prefixes on verbs:
ALTERNATING COMPONENTS HYBRID EXPRESSION EXAMPLES yab up + yob down yao(b)- up-and-down yaoper fluctuate, yaopuser bounce zay forth + zoy back zayo(b)- back-and-forth zayobaser swing a- up, north, skyward + o- down, south ao- vertical aonada vertical, aomera north-south za forth + zo back zao(b)- front-back/north-to-south zaobaser rock bu to + bi from bui- to-and-from buipar shuttle, buipop round-trip ab on + ob off ao(b)- on-and-off aoper get on and off yuj- closed + yij- open yuij- open-and-shut yuijbar switch, igyuijer blink uj- stop + ij- start uij- stop-and-start uijparpan stop-and-go traffic (a)yeb in + oyeb out aoye(b)- in-and-out igaoyeper run in-and-out yub near + yib far yui(b)- near-and-far yuipoper travel near-and-far ub toward + ib away ui(b)- toward-and-away uipen coming and going hum there + him here huim here-and-there huimkexer search high-and-low (here-and-there) hus that + his this huis this-and-that huisyexer do odd jobs, work at this-or-that hyut other person + hyit same person hyuit one another hyuitifer love one another, hyuita mutual, reciprocal
- Here are some more examples:
HYBRID WORD ENGLISH GLOSS ALTERNATING COMPONENTS aogsen fluctuation (in size) ag- (big) + og- (little) + s- (become) + -en (-ing) aonada vertical a- (up/north) + o- (down/south) + nad (line) + -a (adj.) aopuys hop-on-hop-off a(p)- (on) + o(p)- (off) + puys- (hop) buien trading, swapping bu- (give) + bi- (trake) + -en (-ing) buip traffic bu- (to) + bi- (from) + p- (go) buixar pump bux- (push) + bix (pull) + -ar (instrument) buixek tug-o-war bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + ek (play) buixnyem drawer bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + nyem (box) byaosen teetering, stumbling byas- (stand) + byos- (fall) + -en (-ing) diep marine force dip (sea force) + dep (land force) duid q&a, interview dud (answer) + did (question) gao more-or-less ga (more) + go (less) glaojo sooner or later gla (very) + glo (slightly) + jo (after) huimkexer search here and there 'hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -m (place) + kex (search) + -er (inf.) huis this-and-that hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -s (thing) hyuit one another hyu- (other) + hyi- (same) + -t (person) kyaopen fluctuation kya- (mobile) + kyo (static) + -pen (going) maluier breathe mal- (air) + u- (let out) + i- (take in) -er (inf.) maojyex double-shift work maj (day) + moj (night) + yex (work) maonig flicker man (light) + mon (dark) + ig- (fast) maoza black&white/gray maza (white) + moza (black) meil mud mel (soil) + mil (water) memuiben import-exports mem (country) + ub- (send) + ib- (receive) + -en (-ing) mial vapor mil (water) + mal (air) mieg reef mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -g (stone) miek sand mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -k (rocky substance) miem swamp mim (sea) + mem (land) mimpuin dock mim (sea) + pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place) mimpyaos surf mim (sea) + pyas- (surge) + pyos- (sink) mimuip tide mim (sea) + up- (come) + ip- (go) peit amphibian pet (land animal) + pit (sea creature) puim kiss-and-ride zone pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place) puixek baseball pux- (pitch) + pix- (catch) + ek (play) teabyuij blink teab (eye) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open) tuijea nodding off tuj- (sleep) + tij (wake) -ea (-ing) uijdal stutter uj- (finish) + ij- (start) + dal (speech) uipeni comings & goings up- (come) + ip (go) + -en (-ing) + -i (pl.) uiza serpentine, snaky uza (crooked) + iza (straight) vao? yes or no? va (yes) + vo (no) vaod decision va (yes) + vo (no) + d- (say) yaobar elevator yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + -ar (instrument) yaobyuijar piston yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open ) + -ar (instrument) yaoplas oscillation yap- (up) + yop- (down) + plas (shake) yaopsim seesaw yap- (ascend) + yop- (descend) + sim (seat) yaopus bounce ya(b)- (up) + yo(b)- (down) + pus (jump) yaovdut juror yav- (innocent) + yov- (guilty) + d- (say) + -ut (agent) yaoza uneven, bumpy, serrated yaza (convex) + yoza (concave) yaozgoblar saw yaz (protrusion ) + yoz (indentation) + gobl- (cut) + -ar (instrument) yaozil wave yaz (swell) + yoz (trough) + -il (liquid) yuibteabar bifocals yub (near) + yib (far) + teab (eye) + -ar (instrument) yuijar valve, switch yuj- (close) + yij- (open) + -ar (instrument) zaobelur ferry za- (forth) + zo (back) + bel- (carry) + -ur (vehicle) zaobyexar swatter, bat za (forth) + zo (back) + byex- (strike) + -ar (instrument) zaodal dialog za- (forth) + zo (back) + dal (speech) zaogoblar saw za (forth) + zo (back) + gobl (cut) + -ar (instrument) zaokyax alternation za (forth) + zo (back) + kyax (change) zaopasen swinging za- (forth) + zo- (back) + pasen (moving) zaopsim swing or rocker zap- (go forth) + zap (go back) + sim (seat) zuibasen wiggling zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bas- (move bodily) + -en (-ing) zuibayx wag zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bayx- (slight body move) zuibyoxea dangling zu (left) + zi (right) + byox- (hang down) + -ea (-ing) zuiyafa ambidextrous zu- (left) + zi- (right) + yafa (capable) zyaobas throb zya- (wide) + zyo- (narrow) + bas (bodily movement)
- The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
- This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub mouth:
ceux sound xeus noise xeuz tune teuz voice deuz song seuz tone deus accent
- Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
teb head deb leader xeb boss feb treetop tub limb dub minister xub subsidiary fub branch vub twig patub wing petub paw pitub fin teub mouth pateub beak peteub muzzle tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale fayeb leaf vosayeb petal potayeb mane tayob skin tayof leather petayob hide fayob bark vayob peel tyob leg fyob root vyob plant root tib trunk fib tree trunk vib stem tulob nail petulob claw fulob thorn defulob needle mulob pin, prick tiibuf artery fuf pipe muf stick, rod movuf cheminee fauf log manuf candle til drink teabil tear teubil saliva dril ink mil water mamil rain tayobil sweat bil milk
The xer (Do) Family
- The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this core word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).
- This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
axer act exer function oxer abstain ixer effect uxer cause axler perform exler operate oxler fail ixler react uxler influence axrer execute uxrer provoke xaer execute xeer exercise xoer undergo, submit xier result xuer affect xeyer behave xaler accomplish xeler practice xoler fail xiler undertake xuler achieve yexer work yoxer be idle yixer use yuxer help yexler labor yoxler resign
yixler hire, employ yuxler serve yexrer toil yixrer exploit yuxrer slave
Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes
- Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
- Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
PREFIX + BASE DERIVATION ana single + xer make anaxer unify an- one- + xer make anxer unite yan together + exer operate yanexer cooperate yan together + yexer work yanyexer collaborate yon apart + xer make yonxer split ge equal + xer make gexer copy ja before + xer make jaxer prepare je while + xer do jexer continue ig- fast + xer do igxer rush ug- slow + xer do ugxer delay oj future + xer do ojxer plan eej- re- + xer do eejxer redo sa(n) shape + xer make saxer create se(n) being + xer make sexer build lo- un- + sexer build losexer destroy mel soil + yexer work melyexer plough tea(b) eye + xer do teaxer look o- un- + yirxer hire oyirxer fire mag fire + xer cause magxer burn yuf fear + xer cause yufxer frighten dofun crime + xer do dofunxer commit a crime gra too much + xer do graxer exaggerate eg- re- + axer act egaxer react fu- bad + xeyer behave fuxeyer misbehave
Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives
- Unlimited transitive verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
ADJECTIVE VERB aga.... big agaxer.... magnify goa.... lesser goaxer.... diminish fia.... good fiaxer.... improve jwoa.... late jwoaxer.... retard uva.... sad uvaxer.... sadden via.... beautiful viaxer.... beautify ebdooba.... international ebdoobaxer.... internationalize
- Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
- The passive of xer, xwer to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
- Hoj hus xwa? When did that happen?
- At uvaxwa ham hu at teata ha tobob. I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.
Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms
- The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
- xer deuz.... to perform a song
- xer ifpop.... to take a cruise
- xer ebdid.... to conduct an interview
- xer yagigpek.... to run a marathon
- xer dazun.... to do a dance number
- xer dezekgon.... to play a role
- xer dovyabdras.... to enact a piece of legislation
The ser (Be) Family
- The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
aser become eser exist, there to be oser cease to be iser start out user end up
Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives
- The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
ADJECTIVE STATIVE VERB aga.... big agaser.... get big aga.... big agser.... grow uza.... curved uzaser.... curve, bend, bow kyaa.... mobile kyaser.... change, vary mayna.... clear maynaser.... clear up iga.... fast igaser.... become fast, accelerate iga.... fast igser.... rush, hurry
- Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
- It agxe vafyabi..... He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
- Vafyabi voy agse fiay him..... Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
- His kyaxa yata teji..... This changed our lives.
- Yata teji kyasa hujub..... Our lives changed on that day.
- Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi..... The winds bent the trees.
- Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag..... The trees bowed during the storm.
- Hov igxu at..... Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
- Igsu!.... Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns
- The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
NOUN STATIVE VERB meg.... stone megser.... petrify, become rock abnod.... peak abnodser.... peak, climax mus.... scale, stair musser.... escalate yom.... ice yomser.... freeze maf.... cloud mafser.... cloud over il.... liquid ilser.... liquefy, melt
Creating Dynamic Verbs from Inherently Stative Verbs
- Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic counterparts end in -ber for transitive verbs and in -per for intransitive verbs. There is a table showing this:
STATIVE-INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-TRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-INTRANSITIVE tojer.... die tojber.... kill tojper.... drop dead tajer.... be born tajber.... give birth (to), bear tajper.... spring up tejer.... live tejber.... bring to life tejper.... come to life tijer.... be awake tijber.... awaken tijper.... wake up tujer.... sleep tujber.... put to sleep tujper.... fall asleep ijer.... begin ijber.... begin (something) ijper.... start up ujer.... end ujber.... finish, put an end to ujper.... come to an end yijer.... open up yijber.... open up (something) yijper.... come open yujer.... close yujber.... close, bring to a close yujper.... come to a close
The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families
- The core words ber to put and per to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.
Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels
|ab on||aber put on||aper get on||baer lean||paer stand|
|yab up||yaber raise||yaper rise||byaer lift||pyaer jump|
|ob off||ober remove||oper dismount||boer hold up||poer hang|
|yob down||yober lower||yoper descend||byoer hang||pyoer fall|
|ub toward||uber send||uper come||bu to||buer give||puer arrive|
|ib away||iber receive||iper go away||bi from||bier take||pier leave|
|yub near||yuber bring||yuper approach||byu up to||byuer touch||pyuer reach|
|yib far||yiber take away||yiper move far away||byi since||byier emanate||pyier originate|
|eb between||eber block||eper intervene||yeb in
|za front||zaber advance||zaper advance||zay forward||zayber promote||zayper proceed|
|zo behind||zober put behind||zoper follow||zoy back||zoyber put back||zayper return|
|ze middle||zeber balance||zeper mediate||zey across||zeyber transfer||zeyper cross|
|zu left||zuber put to the left||zuper go left||uz curve||uzber deviate||uzper turn|
|zi right||ziber put to the right||ziper go right||iz straight||ziber guide||izper head|
|zya all over||zyaber spread||zyaper tour||zye through||zyeber interject||zyeper permeate|
|zyu round||zyuber rotate||zyuper roll||yuz around||yuzber turn||yuzper circulate|
|yiz beyond||yizber take beyond||yizper surpass||zyag stretched out||zyagber stretch||zyagper stretch out|
|ja before||jaber prepare||japer precede||aj past||ajber pass||ajper pass|
|jo after||jober delay||joper follow||oj future||ojber postpone||ojper wait?|
|je during||jeber continue||jeper continue||ej present||ejber present||ejper present oneself|
|yan together||yanber assemble||yanper join||bay with||bayber impart||bayper accompany|
|yon apart||yonber take apart||yonper separate||boy without||boyber deprive||boyper go without|
|kia oblique||kiber bend||kiper slant||ika full||ikber fill||ikper become full|
|kua lateral||kuber set aside||kuper avoid||uka empty||ukber empty||ukper become empty|
The der (Say) Family
- Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
doler be silent dier ask
droer erase dyeer read
deser pronounce din story dun word
draf card dref paper
daz dance dez theater
diz comedy duz music
- Many saying verbs are created by prefixing elements to der to say, tell, eg:
va yes vader affirm vo no voder deny ve maybe veder guess vyaa true vyader swear vyoa false vyoder lie fyaa holy fyader bless fyoa profane fyoder curse oza weak ozder hint eej re- eejder repeat ve maybe + yova guilty veyovder indict va yes + yova guility vayovder convict ja before jader predict vao yes/no vaoder decide yev justice yevder judge fia good fider praise fua bad fuder disparage af permission afder authorize of prohibition ofder ban naz value nazder evaluate yov guilt yovder blame zyaa wide zyader broadcast yaga long yagder elaborate vyoa wrong + via beautiful vyovider flatter vyea relative vyeder relate va yes + oj future vaojder promise ut self + fia good utfider boast uv sorrow + tax memory uvtaxder regret tes meaning tesder mean ov against ovder object kyia heavy kyider emphasize jwa early jwader warn ja before + vo no javoder preclude yuj close yujder conclude ja before + nap order janapder preordain hyay hurrah hyayder congratulate hyey thanks hyeyder thank gra too much grader exaggerate diz comedy dizder joke dre- write dreder spell eb between ebder communicate eb between + di- ask ebdider interview eb between + tes meaning ebtesder interpret eb between + tex thought ebtexder decide ek- play ekder pretend
- Animal noise verbs are created by replacing the final -t of an animal name with der:
yepet dog yepeder bark yipet cat yipeder mew epeyt cow epeyder moo epat duck epader quack ipat turkey ipader gobble
Speaking in Languages
- Names of languages can be formed by replacing the final -m of the country name with -d. Then, the verb meaning to say in x language or speak in x language can be formed by adding -der or -daler, eg:
Anglam England Anglad English Anglader say in English Angladaler speak in English Fransam France Fransad French (language) Fransader say in French Fransadaler speak French
- The name of the language discussed in this book is Mirad, which comes from mira, meaning global, world. Thus, say in Mirad is Mirader and speak Mirad is Miradaler. A speaker of Mirad is a Miradut or Miradalut. Duhev et Mirade? Do you speak Mirad?. Hey Miraduti, ansu! Hey, speakers of Mirad, unite!
- Words for various communication art forms begin d- and end in -z, eg:
dazun....a dance dazut....dancer
dez....theater dezun....a play dezut....stage actor
diz....comedy dizun....a sketch dizut....comedian
drez....poetry drezun....a poem drezut....poet drezim....poetry salon duz....music
duzun....a musical piece duzut....musician
duzar musical instrument
dyez....cinema dyezun....a movie dyezut....screen actor
deuz....song deuzun....a song deuzut....singer duzam....auditorium
The ter (Know) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental states and activities like knowing, thinking, feeling, etc.:
tep mind, intellect
tyier get acquainted
tyenier train (oneself)
toxer forget tixer study tuxer teach tayoter feel teser mean
toser feel tier learn
- 1. Note that trer recognize, know, be familiar with is used instead of ter know when referring to a person, much like Fr. connaître be familiar with (a person) vs. savoir know (a fact, how to), eg. It voy te hav at tre it. He doesn't know that I know him.
- Suffixing -tun science to words forms many -ology terms. An -ologist is rendered with -tut, eg:
tep mind teptun psychology teptut psychologist tieb lung tiebtun pneumology tiebtut pneumologist toj death tejtun thanatology tejtut thanatologist pat bird pattun ornithology pattut ornithologist pit fish pittun ichthyology pittut ichthyologist pot animal pottun zoology pottut zoologist mul matter multun chemistry ("materiology?") multut chemist ko- hidden, dren writing kodrentun cryptology kodrentut cryptologist
- Some -ology words in English refer to theories or pseudo-science and are translated into Mirad with the ending -tuin:
mar star martuin astrology (cf. martun astronomy) martuit astrologist sag number sagtuin numerology (cf. sagtun mathematics) sagtuit numerologist nif string niftuin string theory niftuit string theoretician
- Words in English referring to doctrines, dogmas, or -isms are translated into Mirad with the ending -tin, eg:
dot society dotin socialism Buda Buddha Budatin Bhuddism gwa most, fis good thing gwafistin optimism vyaa true vyatin orthodoxy, truism an- one, fyaat god anfyaatin monotheism
- The general word for school is tistam (house of learning). The various levels of schools are translated with this word scalarized numerically.
atistam primary school etistam secondary school, high school, lycee itistam college utistam university
- The word pre-school, kindergarten is represented with jatitam (lit. pre-school), while post-graduate school is rendered with joutitam (lit. pre-university).
- Some other, related terms:
- enjab itistam two-year college
- dovyap tistam law school
- yexyen tistam trade school, vocational school
- zetistam middle school
- tutam academy
- tiut pupil
- tixut student
- tixutyan student body
- tuxut teacher
- tuut educator
- tuen education
- tut professor, scholar
- tit disciple, learner
- titameb principal
- ititameb dean
- tuxutyan faculty
- tuxim lecture hall, classroom
- tixim study hall
- tityan class
- tisun lesson
- tisundyes lesson book
- aa tinag first grade
- ea tinag second grade
The job (Time) Family
- Here are the most important words derived from job time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to a point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning frequency, translated by jod in Mirad.
Calendar Time Units
TIME SEASONS MONTHS DAYS OF THE WEEK job time jeab spring jiab January juab Monday jab year jeeb summer jieb February jueb Tuesday jeb season jeib autumn jiib March juib Wednesday jib month jeub winter jiub April juub Thursday jub day jiyob May juyob Friday jwob* hour jiyab June yuyab Saturday jwab* minute
jiyeb July juyeb Sunday jweb* second
jiyib August jiyub September jilob October jilab November jileb December OTHER yejub week sojab century rojab millennium
- * These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.
Times of Day
TIMES OF DAY maj daytime ijmaj dawn imaj morning eymaj noon joeymaj afternoon ujmaj dusk umaj evening moj night eymoj midnight
General Time Words
GENERAL TIME WORDS job time jod time, instance, occasion xag frequency jud date jag age
Scalar Time Periods
SCALAR TIME PERIODS joob eon joab era joeb period joib epoch joub age joyob chron joyab term
Some Parallel Time Terms
taj birth aj past ajna former, old ajoba ancient ja before jay already jana previous jaga old jwa early jwana pre-mature tej life ej present ejna new ejoba modern je during jey meanwhile jena current jwe on time jwena mature, ripe toj death oj future ojna imminent ojoba futuristic jo after joy afterwards jona next joga young jwo late jwona stale tij wakefulness ij beginning ijna initial ijob early times ji since jiga fresh, vibrant tuj sleep uj end ujna final ujob latter days ju until juga tired, jaded
Time, Frequency, and Age Questions
WHEN HOW OFTEN HOW OLD hoj? when? hoxag how often? hojaga? how old? haj hu when haxag hu as often as hajaga hu as old as hej sometime hexag sometimes hejaga of a certain age hij now hixag this often hijaga this old huj then huxag that often hujaga that old huyj at such a time huyxag so often huyjaga so old hyoj never hyoxag not once glejaga rather old hyaj always hyaxag at all times grajaga too old hyej anytime hyexag however often grojaga underaged hyij (vyel) at the same time (as) gexag (vyel) as often (as) gejaga (vyel) of the same age (as) hyuj (vyel) some other time (then) ogexag (vyel) not as often (as) ogejaga (vyel) not as old (as) be jobi at times awa jod once awa (jab) jaga one year old be hujobi in those times ewa jodi twice ewa (jabi) jaga two years old byu jobuj forever gla jodi many time alo (jabi) jaga ten years old byi huj since then aloni bi jodi hundreds of times gajaga (vyel) older (than)
- How old are you? is expressed as Hojaga se et?. A typical response is At se ali (jabi) jaga. I am thirteen (years old). If the quantity of time is months, than the answer would be like the following: Iyt sa ewa jibi (jaga). She was two months (old).
MALE FEMALE awajagat....one-year-old boy awajagayt....one-year-old girl alojagat....ten-year-old boy alojagayt....ten-year-old girl jogat....boy, youngster, youth jogayt....girl, damsel gwajogat....youngest boy/person gwajogayt....youngest girl gojagat....younger boy, cadet gojagayt....younger girl aloyjagat....teenager, teenaged boy aloyjagayt....teenaged girl grajogat....minor, boy too young grajogayt....minor female, girl too young grojagat / jwot.... minor, immature person/boy grojagayt / jwoyt....minor girl grejagseat / jwet.... adolescent (boy) grejagseayt / jweyt.... adolescent (girl) grejagat / jwat.... adult male, boy of age grejagayt / jwayt.... adult female, girl of age zejagat.... middle-aged person/man zejagayt.... middle-aged female/woman gajagat.... older person/man, elder, superior gajagayt.... older female/woman, elder, superior grajagat.... over-aged person/man, person/man too old grajagayt.... over-aged female/woman, woman too old jaygat.... youngish individual, youngish man jaygayt.... youngish female, youngish woman yiloyagat.... octogenarian yiloyagayt.... octogenarian woman, woman in her eighties yuloyagat.... nonagenarian yuloyagayt.... nonagenarian woman, woman in her nineties asoyagat.... centenarian asoyagayt.... centenarian woman, 100-year-old woman jagat.... oldster, veteran, old person, old man, elder jagayt.... old woman, old lady jaygat.... oldish person jaygayt.... oldish woman gwajagat.... oldest/senior-most/eldest person/man gwajagayt.... oldest/senior-most/eldest woman gwojagat.... the least young person/man gwojagat.... the least young woman
The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families
- The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.
...AG WORDS N..[DBP] WORDS ag.... size nod.... point sag.... number nad.... line syag.... count ned.... plane syaag.... calculation nid.... volume nog.... degree nab.... rank nag.... measure nap.... order neg.... level naab.... organization nig.... space naap.... system jag.... age nyap.... rule xag.... frequency nyed.... grid yag.... length
zyus.... circle zyuys.... oval zyunid.... sphere zyuk....wheel unizgun.... rectangle ungekun.... square ungun.... quadrangle unoizgun.... rhombus ingun.... triangle yoongun.... pentagon ginid.... cone yagunid.... cube inguginid.... pyramid fufnid.... cylinder amezsan.... diamond tosan.... cross uznad.... arc ilpsan.... wave gunsan.... wedge maarsan star shape
The tom (Building), em (Place) Families
- The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.
FULL WORDS ENDINGS tom.... building, nem.... place -em.... general (usu. open) place tam.... house, nam.... store -am.... indoor place, building tem.... hall, nyem.... box -yem.... enclosed space tim.... room -im.... room tum.... cell -um.... cell, booth, stall nyeb.... container, syeb.... can, zyeb.... bottle -yeb.... container
Common Spaces with -(e)m
- The words in the following table refer to spaces or open places:
PLACE ROOT abem....top ab....on obem....bottom ob....base ebem....interval eb....between oyebem....outdoors oyeb....out yebem....indoors yeb....in yubem....vicinity yub....'near yibem....distance yib....far yabem....upstairs yab....up yobem....downstairs yob....down hom?....where? ho-....which zem....middle ze-....middle zam....front za....before zom....back zo....after kum....side kua....lateral kim....slope kia....diagonal byim....source byi....since byum....destination byu....up to bem....position be....at dem....park d(o)-....social dopekem....battleground dopek....battle melyexem....farm mel....soil + yex...work goynem....sector goyn....cut ijem....origin ij....start kosem....hideout kos-....hide kyosem....settlement kyos-....stay mem....country m-...natural things mimpuem....dock mim....sea + pu-....arrive obdobem....colony ob....off + dob....regime apem....wharf ap-....embark sexem....construction site sex....construction tojmelukem....cemetery toj....death + mel....soil + uk...vacuum tom....building to-....human ujem....terminus uj....end vobem....planation vob....plant xem....office x-....do yomkiparem....ice skating rink yom....ice + kipar +skate
Common Places with -am
- These words refer to houses and buildings:
BUILDING ROOT nam....shop n-....commercial aajasnam....antique store aajas....antique apelatam....beehive apelat....bee apetigpekam....(horse) racetrack apet....horse + ig-....fast + pek....competition tam....house t-....human bektam....hospice bek....treatment bextam....castle bex-....keep bekilnam....pharmacy bekil....medecine + nam....store saxam....factory sax-....make bilunsaxam....dairy bil....milk + -un....product + sax-...make datibam....hotel dat....friend + ib-....receive tistam....school tis....learn doyevam....court do-....public + yev....justice doptam....barracks dop....military dresam....bureau dres-....write bokam....hospital bok....sickness mamparam....hangar mam....sky + par....vehicle mogxam....crematorium mog....ash + x-....make posam....station pos-....stop taolgoblam....butcher shop taol....meat + gobl-....cleave tilam....bar til-....drink yibdubam....embassy yib....far + dub....minister
Common Containers and Enclosed Spaces with -yem
CONTAINER ROOT apetyem....corral apet....horse nyem....box n-....commercial syem....institution s-....exist milpyem....swimming pool milp-....swim nunyem....package nun....merchandise ponyem....suitcase po-....travel tebnyem....skull teb....head tuyabyem....pocket tuyab....hand vabijyem....pod vabij....seed tyem....residence t-....human tobijyem....ovary tobij....embryo tojnyem....casket toj....death ukyem....slot uk-....empty myem....plot of ground m-....natural things magilyem....fuel tank magil....fuel koyem....shelter ko-....hide
Common Rooms with -(t)im
- These words describe type of rooms (tim):
ROOM ROOT tim....room t-....human aybmostim....attic ayb-....upper + mos....floor oybmostim....basement oyb-....lower + mos....floor ebmostim....mezzanine eb....between + mos....floor avoliim....pantry avol....bread apetim....stall apet....horse beaxim....ward beax-....watch azla bikim....intensive care unit azla....intensive + bik....care belunim....cargo bay belun....cargo biktim....clinic bik....care datibim....lobby dat....friend + ib-....receive dyezim....screening room dyez....cinema doebdalim....conference room do-....public + eb....between + dal-....speak ebtim....corridor eb....between fyadilim....chapel fya-....holy + dil....request dokebidim....voting booth do-....public + kebi-....choice fyatim....sanctuary fya-....holy milufim....toilet mil....water + -uf....pipe movim....smoking den mov....smoke novim....linen closet nov....linen saxim....studio sax-....create sumtim....bedroom sum....bed teexutim....auditorium teexut....listener tulim....dining room tul....cuisine vaobim....hayloft vaob....hay vyakexim....laboratory vyakex....test zatim....antechamber za....front zyutim....rotunda zyu-....round yexim....office yex-....work
Locative Deictic Adverbs
- The locative deictic adverbs use the -m suffix of place, eg:
hom? where? ham hu the place where, where hem somewhere him here hum there hyom nowhere hyam everywhere hyem anywhere, wherever hyim (at) the same place hyum elsewhere, somewhere else
The a (One) yan (Together) Families
- The stems in this family are based on a one, and yan together and their opposites, o zero and yon apart.
SINGLE NULL a- one o- zero, un- awa one owa zero an- uni-, mono- on- non- yan- together, con- yon- apart, dis- hya- all hyo- none -aya -ful -oya -less ay and oy but
- The suffix -yan is used to form collective nouns. Here are some examples:
SINGLETON COLLECTION fab tree fabyan forest vyap rule vyapyan regimen, system vos flower vosyan bouquet uzun ring uzunyan chain ut person utyan group toom apartment toomyan apartment complex teyen idea teyenyan ideology tyen technique tyenyan technology tixut student tixutyan student body tit pupil tityan class telar eating utensil telaryan cutlery sir machine siryan machinery pat bird patyan flock
- An extension of yan is nyan, meaning stack, pile, accumulation, crowd, and so is a bit more intensive:
SINGLETON COLLECTION pet land animal petnyan herd ut person utnyan crowd dit citizen ditnyan populace taib bone taibnyan skeleton yaut public persona yautnyan commune dun word dunnyan list vaob hay vaobnyan haystack
- The following confusing terms should be kept distinct:
NOUN VERB aut individual, person auta personal anut private individual anuta private utyan group utyana collective autyan people autyana popular autyanin populism autyanina populist autyandab republic, democracy autyandaba republican, democratic yaut constituent, commoner yauta common, collective, public yautyan community, constituency, public yautyana communitarian yautnyan commune, collective yautnyana communal, collective yautin communism yautina communist dot society dota societal dotin socialism dotina socialist dit citizen dita civilian, civic dityan citizenry, population dityana of the citizenry, populational ditnyan populace ditnyana popular ditnyanin populism ditnyanina populist yanav party (political) yanava partisan yaniv party (fun) yaniva festive yanut associate yanuta general, public yanutyan association yanutyana associational
The tob (Human) Family
- The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism, body, or organ or p, having to do with the non-corporeal aspects of man, such as mind and emotion.
-B -P tob human, man top soul, psyche tab body tap physique teb head tep mind tib trunk tip sentiment, emotion tub arm tup limb tyob leg
- All the names of the parts of the body are derived from these core words in a hiearchical fashion using stem vowel scalarization, as can be seen from the sample chart below of the body parts relating to arm and leg (not the parallelism):
Bodily Functions and Gestures
- The following chart shows how gestural and bodily movements and functions are derived from body parts:
ORGANISM GESTURES, MOVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS tob human
tobser become human, tobxer humanize, tobtojber murder tobij embryo tobijier conceive, tobijuer impregnate, tobijer ovulate, tobijbeler gestate tab body tabazaxer work out, tabmelukxer entomb, tabteaxer autopsy tayeb hair tayebarer comb, tayeboker go bald, tayefarer brush, tayeborber shave, tayelber shampoo, tayevarer mop tayob skin tayobiler sweat, tayobober flay, tayoboser itch, tayoser feel like, tayoter feel, tayoxer palpate, tayobdriler tattoo, tayotyofxer numb teb head
tebabunober scalp, tebbaxer nod, tebober decapitate, tebzaner face teab eye
teaser seem, teater see, teatyofxer blind, teaxer look, teaxuer show, teazuer amaze, teabizer aim, teaper visit, teabyujiger blink
teababyexer bat an eyelash
teabiler tear up
teeb ear teeter hear, teeser sound like, teeper attend, teeder rumor, teeyofxer deafen, teexer listen teib nose teiter smell, teiser smell like, teitier take a whiff of, teituer reek, teixer smell, teseuxer snore, teizber perfume, teipulxer sneeze, teibalier sniff, teibalegier sniffle, teibiler run at the nose, teibukxer blow the nose teub mouth
teubier swallow, yijteuber yawn, teuser taste like, teuter taste, teutier sample, teutuer offer a taste, teuxer taste, teuder shout, ivteuder laugh, uvteuder groan, ivteuber smile, uvteuber frown,vyoivteuder mock, ufteuber scowl, uvseuxer grumble
teubiler salivate, teubiloker drool, teubilokeger dribble, teubiloyeber expectorate, teubilpuxer spew, teubiluer spit, teubilier slurp
deuzer sing, yandeuzer harmonize, yagdeuzer chant
seuxer ring seuxder pronounce, voyseuxder mispronounce
zoyteuzer echo, uvseuzer sigh
teuzuer vote, teuzier poll, teuzibarer telephone
toleuser taste like, toleuter taste, toleuxer savor, fitoleuser taste good, futoleuser taste bad
teubab tongue teubaxer wag the tongue, teubabaxer lick teubib gum teubixer chew, teubixeger ruminate teupib tooth teupixer bite, teupixeger nibble, yebteupixer crunch teubob lip teuboxer kiss, teuboxeger smooch, teubobaxer smack the lips teyob neck teyobabaxer neck, teyopixer collar, teyozyober choke , teyopyoxer hang tib trunk tibuzer bow tibuj tail
tiexer breath, tiebyujber suffocate, teibukxer cough
tiebalier inhale, tiebaluer exhale, tiebaloker belch
tiebbokier catch a cold
tiibiler bleed tiibiloker bleed out, tiibilglalser clot, tiibilier suck blood, tiibiluer let blood
tikebier digest, tikebukxer vomit tikyeb anus
tikyob bowels tikyobier ingest, tikyobober disembowel tub arm yantubier embrace, tubbaxer wave tuyab hand tuyaxer handle, tuyaber handle, tuyabalxer shake hand, tuyabexer manipulate, tuyabier grab, tuyabirer wrestle, tuyasiuner wave, tuyabuer hand out, tuyadrer write out longhand, tuyapixer clasp tuyapyexer clap tuyeb fist tuyepeker fistfight, tuyebalxer shake one's fist, tuyepyelxuer pound, tuyepyexer box tuyib palm tuyibabaxer pat, tuyibaber palm, tuyibuer palm off, tuyipyexer slap tuyob wrist tuyoxer wave tuyub finger tuyubarxer wag one's finger, tuyubifeker fiddle, tuyubizder point out, tuyuibeaxer indicate, tuyugiber poke, tuyupyexer tap, tuyuxer palpate tulob fingernail
tuloxer scratch, tuloxefer itch
patuloxer claw, patulober grip
tyoib knee tyoixer kneel, tyoiper crawl tyoyab foot tyoyabarer stomp, tyoyakyeper hobble, tyoyapyexer kick tyoyeb heel tyoyeber spurn tyoyib sole tyoyiber supplant tyoyub toe tyoyubaxeger wiggle one's toe, tyoyuzyuper pirouette
The bak (Health) Family
- Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:
NOUNS VERBS bak.... health
bakser.... heal (intr.), bakxer.... heal (tr.) bek.... treatment
bekier.... get treated, bekuer.... treat,
byekser.... be cured, byekxer.... cure
bokser.... get sick, bokxer.... sicken
bookser.... grow tired, bokxer.... tire out
bik.... care bikier.... take care, bikuer.... care for buk.... injury
bukser.... be injured, bukxer.... injure
brukser....be mutilated, brukxer.... mutilate
byoker.... ache, byokuer.... inflict pain
bloker.... suffer, blokuer.... inflict suffering
broker.... agonize, brokuer.... torture
The tod (Family) Family
- Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.
- Core words:
- Notice that kinship terms are gender-neutral unless there is a w before the root syllable vowel (indicating male-specific) or a y following the root syllable vowel (indicating female-specific).
tod....family MALE FEMALE tad....spouse twad husband tayd....wife ted....parent twed father teyd....mother tid....sibling twid brother tiyd....sister tud....child twud son tuyd....daughter
- Prefixes or word elements used to modify the above core words:
to-....god- (as in godson) ta-....-in-law, through marriage te-....father's ti-....sibling's tu-....child's taj-....birth-, real otaj-, ifbi-....foster, adopted ij-....first, original aj-....ex-, former ej-....current, step-, half- oj-....future, -to-be aa....first ea....second yiba....distant aa yiba....first-removed ea yiba....second-removed ota-....out-of-wedlock, bastard oyted-....orphan(ed), without parents oytad-....unmarried, without spouse oytud-....childless, without child, barren tiibil-....blood-
- Kinship Terms Formed from the Above Core Words and Prefixed Elements
GENDER-NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE tad....spouse
ejtad....current spouse, step spouse
ejtwad....current husband, step husband
ejtayd...current wife, step-wife
ejted....step parent, foster parent
ejtwed....step-father, foster father
ejteyd....stepmother, foster mother
tetetid....great parent's sibling
otada tud....bastard child
aa tetitud....first cousin
ea tetitud....second cousin
aa yiba tetitud....cousin first removed
otada twud....bastard son
aa tetitwud....first male cousin
ea tetitwud....second male cousin
aa yiba tetitwud....male cousin first removed
otada tuyd....bastard daughter
aa tetituyd....first female cousin
ea tetituyd....second female cousin
aa yiba tetituyd....female cousin first removed
- Suffixed -if gives you affectionate equivalents:
- taydif....darling wife, wifey-poo
- twedif....daddy, papa
- teydif....mommy, mama
- twudif....sonny, kid
- tuydif....darling daughter
- Other terms:
- todat....relative, sib
- tiibil todat....blood relative
- todatyan....kinfolk, clan
- todeb....pater familias
- todeyb....mater familias
- otatud....bastard, bastard son, bastard child
- otatuyd....bastard daughter
- oytetwud....orphan, orphan son
- oytetuyd....orphan daughter
- oytwadat....bachelor, unmarried man'
- oytadayt....spinster, unmarried woman, bachelorette
- oytudayt....childless woman
- glatidat....person with many siblings
- oytidat....person with no siblings
- otajted, ifbited....foster parent, adopting parent
- otajtud, ifbitud....foster child, adopted child
- otajteder, ifbiteder....foster, adopt
- otajtedwa, ifbitedwa....adopted
- teder....parent, raise
- tadier....get married, take on a spouse
- taduer....marry, preside over a marriage
- tood....ethnos, tribe, clan, race
- tooddin....folk story
- toos....gender, sex
- hyitoosa tadan....same-sex marriage
- tadyan....married couple
- jwaa tadien....shotgun wedding
- tyod....people, folk
The dot (Society) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.
dot society dat friend
⇒dwat male friend
⇒dayt female friend
det comrade, mate
dit citizen dut gentleperson
⇒dwut gentleman, sir, lord
⇒duyt lady, madame
- The prefix do- can be used to form words that are public in nature, eg:
COMBINED FORM SUFFIX dovyab.... law vyab....rule doyev.... justice yev-....just doyov.... crime yov....shame doyiv.... (civil) right yiv....license dobien.... coup d'etat bien....taking dodres....bulletin dres....document dokex.... (public) inquiry kex....search doval.... public safety val....safety dovaldib.... police dib....administration dotojben.... execution tojben....putting to death dosyag....census syag....count
The tof (Clothes) and nof (Textile)
- The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof cloth and nov lingerie. The words have to do with clothing. Post-iotating the root vowel produces something that relates to women.
BODY PART CLOTHING ITEM FOR WOMEN tob.... man tof.... clothing toyf.... female outfit tab.... body taf.... suit tayf.... dress teb.... head tef.... hat teyf.... woman's hat teyob.... neck teyof.... necktie tuab.... shoulder tuaf.... shawl tib.... trunk tif.... vest zetib.... waist zetif.... belt tiab.... chest tiav shirt tiayv.... blouse tilab.... breast tilayv.... bra tiub.... belly tiuv.... undershorts tiuyv.... panties tuyab.... hand tuyaf.... glove tyob.... leg tyof.... pants tyoyf.... skirt
BASIC WORDDERIVATIVESnof textile, tissuenov linennofur loom, nofxer weavenofyank stitch, nofyanker sew, nofyankut seamsternofyonk rip, nofyonker rip, nofyonkar scissors, shearsnofyuj pleat, nofyujber foldnofzyiar iron, nofzyiarer ironnovyan lingerie, novim linen closetmisof curtain, obmasof carpet yebof sackfavof cotton, favoyf cotton woolfevof flaxfivof hempfuvof jutetayof leathernaf material, cloth, fabricnaaf drapenaef canvasnaif velvetnauf veilnayaf cordoroynef knitneof stitchneaf net, mesh, webneef laceneif braidneuf wickerneyof loopneyaf waleneyef strip, bandneyif plaitnayuf latticenefxer knit, neofxer stitch, neifxer braid neyofxer loopnefar knitting needlenefiaf sweatervinef embroideryyotayef goat's hair, wooltayef bristleutayef woolzyef pane of glass, zyev glassnyef bag, sackyebeaf mesh bagyebeuf wicker basketnif yarn, fiberniv threadniyf filament, stringniif twinenifur spinner, nifxer spin, nifun spider's webnifar needlenivar pinmugnif wireapeyetif silknuf buttonnufyujber buttonnufyijber unbuttonnufzyeg buttonholenufag knobnyaf knotnyafer tie, onyafer untie, unravelmugnyaf clasp, bucklenyef bag, sackzotibnyef backpacktolnyef grocery bagyignyef basketnyif ropemugnyif cablenyifog lace, cordnyuf packagenyufag crate
- The nof family words begin with n meaning commercial and end in f meaning textile. Here is a summary:
The mos (Floor) Family
- The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
MASONRY BASE WORD DERIVATIVES mos.... floor omos.... ground floor
amos.... first floor
mas.... wall abmas.... roof
mes.... door zames.... front door
zomes.... back door
mesnufag.... door knob
mesyuznad.... door frame
mestuyar.... door handle
mis.... window miszyef.... window pane
mus.... stairs musnog.... step, stair rung
magmus.... fire escape
The som (Furniture) Family
- The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
FURNITURE BASE WORD DERIVATIVES som.... furniture somber.... furnish
mansom.... light fixture
milamsom.... water heater
sam.... armoire, chest telarsam.... china cabinet
tovsam.... chest of drawers
sem.... table semof.... table cloth
yuzsem.... round table
syagsem.... counter (cashier stand)
sim.... chair zaopsim.... rocking chair
zyupsim.... swivel chair
tobobsim.... high chair
maksim..... electric chair
teadutsim.... witness box
tujyagsim.... sleep sofa
yigsim.... hard chair
agsim.... arm chair
sum.... bed suam.... cushion
suav.... pillow case
suim.... box spring
eonsum.... twin bed
eynsum.... day bed
nyanxwa sum.... bunk bed
tabsum.... sleeping bag
pyoxwa sum.... hammock
summanar.... bed lamp
sumber....put to bed
sumper....go to bed
The sar (Tool) and par (Vehicle) Family
- Stems having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile.
STANDALONE WORD SUFFIX MEANING sar -ar instrument, tool, device (default) sir -ir apparatus, hand-driven machine sor -or machine, powered machine sur -ur motor, engine
- Note: the words and suffixes other than sar, -ar (the default) are used only to distinguish words like bicycle and motorcycle or needle and loom, etc.
- Vehicle words end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument, unless there is a need for further distinction, in which case, the ending may be -ir, -or, or -ur.
VEHICLES par cart
mampur airplane mempur automobile, car mimpar boat
mumpur subway mompur spaceship kyinpar dolly
kyinpir cart, wagon
naadpur train yautpur bus enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle kipar skate
Tools and Machines
TOOLS AND MACHINES drar pencil
vyixur vacuum cleaner
The tol (Food) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
WORD DERIVATIVES tol nutrition tolnam grocery store
tolsam food buffet
tel food telier eat
til- drink tilsem bar
teilsyeb soup bowl
kyitilsyeb mug, stein
tul dish jatul appetizer
agtul main dish, entree
atulyan first course
etulyan second course
tularsam china cabinet
tamtuler dine at home
tulim dining room
tulagim banquet hall
tyal meal atyal breakfast
etyalier have lunch
etyaluer serve lunch
yomxwa tyal frozen dinner
STUB EXAMPLES -il liquid, drink teil soup
ilneyeb tank, reservoir
ilsyeb carafe, beaker, flask
-yal juice sefyal coffee
vafyal grape juice
-el food level sugar
elsyeb pot, pan
-yel gel, oil dofyel chocolate
tulyel cooking oil
magyelsyeb frying pan
leveyel jam, confiture
kafyel olive oil
gevyel corn oil
tulyel cooking oil
gavyel sunflower oil
-eil soup teil soup
-ol food avol bread
zyiavol flatbread, pita
yuzavol wrap, gyro, taco
uzavol twist, croissant
-ul substance mul matter
The mor (universe) and mom (outer space) Family
- The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc. The stem vowel indicates whether the term applies to the sky, ground, water, etc.
mor....universe mom....cosmos mol....nature mop....orbit moj....evening
mam....sky mal....air map....wind maj....day
mem....land mel....soil mep....road mef....brick
meb....mountain mir....world mim....sea mil....water mip....river mur....satellite
mum...underground mul....matter mup....tunnel muk....mineral
- A few important derivations:
- maar....sun ("number one star")
- maarnaap....solar system (the "sun system")
- maaryap....sunrise ("sun rise")
- maaryop....sunset ("sun descent")
- maarnad....sunbeam ("sun line")
- maarmap....solar wind ("sun wind")
- maarman....sunlight ("sun light")
- muar....moon ("number one satellite)
- muarned....lunar surface ("moon surface")
- muarmoyb....lunar crater ("moon depression")
- Meir....Earth ("third planet from the sun"
- meirtun....geology ("earthscience"
- meirzyunad....earth's axis ("earth turn line"
- meirmop....earth's orbit ("earth's orbit"
- marmaf....galaxy ("star cloud")
- Amarmaf....Milky Way ("number one galaxy, i.e. star cloud")
- maryan....constellation ("collection of stars")
- marmeg....comet ("star rock")
- mommeg....meteor ("space rock")
- mammeg....meteorite ("sky rock")
- The following are vehicles and derivatives that are specific to one of the above physical spheres:
mompur....spaceship momper.... travel through space momput....cosmonaut, astronaut mampur....airplane mamper....fly mamput....flyer, pilot mempur....automobile memper....ride, drive memput....rider, driver mimpur....ship
mimper sail, navigate mimput sailor, navigator
mumpur....subway mumper.... tunnel, go by metro mumput....metro rider
- Note: marpur = starship and muarpur = lunar module
Names of the Planets
- Here are the names of the planets in our solar system. Notice that Earth is the "third planet" from the sun.
mer....planet Mear.... Mercury Meer.... Venus Meir.... Earth (i = three) Meur.... Mars Meyor.... Jupiter Meyar.... Saturn Meyer.... Uranus Meyir.... Pluto
DIRECTIONS mer....planet a....up amer.... north amera....northern o....down omer....south omera....southern i....right imer....east imera....eastern, oriental u....left umer....west umera....western, occidental
- Compass points can be mixtures of the above:
- aomera izon....north-south direction
- uimera domep....east-west street
- aumera zyemep....northwest passage
- oimera tez....southeast culture
- Related terms:
- amernod....north pole (nod = point)
- omernod....south pole
- aomernad....longitude (ao = north-south, nad = line)
- uimernad....latitude (ui = east-west)
- emernad....equator (e = middle)
- oybemernada....tropical, Torrid (oyb = below)
- merzyun....globe, sphere (planet-ball)
- eymerzyun....hemisphere (half-planet-ball)
- The same directional prefixes are used in the following words:
- aonab....column (up-down row, y-axis)
- uinab....row (left-right row, x-axis)
- aonada....vertical ) (nad = line)
Types of Clouds
maf....cloud maaf.... stratus maef.... nimbostratus maif.... cumulus mauf.... cumulonimbus mayof.... stratocumulus mayaf.... allocumulus mayef.... allostratus mayif.... cirrocumulus mayuf.... cirrostratus malof.... cirrus
Types of Roads and Paths
mep.... way, road, route
→ zeymep.... bridge, crossing
→ aybmep.... overpass, bridge
→ oybmep.... underpass
→ zyemep.... tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
→ kumep.... side path
→ zomep.... back way
→ ebmep.... aisle
→ tyoyamep.... sidewalk, walkway
→ homep?....which way?
→ yilpmep....escape route
→ vyamep....right way
→ vyomep....wrong way
→ izmep.... direct route, straight path, vector
→ yebmep.... entryway, entrance
→ oyebmep.... exit, way out
→ mummep.... subway
→ mammep.... air route
→ elyamep.... railroad, railway
→ mimmep.... sealane
→ agdomep.... highway
→ aagdomep.... main street
→ zyadomep.... broadway
→ igdomep.... expressway
→ uzmep.... byway, detour
→ yuzdomep.... beltway, loop
→ zyudomep.... roundabout, circle, rotary
→ anizona domep....one-way street
meap.... avenue meep.... boulevard meip.... lane
→ zimeip....right lane
→ zumeip....left lane
→ zemeip....median, middle lane
→ anmeip.... single lane
→ enmeip....double lane
→ mebmeup....mountain trail
→ tyoyameyp.... footpath
Types of Stones, Gems, etc.
STONE GEM OTHER EARTH SUBSTANCES meg .... stone mez .... gem mek .... dust meag .... marble amez .... diamond miek .... sand meeg ....slate emez .... topaz myek .... powder meig ....gramote imez .... ruby mel .... soil meug ....clay vamez .... emerald meil .... mud meyag ....chalk yamez .... amethyst megil .... cement meyeg ....limestone yomez .... sapphire myel .... plastic meyig ....alabaster mil .... water meyog .... china mial .... vapor meyug .... gypsum miil .... dew melag .... adobe mimol .... salt meleg .... terra cotta mamil .... rain melig .... marl mal .... air melug .... kaolin mayl .... gas melyag .... feldspar magil .... petroleum melyeg .... petunse mug .... metal melyig .... silica muk .... mineral melyog .... pegmatite mul .... matter melyug .... flint mag .... fire mieg .... coral mog .... ash mav .... flame mov .... smoke
am....heat ama .... hot ayma .... warm om....cold oma .... cold oyma .... cool im....moisture ima .... wet iyma .... humid um....draught uma .... dry uyma .... arid yom....ice yoma .... frozen yoyma .... chilly yam....fire yama .... burning yayma....fiery
- Note: aoma = lukewarm.
maalbyen .... weather (atmosphere + mood) mamil .... rain mamyom .... sleet mamyoym .... snow yoym .... frost yom .... ice mial .... steam miil .... dew maf .... cloud miaf .... fog mapil .... storm, windstorm xeusmapil .... thunderstorm mapilag .... tempest mimuzlun .... hurricane imera mimuzlun .... typhoon map .... wind
maap .... puff
maep .... breeze
maip .... gust
maup .... gale
mayop .... typhoon
mapuzlun .... tornado, twister, cyclone mammanig (or) mammak .... lightning mamxeus .... thunder mamiluz .... rainbow jibim .... monsoon graim .... flood, deluge
mal .... air maal .... atmosphere mael .... troposphere mail .... stratosphere maul .... ionosphere mayol .... exosphere
Rivers and Streams
mip .... river miap .... stream miep .... brook miip .... rivulet miup .... tributary miyop .... creek miyap .... rill mipuj .... estuary mipkum .... river bank
Bodies of Water
mim .... sea mimag .... ocean miam .... lake miem .... lagoon miim .... pond mium .... pool, basin miumog .... puddle immem .... swamp ebmim .... strait zyomip .... canal
mem .... land meam .... region
meem .... territory
meim .... countryside
meum .... zone, district
meyom .... tract, parcel, acre
meb .... mountain
meyb .... mount
meab .... hill
meeb .... knob
meib .... mound
meub .... ridge
meyob .... bump
mimeib ... cape yabmimeib .... promontory, headland, bluff zyimeb .... plateau magmeb .... volcano mub .... chasm, precipice, cliff
muab .... gulf, gulch
mueb .... ravine, valley, dale
muib .... cave
muyob .... ditch
mimuib .... cove mimkum .... beach, seaside, coast uzmimkum .... bay zyimem .... plain ummem .... desert immem .... wetland, swamp zomem .... hinterland zyamem ....prairie memsin .... landscape yonmel .... island eynyonmel .... peninsula yanmel .... continent zyoebmel .... isthmus yijmem .... field, meadow
mir .... world, realm, domain jomir.... here-after, after-world, metasphere
yizmir....world beyond, spirit world
fyamir.... sacred world, paradise
fyomir....wicked world, hell
obmir....nether world komir....secret realms mor .... universe moreb....god
The pot (Animal) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with the letter p, denoting movement, and end in the letter t, denoting a living creature. Thus, the words have to do with animals. The ordinal vowel indicates the terrain: land, air, water, or a combination of these. If the vowel is ioticized, then the animal is wild or predatory.
AIR pat.... bird
LAND (WILD) pot.... animal
pyot.... predatory animal
LAND (DOMESTIC) pet.... land animal
WATER pit.... fish
Chart of Principal Animals
AIR WATER pot....WILD ANIMAL
pyat....BIRD OF PREY bird
supit....gilt-head, sea bream
pyit....PREDATOR SEA CREATURE
ipeit....sea lion, otary
- The animal noise verbs are formed by replacing the final t of the animal's name to der (communicate, utter), as in the following chart:
ANIMAL SOUND VERB apet horse apeder neigh, whinny epet bull epeder bellow eopetob veal eopetoder bleat eopet ox eopeder low, moo, bellow epeyt cow epeyder moo ipet ass ipeder bray, hehaw ilapet llama ilapeder growl upet sheep upeder bleat yopet goat yopeder bray yapet hog yapeder grunt, snort, oink yepet dog yepeder bark yepyot wolf yepyoder howl yopyot fox yopyoder yelp yipet cat yipeder mew, purr, meow yipyot tiger yipyoder growl yupet rabbit yupeder drum kapet squirrel kapeder squeak kyipet raccoon kyipeder chitter klapet mouse klapeder squeak eplet koala epleder wail rapyot lion rapyoder roar ryapyot hyena ryapyoder laugh ryaapyot jackal ryaapyoder howl tapyot ape tapyoder gibber tepyot bear tepyoder growl gapet elephant gapeder trumpet vepet reindeer vepeder bellow vyipet moose vyipeder bellow fapet camel fapeder grunt fipet giraffe fipeder bleat kepyet gecko kepyeder go to-key, make a gecko noise lepyet cobra lepyeder hiss apyeat bat apyeader screech epyeit frog epyeider rivet, make a frog noise apelat bee apelader buzz lepelat beetle lepelader drone tepelat cricket tepelader chirp pat bird pader chirp, tweet, coo, sing apat rooster apader crow, cockadoodle-doo apayt hen apayder cluck apatog chicken apatoder cheep epat duck epader quack ipat turkey ipader gobble yapat pigeon yapader coo rapat eagle rapader squawk repat vulture repader scream fapat raven fapader croak fepat crow fepader craw fipat chatter fipader chatter fupat hoot fupader hoot fyipat jay fyipader chatter gapat ostrich gapader bleep dapat swan dapader cry zapat swallow zapader squeal tapat parrot tapader parrot vapat nightingale vapader pipe fepat warbler fepader warble gapait penguin gapaider honk ipiet platypus ipieder chitter rupit walrus rupider groan ryopit porpoise ryopider whistle
- By suffixing the final t of the animal name with tam house, you get corresponding animal's living quarters:
ANIMAL LIVING SPACE apet horse apetam stable epet ox epetam cowshed yapet pig yapetam pigpen, pigsty yepet dog yepetam doghouse rapyot lion rapyotam den, lion's den fapelt ant fapeltam anthill apelat bee apelatam beehive pat bird patam nest, bird's nest apat hen apatam henhouse, chicken coop rupyot bear rupyotam lair pyot wild animal pyotam cage
- By changing the final letter of the animal's name to an l, you get the meat eaten from that animal:
ANIMAL MEAT eopet ox eopel beef vipet deer vipel venison yapet hog yapel pork yapetyoab hog's thigh yapetyoal ham uopet sheep uopel mutton eopetob calf eopetol veal vapyet snail vapyel escargot
- By adding yan aggregate or nyan crowd to the name of an animal, you get the animal grouping:
ANIMAL GROUPING pat bird patyan flock eopet ox eopetyan cattle pit fish pityan school pelt insect peltyan swarm apat cock apatyan poultry pot animal potnyan herd yopet goat yopetyan goatherd
Animals' Babies and Diminutives
- The baby of an animal ends in ud, which is a stub suffix for tud....offspring, child:
ANIMAL BABY apet....horse apetud....foal pat....bird patud....chick apet....horse apetud....foal eopet....ox eopetud....calf yepet....dog yepetud....pup yipet....cat yipetud....kitten apat....cock apatud....chick apyat....eagle apyatud....eaglet upat....goose upatud....gosling upet....ram upetud....lamb yopet....goat yopetud....kid
- To create an animal pet name, add the suffix if
ANIMAL PET yepet....dog yepetif....puppy yipet....cat yipetif....kitten apat....cock apatif....chickadee
- Other size suffixes can be appended as well:
ANIMAL SIZE-VARIANT yepet....dog yepetog....doggy yepet....dog yepetayg....cur yepet....dog yepetag....hound upetud....lamb upetotog....lambkin yapet....hog yapetog....piggy
- Here is a chart showing the adjectives used to refer to animals:
ANIMAL NOUN ADJECTIVE apet....horse apeta....equine eopet....ox eopeta....bovine upet....ram upeta....ovine yapet....hog yapeta....porcine yepet....dog yepeta....canine yipet....cat yipeta....feline upyot....wolf upyota....lupine pyet....reptile pyeta....reptilian pat....bird pata....avian
- Various Other Words Derived from Animals:
ANIMAL NAME DERIVED WORD apet....horse apetsim....saddle
- The hair of an animal ends in tayeb hair:
ANIMAL HAIR pat bird patayeb feather apet horse apetayeb horsehair, mane yipet cat yipetayeb fur fapet camel fapetayeb camelhair pit fish pitayeb scale upat goose upatayeb down tepyot bear tepyotayeb fuzz uopet sheep uopetayeb wool, fleece
Gendered Counterparts of Animals
- The word for the female counterpart of an animal is created by post-iotacized (i.e. adding a y to) the ordinal (last) vowel of the male animal's adult name:
ANIMAL FEMALE epet ox epeyt cow apet horse apeyt mare ipet ass ipeyt she-ass yopet goat yopeyt nanny goat yapet hog yapeyt sow yepet dog yepeyt bitch apyot lion apyoyt lioness upyot wolf upyoyt wolverine yopyot fox yopyoyt vixen gapot elephant gapoyt cow elephant vipot buck vipeyt deer apat cock apayt hen yupet rabbit yupeyt doe rabbit upet ram upeyt ewe
- To form the male-specific gender of an animal, place a w before the ordinal vowel:
ANIMAL MALE epet ox epwet bull apet horse apwet stallion apet cock apwet rooster yupet rabbit yupwet buck rabbit ipet ass ipwet (he-)mule
- To form the gelded or neutered form of an animal, place an o before the p:
ANIMAL MALE epet bovine eopet steer apet horse aopet gelding upet ram uopet sheep
Interesting Parallels in Animal Vocabulary
teub....mouth pateub....beak, bill poteub....mug mimeub....bay teib....nose poteib....snout gapeteib....elephant trunk meib....promontory tilabeib....nipple fapemeib....camel hump seib....marquee, ledge tayeb....hair patayeb....feather pitayeb....scale petayeb....fur fayeb....leaf vosayeb....petal uopetayeb....wool, fleece tulob....nail patulob....claw apelatulob....stinger defulob....pine needle fulob....prick vulob....thorn yomulob....icicle tyoyab....foot apetyoyab....hoof potyoyab....paw meboyab....foothills fyoyab....stump vyoyab....stub tayob....skin potayob....hide piitayob....shell mayob....crust fayob....bark vayob....peel patijayob....eggshell tub....arm patub....wing pitub....fin potub....paw mapatub....fan zyupatub....propeller
The fob (Vegetation)and vob (Plant) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with f for vegetation or v for plant and end in b for organism. These words have to do with trees, fruits, nuts, vegetables, plants, grasses, and grains, as shown in this chart:
TREES, FRUITS, VEGETABLES PLANTS, GRAINS, LEGUMES fob vegetable vob plant fab tree vab grass feb fruit, nut veb tuft
fib trunk vib stem fub branch vub twig fayeb leaf vayeb bud fyob root vyob tendril
The vol (Edible Vegetable), vos (Flower), and voz (Color Family
vol edible vegetable vos flower voz color
- The names of common colors in Mirad are mnemonically based on flowers and other natural products that have distinctive colors. In the summary chart below, the mnemonic origin is given for each color term.
COLOR MNEMONIC ORIGIN voz color vos flower ovoza plain, blank o zero avoza white avos lily evoza yellow evos narcissus ivoza red ivos poppy uvoza pink uvos rose yovoza blue yovos blueberry yavoza mauve yavos hydrangea yevoza lilac yevos lilac yivoza violet, purple yivos violet lafeza orange lafeb orange vaza green vab grass moza black mon dark maza white man light maoza gray man + mon meza brown mel soil
- The common colors consist of a mnemonic stub for a flower, plant, fruit, or other natural item exhibiting most vividly the color in question, followed by the suffix -za (reminiscent of voz color, itself reminiscent of vos flower), eg. va- (from vab grass) + z = vaza green.
- The most exotic or rare colors can be expressed by the numerical position in the alphabetized Wikipedia list of colors + -za. For example, the color Alabama Crimson is the tenth color in that list when alphabetized, so it's name is aloza.
- A color referring to one's skin or race is suffixed with -ata-, eg. mozata black-skinned, black, while the person of that skin color ends in -at, eg. mazat white person, a white. A person of mixed color is a eyvozat ('ey- half). A non-white is expressed with omazat.
- A color referring to one's hair is a combination of toz, preceded by the first vowel of the color, eg. i from ivoza red + toz yields itoza auburn, red-headed.
- If the stem vowel of the color term is post-iotated, then the meaning is the lighter version of the color, eg. ivoyza light red.
- If the stem vowel of the color term is pre-iotated, then the meaning is the darker or deeper version of the color, eg. ivyoza deep red.
- If the stem vowel of the color term is doubled, then the meaning is the brighter version of the color, eg. ivooza bright red.
- If the syllable yen is inserted between the stem and the adjectival ending a, then the meaning is -ish, eg. avozyena reddish.
- If the color word is preceded by gwa, it is of maximum intensity, eg. gwaivoza as red as can be.
The tuz (Art) Family
- This family includes words having to do with the arts, such as theater, sculpture, music, poetry, etc. Word stems ending in -z refer to something that is precious or artful. Stems with eu are mnemonic for teub mouth and refer to sound, singing, noises, etc.
THE ARTS tuz art
diz comedy, circus
The dob (State) Family
- The stems of the words in this family start with d for society and end with b for organization.
dob state, regime dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister
Regimes and Rulers
REGIME=dob GENDER-NEUTRAL RULER=deb MALE FULE=dweb FEMALE RULER=deyb adob empire adeb emperor adweb emperor adeyb empress edob kingdom edeb monarch edweb king edeyb queen idob principality ideb prince idweb prince ideyb princess udob duchy udeb duke udweb duke udeyb duchess yodob marquisate yodeb marquis yodweb marquis yodeyb marquise yadob count yadeb count yadweb count yadeyb countess yedob domain yedeb lord yedweb lord yedeyb lady, dominatrix yidob barony yideb baron yidweb baron yideyb baroness alodob tribe, chiefdom, clan alodeb chief, tribal chief, chieftain alodweb male chief alodeyb chieftaine
Governments and Leaders
GOVERNMENT=dab LEADER=deb ditdab republic, democracy ditdeb president andab autocracy andeb autocrat anadab dictatorship anadeb dictator nasdab plutocracy nasdeb plutocrat yabdab aristocracy yabdeb aristocrat fyaatdab theocracy fyaatdeb theocrat abdab dominion, fiefdom abdeb overlord, feudal lord, master obdab protectorate, subject state obdeb protector, subjugator yibdab colony yibdeb colonial master
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION doob nation doab fatherland doeb state, Bund doib county domem province, state domeam department, county, prefecture domeem sub-prefecture domeim canton domeum commune
The nas (Money) Family
- The stems of the words in this family all begin with n for merchandise. All the words have to do with money, business, trade, and merchandise.
MONEY NOUNS MONEY VERBS nas.... money
naz.... value, worth
nazer.... be worth
nix.... income, revenue
nux.... payment, outlay
nyen.... stores, stock
nyember.... box up
nyixer.... demand, order nyox.... waste nyoxer.... waste nyux.... delivery
nyuxun....cargo, freight, shipment
nyuxer.... supply, deliver, ship
The dop (Military) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with d social and end in p mobile and have to do with the military and war.
MILITARY SOME DERIVATIONS dop military dopeb commander of the armed forces
dopnab military rank
dopyaf military power
dopekut combat soldier
dopektof battle attire
dopteud battle cry
dopdeuz battle hymn
dopnad battle line
dopepem battle station
dap air force dapeb air force commander
dapur fighter jet
dep ground force, army depeb army commander
depet enlisted soldier
dip navy dipeb navy commander
adipur aircraft carrier
diep marine diepeb marine commander
diepat marine soldier
dieput ambphibious warship
WEAPONS dopar weapon
doparier take up arms
tuyab adopar handgun, pistol
zyup adopar revolver
edopar rifle idopar shotgun udopar musket dopir artillery adopir cannon edopir bazooka idopir howitzer dopur machine gun dopyonar bayonet
depat soldier dipat ensign dapat airman diepat private adepat private adipat seaman recruit adapat airman basic adiepat private edepat private 2 edipat seaman apprentice edapat airman ediepat private 1st class idepat private first class idipat seaman idapat airman first class idiepat lance corporal udepat army specialist udipat petty officer 3rd class udapat senior airman udiepat corporal yodipat petty officer 2nd class yodapat staff sergeant yodiepat sergeant yadipat petty officer 3rd class yadapat technical sergeant yadiepat staff sergeant yedipat chief petty officer obyedapat master sergeant yediepat gunnery sergeant abyedapat master sergeant with diamond yidipat senior chief petty officer obyidapat senior master sergeant yidiepat master sergeant abyidapat senior master sergeant with diamond obyudipat master chief petty officer obyudapat chief master sergeant yudiepat first sergeant ebyudipat fleet master chief petty officer alodiepat master gunnery sergeant abyudipat master chief petty officer of the navy abyudapat chief master sergeant with diamond aladiepat sergeant major adeplat warrant officer adiplat ensign adaplat 2nd lieutenant adieplat warrant officer edeplat chief warrant officer 2 ediplat lieutenant junior grade edaplat 1st lieutenant edieplat chief warrant officer 2 ideplat chief warrant officer 3 idiplat lieutenant idaplat captain idieplat chief warrant officer 3 udeplat chief warrant officer 4 udiplat lieutenant commander udaplat major udieplat chief warrant officer 4 yodeplat chief warrant officer 5 yodiplat commander yodaplat lieutenant colonel yodieplat chief warrant officer 5 yadeplat second lieutenant yadiplat captain yadaplat colonel yadieplat second lieutenant yedeplat first lieutenant yedieplat first lieutenant yideplat captain yidiplat ensign yidieplat captain yudeplat major yudieplat major adeprat brigadier general adiprat rear admiral lower half adaprat brigadier general adieprat lieutenant general edeprat major general ediprat rear admiral upper half edaprat major general edieprat colonel ideprat lieutenant general idiprat vice admiral idaprat lieutenant general idieprat brigadier general udeprat 4 star general udiprat commandant udaprat general air force chief of staff udieprat major general yodeprat 5-star general yodiprat fleet admiral yodaprat general of the AF yodieprat lieutenant general yadieprat general
The ab (On), yab (Up) Family
The af (Permission), yaf (Ability) Family
efa....in need of
ofer.... be prohibited
The aga (Big), yaga (Long) Family
The aj (Past), taj (Birth) Family
tejber....bring to life
The ak- (Win), yak- (Expect) Family
tejok....loss of life
yokxeus...sudden noise, boom
The av (For), yav- (Innocent) Family
ovon....liability, handicap, disadvantage
The az- (Strong), yaz- (Convex) Family
aza strong eza moderate oza weak yaza convex yeza flush yoza concave
The fya- (Holy) Family
fyaa holy fyoa profane fyamir heaven fyomir hell fyaat god fyoat devil fyaet angel fyoet demon afyaet archangel afyoet archdemon fyait saint fyoit evil person fyaut priest fyax sacrament fyox sacrilege fyaz miracle fyoz witchcraft fyaxin religion fyaxam church fyadab church hierarchy fyadeb church elder, clergyman afyadeb pope efyadeb cardinal ifyadeb archbishop obifyadeb bishop ufyadeb parish priest obufydeb deacon fyad blessing fyod curse fyadil prayer fyaxel ritual, mass fyoxel occult
The fi- (Good), fyi- (Useful) Family
fider....praise fuder....malign fyia....useful
The ga (More), gla (Much), gra (Too Much), gwa (Most) Family
gla....much, many, very gle....some, rather glo....little, few, slightly gra....too much, too gre....enough gro....too little, not enough gwa....most gwe....just gwo....least
The gi- (Sharp), gyi- (Solid) Family
The if (Pleasure), yif (Courage) Family
The ig- (Fast), yig- (Hard) Family
iga....fast uga....slow igar....accelerator ugar....brake igper....run ugper....amble yiga....hard
The ij (Beginning), yij (Opening), tij (Awakening) Family
ujper....come to an end
ujber....bring to an end
vabij....seed (√vab plant)
tabij....embryo (√tab body)
patij....egg (√pat bird)
texij....concept (√text thought)
milij....spring (√mil water)
manij....glimmer (√man light)
majij....dawn (√maj morning)
mojij....dusk (√moj evening)
kyeuj....fate (√kye- random)
dinuj....denouement (√din story)
mepuj....deadend (√mep road)
jobuj....eternity (√job time)
yujper...come to a close
yujber...bring to a close
tijtepa....conscious (√tep mind)
tujber....put to sleep
The ik-- (Full), yik- (Difficult) Family
ilaker....take on water
The iv- (Happy), yiv- (Free) Family
ivseuz....sigh of relief
uvseuz....sigh of sorrow
The iz (Straight), yiz (Beyond) Family
izper....go straight, head for
izmep....straight shot, beeline
iznad...vector straight line
izeaxer....indicate, point out
tilabuz....tit ring, nipple ring
dopuz....bow, arch, bow-and-arrow
The ja (Before), jwa (Early) Family
jey....on and on, forth
joy....afterwards, then, next
ji huj....since then
ju hij....until now
jwea....ready, timely, ripe
jwepuer....arrive on time
jwoa....tardy, mature, stale
The ka- (Find), kya- (Change) Family
kyekaxer....discover, stumble on
keter....wonder, be curious about
kop....going into hiding
kopuer....sneak up to
kyes....event, happening, incident
kyenek....game of chance
kyeyanuper...happen to meet
kyoa....fixed, static, still
The ki- (Slant), kyi- (Heavy) Family
The va (Yes), vya- (True) Family
va....yes ve....maybe vo....no vaa....affirmative vea....possible voa....negative vay....indeed vey....possibly voy....not vyaa....true vyea....relative vyoa....false
- Factive adverbs:
FACTIVE ADVERB EXAMPLE vay indeed, really, do/does Aat vay tide et..... We really do understand you.
Vay upu gajod..... Do come again.
vey.... may, maybe, perhaps, might Vey mamilo..... It may rain. voy.... not Et voy se ata xeb..... You are not my boss.
- Factive Responses
FACTIVE RESPONSE EXAMPLE va.... yes Va, at tide..... Yes, I understand. ve.... maybe, perhaps Ve. At voy te..... Maybe, I don't know. vo.... no Vo. Et yofe beer has..... No. You can't have it.
- Correlative conjunctions:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE ay.... and Et ay at po hum.....You and I will go there. ey.... or Aat yake mamil ey mamyoym.....We expect rain or snow. oy.... but At po oy at voy beso glajob.....I will go but I won't stay long. ay/ey.... and/or Ha duzun yebio X ay/ey Y.....The concert will include X and/or Y. hyaewa...ay.... both...and Hyaewa et ay at voduda..... Both you and I answered no.
Hyaewati voduda..... Both answered no.
Hyeawa...ey.... either...or Hyeawa et ey at ako..... Either you or I will win.
Hyeawat ako..... Either will win.
Hyoewa...ey.... neither...nor Hyoewa et ey at ako..... Neither you nor I will win.
Hyoewat (bi ha ewati) ako..... Neither (of the two) will win.
- Some derivatives of va, ve, and vo:
- vader.... affirm, assent, say yes, approve, ratify, vouch
- vaduder.... answer yes, reply affirmatively
- vaa.... positive, affirmative
- vatin.... optimism
- vatexer.... think so, believe, trust
- vafer.... hope, anticipate
- valder.... assure, promise
- veder hesitate, say maybe, suppose, guess
- Vea.... possible
- vetin.... skepticism
- vetexer.... wonder, be skeptical, hedge
- vefer.... have qualms about, vacillate
- veduder.... equivocate, reply neither yes or no, answer maybe
- velder.... bet, wager
- voder.... deny, negate, veto, say no, decline
- voa.... negative
- vofer.... reject, despair
- votin.... pessimism
- votexer.... doubt, think not, disbelieve
- voduder.... answer no, reply negatively
- volder.... warn
The vi- (Beautiful), vyi- (Clean) Family
via....beautiful vua....ugly viya....pretty vuya....nasty vila....magnificent vira....marvelous vria....glamorous vifa....elegant vufa....vulgar vita....classy vuta....wretched vioga....cute viaga....sumptuous vyia....clean vyua....dirty vyida....clear vyuda....muddled vyina....pure vyuna....stained vyita....chaste vyuta....sleazy vyiya....neat vyuya....foul
Chart of Group 2 Core Morphemes
- Here is chart showing all the group 2 core morphemes in Mirad:
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE OPPOSITE ab on
ab- put on
ib away from
ap- get on ep- intervene op- get off ip- leave up- come ba- lean
bas- make a stir
bax- stroke, rub
bos- be still
box- calm down
byi starting with
bay with bey by boy without yab up yeb in
yob down yib far yub near yap- rise yep- enter yop- descend yip- flee yup- approach pas- move
plax- shake, wipe
af- permit ef- need of- prohibit if- love uf- hate f- want fi- good fu- bad fya- holy fyo- profane fyi- useful fyu- harmful yaf- can yef- must yof- cannot yif- dare yuf- fear ga more
ge- equal go less
gi- point gu- angle gwa- most gwe- just gwo- least gya- fat gyo- thin gyi- solid gyu- fragile gla- much gle- rather glo- few gra- too gre- enough gro- inadequate ag- big eg- normal og- small ig- fast ug- slow yag- long yog- short yig- hard yug- soft ja before je during jo after ji since ju until jwa early jwe on time jwo late aj past ej present oj future ij beginning uj end taj* birth tej* life toj* death tij* awake state tuj* sleep yij- open yuj- close ka- find ke- seek ko- hide ki- oblique ku- lateral kya- change kye- haphazard kyo- fixed kyi- heavy kyu- light ak- win ek- play, risk ok- lose ik- full uk- empty yak- expect yek- try yok- surprise yik- difficult yuk- easy va yes ve maybe vo no vi- beautiful vu- ugly vya- true vye- relative vyo- false vyi- clean vyu- dirty av for ev- neutral ov against iv- happy uv- sad yav- innocent yev- fair yov- guilty yiv- free yuv- captive yaz- convex yez flush with yoz- concave yiz beyond yuz around za front ze middle zo behind zi right zu left zya- wide zye through zyo- narrow zyi- flat zyu- round zay forward zey across zoy back az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak iz- straight uz- curved ha- the he- some ho- which hi- this hu- that hya- every hye- any hyo- no hyi- same hyu- other hav that hev whether hov lest hay hello hey hey hoy goodbye hiy voici huy voila ya(n)* together yo(n)* apart a one e two o zero
lo- un-, de-
i three u four ya six ye seven yo five yi eight yu nine ay and ey or oy but
- *Technically, not part of Group 2, but presented here to show the parallelism,
Chart of Group 1 Scaled Core Morphemes
- These group 1 core morphemes are mostly hierarchical in nature with the zeroth element being at the top of the scale:
o zero a one e two i three u four yo five ya six ye seven yi eight yu nine ot one at I et you it he ut self oot they aat we eet you iit they uut selves dob state dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister dom city dam metropolis dem park dim fountain dot society dat friend det mate dit citizen dut sir fob vegetation fab tree feb fruit fib trunk fub branch fyob root job time jab year jeb season jib month jub day jwob hour jwab minute jweb second mor universe mar star mer planet mir world mur moon mol nature mal air mel soil mil water mul mineral mos floor mas wall mes door mis window mus stairs nod point nad line ned plane nid volume nud column nof cloth naf material nef weave nif wire nuf button nyaf knot nyef bag nyif rope nyuf package nog degree nag measure neg level nig space no- spend na- money ne- save ni- earn nu- pay nyo- waste nya- accumulate nye- store nyi- order nyu- deliver som furniture sam armoire sem table sim chair sum bed tob human tab body teb head tib trunk tub arm tyob leg tod family tad spouse ted parent tid sibling tud child tyed relative tof clothing taf suit tef hat tif vest tuf sleeve tyof pants tov lingerie tav robe tev scarf tiv shirt tyov underpants tol nutrition tel eat til drink tul dish tyal meal tom building tam house tem hall tim room tum cell vob plant vab grass veb seed vib stem vub blade vyob root
Chart of Group 1 Semantically-scaled Core Morphemes
- These group 1 core morphemes have a central vowel that distinguishes them in a directional or some other semantic way:
af- allow ef- need
of- prohibit if- love uf- hate yaf- can yef- must yof- cannot yif- dare yuf- fear ax- act
os- cease to be
ix- effect ux- cause yax- be busy yex- work yox- idle yix- use yux- serve bak health bek treatment bok illness bik care buk injury byek cure byok pain
bruk multilation dal- speak del- declare
dol- be silent di- ask du suggest,word dye- read dyu- call draf card dref paper
drof cardboard dryef notebook daz dance
diz comedy duz music
siz painting deuz song
nex- save nox- spend
nix- earn nux- pay
nyex- store nyox- waste nyix- order nyux- ship, deliver sar instrument sir machine sur motor san form
sex- build son matter sin image
sun thing syin subject syun object tax- remember tex- think
tye- recognize tyi- get acquainted tyu- familiarize xa- execute
xo- undergo xi- result xu- bring about xye- occupy
Chart of Geo-physically Scaled Core Morphemes
- These group 1 core morphemes have a vowel that indicates something about the position in the world or its geo-physical nature:
mol nature mal air mel soil mil water mul matter mom outer space mam sky mem land mim sea mum underground mop orbit map wind mep road mip river mup tunnel mob chasm meb mountain mub cave oma cold
ama hot ima wet uma dry mog ash mag fire
mov smoke mav flame
moj night maj day mon dark man life pot animal
pyot wild animal
pat bird pet land animal
pilt crustacean pyeit amphibian
dop military dap air force dep army dip navy
Charts of Words Showing Mnemonic Parallelism
- The words in the following charts share some commonality, which is evident in their similar phonetics:
tob teb tib tub tyob tayob tayeb man head trunk arm leg skin hair fob feb fib fub fyob fayob fayeb tree treetop trunk branch root bark leaf vob veb vib vub vyob vayob vayeb plant tuft stem twig root peel bud patob patub patayeb egg wing feather pit piteb pitub pitayeb fish fishhead fin scale dob deb dib dub state leader administration minister xeb sub syob boss offshoot base
teub teus teud seux xeus deuz seuz xeuz mouth voice shout sound noise song tone tune tayob fayob vayob tayof skin bark peel leather tub fub vub fuf muf tiibuf movuf gimuf manuf fauf arm branch twig pipe rod artery (smoking) pipe skewer candle log teab eye teater see teaxer look teaser seem teaper visit egteaper revisit teader witness teazer notice teatier perceive teatuer show beaxer watch neaxer aim vyateaxer examine vyabeaxer inspect vyaleaxer check izteader indicate izteatuer point out izteaxer focus abteaxer survey yagteaxer stare igteaxer glance egteaser reappear yozteatuer display, expose jateater foresee jateaxer preview yonteater distinguish oteaser disappear vyateatuer prove zyeteaxer peek zyoteaxer peer ugteaxer gaze yuzteaxer look around yubteaxer scrutinize kyoteaxer glare yogteaxer glimpse joteaxer review zoyteaxer look back zayteaxer look ahead ojteader warn tepteatier consider kuteaxer observe ejeatuer present ejeaser show up, appear utejeaser represent ajteaxer review ojteaxer expect, envisage yoveater suspect kiteaxer look askance yizteaxer look beyond zeyteaxer look across fyateater respect vyoteas illusion vyamteaser seem true koteaxer sneak a peek ziteaxer look right zuteaxer look left eyteaxer squint zyateaxer peruse, scan fateaber blink teabigyujer wink teabiler weep, tear up nas teb tuyub tilab tuyob tun tab teub sin teeb nas teib vos drer ten money head finger breast wrist science body mouth image ear money nose flower write knowledge noz tebuz tuyuz tilaz tuyoz tuz taz deuz siz teebuz naz teiz voz drez tez jewel crown ring broche bracelet art statue song painting earring value perfume color poetry culture
Geographic Proper Names
- As in English, Geograpic names are capitalized, including languages (cf. French, where languages are lower cased).
Continents and Their Inhabitants
PLACE ADJECTIVE INHABITANT Asyam Asia Asyama Asian Asyat Asian Zamera Amerikam North America Zamera Amerikama North American Zamera Amerikat North American Zomera Amerikam South America Zomera Amerikama South American Zomera Amerikat South American Afrikam Africa Afrikama African Afrikat African Antarktikam Antarctica Antarktika Antarctic Antarktikat Antarctic Australyam Australia Australyama Australian Australyama Australian
Directional and Other Specifiers in Geographic Names
- Many geographic names are preceded with directional or other specifiers:
SPECIFIER Zamera North(ern) Zomira South(ern) Zimera East(ern) Zumera West(ern) Zea Central, Middle Yeba Inner Oyeba Outer Ejna New Ajna Old Yuba Near Yiba Far
- For example:
- Zomera Afrikam South Africa
- Zea Amerikam Central America
- Oyeba Mongolyam Outer Mongolia
- Yiba Imir Far East
- Ejna Englam New England
Countries, Inhabitants, and Languages
COUNTR ADJECTIVE INHABITANT LANGUAGE Afganam Afghanistan Afgana / Afganama Afghani Afganat Afghan -- Afrikam Africa Afrika / Afrikama African Afrikat African -- Albanam Albania Albana / Albanama Albanian Albanat Albanian Albanad Albanian Algeryam Algeria Algerya / Algeryama Algerian Algeryat Alergian -- Amerikam America Amerika / Amerikama American Amerikat American -- Andoram Andorra Andora / Andorama Andorran Andorat Andoran -- Angolam Angola Angola / Angolama Angolan Angolat Angolan -- Anxwa Doebi (bi Amerikam) United States (of America) ADAma U.S. ADAt U.S.citizen -- Anxwa Edab United Kingdom Anxwa Edaba of the UK Anxwa Edabat UK national -- Arabam Arabia Araba / Arabama Arabian Arabat Arab Arabad Arabic Argentinam Argentina Argentina / Argentinama Argentin Argentinat Argentinian -- Awstralyam Australia Awstralya Australian Awstralyat Australian -- Awstriyam Austria Awstriya / Awstriyama Austrian Awstriyat Austrian -- Bahraynam Bahrain Bahrayna / Bahraynama Bahraini Bahraynat Bahraini -- Belgam Belgium Belga / Belgama Belgian Belgat Belgian -- Bolivyam Bolivia Bolivya / Bolivyama Bolivian Bolivyat Bolivian -- Botswanam Botswana Botswana / Botswanama Botswanian Botswanat Botswanian -- Brazilam Brazil Brazila / Brazilama Brazilian Brazilat Brazilian -- Bretanyam Britain Bretanya / Bretanyama British Bretanyat Brit -- Bruneyam Brunei Bruneya / Bruneyama Brunei Bruneyat Bruneian -- Bulgaryam Bulgaria Bulgarya / Bulgaryama Bulgarian Bulgaryat Bulagian Bulgaryad Bulgarian Burmam Burma Burmama Burmese Burmat Burmese Burmad Burmese Cadam Chad Cada / Cadama Chadean Cadat Chadean -- Cekyam Czech Republic Cekya / Cekyama Czech Cekyat Czech Cekyad Czech Cileam Chile Cilea / Cileama Chilean Cileat Chilean -- Cinam China Cina / Cinama Chinese Cinat Chinese Cinad Chinese Cipram Cyprus Cipra / Ciprama Cypriot Ciprat Cypriot -- Danyam Denmark Danya / Danyama Danish Danyat Dane Danyad Danish Domenikam Domenican Republic Domenika / Domenikama Domenican Domenikat Domenican -- Egiptam Egypt Egipta / Egiptama Egyptian Egiptat Egyptian -- Ekwadoram Equador Ekwadora / Ekwadorama Equadorean Ekwadorat Equadoran -- Englam England Engla / Englama English Englat Englishman Englad English Eritram Eritrea Eritra / Eritrama Eritrean Eritrat Eritrean Eritrad Eritrean Estyam Estonia Estya / Estyama Estonian Estyat Estonian Estyad Estonian Etyopyam Ethiopia Etyopya / Etyopyama Ethiopian Etyopyat Ethiopian Etyopyad Ethiopic, Amharic Europam Europe Europa / Europama European Europat European -- Filipinam Philippines Filipina / Filipinama Philippine 'Filipinat Filipino -- Fijyam Fiji Fijya / Fijyama Fijian Fijyat Fijian Fijiad Fijian Finyam Finland Finya / Finyama Finnish Finyat Finn Finyad Finnish Fransam France Fransa / Fransama French Fransat Frenchman Fransad French Germanyam Germany Germanya / Germanyama Germany Germanyat German Germanyad German Grinlandam Greenland Grinlanda / Grinlandama Greenlandian Grinlandat Greenlander -- Gwatemalam Guatemala Gwatemala / Gwatemalama Guatemalan Guatemalat Guatemalan -- Haitiyam Haiti Haitiya / Haitiyama Haitian Haitiyat Haitian Haitiyad Haitian Helenam Greece Helena / Helenama Greek Helenat Greek Helenad Greek Helvetam Switzerland Helveta / Helvetama Swiss Helvetat Swiss -- Hindam India Hinda / Hindama Indian Hindat Indian Hindad Hindu Holandam Netherlands Holanda / Holandama Dutch Holandat Dutchman Holandad Dutch Indonesyam Indonesia Indonesya / Indonesyama Indonesian Indonesyat Indonesian Indonesyad Indonesian Irakam Iraq Iraka / Irakama Iraqi Irakat Iraqi -- Irlandam Ireland Irlanda / Irlandama Irish Irlandat Irish Irlandad Irish Islandam Iceland Islanda / Islandama Icelandic Islandat Icelander Islandad Icelandic Israylam Israel Israyla / Israylama Israyli Israylat Israeli Israylad Italyam Italy Italya / Italyama Italian Italyat Italian Italyad Italian Ejna Zelandam New Zealand Ejna Zelanda New Zealandese Ejna Zelandat New Zealander -- Jordanam Jordan Jordana / Jordanama Jordan Jordanat Jordanese -- Kampucam Cambodia Kampuca / Kampucama Cambodian Kampucat Cambodian Kampucat Cambodian Kanadam Canada Kanadamama Canadian Kanadat Canadian -- Kartvelam Georgia Kartvela / Kartvelama Georgian Kartvelat Georgian Kartvelad Georgian Kataram Qatar Katara Qatari Katarat Qatari -- Kazakam Kazakstan Kazaka / Kazakama Kazakh Kazakat Kazazh Kazakad' Kazakh Kenyam Kenya Kenya / Kenyama Kenyan Kenyat Kenyan -- Kenyam Kenya Kenya / Kenyama Kenyan Kenyat Kenyan Kenyad Kenyan Kirgizam Kirghistan Kirgiza / Kirgizama Kirghiz Kirgizat Kirghiz Kirgizad Kirghiz Kolombyam Columbia Kolombya / Kolombyama Columbian Kolombyat Columbian -- Kroatyam Croatia Kroatya / Kroatyama Croatian Kroatyat Croat Kroatyad Croatian Kubam Cuba Kuba / Kubama Cuban Kubat Cuban Kuwaytam Kuwait Kuwayta / Kuwaytama Kuwaiti Kuwaytat Kuwaiti -- Laotam Laos Laota / Laotama Laotian Laotat Lao Laotad Lao Latyam Latvia Latya / Latyama Latvian Latyat Latvian Latyad Latvia Lebanam Lebanon Lebana / Lebanama Lebanese Lebanat Lebanese -- Libyam Libya Libya / Libyama Libyanese Libyat Libyanese -- Litwam Lithuania Litwa / Litwama Lithuanian Litwat Lithuanian Litwad Lithuanian Luksemburgam Luxemburg Lusemburga / Lusemburgama Luxemburg Luksemburgat Luxemburger -- Madagaskaram Madagascar Madagaskara / Madagaskarama Madagascaran Madagaskarat Madagascarn -- Magyaram Hungarian Magyara / Magyarama Hungarian Magyarat Hungarian Magyarad Hungarian Malayam Malaysia Malaya / Malayama Malay Malayat Malaysian Malayad Malay Maltam Malta Malta / Maltama Maltese Maltat Maltese Maltad Maltese Meksikam Mexico Meksikamama Mexican Meksikat Mexican -- Mongolyam Mongolia Mongolya / Mongolyama Mongolese Mongolyat Mongol Mongolyad Mongolian Morokam Morocco Moroka / Morokama Moroccan Morokat Moroccan -- Mozambikam Mozambique Mozambika / Mozambikama Mozambican Mozambikat Mozambicam -- Namibyam Namibia Namibya Namibian Namibyat Namibian Nepalam Nepal Nepala / Nepalama Nepalese 'Nepalat Nepalese Nepalad Nepalese Nigeryam Nigeria Nigerya / Nigeryama Nigeria Nigeryat Nigerian Nigeryad Nigerian Niponam Japan Nipona / Niponama Japanese Niponat Japanese Niponad Japanese Norvegam Norway Norvega / Norvegama Norwegian Norvegat Norwegian Norvegad Norwegian Omanam Oman Omana / Omanama Omani Omanat Omani -- Pakam Pakistan Paka / Pakama Pakistanian Pakat Pakistani -- Paragwayam Paraguay Pargwaya / Pargwayama Paraguayan 'Paragwyat Paraguayan -- Persam Iran Persa / Persama Iranian Persat Iranian Persad Persian Peruvyam Peru Peruvya / Peruvyama Peruvian Peruvyat Peruvian -- Polam Poland Pola / Polama Polish Polat Pole Polad Polish Portugalam Portugal Portugala / Portugalama Portuguese Portugalat Potuguese Portugalad Portuguese Pwertorikam Puerto Rico Pwertorika / Pwertorikama Puerto Rican Pwertorikat Puerto Rican -- Romanyam Romanian Romanya / Romanyama Romanian Romanyat Romanian Romanyad Romanian Rusam Russia Rusa / Rusama Russian Rusat Russian Rad Russian Rwandam Rwanda Rwanda / Rwandama Rwandan Rwandat Rwandan Rwandad Kinyarwanda Salvadoram San Salvador Salvadora / Salvadorama Salvadoran Salvadorat Salvadoran -- Sawdam Saudi Arabia Sawda / Sawdama Saudi Sawdat Saudi -- Senegalam Senegal Senegala / Senegalama Senegalese Senegalat Senegalese -- Serbyam Serbia Serbya / Serbyama Serbian Serbyat Serb Serbyad Serbian Singaporam Singapore Singapora / Singaporama Singaporean Singaporat Singaporean -- Skotam Scotland Skota / Skotama Scottish Skotat Scotlander Skotad Scottish Gaelic Slovakyam Slovakia Slovakya / Slovakyama Slovak Slovakyat Slovak Slovakyad Slovakian Slovenyam Slovenia Slovenya / Slovenyama Slovene Slovenyat Slovene Slovenyad Slovenian Somalyam Somalia Somalya / Somalyama Somali Somalyat Somali Somalyad Somali Spanyam Spain Spanya / Spanyama Spanish Spanyat Spaniard Spanyad Spanish 'Sudanam Sudan Sudana / Sudanama Sudanese Sudanat Sudanese Sudanad Sudanese Suryam Syria Surya / Suryama Syrian Suryat Syrian -- Swedam Sweden Sweda / Swedama Swedish Swedat Swede Swedad Swedish Tanzanam Tanzania Tanzana / Tanzanama Tanzanian Tanzanat Tanzanian Tanzanad Tanzanian Tayam Thailand Taya / Tayama Thai Tayat Thai Tayad Thai Taywanam Taiwan Taywana / Taywanama Taiwanese Taywanat Taiwanese Taiwanad Taiwanese Tibetam Tibet Tibeta / Tibetama Tibetan Tibetat Tibetan Tibetad Tibetan Tunisyam Tunisia 'Tunisya / Tunisyama Tunisian Tunisyat Tunisian -- Turkam Turkey Turka / Turkama Turkish Turkat Turk Turkad Turkish Ugandam Uganda Uganda / Ugandama Ugandan Ugandat Ugandan Ugandad Ugandan Ukraynam Ukraine Ukrayna / Ukraynama Ukraine Ukraynat Ukrainian Ukraynyad Ukrainian Urugwayam Uruguay Urugwaya / Urugwayama Urugyuayan Urugwayat Uruguayan -- Vatikam Vatican State Vatika / Vatikama Vatican Vatikat Vatican -- Venezwelam Venezuela Venezwela / Venezwelama Venezuelan Venezwelat Venezuelan -- Vyetnam Vietnam Vyetna / Vyetnama Viet Vyetnat Viet Vyetnad Vietnamese Yemenam Yemen Yemena / Yemenama Yemeni Yemanat Yemeni -- Welxam Wales Welxa / Welxama Welsh Welxat Welshman Welxad Welsh Zambyam Zambia Zambya / Zambyama Zambian Zambyat Zambian -- Zamera Amerikam North America Zamera Amerikama North American Zamera Amerikat North American -- Zamera Koream North Korea Zamera Korea / Zamera Koreana North Korean Zamera Koreat North Korean Koread Korean Zayram Zaire Zayra / Zayrama Zairian Zayrat Zairian -- Zea Amerikam Central America Zea Amerikama Central American Zea Amerikat Central American -- Zimbabwam Zimbabwe Zimbabwa / Zimbabwama Zimbabwean Zimbabwat Zimbabwean -- Zomera Afrikam South Africa Zomera Afrikama South African Zomera Afrikat South African -- Zomera Koream South Korea Zomera Korea / Omira Koreama South Korean Zomera Koreat South Korean Koread Korean
- Here are some languages not associated with any particular country name:
- Swahilad Swahili
- Romad Roma (Gypsy)
- Kurdad Kurdish
- Mirad Mirad (World Language)
- Umerad Martian
- Klingonad Klingon
- Esperantad Esperanto
- Arabad Arabic
- Visauna Arabad Classical Arabic
- Ejyena Egona Arabad Modern Standard Arabic, Fus'ha, MSA
- Hebrad Hebrew (but also: Israelad)
- Fyadyesa Hebrad Biblical Hebrew
- Ajyena Hebrad ancient Hebrew
- Visauna Hebrad Classical Hebrew
- Swahilad Swahili
- Romanxad Romansh
- Latinad Latin
- Visauna Latinad Classical Latin
- Vutyana Latinad Latin Vulgate, Vulgar Latin
- Fyaxela Latinad Liturgical Latin
- Sanskitad Sanskrit
- Angla-Saksad Anglo-Saxon
- Persad Persian
- Prusyad Prussian
- Keltad Celtic
- Romansad Romance
- Baltad Baltic
- Aajna Hinda-Europad Proto-Indo-European
- Aajna-Slavad Proto-Slavic
- Ajyena Helenad Ancient Greek
- Vyisina Helenad Katharevusa, Puristic Greek
- Yasauna Helenad Demotic, Vulgar Greek
- Ejyena Helenad Modern Greek
- A book in Swahili would be called Swahilada dyen.
- The Arab-speaking world would be expressed as either Arabada mir or, more specifically, Arabadalea mir.
- The language nouns ending in -ad can be made into verbs with -adaler to speak language X and -ader to say/pronounce in language X, as follows:
- Fransad French (language) → Fransadaler speak French
- Kinad Chinese → Kinadaler speak Chinese
- Anglad English → Anglader say in English, pronounce in English
- Duhev et Angladale? Do you speak English?
- Et Miradale fi. You speak Mirad well.
- Miradu has. Say it in Mirad.
- A speaker of Spanish would be Spanyadalut, or more simply, Spanyadut.
- Country adjectives that end in -ama can be reduced to -a, espcially in country pairings like these:
- Kanadama → Kanada-Fransa vyeni Canadian-French relations
Cities and Their Residents
- Here are some key cities, their adjectival forms, and inhabitants. The adjective can end in -a or -yena.
CITY ADJECTIVE INHABITANT Paris Paris Parisyena Parisian Parisat Parisian Nuyork New York Nuyorka of New York Nuyorkat New Yorker Roma (Dom)* Rome Romayena Roman Roma Domat Roman Beijing Beijing Beijinga of Beijing Beijingat resident of Beijing Berlin Berlin Berlina from Berlin Berlinat Berliner
- * Without Dom City, Roma could be confused with Roma of Romany, Gypsy.
- Berlina diti dyunwe Berlinati. Berlin citizens are called Berliners.
- Bostonati bayse Bostonyena deus. Bostonians have a Bostonian accent.
Scalar Metric Prefixes
- The following charts show scalar metric prefixes in the macro and micro range:
MACRO VALUE (US/UK NAME) MACRO PREFIX MICRO VALUE (US/UK NAME) MICRO PREFIX 1 (one) an- * mono-, uni- 1/1 (whole) ayn- holo-, uni- 2 (two) en- bi 1/2 (half) eyn- demi-, di- 3 (three) in- tri- 1/3 (third) iyn- terci- 4 (four) un- tetra- 1/4 (fourth) uyn- quadri- 5 (five) yoon- * penta- 1/5 (fifth) yoyn quinti- 6 (six) yaon- hexa- 1/6 (sixth) yayn sexti- 7 (seven) yeon- hepta- 1/7 (seventh) yeyn septi- 8 (eight) yion octo- 1/8 (eighth) yiyn octi- 9 (nine) yuon nona- 1/9 (ninth) yuyn novi- 10 (ten) alo- deca- 1/10 (tenth) aloy- deci- 102 (hundred) aso- hecto- ** 10-2 (hundredth) asoy- centi- 103 (thousand) amso- kilo- 10-3 (thousandth) amloy- milli- 106 (million) amlo- mega- 10-6 (millionth) amroy- micro- 109 (billion) /(milliard) amro- giga- 10-9 (billionth) / (milliardth) amroy- nano- 1012 (trillion) /(billion) garale- tera- 10-12 (trillionth) / (billionth) gorale- pico- 1015 (quadrillion) / (billiard) garalyo- peta- 10-15 (quadrillionth) / (billiardth) goralyo- femto- 1018 (quintillion) / (trillion) garalyu- exa- 10-18 (quintillionth) / (trillionth) goralyu atto- 1021 (sextillion) / (trilliard) garela- zetta- 10-21 (sextillionth) / (trilliardth) gorela zepto- 1024 (septillion) / (quadrillion) garelu- yotta- 10-27 (septillionth) / (quadrillionth) gorelu yocto-
- *Note: The -n or -on can sometimes be omitted in macro-prefixation, especially where there is no ambiguity. The -n (but NOT the -yn') in the micro prefixes can also sometimes be omitted.
- **Note: The gar (to a plus power) and gor (to a minus power) forms are alternatives for the numeric prefixes beyond 100. For example, billion (109) could be expressed as garyu-(ten) to the 9th power, while billionth could be expressed by goryu ((ten) to the minus 9th power). The prefix garya- is composed of the positive exponential operator gar (to the power of), followed by the number 6. The prefix gorale- is composed of the negative exponential operator gor (to the root of), followed by the number 12.
- The word for weight, kyin is from the root morpheme kyi-, meaning heavy. Derived from that is the weight measure kyik gram. Thus, we have the gram scale in the chart below:
MIRAD ENGLISH aroykyik milligram asoykyik centigram aloykyik decigram kyik gram alokyik decagram asokyik hectogram arokyik kilogram
- Some weight-related vocabulary:
- kyia heavy
- kyin weight
- kyinser weigh (intransitive)
- kyinxer weigh (transitive)
- kyinaker gain weight
- kyinoker lose weight
- kyinar scales
- kyinarer weigh (put on the scales)
- kyis cargo
- kyispar truck
- kyison weighty matter, issue, problem
- kyisona grave, important
- kyua light
- kyuaxer lighten
- kyuteba light-headed
- kyuson triviality, matter of levity
- kyusona trivial
- Hia nyem kyinse ewa arokyiki. This box weighs two kilograms.
- At kyinare atut yadjub. I weigh myself every day.
- Et efe kyinoker. You need to lose weight.
- Iyta evon se kyisona. Her condition is grave.
- Hia kyis nyuxwo et bey kyispur zajub. This cargo will be shipped to you by truck tomorrow.
- Hia abtaf kyixeye at. This coat is weighing me down.
- Hua son voy se kyusona. That issue is not trivial.
Liquid Volume (Liters)
- From the word nid volume comes the measurement word nik, meaning liter. The chart belows shows the scale of liquid volume:
MIRAD ENGLISH aroynik milliliter asoynik centiliter aloynik deciliter nik liter eynik demi-liter alonik decaliter asonik hectoliter aronik kiloliter
Length and Distance (Meters)
- From the root word nag-, meaning measure, comes the measurement word for distance, nak meter. Here is a chart showing the micro and macro distance scale:
MIRAD ENGLISH aroynak millimeter asoynak centimeter aloynak decimeter nak meter alonak decameter asonak hectometer aronak kilometer
- Some distance/length/speed vocabulary:
- yaga long
- yag(an) length
- yagay lengthwise
- nag measurement, measure
- naga metric
- nagser measure (intransitive)
- nagxer measure (transitive)
- nagmuf measuring stick, yardstick
- nagnyov measuring tape
- nagar meter (device)
- ignagar speedomer
- nak meter
- aronaki awa jwob kilometers an hour
- yiba distant, far
- yib bi taam far from home
- yiban distance
- hoyen yiba? how far?
- iga fast
- ig(an) speed, velocity
- hoyen iga? How fast?
- huyen iga that fast, so fast
- yuba near, close
- yuban proximity, vicinity, neighborhood
- yub bu at near me
- Examples of usage:
- Hua pur peya yelowa aroyaki av awa jwob. That car was going 70 kilometers an hour. (Lit. kilometers for one hour).
- Hia mes nagse eso asoynaki yaga.' This table measures two hundred centimeters long.
- Et yefo nagxwer av hua tyoyafi. You will have to be measured for those shoes.
- Ha ignagar teaxua hav et graigpeya. The speedometer showed that you were speeding.
- Hogla yiba se byu ha jona posam? How far is it to the next station?
- Heat (aman) or temperature (amnag) is measured in noki (degrees).
- Here is some pertinent vocabular about temperature:
- aman heat
- ama hot
- ayma warm
- amnag temperature
- amvyabxar thermostat
- amnagar thermometer
- oman cold(ness)
- oma cold
- oyma cool, chill
- nok degree (centigrade, Kelvin)
- noki Celsius degrees Celsius
- noki Fahrenheit degrees Fahrenheit
- aloynnok centigrade
- oujnada owa absolute zero
- oyb owa below zero
- yomxen nod freezing point
- ilxen nod melting point
- yaper rise
- yoper go down, lower
- Here are some examples of usage:
- Ha mal amnag yopeye bu oujnada owa. The air temperature is going down to absolute zero.
- Ha amnag bi hia mil se gro ama. The temperature of this water is not hot enough.
- Ha amnagar teuxue yulo noki. The thermometer shows 90 degrees.
- Diwe yobu ha amvyabxar. Please lower the thermostat.
- Ha oyeba amnag se elo noki. The temperature outside is twenty degrees.
- The word for electricity, electric current, vomulp, comes from vomul, meaning electron + p motion. The word vomul has the idea of negative (voa) and matter (mul), because it is the negatively-charged particle within an atom. Here are the various units of power and electricity:
- jul joule
- kulom coulomb
- amp ampere
- wat watt
- nuton newton
- volt volt
- Other vocabulary relating to electricity:
- mul matter, stuff
- mules particle, speck
- gwomul atom
- gwomula atomic
- vamul proton (positively-charged)
- omul neutron (no charge)
- vomul electron (negatively-charged)
- vomula electronic
- vomulp electric current, electricity, current
- vomulpa electric, electrical
- vomulptun electrical engineering, electronics
- vomulptuna electronic
- vomulptut electrical engineer
- vomulpa nif electric wire
- vomulpa ibzyeg electric socket
- vomulpa mas ibzyeg electric wall socket
- vomulpyaf electic power