Mirad Version 2

From Wikibooks, open books for an open world
(Redirected from Unilingua)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Introduction[edit]

Contents

Glojo, ha mir gonbeo yansauna gabyuxea dalyen. (Soon, the world will share a common auxiliary language.)

Mirad ( aka Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, is categorized by constructed language experts as philosophical because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the word stock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.

The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.
Mirad is constructed on the following principles:
  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, or semantic value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:
  • The letter w was added, mainly to indicate the passive voice of verbs.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair
  • The letter h was added, mainly to create some new grammatical particles.
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • The determiners like "this, that, such, which" were modified and systematized.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • A definite article was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The writing system now consists only of letters, with no diacritics.


Alphabet[edit]

Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English (see Orthography). Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
UPPERCASE A B C* D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q* R S T U V W X Y Z
LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z
NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
* Not used in "native" Mirad words.
Spelling a word means uttering the names in succession of the letters in the word. For example:
  • Miradmi i ro a da
  • anxwaa ni xu wu a
The letters w and h have only limited, functional (non-semantic) values in Mirad.

Phonology[edit]

The phonological system of Mirad consists of 20 consonant phonemes and 5 vowels phonemes.

Consonant Phonemes[edit]

The consonants are as follows:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m
Plosive voiced b ɡ
unvoiced p k
Affricate voiced
unvoiced (t͡ʃ)*
Fricative voiced v z ʒ
unvoiced f s ʃ h
Approximate j w
Flap ɽ

Consonant Graphemes[edit]

The consonant graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above consonant phonemes are as follows:

GRAPHEME b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w x y z
PHONEME b (t͡ʃ)* d f g h ʒ k l m n p ɽ s t v w ʃ j z
  • Note that the grapheme c is used only in foreign words, but represents the unvoiced affricate sound t͡ʃ.

Vowel Phonemes[edit]

There are five vowel phonemes in Mirad:

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Vowel Graphemes[edit]

The vowel graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above vowel phonemes (sounds) are as follows:

GRAPHEME a e i o u
PHONEME a e i o u

Pronunciation[edit]

The letters in Mirad are consonant phonemes or vowel phonemes and have only one basic pronunciation, although the letter y represents a special case. The y acts as a consonant when beginning a syllabic nucleus, and is pronounced as in English yes, but can also be used to form what are known as post-iotated vowel diphthongs (see Vowel Diphthongs, below).

Vowels[edit]

  • Simple Vowels
The vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some examples.


VOWEL IPA* SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH
a a mano la ah!
e e hecho é day (without the y-glide)
i i si oui see (without the y-glide)
o o no eau so (without the w-glide)
u u tu vous too (without the w-glide)
* IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Post-iotated Vowel Diphthongs
Vowels in Mirad can be post-iotated with the consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a word or before a syllable beginning with a consonant. For example, igAY and EYna contain post-iotated vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-RA-ya) does not.
POST-IOTATED VOWELS ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION SPANISH/FRENCH PRONUNCIATION
ay my hay ( Sp. there is)
ey day (with y-glide) rey ( Sp. king)
iy see (with y-glide) abeille (Fr. bee)
oy boy Spanish hoy (Sp. today)
uy gooey Spanish muy (Sp. very)
Syllables starting with a y (ya, ye, etc.) form a set of what are known as pre-iotated vowels. Vowels, pre-iotated vowels, post-iotated vowels, and circum-iotated vowels (that is, those beginning and ending with a vowel like yay, yoy, etc.) are sometimes considered a class of vowels in the grammar of Mirad.

Consonants[edit]

The consonants in Mirad are pronounced not altogether differently from their English counterparts, except for x, which is sounds like English sh in ship and j which resembles the zh sound in Zhivago or mirage. However, the so-called stops p, t, and k sound more closely like their European equivalents in that they are not aspirated, i.e. their is no puff of breath following them as in English.
The consonants q and c are not native to Mirad and are used only to represent foreign names and expressions. In that case, c is used for the English ch sound in China. For example, Cinader, meaning to speak Chinese, is pronounced as in English chee-nah-DEHR.
The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and certain numerical expressions and is pronounced as English w or the ou in French oui. The letter h is also used in certain function words and is pronounced like English h in house. It is also sometimes used to simulate sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach.
Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
CONSONANT IPA ARTICULATION CLOSET EQUIVALENTS
b b unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy
c tʃ * unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words)
d d unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog
f f unvoiced bilabial fricative English fog
g g unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i)
h h glottal fricative English house (or a glottal stop or other similar sounds like German Bach
j ʒ * voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage
k k unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English kite (without aspiration) or French comment
l l voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell.
m m voiced bilabial nasal English mother
n n voiced alveolar nasal English nobody
p p unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English pan (without aspiration)
q - - (Only used in foreign words, where it has various gutteral pronunciations)
r r alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma
s s unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose)
t t unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English top (without aspiration)
v v voiced bilabial fricative English very
w w voiced labio-velar approximant English water, French oui
x ʃ * unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher
y j voiced palatal approximant English yard (except when post-iotating a vowel to create a vowel diphthong like oy)
z z voiced alveolar fricative English zone

Note: If you see a blank here instead of an IPA symbol, it probably means that the font you are using to display characters in your browser does not support these characters.

Syllabification[edit]

Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-iotate or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the glides r, l, and w, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide or non-y consonants, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
CASE EXAMPLE SYLLABIFIED
1 ama hot a-ma
2 ayma warm ay-ma
3 aymsea warming up aym-se-a
4 pyerxwa exploded pyer-xwa
5 upayo will have come u-pa-yo
6 vyaa true vya-a
7 vyaay truly vya-ay
8 vyay (not a word) vyay
9 tambwa settled tam-bwa

Phonotactics[edit]

Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
PATTERN EXAMPLES
V[y] o, ay
C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre
V[y]C iyt, ad, ant, aynt
C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, toyb, xwer
V[lrn]C alx, arx, yalp, yarp, yank
Two non-glide consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.

Stress[edit]

Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel. In this case, y is treated like a consonant, and so a word ending in ay is stressed on that syllable (since the a is non-final). The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
teja vital te-ja
igay quickly i-gay
Mirad Mirad Mi-rad
booka sick bo-o-ka
bookan sickness bo-o-kan
tejea alive te-je-a

Orthography[edit]

Orthography has to do with the way words are spelled.

Capitalization[edit]

Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
  • The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
  • Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
  • All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English
Amerikam America
Amerikama American
Amerikat an American
Amerikad American English
Ivan Ivan
Dropek ay Poos War and Peace
At Mirade. I speak Mirad.
Hyat be ha mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon.
Yat tameya Boston. We were living in Boston.
His se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine.
Ha Anxwa Doobi gey dyunwe ha AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.

Punctuation[edit]

Punctuation and the rules governing it are the same as in English. The most common punctuation marks are:
PUNCTUATION MARK NAME
. period
, comma
; semi-colon
: colon
' single quote
" double quote
( left parens
) right parens
-- dash
! exclamation point
? question mark
* asterisk

Nouns[edit]

Types of Nouns[edit]

Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in these various ways:
  • common vs. proper
COMMON PROPER
tam...house Meer...Venus
yagsim...bench Fransam...France
dyes...book Notre Dame...Notre Dame
tej...life Tot...God
  • concrete vs. abstract
CONCRETE ABSTRACT
tab...body ifon...love
mil...water oyman...coolness
deuz...song deuzen...singing
  • countable vs. mass
COUNTABLE MASS
pat...bird pattel...bird food
patayeb...feather patayebyan...plumage
meg...rock mil...water
  • gender-neutral / male-oriented vs. female-oriented
GENDER-NEUTRAL / MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED
tob...human being, man toyb...woman
taf...suit, outfit tayf...dress
apet...horse apeyt...mare
  • singular or plural
SINGULAR PLURAL
dom...city domi...cities
gon...part goni...parts
jub...day jubi...days
  • inanimate (things) or animate (humans and animals)
INANIMATE ANIMATE
mam...sky pot...animal
tom...building aut...person
job...time tobot...child
Nouns also include gerunds, i.e. abstract nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen singing < deuzer to sing or osexen destruction < osexer to destroy.
In Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a CONSONANT. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat birdpati birds).
The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.

Pluralization of Common Nouns[edit]

A singular common noun is made plural by suffixing the plural marker vowel i. So, the plural of par car is pari cars.
SINGULAR PLURAL
tam...house tami...houses
toyb...woman toybi...women
tej...life teji...lives

Articles[edit]

In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ha the; There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Latin. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
MIRAD ENGLISH SPECIFICITY
tam a house indefinite, no article
ha tam the house definite
ha tami the houses definite, plural
tej life general, no article
fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article
ha tej (...at bayse) the life (...I have) specific
Fransad French general, no article
Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article
Ha yivani hu yat ifie. The freedoms we enjoy. abstraction specified
Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."

Proper Nouns[edit]

Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take a definite article only in a few cases like Ha Anxwa Doebi the United States. Otherwise, a country name like Fransam does not take a definite article, just as in English.

Modifiers: Placement and Agreement[edit]

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Mirad English
ha ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifa taxi many pleasant memories
hya fia tob every good man
ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja teji My past lives

Noun Linkage[edit]

Nouns can be
  1. linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
  2. juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
  3. compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
  4. hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
Examples:
LINKAGE EXAMPLE CONSTRUCTION
Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and)
ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or)
hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but)
dunnyan boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without)
tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi of
ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of)
job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
dyen ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about)
dropek jaxeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jaxeni (preparations)
dom yautpar....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yautpar (bus)
tojvaf....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun vaf (wish)
jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league)
maj-moj...a day-and-night two or more equal nouns hyphenated
The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person. The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Prepositions or Conjunctions.
Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Word Formation.

Noun Derivational Suffixes[edit]

Nouns can be divided into:
  • simple nouns such as par vehicle
  • compound nouns such as naadpar train < naad rail + par vehicle
  • derived nouns such as fabyan forest < fab tree + -yan, a suffix meaning collection
Derived nouns are formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
SUFFIX MEANING BASE ONTO WHICH
SUFFIX IS ADDED
EXAMPLES
-yan collection, grouping, -ary noun tob mantobyan mankind
mar starmaryan constellation
fab treefabyan forest
dyen bookdyenyan library
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant verb stem beker treatbekuyt nurse
poper travelpoput traveler
aker winakut winner
-en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifier enjoyifien enjoyment
deuzer singdeuzen singing
axer actaxen action, acting
-ob, -oyb (f.) offspring, baby of noun tob human beingtoboyb baby girl
apet horseapetob foal
yopet goatyopetob kid
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem via beautifulvia beauty
yeva fairyevan fairness, equity
toba humantoban humanity, humanness, manhood
-(s)(u)n object, thing various stems vyua dirtyvyun spot
tamber settletambun settlement
gorfer shredgorfun scrap, shred
yod not a singleyodsun not a single thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems ifer to loveifon love
ov againstovon obstacle
aza strong → azon force
'yika' difficultyikson problem
-in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot godtotin religion, theism
otofa nudeotofin nudism
yulf terroryulfin terrorism
-tun science of, -ology noun tot godtottun theology
tob mantobtun anthropology
vob plantvobtun botany
-es small item, part noun tom buildingtomes apartment
saun kindsaunes sample
dreuz poemdeuzes stanza
mek dust, powdermekes speck, gain
-et sub-level version of (persons only) noun tad fathertadet son
tuyd aunttuydet niece
tyud tutor → tyudet pupil
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas first one, first thing
otwa unknownotwas mystery
tejea livingtejeas living thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat second one, second person
faa holyfaat holy one, saint
ujna lastujat last one, last person
Amerika AmericanAmerikat an American
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla EnglishAnglad English (language)
Mira of the worldMirad Mirad (world speech)
apet horseaped neigh, whinny
-(e)m place various stems hoa? what? → hom? where?
yex workyexem worksite
ab on, aboveabem top, surface
kua lateralkum side
-(a)m place, house, building various stems nun merchanise → nunam store
til drink → tilam bar, tavern
fyadiler to prayfyadilam church
-im room, chamber various stems fadiler to prayfadilim chapel
mageler to cookmagelim kitchen
tofer to dresstofim dressing room
-[aou]r instrument, device, machine usu. verb stem per to gopar car
drer to writedrar pencil
gorber to cutgorbar knife
yalber to liftyalbur elevator, lift
dop militarydopur machine gun
-ag big noun tam house → tamag mansion
tyal mealtyalag banquet
tilar spoontilarag ladle
-ayg big and cute noun tam housetamayg cozy mansion
epet dogepetayg wolfie
-yag big and ugly noun tud uncletudyag dirty old uncle
toyb womantoybyag hag
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet horseapetog pony
tyal mealtyalog snack
gorbun cutgorbunog cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam housetamoyg cottage
apayt chickenapaytoyg chickadee
mimpar boatmirparoyg dingy
-yog little and ugly noun tam housetamyog shack
epat duckepatyog ugly duckling
kod secretkodyog little dirty secret
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man lightmanig flash
pyex strokepyexig swat
yopaper dive, fly downyopapig swoop
-if love of, -philia noun tel foodtelif gourmandise
doab homelanddoabif patriotism
dyes bookdyesif bibliophilia, love of books
-ef need of noun tel foodtelef hunger
iga fastigef emergency
til drinktilef thirst
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf hydrophobia
totin religiontotinuf hatred of religion
toyb womantoybuf misogyny
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet snakelopyetyuf fear of snakes
mil watermilyuf hyrophobia
-yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teater to seeteatyaf ability to see
texer to thinktexyaf cognition
tester to understandtestyaf comprehension
noser to spendnosyaf spending power
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teater to seeteatyof blindness
teeter to hearteetyof deafness
paser to movepasyof paralysis
tujer to sleeptujyof insomnia
-yef compulsion to, mania verb stem vyoder to lievyodyef compulsion to lie
kobier to stealkobiyef kleptomania, compulsion to steal

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be of the following types:
  • descriptive
  • qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
  • denominal (noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
  • deverbal (verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
  • preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
  • determinative
  • deictic, like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
  • numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
  • quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (to much)
  • pronominal, like heta (whose), ata (my), hyeta (anyone's)
Only descriptive adjectives are discussed here in the section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participals, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal adjectives (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.
All descriptive adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
  • fi- root qualitative morpheme ⇒ fia good
  • par noun vehiclepara vehicular
  • dalw- passive stem of the verb speakdalwa spoken
  • ab preposition onaba superior
Descriptive adjectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
  • aga tam....a big house
  • ha fia toyb....the good woman
  • ata boka ted....my sick father
  • fia telsyeb bi vafil.....a good bottle of wine
  • Yata dooba doof....our national flag
  • Ata tejea tyedi.....my living relatives
doba xeut state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
pata bok avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.

Comparison of Adjectives by Degree[edit]

As in English, descriptive adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINER COMPARISON
ga more ga fia better
ge as, equally ge fia as good
go less go fia less good
gla very gla fia very good
glay so glay fia so good
gle rather/quite gle fia rather/quite good
glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good
gra too gra fia too good
gre enough gre fia good enough
gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good/not good enough
gwa most gwa fia best
gwe average gwe fia good on average
gwo least gwo fia least good
The relative conjunction ev is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison, or than in a non-equalitative comparison, or of / in in a superlative expression. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga ev etas. My house is bigger than yours.
  • Hia tam voy se ge aga ev atas. This house is not as big as mine.
  • His se ad gwa aga tam bi yata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative and often other adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
ADJECTIVE ABSTRACT QUALITY
fia good fian goodness
yeva just yevan justice
uja final ujan finality
joga young jogan youth
teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity
dooba nation dooban nationality
tojbuwa lethal tojbuwan lethality

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives[edit]

Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing the vowel o. This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
Here are some examples:
NORMAL NEGATED
ega normal oega abnormal
twa known otwa unknown
geyla similar ogeyla dissimilar
iva happy oiva unhappy
data friendly odata unfriendly
yodata inimical, enemy-like

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

All qualitative adjectives end in at least the suffix a.
The suffix yena makes a noun into an adjective having the meaning like, -ish, -ly, having the qualities of, eg.:
  • fyaat godfyaata divinefyaatyena godly, godlike
  • tob mantoba humantobyena virile, manly, human-like
  • pot animalpota animalpotyena bestial, animal-like
  • mir worldmira globalmiryena wordly
The suffix aya or ika means full of like the English endings -ful, -ous, -y, eg.:
  • mil watermilaya or milika watery
  • meb mountainmebaya or mebika mountainous
  • mel soilmelaya or melika soily, dirty
  • tex thoughttexaya or texika thoughtful
The opposite of this suffix is oya or uka meaning empty of, -less, -free, eg.:
  • mil watermiloya or miluka waterless
  • teb headteboya or tebuka headless
  • level sugarleveloya or leveluka sugar-free
The suffix ina adds the notion of given to thinking like or an -ism much like English -istic, eg.:
  • tob humantobin humanismtobina humanistic
  • kyeoj fatekyeojin fatalismkeyojina fatalistic
  • yautin communismyautina communistic
The suffix tuna adds the notion of pertaining to the study of like English -ological, eg.:
  • tob humantobtun anthropologytobtuna anthropological
  • vob planttobtun botanyvobtuna botanical
  • teyen ideateyentun philosophyphilosophical
The suffix ea, which makes an present active participle from a verb stem, is like English -ant, -ent, -ing, eg.:
  • agser to growagsea growing as in the growing grass
  • oker to loseokea losing as in the losing team
  • kyaxer to mutatekyaxea mutant as in a mutant gene
The suffix yea, which makes a more intensive present active participle from a verb stem, is like English -ive, meaning apt or given to doing something, eg:
  • dal- talkdalyea talkative'
  • zoybux- repulsezoybuxyea repulsive
  • vad- affirmvadyea affirmative
  • tox- to forgettoxyea forgetful
  • if- to loveifyea amiable, loving
The suffix (a)wa, which makes a past passive participle from a verb stem, is like English -ed, eg.:
  • ok- loseokwa lost as in the lost child
  • alk-' defeatalkawa defeated as in the defeated enemy
  • anx- uniteanxwa united as in the United States
The suffix oa, which forms a future active participle from a verb stem, means apt to, liable to, eg.:
  • toj- dietojo will dietojoa moribund, about to die
  • pu- arrivepuo will arrivepuoa about to arrive, next
The suffix ua (active) or uwa (passive), which forms a conditional (hypothetical) participle from a verb stem, means "liable to, able to, eg.:
  • tojb- killtojbua lethal
  • tel- eatteluwa edible
  • belk- curebelkuwa curable

Pronominalization of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be pronominalized (or: substantivized) by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN
fia.... good fias.... a good thing
fiasi.... good things
fiat.... a good person
fiati.... good persons
aga.... big agas.... something big
agasi.... big ones
agat.... a big person
agati.... big persons
joga.... young, new jogas.... something new, novelty
jogasi.... new ones
yogat.... young person, youth
yogati.... youngsters
jaga.... old jagas.... antique
jagasi.... old ones
jagat.... elderly person
jagati.... oldsters
awa.... one
ewa....two
awas.... one (of them)
ewasi.... two (of them)
awat.... one (of them)
ewati.... two of them
hia.... this hias.... this one
hiasi.... these (things)
hiat.... this one
hiati.... these
gla.... much, many glas.... a lot (of stuff)
glasi.... many (things)

glati.... many (people)
Examples:
  • Hia tyoyaf se ogre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
  • Yat fu daler bay ha gwa jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
  • At fe teaxer ha jogas, voy ha jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
  • Ha ujnati so ha aati. The last shall be the first.

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs can be derived from adjectives by replacing the adjective ending a with ay.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia good fiay well
yeva fair yevay fairly
uja final ujay finally
joga new jogay newly
teyda maternal teyday maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi. She sings well.
  • At upo ig. I'll come quickly.

Inherent Adverbs[edit]

There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives. Here are a few examples:
  • yab up
  • yeb in
  • yob down
  • oyeb out
  • vay indeed, certainly
  • vey perhaps
  • voy not
  • yub near
  • yib far
  • ub toward
  • ib away
  • zay ahead
  • zey across
  • zoy back
The above words are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab. I looked up.
  • Duhev et hyej upo zoy? Will you ever come back.
  • Et po yib be tej. You will go far in life.
Some of them can double as prepositions. See Prepositions.
Many of them can be prefixed to verbs to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
  • oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (take out)  [NOT: oyebbier]
  • zey (across) + per (go) = zayper (transit, cross)
  • yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (approach)  [NOT: yubper]
  • yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (telephone)

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze viay. He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer gwa ig. You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et hyoj ako firxa ivan. You will never gain perfect happiness.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit]

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of quantitative determiners:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE
fiay well ga fiay ev better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
igay quickly ge igay ev as quickly as (Lit: equally quick-ly as)
ugay slowly gwa ugay as quickly as possible (Lit: most quick-ly)
yikay easily go yikay less easily

Determiners[edit]

Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context. Determiners can be categorized in Mirad as the following types:
TYPE ENGLISH EXAMPLES
Quantitative more, less, very
Numerical one, half, first
Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when
Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
Furthermore, as far part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.

Quantitative Determiners[edit]

Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
  • specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
  • specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
  • specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
  • Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
  • Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
The following table presents most of these word forms:
ADVERB / ADJECTIVE SINGULAR INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL ANIMATE PRONOUN
DEGREE: How...(big / quickly)?
AMOUNT: How much...(money)?
NUMBER: How many...(books)?
AMOUNT: How much...(+ STUFF)? NUMBER: How many...(+ THINGS)? NUMBER: How many...(+ PEOPLE)?
ga more gas more (stuff) gasi many (things) gati many (people)
ge as, as much, as many ges as much (stuff) gesi as many (things) geti as many people
go less, fewer gos less (stuff) gosi fewer (things) goti fewer (people)
gla very, much, many
glay so, so much, so many
glas much (stuff)
glays so much stuff)
glasi many (things)
glaysi so many (things)
glati many (people)
glayti so many (people)
gle rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles quite a lot (of stuff) glesi quite a lot (of things) qleti quite a few (people)
glo slightly, a little, few glos a little bit glosi a few (things) gloti few (people)
gra too, too much, too many gras too much (stuff) grasi too many (things) grati too many (people)
gre enough gres enough (stuff) gresi enough (things) greti enough (people)
gro insufficiently, too little, too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people)
gwa most gwas the most (stuff) gwasi the most (things) gwati most people
gwe so, so much, so many gwes so much (stuff) gwesi so many (things) gweti so many (people)
gwo least gwos the least (stuff) gwosi the least (number of) gwoti the least number (of people)
Examples Using Quantitative Determiners
Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
  • At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
  • Et sa gro uga.....You were too slow.
Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
  • Tobi dale ge igay ev toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
  • Yat yexe ga igay ev yet.....We work faster (= more fast) than you.
Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
  • Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
  • Gra nas noswa....Too much money was spent.
Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun:
  • At ayse gro sari....I've got too few tools.
  • It yeyfe at gle nas.....He owes me quite a bit of money.
  • Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something:
  • Gas ilokeye.....More is leaking.
  • Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much.
  • Yat keo gwas.....We will seek as much as possible.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
  • Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
  • At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but not enough.
Pronouns referrring to a countable number of people:
  • Grati xaye vyoci be hi yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this worksite.
  • Glati dyunwe oy gloti kebiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.text

Numerical Determiners[edit]

Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:

Cardinal Numbers[edit]

The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
  • The units are formed from the plain and pre-iotated vowels:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
The numerals 5-9 are pre-iotated versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
  • The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91
ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
  • By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
  • asa 101
  • asale 112
  • usyulyu 199
  • The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
  • aro 1,000
  • aro a 1,001
  • ero isi 2,300
  • yoro yasula 5,641
  • The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
  • emlo 2,000,000
  • umlo 4,000,000
  • The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
  • yamro 6 billion
The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
iro asyulyo 3,195
yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922

Cardinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Cardinal numerical determiners are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical determiner goes first. Cardinal numerical determiners are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added to monosyllabic numbers simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numerical determiner is 2 or more, then the noun is pluralized.
Mirad English
owa tam singular! no houses, zero houses
awa tam singular! one house, a house
ewa tami plural two houses
iwa tami three houses
uwa tami four houses
yowa tami five houses
yawa tami six houses
yewa tami seven houses
yiwa tami eight houses
yuwa tami nine houses
alo tami ten houses
ase tami a hundred two houses
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses
Cardinal numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun thing or suni things. The t ending is short for aut person or auti persons. For example:
  • Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas (= awa sun). You have one house. I have one too.
  • At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay alosi (= alo suni). I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti (= aso auti) yeb ha duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi huti. We must choose twenty-four females from those people.

Ordinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Determiner
o.... zero oa.... zeroth
a.... one aa.... first
e.... two ea.... second
i.... three ia.... third
alo.... ten aloa.... tenth
asu.... 104 asua.... 104th
The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
  • anapa.... first, first in order, primary*
  • enapa.... second, second in order, secondary
  • inapa.... third, third in order, tertiary
  • alanapa.... eleventh, eleventh in order
There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
  • ijna.... initial, first, original
  • ujna.... last, final
  • ajna.... past, ex-, former
  • ojna.... future
  • ejna.... present, current
  • jana.... previous, last
  • jona.... next, following
Ordinal numerical determiners and adjectives can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Adjective Adverb
aa.... first aay.... firstly
anapa.... first anapay.... primarily
ea.... second eay.... secondly
ujna.... last ujnay.... finally
Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
  • ha aas.... the first thing
  • ha aat.... the first person
  • ha aati.... the first people
  • hua aayt.... that first female
  • ha eas.... the second thing
  • eat.... another / a second person
  • ha ujnati so ha ijnati.... the last shall be first
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • hua uwa aga tami.... those four big houses
  • ha aa alo oga tami.... the first ten little houses
  • ata anapa ewa oga tobobi.... my first two little children

Fractional Numerical Determiners[edit]

Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -y(n) for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
CARDINAL NUMBER FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB
o.... zero oyn.... a void, vacuum oyna.... non-existant -- oy(n)-.... devoid of oynaxer.... annihilate
a.... one ayn.... whole
ha ayn.... the whole
ayna.... entire, whole aynay.... entirely ay(n)-.... holo-, whole-, all- aynaxer.... integrate
e.... two eyn.... a half eyna.... half eynay.... halfway ey(n)-.... half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynaxer.... halve
i.... three iyn.... a third iyna.... third iynay.... by a third iy(n)-.... terci- iynaxer.... cut in third
u.... four uyn.... a quarter uyna.... quarter uynay.... quarterly uy(n)-.... quadri- uynaxer.... quarter
alo.... ten aloyn.... a tenth aloyna.... tenth aloynay.... by a tenth aloy(n)-.... deci- aloynaxer.... decimate
aso.... hundred asoyn.... hundredth, percent asoyna.... hundredth asoynay.... by a hundredth asoy(n)-.... centi- asoynaxer.... cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • His uxo ha oynaxen bi yata mir..... This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ha ayna mir te ayv et..... The whole world knows about you.
  • Has se gas ev ha ayn bi hasa goni..... It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Fransad se ayn-druna dalyen..... France is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn..... You can take half.
  • Yat yefo eynaxer eta yexnix..... We will have to halve your salary.
  • Hus sa eyn-vyan..... That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eyn-zyunida dropek..... There is going to be a hemispheric war.
  • Duhev his se eyn-exea dopar?.... Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynaxu hua ableyavol..... Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay iynaxwer..... He should be drawn and (be) quartered.
  • Hia nas se aloyn bi has yat baysa zojab..... This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ha dep aloynaxwu..... The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan bakasa..... Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Hia tom se anay asoyngel aga ev hua tom..... This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi..... You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka..... She almost (=halfway) threw up.

Multiplicative Numerical Determiners[edit]

Multiplicative numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal number if the number is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
CARDINAL NUMBER MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER
o.... zero oon.... null oona.... nil on-.... zero- onaxer.... cancel, zero out
a.... one aon.... single aona.... single aonay.... singly an-.... uni-/mono- anaxer unify
e.... two eon.... twosome, double eona.... double eonay.... doubly en-.... di-/bi- enaxer double
i.... three ion.... threesome, triplet iona.... triple ionay.... triply in-.... tri-- inaxer.... triple
u.... four uon.... quartet uona.... quadruple uonay.... quadruply un-.... quadri-/tetra- unaxer.... quadruple
yo.... five yoon.... quintet yoona.... quintuple yoonay.... quintuply yoon-.... quinti-/penta- yoonaxer.... quintuple
alo.... ten alon.... decade alona.... decadic alonay.... by a multiple of ten alon-.... deca- alonaxer.... multiply by ten
aso.... hundred ason.... hundredfold asona.... hundredfold asonay.... by a hundredfold ason-.... hecato- asonaxer.... multiply by a hundred
The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa..... Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
  • aonat.... solo, single
  • aonatser.... become single
  • eonat.... duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eonatser.... couple up, copulate
  • ionat.... trio, threesome, trinity
  • Ionatin.... Trinitarianism
  • uonat.... quartet, foursome
  • yoonat.... quintet, group of five people
  • yoonati.... quintets


By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun.... unit
  • auna.... unitary, individual
  • aunser.... unite
  • aunyan.... series
  • aunyana.... serial
  • eun.... pair
  • euna.... even, paired, binary
  • oeuna.... odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oeunat.... odd man out
  • eunaxer.... even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat vyaptyoyapa be eonati yez ha mep..... We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu is ovdal..... Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Hia ivxel xwe enyabay..... This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untubokat..... She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ha auni..... Please count the units.
  • Et gafisa aronay!.... You have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se entyoyaba sat..... Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • anzyus.... monocycle
  • enzyus.... bicycle
  • ingun.... triangle
  • ungun.... quadrangle
Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon apart and yan together.
  • yoongona.... quintipartite  BUT: yonper.... separate, go apart
  • yaongun.... hexagon  BUT: yanuper.... meet, come together

Frequentative Determiners[edit]

There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
  • Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
  • Using xag meaning frequency
Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING
hogla jodi? hoxag? how often?, how many times?
hagla jodi haxag as many times, as often
hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions
higla jodi hixag this often, this many times
hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times
huygla jodi huyxag so often, so many times
hyogla jodi hyoxag never, on no occasion
hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times
hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often
hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times
hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi gaxag more often
ge jodi gexag as many times
go jodi goxag less often
gla jodi glaxag many times, often
gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom
gra jodi graxag too often
gre jodi grexag often enough
gro jodi groxag too seldom
gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times
gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times
gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible
owa jod -- never, at no time, zero times
awa jod -- once, one time
ewa jodi -- twice, two times
iwa jodi -- thrice, three times
alo jodi -- ten times
ge jodi ev et fu gexag ev et fu as often as you would like

Arithmetical Expressions[edit]

The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT
gaber.... add gab.... addition gabwas.... addend gabeas.... adder gab.... plus, + gabsin.... plus sign gabix.... sum
galer.... multiply gal.... multiplication galwas.... multiplicand galeas.... multiplier gal.... times, x galsin.... times sign galix.... product
garer.... exponentiate, raise gar.... power galwas.... number being raised gareas.... exponent gar.... raised to the power of galsin.... exponent galix.... raising result
gober.... subtract gob.... subtraction gobwas.... subtrahend gobeas.... subtractor gob.... minus, - gobsin.... minus sign gobix.... difference
goler.... divide gol.... division, fraction golwas.... dividend goleas.... divisor gol.... divided by, ÷ golsin.... division sign golix.... quotient
gorer.... cut, uproot gor.... cut, root gorwas.... radicand goreas.... radical gor.... lower to the power of, √ gorsin.... radical gorix.... root lowering result
geler.... equal gel.... equation gelwas.... thing being equated geleas.... equator gel.... equal to, as, like gelsin.... equal sign gelix.... equation results
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gele u..... Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gele ya..... Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gele yu..... Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gele o..... Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gele i..... Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gele i..... Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gele alo..... One hundred squared equals ten.

Calendar Expressions[edit]

The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:

Basic Calendar Units[edit]

Time is divided using the following basic terms:
MIRAD ENGLISH
job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jwob hour
jwab minute
jweb second
Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical morphemes to some of the time units above:
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA
arojab millenium year x 1,000
asojab century year x 100
alojab decade year x 10
eynjab half year year x 1/2
uynjab quarter year x 1/4
yejub week day x 7
eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
MIRAD ENGLISH
hijub
hia yejub
hijab
today
this week
this year
zojub
ha jana yejub
zajab
yesterday
last week
last year
zajub
ha jona yejub
zajab
tomorrow
next week
next year
hujub
hua yejub
hujab
that day
that week
that year
jazojub
ja ewa yejubi
jazojab
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jozajub
jo ewa yejubi
jozajab
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next

Seasons of the Year[edit]

Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
MIRAD ENGLISH
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, Fall
jeub winter
Examples of usage:
  • be jeab.... in spring
  • ja jeeb.... before summer
  • ju jeib.... until autumn
  • ji jeub.... since winter
  • je ha jeb.... during the season
  • ub ha uj bi jeeb.... toward the end of summer
  • eb jeab ay jeeb.... between spring and summer
  • jeeba gemoj.... vernal equinox
  • jeiba fayebi.... autumn leaves
  • jeba til.... seasonal drink
  • jeubyena jebmalyen.... wintry climate
  • jeabyena malyen.... spring-like weather
  • jeuben.... hibernation

Months of the Year[edit]

Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
MIRAD ENGLISH
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
Some expressions using the months:
  • be jilob.... in October
  • ja jiyab.... before June
  • ja zajiyeb.... by next July
  • hijib.... this month
  • zojib.... last month
  • zajib.... next month
  • bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis... month-to-month rent
  • jibay... monthly
  • jibi joy... months later
  • jiba sindryen.... monthly magazine
  • hujiba jobnis.... that month's rent
  • hya ionjib.... every trimester
  • jiber.... menstruate

Days of the Week[edit]

Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
MIRAD ENGLISH
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
MIRAD ENGLISH
hojub? which day
hajub hu... the day that...
hejub someday
hijub today
hujub that day
hyijub (on) the same day
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
hajub hu... the day that...
zajub yesterday
zojub tomorrow
ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
jazojub the day before yesterday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
hya ea jub every other/second day
hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
Examples of Usage:
  • be juyob....on Friday
  • ju juib....until Wednesday
  • ji zojub.... since yesterday
  • lojo jubuj.... by [Lit: not after] day's end
  • jo zajub.... after tomorrow
  • je ha jub.... during the day
  • bi juab bu juub... from Monday to Friday

Parts of the Day[edit]

Here are the principal parts of a day:
DAYTIME NIGHTTIME
maj....daytime, day moj....nighttime, night
bi maj....A.M. bi moj....P.M.
jaijmaj....pre-dawn jaijmoj....pre-dusk
ijmaj....daybreak, dawn ijmoj....dusk
amaryap....sunrise, sunup amaryop....sunset, sundown
imaj....morning
zaimaj....tomorrow morning
hiimaj....this morning
zoimaj.... yesterday morning
huimaj....that morning
hyaimaj....every morning
imoj....evening
zaimoj....tomorrow evening
hiimoj....this evening
zoimoj.... yesterday evening
huimoj....that evening
hyaimoj....every evening
jwaimaj....early morning jwaimoj....early evening
jwoimaj....late morning jwoimoj....late evening
eymaj....noon eymoj....midnight
joeymaj....afternoon joeymoj....after midnight
ujmaj....dusk, day's end gwomoj...late night
  • Examples of Usage:
  • At tijia ja ijmaj.....I woke up before dawn.
  • At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa joeymaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
  • It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
  • Be gwa umaji, at teaxe teasibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.

Expressing Dates[edit]

The following is a how a date is normally expressed:
  • be juab, 11 jieb 2018 JaK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
The day in the above expression is pronounced ali.
The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
The acronym for A.D. is JaK, short for Ja Krist (before Christ).
The acronym for B.C. is JoK, short for Jo Krist (after Christ).
Other date expressions follow:
  • be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
  • ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
  • eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (elo awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
  • zya hua alojab....throughout that decade
  • At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
  • Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
  • Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.

Telling Time[edit]

Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
The usual time-of-day question is Se hojwob? What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
The typical answer is in the format Se aa/ea... jwob gab/gob alo/ali... bi maj/moj. (Lit: (It) is (the) first/second... hour plus/minus ten/eleven...of day/night.
Here are some typical answers:
  • Se aa jwob..... It is one o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) first hour.] [NOTE: The article "the" is left unexpressed.]
  • Se ea jwob..... It is two o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) second hour.]
  • Se alea jwob..... It is twelve o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) twelfth hour.]


  • Se ia jwob bi maj*..... It is three o'clock A.M.  [Lit: It is third hour of daytime.]
  • Se aloa jwob bi moj**..... It is ten o'clock P.M.  [Lit: It is tenth hour of nighttime.]
* bi maj (a.m.) can be abbreviated as bma
** bi moj (p.m.) can be abbreviated as bmo
  • Se ua jwob (gab) alo..... It is four ten.....  [Lit: It is fourth hour (plus) ten.]
  • Se iloa jwob gob ali..... It is thirteen minutes til three.  [Lit: It is thirteenth hour minus thirteen.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gab uyn..... It is quarter after five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour plus a quarter.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gob uyn..... It is quarter past five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour minus a quarter.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab eyn..... It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus a half.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab ilo..... It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob eyn..... It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob ilo..... It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus a half.]
  • Se vyavay yea jwob gab alo bi moj..... It is exactly 7:10 P.M..  [Lit: It is exactly seventh hour plus ten of nighttime.]
  • Et sa alo jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes.  [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
  • Has ijo jub 5:30 (= yaa jwob gab ilo) bmo (= bi moj).....It will begin around 5:30 (= five thirty [Lit: five hours plus thirty]) p.m.
  • Puu him loga jwoa ev 3 (= ia) j. (= jwob)....Get here no later than 3 (= three) o'clock.
  • Ha yautpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
  • Ha jwobar izeade 2:30 (= ea jwob gab ilo).....The clock says [Lit: indicates] 2:30.
  • Yit pua be 3a j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
Mirad normally uses a 12-hour system with distinction between a.m. and p.m., but military 24-hour time can also be used in particular situations, in which case the a.m./p.m. distinction is not needed.
  • Yanpu at be iloa jwob gab alyo..... Meet me at 13:15. (= 1:15 p.m.)
The word jwab (hour, o'clock) can be abbreviated as j., as in the following:
  • Yanpu at be 13a j..... Meet me at 13:00 (hours) [Lit: at (the) 13th h.]
The word gab (plus) can be omitted, as in:
  • At teato et be yoa j. alyo..... I'll see you at five fifteen / quarter past five.
Note the following clock time idioms:
MIRAD ENGLISH
jwa early
jwe on time
jwo late
Se vyavay eloa jwob. It is exactly two o'clock.
jub eymaj around noon
ub eymoj toward midnight
yeb jwebi within seconds
alo jwabi jahij ten minutes ago
loga jwo ev / lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock.
jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour
Hia pop dire / yixe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: requires / uses) 2 1/2 hours.
ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now
ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock.
je ha jana 12 jwabi for the last 12 minutes
ja 10a j. before / by 10 o'clock (= the tenth hour)
ja 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours.
jo 10a j. 'after 10 o'clock.
jo 10 jwobi. after 10 hours / 10 hours later / 10 hours ago

Expressing Age[edit]

Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
The typical question is:
  • Et se hojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
A typical answer is:
  • At se eli jaga....I am twenty-three years old.
The following chart shows other age expressions, many of which are agglutinations of the deictic morphemes beginning with h. If a cell has two Mirad forms, the second one is a shorter alternative version:
AGE
hojaga?.... how old?
hajaga.... of the age
hejaga.... of some age
hijaga.... this old
hujaga.... that old
huyjaga.... so old
jaga....old
joga....young
gle jaga.... rather old, oldish
gla jaga.... very old
gra jaga.... too old, super-aged
gro jaga.... under-aged, minor
ge jaga.... as old, of the same age
awa jab jaga.... one year old
awa jaga
awa jab
ewa jabi jaga.... two years old
ewa jaga
ewa jabi
alo jabi jaga.... ten years old
alo jaga
alo jabi
ga jaga ev et.... older than you
ga joga ev at.... younger than me
ge joga ev iyt.... as young as her
ha gwa jagat bi ata tedetyan....the youngest of my siblings
grojagat....a minor
alojagat....a ten-year-old
alonijagat....a teenager
jogat....a boy, a youth
joygat...a girl
grejat....an adult, someone of age
jagseat....an adolescent
jagsat....grownup
yilojagat...an octogenarian
asojagat....a centenarian
Some other examples of usage:
  • Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
  • At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
  • His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
  • Yegaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
  • At se ga jaga ev ha mebi.....I am as old as the hills.
  • Teaxu ata gwa joga tobot.....Look at my youngest child.
  • Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
  • Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.

Money Expressions[edit]

This section is currency-dependent and remains under construction.

Deictic Determiners[edit]

Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words. They include the following:
  • demonstratives like this, that, those
  • indefinite specifiers like any, some, all, the, etc.
  • Derived animate and inanimate pronouns like this one, those things, something, everyone, etc.
  • Derived adverbs of time like when, now
  • Derived adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere
  • Derived adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow
  • Derived adverbs of kind so, age this year old, direction that way, reason why?, and so forth.

Deictic Determiner Prefixes[edit]

There are ten deictic base morphemes used as prefixes to form many determiners, including adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs.
CATEGORY BASE MORPHEME (PREFIX)
INTERROGATIVE ho-...?
what?
DEFINITE ha-
the
INDEFINITE he-
some, a certain
PROXIMAL hi-
this, these
DISTAL hu-
that, those, such, so
NEGATIVE hyo-
no, not any
DISTRIBUTIVE hya-
every, all, each
INDETERMINATE hye-
any, whatever
IDIODEICTIC* hyi-
the same, the very
ALLODEICTIC** hyu-
the other, another, else
* Idiodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "same-specifying" and refers to words that point reflexively to the same entities, such as at the same time, in the same way, the same person, etc.
** Allodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "other-specifying" and refers to words that point outwardly to other entities, such as somebody else, some other time, in other ways, etc.

Deictic Determiners as Adjectives[edit]

Here is a table showing the deictic determiner prefixes attached to elements ending in -a to form various adjectival deictic determiners:
  ADJECTIVE OF SELECTION ADJECTIVE OF KIND ADJECTIVE OF POSSESSION
INTERROGATIVE hoa?
which?
hoyena?
what kind of?
hota?
whose?
DEFINITE ha   (short for haa)
the
hayena
the kind of
hata
the one's
INDEFINITE hea
some, a certain
heyena
some kind of, a certain kind of
heta
someone's
PROXIMAL hia
this, these
hiyena
this kind of, such (a), like this, like these
hita
this one's
DISTAL hua
that, those
huyena
that kind of, such (a), like that, like those
huta
that one's
NEGATIVE hyoa
not, not a, not any
hyoyena
no kind of, no such
hyota
nobody's
DISTRIBUTIVE hya    (short for hyaa)
every, all, each
hyayena
every kind of, all kinds of
hyata
everybody's
INDETERMINATE hyea
any, whatever
hyeyena
any kind of, whatever kind of
hyeta
anybody's
IDIODEICTIC hyia
the same
hyiyena
the same kind of
hyita
the same one's
ALLODEICTIC hyua
the other
hyuyena
some other kind of
hyuta
someone else's
Note: The definite deictic determiner adjective ha (actually, short for haa) is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the. As mentioned before, if the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun.
This is called zero determination. For example:
  • Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil. We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil. We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the second glasses of wine.

Examples of the Usage of Adjectival Determiners[edit]

  • Hoa tam se etas? Which house is yours?
  • Hoyena dyezuni ifxe et? What kind of movies do you like?
  • Hota tef okwa? Whose hat was lost?
  • Ha tob ta yata dyuni. The man knew our names.
  • Hayena dini at ife, et ufe. The kind of stories I love, you hate.
  • Hea mepi yegdyunwo. Certain streets will be renamed.
  • Heyena fukyes uxaye parnyan. Some kind of accident has cause a traffic jam.
  • Heta abtaf akwa be ha zatem. Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
  • Hia dyes se ata gafias. This book is my favorite.
  • Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo. This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Hita tim so yovoza. This guy's room will be blue.
  • Hua mas efwa yegvozilbwer. That wall needs to be repainted.
  • Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at. Such words should not be used in front of me.
  • Huta tam magseye. That guy's house is on fire.
  • Hyoa din se ga gesaya. No story is more important.
  • Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe. No such meaning can be inferred.
  • Hyota jatexdren sa ga fia. Nobody's plan is better.
  • Hya mepi izpe Roma. All roads lead to Rome.
  • Hya tob yefe xer ita gon. Every man must do his part.
  • Hyayena telami ese be hia mep. All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
  • Hyata tej se uka bi yabi ay yobi. Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
  • Hya ewa domi agxaye. Both cities have grown.
  • Hyea voz so fia. Any color will be fine.
  • Hyeyena til se beuwa. Any kind of drink is available.
  • Hyeta ved se ge ifa ev atas. Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
  • Hyea tim et fe et yafe bayser. Whatever room you want, you can have.
  • Hyia fukyesi kyese glajodi. The same accidents occur frequently.
  • Hyiena dyezuni teaxuwa zajub. The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
  • Hyita dyun yixwa gajod. The same person's name was used again.
  • Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea. The other movie was more entertaining.
  • Hyuena mos teasu ga fia. Another kind of furniture would look better.
  • Hyuta texyen se ga fyia. Someone else's opinion is equally valid.

Deictic Determiners as Pronouns[edit]

The following chart shows deictic determiners used as pronouns. Note that the suffix -s (short for sun) is used pronouns referring to things, while -t (short for tob) is used for those referring to persons. The suffix -i pluralized either of these. The distinction between a form like what? and a selective form like which? is made by using the full adjectival form (with -a-) in the selective forms. So, for example, hot? is who?, but hoat? is which one? (referring to a person).
PRONOUNS THING THINGS SELECTIVE
THING
SELECTIVE
THINGS
SELECTIVE
PERSON
SELECTIVE
PERSONS
PERSON PERSONS PERSON
POSSESSED THING
PERSON
POSSESSED THINGS
INTERROGATIVE hos?
what?
hosi?
what (things)?
hoas?
which one?
hoasi?
which ones?
hoat?
who(m)?
hoati?
who? (pl.)
hot?
who, whom?
hoti?
who (pl.)?
hotas?
whose (thing)?
hotasi?
whose (things)?
DEFINITE has
it, the thing
hasi
they, them, the things
haas
the one
haasi
the ones
hat
the one
haasi
the ones
hat
the person, he, him
hati
the persons, they, them
hatas
whose? (thing)
hatasi
whose? (things)
INDEFINITE hes
something
hesi
some (things)
heas
a certain one
heasi
certain ones
heat
a certain one
heati
certain ones
het
someone
heti
some (people)
hetas
someone's
hetasi
some people's
PROXIMAL hit
this
hiti
these
hias
this one
hiasi
these
hiat
this one
hiati
those
hit
this person, he, him
hiti
these people, they, them
hitas
this person's, his
hitasi
this person's (things), theirs
DISTAL hus
that
husi
those
huas
that one
huasi
those
huat
that one
huati
those people, they
hut
that person, he, him
huti
those people, they, them
hutas
that person's, his
hutasi
that person's (things), his
NEGATIVE hyos
nothing
hyosi
none
hyoas
not a one
hyoasi
none
hyodat
not a one
hyoati
none
hyot
nobody
hyoti
no people
hyotas
nobody's
hyotasi
nobody's (things)
DISTRIBUTIVE hyas
everything, all
hyasi
all things
hyaas
each one
hyaasi
all of them
hyaat
each one
hyaati
all of them
hyat
everyone
hyati
all (people)
hyatas
everyone's
hyatasi
everyone's (things)
INDETERMINATE hyes
anything, whatever
hyesi
any
hyeas
whatever one
hyeasi
any of them
hyeat
whichever one
hyeati
whichever ones
hyet
anyone
hyeti
whoever
hyetas
whoever's
hyetasi
anybody's (things)
IDIODEICTIC hyis
the same thing
hyisi
the same things
hyis
the same one
hyiasi
the same ones
hyiat
the same one
hyiati
the same one
hyit
the same person
hyiti
the same people
hyitas
the same person's
hyitasi
the same person's (things)
ALLODEICTIC hyus
something else
hyusi
other things
hyuas
the other one
hyuasi
the other ones
hyuat
the other one
hyuati
the others
hyut
someone else
hyuti
others
hyutas
someone else's
hyutasi
someone else's (things)
Other pronominal deictic determiners can be derived from adjectival determiners of kind and numeric determiners:
  KIND OF THING KIND OF THINGS KIND OF PERSON KIND OF PEOPLE
INTERROGATIVE hoyenas?
what kind of thing?
hoyenasi?
what kind of things?
hoyenat?
what kind of person?
hoyenati?
what kind of people?
DEFINITE hayenas
the kind of thing
hayenasi
the kind of things
hayenat
the kind of person
hayenati
the kind of people
INDEFINITE heyenas
some kind of thing
heyenasi
some kind of things
heyenat
some kind of person
heyenati
some kind of people
PROXIMAL hiyenas
this kind of thing
hiyenasi
these kinds of things
hiyenat
this kind of person
hiyenati
these kinds of people
DISTAL huyenas
such a thing
huyenasi
such things
huyenat
such a person
huyenati
such people
NEGATIVE hyoyenas
no such thing
hyoyenasi
no such things
hyoyenat
no such person
hyoyenati
no such people
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayenas
every kind of thing
hyayenasi
all kinds of things
hyayenat
every kind of person
hyayenati
all kinds of people
INDETERMINATE hyeyenas
any kind of thing
hyeyenasi
any kinds of things
hyeyenat
any kind of person
hyeyenati
any kinds of people
IDIODEICTIC hyiyenas
the same kind of thing
hyiyenasi
the same kinds of things
hyiyenat
the same kind of person
hyiyenati
the same kinds of people
ALLODEICTIC hyuyenas
some other kind of thing
hyuyenasi
other kinds of things
hyuyenat
some other kind of person
hyuyenati
other kinds of people

Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms[edit]

The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner hot? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart hoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
  • Hot aka zajuba ek?.... Who won yesterday's game?
  • Hoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?.... Which one of the winners was the best?
  • Hota tam se hus?.... Whose house is that?
  • Hotas se hus?.... Whose is that?
  • Hotia deuzi et gaife?.... Whose songs do you prefer?
  • Hotias et gaife?.... Whose do you prefer?
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hosi se eta gaifuni?.... What are your preferences?
  • Hoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which songs are your best?
  • Hoasi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which ones are your best?
  • Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?.... Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
  • Hoati se gwa fia?'.... Which ones are best?
  • Hoti et teexe gwa jodi?.... Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
  • Huat hu at teexe gwa jodi draye ejna deuz..... The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
  • Ejna deuz? At voy teste haas hu et tede..... New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
  • Hias. This one.
  • Vo. Huasi se ga fia..... No. Those are better.
  • His se jub av ivxelen..... This is a day for celebration.
  • Va. Hia jub. At tesde hijub..... Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
  • Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat! Those were the days, my friend!
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hot aka ha igpek?.... Who won the race?
  • Hyas uja fi..... Everything ended well.
  • Hyasi uje..... All things come to an end.
  • Hyayenasi vey kyesu..... All sorts of things might happen.
  • Hyos yoka at..... Nothing surprised me.
  • Hyot ta odut ako..... Nobody knew who would win.
  • Huati fu pier yefe..... Those who would like to leave may.
  • Hyet yefe eker id ifek..... Anyone can play this game.
  • Huyenasi voy afwo..... Such things will not be permitted.
  • Hua tob voy taxe hia tob..... That man does not remember this man.
  • Huti yanyexe fi..... Those guys work well together.
  • At jay teataye hiyenasi..... I've seen such things before.
  • Huyenat voy vabiwu..... A person like that would not be accepted.
Person pronouns in -t and -ti can be feminized by inserting the glide y before the t:
  • Huyenayti ufwe himi..... Women like that are hated in these parts.
  • Hoayti yentexe at?.... Who among the women agree with me?
  • Hyeyti hu yontexe yefe iper..... Any girls who disagree must leave.

Placement of Deictic Determiners[edit]

In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, as in English. For example:
  • Hota ewa oga nyefi se hisi?.... Whose two small bags are these?
In interrogative sentences, the interrogative word often starts out the sentence, as in English.
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hot et teata aay hijub?.... Who(m) did you see first today?
Interrogative deictic determiners ('question words can also go at the end of sentence:
  • Eta dyun se hos?.... What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?

Distributive Deictic Determiners Incorporating Numerical Information[edit]

Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN
haawa the only haawas the only thing
haawasi the only things
haawat the only one (person)
haawati the only ones
hyaawa each hyaawas each one hyaawat each person
hyaewa both hyaewasi both (things) hyaewati both (people)
hyeiwa all three hyeiwasi all three (things) hyeiwati all three (people)
ohyaawa not every ohyaawas not everything ohyaawat not everyone
hyoawa not a single hyoawas not a single thing hyoawat not a single person
hyeawa either hyeawas either one hyeawat either one (person)
hyeewa any two hyeewasi any two things hyeewati any two people
hyeowa neither hyeowas neither one hyeowat neither person
hyuawa another hyuawas another one hyuawat another
hyuowa no other hyuowas nothing else hyuowat nobody else
  • Ohya(a)wat se iva bay eta ebtexden..... Not everyone is happy with your decision.
  • Hyaewaso yafwe uxer yata efi..... Both (things) can serve our needs.
  • Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at..... Either room will satisfy me.
  • Hyeowas oivlaxo at..... Neither one will dissatisfy me.
Note: Hyua means the other, while hyuawa means another.
Similarly, hya means every, all, while hya(a)wa means each.
Also, ha means the, while ha(a)wa or hawa means the only.
The person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Hya(a)wata tej se ge glatesa ev hyutas..... Each one's life is as important as another's.
  • Hyeowata dyun se vyama..... Neither person's name is real.
  • Hyaiwatia teji se kyebukuwa..... The lives of all three are in danger.
The above possessive adjectives can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
  • Hya(a)watas se glatesa..... Each one's is important.
  • Hyeowatas se vyama..... Neither's is real.
  • Hyaiwatias se kyebukuwa..... All three of theirs' are in danger.
Correlative Distributive Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
  • Hyeawa A ey B.... either A or B
  • Hyeowa A oy B.... neither A nor B
  • Hyaewa A ay B.... both A and B
  • Ha(a)wa A, voy B.... only A, not B

Pro-Adverbs Formed from Agglutinated Deictic Determiners[edit]

This tables shows a correlated set of pro-adverbs built through the agglutination of basic deictic determiners. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed pro-verbs relating to age, frequency, and so forth.
ADVERBS MANNER PLACE TIME DEGREE REASON
-yen
short for byen (manner)
-m
short for em (place)
-j
short for job (time)
-gla
very
av
(for)
INTERROGATIVE hoyen?
how?, in what way?
hom?
where?
hoj?
when?
hogla?
how?, to what degree?
avhos?
why?
DEFINITE hayen
the way, how
ham
the place, where
haj
the time, when
hagla
as, to the degree
avhas
because
INDEFINITE heyen
somehow, in some way
hem
somewhere
hej
sometime
hegla
somewhat
avhes
for some reason
PROXIMAL hiyen
this way, so
him
here
hij
now
higla
so, this, to this extent
avhis
for this reason, hence
DISTAL huyen
that way, thus
hum
there
huj
then
hugla
so, that, to that extent
avhus
for that reason, therefore, so
NEGATIVE hyoyen
in nowise
hyom
nowhere
hyoj
never
hyogla
not at all
avhyos
for no reason
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayen
totally, in every way
hyam
everywhere
hyaj
always
hyagla
totally
avhyas
for every reason
INDETERMINATE hyeyen
anyway
hyem
anywhere, wherever
hyej
whenever
hyegla
however, to any degree
avhyes
for whatever reason
IDIODEICTIC hyiyen
likewise
hyim
at the same place
hyij
at the same time
hyigla
as, to the same extent
avhyis
for the same reason
ALLODEICTIC hyuyen
otherwise
hyum
elsewhere
hyuj
some other time
hyugla
not as
avhyus
for some other reason
Many of these pro-adverbs are agglutinated abbreviations for longer, full forms:
  • hom....where   <   ho   +   nem   =   what place
  • hoj....when   <   ho   +   job   =   what time
  • hoyen....how   <   ho   +   byen   =   what manner
  • hot....who   <   ho   +   tob   =   what human being
  • hos....what   <   ho   +   sun   =   what thing
The longer, expanded forms of pro-adverbs can be used at any time. For example:
  • At yegteato et hejob.....I will see you again sometime.
  • Hosun se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Et yeyfe axer hubyen.....You shouldn't act that way.
It should be noted that all of these deictic pro-adverbs, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe him. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tameya hum., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tameya be hum., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at is meant. For example, from where? is expressed as bi hom? Similarly, until then would be expressed as ju huj.


Here are some examples of how deictic pro-adverbs are used:
  • Hom et tame?.... Where do you live?   <   Et tame be HOa neM? You live at what place.)
  • At tame hum..... I live there.
  • Et tame hum hu ha mep uje..... You live where the road ends.
  • Hom yet peye?.... Where are you guys going?
  • Et yafe per hyem hu et fu..... You can go anywhere.
  • Bi hom et se?.... Where are you from?
  • Hoj et taja?.... When were you born?
  • At voy tajaya huj..... I had not been born then.
  • Et pia avhes..... He left for some reason.
  • Hoyen et iyfe hia vafil?.... How do like this wine?
  • Voy se fia axer hiyen..... It is not good to act this way.
  • Avhos et tadsa hugla jwa?.... Why did you marry so late?
  • Ha tob pia avhyos..... The man left for no reason.


The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
  • Hoyen it xa hus?.... How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be hoa byen...? In what way...?) (MANNER)
  • Hoyen et xeye?.... How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (MANNER)
  • Hoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
  • Hogla aga it se?.... How big is he?.... (DEGREE)
  • Hogla iyfla et se!.... How nice you are!.... (DEGREE, but used here as an EXCLAMATORY EXPRESSION)
* Bu hom (to where, whither) is not required here, since the verb per go (to) has the to direction built in.

Quantitative Deictic Determiners[edit]

The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
ADVERBIAL / ADJECTIVAL
DETERMINER
INANIMATE SINGULAR
PRONOUN
INANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
ANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
INTERROGATIVE hogla? how?/how much?/how many? hoglas? how much? hoglasi? how many hoglati? how many (people)?
DEFINITE hagla how/as much/as many haglas as much haglasi as many haglati as many (people)
INDEFINITE hegla somewhat/some/some heglas some heglasi some heglati some (people)
PROXIMAL higla this/this much/this many higlas this much higlasi this many higlati this many (people)
DISTAL hugla that/that much/that many
huygla so, so much, so many
huglas that much
huyglas so much
huglasi that many
huyglasi so many
huglati that many
huyglati so many (people)
NEGATIVE hyogla not at all/no/no hyoglas none of it hyoglasi none of them hyoglati none
DISTRIBUTIVE hyagla totally/all/all hyaglas all of it hyaglasi all of them hyaglati all
INDETERMINATE hyegla however/any/any hyeglas any of it hyeglasi any of them hyeglati any number of them
IDIODEICTIC hyigla as/as much/as many, equally hyiglas the same amount hyiglasi the same number hyiglati as many (people)
ALLODEICTIC hyugla not as much/not as much/not as many hyuglas a different amount hyuglasi a different number of things hyuglati a different number of people
Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
  • Et deuze huygla fi..... You sing so well.
  • At se hegla booka..... I am somewhat tired.
  • Hogla pati et teata hijub?.... How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay hugla tami..... I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe hyiglas ev et..... She wants the same amount as you.
  • Hoglati yantexe yet?.... How many (people) agree with you?
  • Hyoglati yantexe..... None agree.
  • Yit fu heglasi..... They would like some (of them).
  • Et yafe bier hyeglasi et fe..... You can take however many you want.
NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
  • hegla = gle (somewhat)
  • hyigla = ge (as, equally)

Pronominal Determiners[edit]

For a discussion of pronominal determiners ( = possessive adjectives) like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Possessive Adjectives under Pronouns.

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
In Mirad, pronouns can be:
  • personal or deictic
  • ordinary or reflexive
  • animate or inanimate
  • specific or generic
  • ungendered or feminine

Basic Personal Animate Pronouns[edit]

Basic personal animal pronouns in Mirad have three person-levels (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and two genders (gender-neutral, female), and two specificities (specific and generic). Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here is two charts showing the basic personal animate pronouns, split into gender-neutral and female.
SINGULAR
GENDER-NEUTRAL
PLURAL
GENDER-NEUTRAL
FIRST PERSON at....I, me yat....we, us
SECOND PERSON et....you yet....you, you all
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC it....he, him yit....they, them
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them
THIRD PERSON REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself yut....selves, oneselves
SINGULAR
FEMALE
PLURAL
FEMALE
FIRST PERSON ayt....I, me yayt....we, us
SECOND PERSON eyt....you yeyt....you, you all
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iyt....she, her yiyt....they, them
The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are of common gender and are used as English one and they, people (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ha yakwas..... One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de hav et vyode hoj..... They/People say you never lie.
The person specific ungendered pronouns refer by default to males, but can serve as gender-neutral pronouns referring back to either males or females. If the vowel stem is iotated with a y, the pronoun then refers specifically to a female.
The first person plural pronoun ya(y)t can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others."
There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
  • Xu at fibun..... Do me a favor.
  • At so eta dat..... I will be your friend.
  • Wo tojbu it..... Don't kill him/her.
  • At ta hav iyt upo..... I knew she would come.
  • Fadilu av yayt..... Pray for us (women).
Note: The English pronoun it is inanimate (refers to a thing or abstraction) and is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is explained later.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit]

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed postfixing the reflexive pronoun ut or uti depending on whether the pronoun is singular or plural. The gender of the pronoun is reflected in the first personal pronoun morpheme, not the ut morpheme.
REFLEXIVE SINGULAR
GENDER-NEUTRAL
SINGULAR
FEMININE
PLURAL
GENDER-NEUTRAL
PLURAL
FEMININE
First atut.... myself aytut.... myself yatuti.... ourselves yaytuti.... ourselves
Second etut.... yourself eytut.... yourself yetuti.... yourselves yeytuti.... yourselves
Third Specific itut.... himself iytut.... herself yituti.... themselves yiytuti.... themselves
Third Generic otut.... oneself -- yotuti.... people themselves --
Examples of usage:
  • At yafe teater atut be ha sinzyef.....I can see myself in the mirror.
  • Iyt yubteaxa iytut.....She examined herself.
  • Tyeu etut!....Know thyself.
  • It tojbu itut.....He would kill himself.
  • Ot yefe ifer otut.....One must love oneself.
  • Yot glajodi voy ife yotuti.....People often don't love themselves.
The reflexive pronoun ut self can sometimes be prefixed to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
  • tojber.... kill uttojber.... commit suicide
  • vyixer.... clean utvyixer.... wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
  • exer.... function utexer.... function automatically, self-run
  • izber.... pilot utizber.... auto-pilot, self-drive
  • exut.... operator utexut.... automaton
  • deber.... rule utdebea.... autocratic, self-ruling
  • tejdin.... biography uttejdin.... autobiography
  • fider.... praise utfider.... boast   (= self-praise)

Emphatic Personal Pronouns[edit]

Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the reflexive deictic pronoun hyit or hyiti, depending on whether the personal pronoun is singular or plural. The feminine is marked only on the personal pronoun.
EMPHATIC PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL
FIRST PERSON at hyit I myself, me myself yat hyiti we ourselves, us ourselves
SECOND PERSON et hyit you yourself yet hyiti you yourselves
THIRD PERSON it hyit he himself
iyt hyit she herself
yit hyiti they themselves
Examples:
  • At hyit voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
  • At jateate yeyt hyiti be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you gals yourselves on that stage.
  • Iyt hyit voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.

Reciprocal Personal Pronouns[edit]

The reciprocal pronoun one another, each other is translated with ot hyut:
  • Yat yefe ifer ot hyut..... We must love one another. (hyut here means another, other person.)
This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a possessive adjective by suffixing a, as inot hyuta....one another's:
  • Yat yefe fiyzaxer ot hyuta fwasi. We must respect one another's wishes.
Note the following:
  • othutif....Mutual love = love for one another
  • hyutin....altruism

Possessive Adjectives[edit]

Possessive adjectives, which can also be referred to as pronominal determiners, are derived from basic and reflexive personal pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the basic or reflexive personal pronoun, as follows:
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES SINGULAR BASIC PLURAL BASIC SINGULAR REFLEXIVE PLURAL REFLEXIVE
FIRST PERSON ata my yata our atuta my own yatuta our own
SECOND PERSON eta your yeta your etuta your own yetuta your own
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC ita his
iyta her
yita their
iyta their (f.)
ituta his own
iytuta her own
yituta their own
yiytuta their own (f.)
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's yota people's otuta one's own yotuta people's own
The above possessive adjectives an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s thing possessed, or si things possessed, as follows:
SUBSTANTIVIZED
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
BASIC POSSESSED THING BASIC POSSESSED THINGS REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THING REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THINGS
FIRST SINGULAR POSSESSOR atas mine, my thing atasi mine, my things atutas my own, my own thing atutasi my own, my own things
SECOND SINGULAR POSSESSOR etas yours etasi yours, your (things) etutas your own etutasi your own, your own things
THIRD SINGULAR SPECIFIC POSSESSOR itas his
iytas hers
itasi his (things)
iytasi her (things)
itutas his own (thing)
iytutas her own (thing)
itutati their own (things)
iytutasi their (f.) own (things)
THIRD SINGULAR GENERIC POSSESSOR otas one's otasi one's , one's things otutas one's own otutasi one's own (things)
FIRST PLURAL POSSESSOR yatas ours yatasi ours, our things yatutas our own yatutasi our own (things)
SECOND PLURAL POSSESSOR yetas yours yetasi yours, your things yetutas your own yetutasi your own (things)
THIRD PLURAL POSSESSOR yitas theirs yitasi theirs, their things yitutas their own yitutasi their own (things)
Examples:
  • Yat yefe valbeler yatutasi.....We must protect our own.
  • Etasi naze ga ev atasi....Yours are worth more than mine.

The Concrete vs. Abstract Inanimate Pronoun it[edit]

The pronoun it is a special case in Mirad. When it refers back to a previously-specified inanimate object or non-human subject such as book or dog, the definite deictic determiner has is used, for example:
  • At eke bay ha epet avhas at iyfe has..... I play with the dog because I like it.
The possessive forms of has is hasa its, for example:
  • At iyfe ha epet ay at ife hasa dyun..... I like the dog and I love it's name.
If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it, then the pronoun hasi.
  • Ha epeti se via ay at ife hasi..... The dogs are beautiful and I love them.
The possessive form of hasi they/them is hasia their, for example:
  • Ha epeti se via oy hasia dyuni se otwa..... The dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
  • Mamilo..... It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia hav et upa..... It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et..... It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se yuka yarper hia meb..... It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

Referring to Third Persons with Deictic Determiners[edit]

The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
  Thing Things Person Persons
DEFINITE has it, the thing
hasa its
hasi they/them, the things
hasia their
hat he/him, the person
hata his
hayta she/her
hati they/them, them, the persons
hatia their
haytia their, the girls'
PROXIMAL his it, this
hisa its, this thing'
hisi they/them, these things
hisia their
hit he/him, this person
hita his
hiyta her
hiti they/them, these people
hitia their
hiytia their, these girl's
DISTAL hus it, that
husa it's, that thing'
husi they, them, those things
husia their
hut he/him,that person
huta his
huyta her
huti they/them, those people
hutia their, those people's
huytia their, those womens'
By changing -t to -yt (post-iotating), the above person pronouns can be made feminine. For example, hiyt she, her. These pronouns can also be converted to possessive adjectives by suffixing the adjective ending a, for example, hiyta her. Furthermore, the possessive adjectives can be substantivized by suffixing s (s.) or si' (pl.) , for example, hiytias theirs, these women's or hiytiasi theirs, these women's (things).
Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
  • Huyt voy se tadsa..... She (that woman) is not married.
  • At hoj teataye hiti..... I have never seen them (these people).
  • Hutiasi se ga aga ev atasi..... Theirs are bigger than mine.
  • Hom et koxa has?.... Where did you hide it (the thing)?
  • Hoyen et ijtya hat?....How did you meet him (the person)?
  • At tyaye huyt yagjob..... I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
The above pronouns answer the questions hos? what?, hosi? what things?, hot? who(m)?, or hoti? what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat? which one?, hoayti? which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas? which one/thing?, and hoasi? which ones/things?:
SELECTIVES THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS
DEFINITE haas the one haasi the ones haat the one haati the ones
PROXIMAL hias this one hiasi these hiat this one hiati these
DISTAL huas that one huasi those huat that one huati those
Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
  • Duhev et fu hias ey huas?.... Would you like this one or that one?
  • Huayt se haat..... She (that female person) is the one.
  • At iyfe hiasi ga ev huasi..... I like these more than those.
Compare the following two examples:
  • Hoas et fu? Hias..... Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
  • Hos et fu? His..... What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)

Relative Pronouns[edit]

Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Verbs, under the section "Free Relative Clauses".

Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as bayser to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, and the stem is the infinitive minus the wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
This shows how the STEM is derived:
PRESENT INFINITIVE STEM
bayser to have bays-
xer to do x-
poser to stop pos-
xwer to happen (PASSIVE) x-

Verb Categories[edit]

Conjugated forms of verbs can be described with the following morphological categories:
  • STATES: finite, non-finite
  • TENSES: present, past, future
  • ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional
  • VOICES: active, passive (reflexive and reciprocal are lexical, not morphological)
  • MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
  • PERSONS: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural
In effect, the PERSONS category does not affect the morphology of the verb form itself, because the verb form stays the same for all PERSONS.
In addition, lexically, verbs can be described as stative, transitive, intransitive, reflexive, inchoative, causative, dynamic, autonomous, directional, of motion, gestural, and various combinations of these, etc.. For example:
CATEGORY VERB
STATIVE ser be
TRANSITIVE xer do
INTRANSITIVE tojer die
REFLEXIVE utvyixer wash up
INCHOATIVE tujaser fall asleep
CAUSATIVE tujaxer put to sleep
GESTURAL baseger shake
OF MOTION oper get off
DIRECTIONAL iper go away
DYNAMIC yijber (perform an action to make something) open
AUTONOMOUS yijer open (by itself)
RECIPROCAL tujer hyit-hyut kill one another

Non-finite Forms[edit]

Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • INFINITIVES: the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
  • GERUNDS: verbal nouns, ending in en
  • PARTICIPLES: verbal adjectives, ending in a

Infinitives[edit]

Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
STEM ENDING INFINITIVE
agas er agaser to grow
agax er agaxer to magnify
p er per to go
x wer xwer to happen, be done
The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:


INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE
PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified
PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified

Gerunds[edit]

The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND
agaxer...to magnify agax- agaxen... magnifying, magnification agaxwen being magnified
per... to go p- pen... going (no passive voice)
saxer... to create, make, form sax- saxen... forming, creation saxwen being created
Some examples:
  • Ha saxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi..... The formation of this star took millions of years.
  • Iyta deuzen sa gla via..... Her singing was very beautiful.
  • Popen se yika yex..... Traveling is hard work.
  • Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti..... Being heard well is important for actors.

Participles[edit]

Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles can be present, past, future, or hypothetical. They can also be active or passive. Here is a table of participles:
TENSE-VOICE INFINITIVE STEM ENDING PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE
PRESENT ACTIVE deuzer to sing deuz- -ea deuzea singing ha deuzea pat the singing bird
PRESENT PASSIVE ebdaler to discuss ebdal- -ewa ebdalewa being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen the book being discussed
PAST ACTIVE pier to depart pi- -aa piaa departed ha piaa topi the departed souls
PAST PASSIVE azyujber to lock azyujb- -(a)wa azyujbawa locked ha azyujbawa (or: azyubwa) mes the locked door
FUTURE ACTIVE tajber to give birth tajb- -oa tajboa about to give birth ha tajboa toyb the woman about to give birth
FUTURE PASSIVE osexer to destroy osex- -owa osexowa about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed
HYPOTHETICAL ACTIVE tojber to kill tojb- -ua tojbua apt to kill tojbua til a lethal potion
HYPOTHETICAL PASSIVE tiler to drink til- -uwa tiluwa drinkable tiluwa mil potable water
Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
  • Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay. She entered the room singing.
  • Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia. The speech having been finished, he left.
Also, the above participles can be nominalized by suffixing n. Examples:
  • tiluwa drinkable tiluwan potability
  • tojbua lethal tojbuan lethality
  • piaa departed ita piaan his having departed...
Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for peoples. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
  • xwa known xwas what is known, a fact
  • xwa known xwasi facts, information
  • oxwa unknown oxwas what is not known, a mystery
  • osexea destroying osexeas a destroyer
  • tojbua lethal tojbuas something lethal, a lethal thing
  • tojboa moribund someone about to die, a fatal case
  • tejea living tejeat a living person
  • tejea living tejeasi living things
There is a special nominalized animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer), which refer to person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
  • sexut.... builder
  • nuut.... supplier
  • tojbut.... killer
  • ifut.... lover
  • akuti.... winners
Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut the winner.

Finite Forms[edit]

In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • two MOODS (indicative and hypothetical)
  • three TENSES (present, past, future)
  • five ASPECTS (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional)
  • two VOICES (active, passive)
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person suject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he is, etc.

Moods[edit]

There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
  • Indicative Mood
The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, and future indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.
  • Hypothetical Mood
Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an imagined if-condition, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (If I were a rich man...)
  • an imagined then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (I would be happy.)

Aspects[edit]

There are four aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
  • the CONDITIONAL aspect, i.e. an action supposed to happen.
  • The Simple Aspect (default)
Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, and non-conditional.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (saxer to create and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 saxer VERB #2 ser
INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxe. I create At se. I am
INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxa. I created At sa. I was
INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxo. I will create At so. I will be
HYPOTHETICAL ATEMPORAL SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxu. I would create [CONDITIONAL]
Vas yat saxu! Let's create! [HORTATIVE]
Saxu has! Create it! [IMPERATIVE]
Vas hyat saxu! May everyone create! [JUSSIVE]
At su. I would be
Vas has su. Let it be.
Su fia! Be good!
Vas hyat su iva! May everyone be happy!
  • The Simple Indicative Present Tense
The simple indicative present tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
  • The Simple Indicative Past Tense
The simple past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time.
  • The Simple Indicative Future Tense
The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
  • The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal
A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
Generally, if a verb form ending in u begins a sentence, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!. If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers vas, ves, or vos, than it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per. I would like to go.. If the subject of the verb is preceded by ves if, then it is a SUBJUNCTIVE (unreal conditional) clause as in Ves at su nasikat... If I were a rich man.. If the subject is preceded by Vas that/let/may or vos don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Vas et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Vas yat fadilu. Let us pray. or a prohibition like Vos tilu his! Don't drink this!.

Voices[edit]

Mirad has two voices, ACTIVE and PASSIVE (although REFLEXIVES and RECIPROCALS can be produced lexically.).
  • Active Voice
The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
  • Passive Voice
A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE PASSIVE EXAMPLE
INFINITIVE xer to do xwer to be done Ese hyos xwer. There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPAL sexea constructing sexewa being constructed His se sexewa. This is under construction.
PRESENT xe does xwe is done Huyenasi hoj xwe. Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPAL xaa having done x(a)wa done Hyas se xawa. Everything is done.
PAST tojba killed tojbwa was killed Hoj it tojbwa? When was he killed?
HYPOTHETICAL bakxu heal bakxwu be healed Hav it bakxwu. May he be healed.
Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobob tajbwa zajub. The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobob taja zajub. The child was born yesterday.)
  • Reflexive Voice
A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
  • tojber to kill uttojber to kill oneself
  • milber to wash utmilber to wash up
  • teater to see utteater to see oneself
  • yalber to lift utyalber to lift oneselfUtyalbu! Lift yourself up!
  • ter to know utter to know oneselfUttu! Know thyself!
  • Reciprocal Voice
A verb is made reciprocal by using hyit-hyut one another as the object, for example:
  • tojber to kill tojber hyit-hyut to kill one another
  • vyixer to wash vyixer hyit-hyut to wash one another
  • teater to see teater hyit-hyut to see one another

Aspects Revisited[edit]

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple conditional refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
SIMPLE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE PRESENT at xe.... I do Has xwe.... it is done
SIMPLE PAST at xa.... I did Has xwa.... it was done
SIMPLE FUTURE at xo.... I will do Has xwo.... it will be done
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL at xu.... I would do Has xwu.... it would be done

The Progressive Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PROGRESSIVE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE at xeye.... I am doing Has xewe.... it is being done
PAST PROGRESSIVE at xeya.... I was doing Has xewa.... it was being done
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE at xeyo.... I am going to be doing Has xewo.... it will be happening
CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE at xeyu.... I would be doing Has xewu.... it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PERFECT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PERFECT at xaye.... I have done Has xawe.... it has been done
PAST PERFECT at xaya.... I had done Has xawa.... it had been done
FUTURE PERFECT at xayo.... I will have done Has xawo.... it will have been done
CONDITIONAL PERFECT at xayu.... I would have done Has xawu.... it would have been done

The Imminent Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
IMMINENT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT IMMINENT at xoye.... I am going to do Has xowe.... it is going to be done
PAST IMMINENT at xoya.... I was going to do Has xowa.... it was going to be done
FUTURE IMMINENT at xoyo... I will be about to do Has xowo.... it will be about to be done
CONDITIONAL IMMINENT (not used) (not used)

The Potential Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
POTENTIAL ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT POTENTIAL at xuye I am to do Has xuwe it is to be done, it is doable
PAST POTENTIAL at xuya I was to do Has xuwa it was to be done, it was doable
FUTURE PERFECT (not used) (not used)
CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)

Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit]

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
STATE MOOD ASPECT TENSE VOICE CONJUGATED FORM
INFINITIVE SIMPLE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xer to do
xwer to be done, to happen
INFINITIVE PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaer to have done
xwaer to have been done, to have happend
PARTICIPLE PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xea doing
xwea being done, happening
PARTICIPLE PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaa having done
xwaa xwa done, happened
PARTICIPLE IMMINENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoa about to do
xwoa about to happen
PARTICIPLE POTENTIAL ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xua bound to do
xwua doable
GERUND ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xen doing, deed
xwen being done, happening, event
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xe does
xwe is done, happens
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xa did
xwa was done, happened
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xo will do
xwo will be done, will happen
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL / IMPERATIVE)
SIMPLE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xu would do, do!
xwu would be done, would happen, be done!
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeye is doing
xewe is being done, is happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeya was doing
xewa was doing, was happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeyo will be doing
xewo will be happening
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL)
PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeyu would be doing
xewu would be happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaye has done
xawe has been done, has happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaya had done
xawa had been done, had happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xayo will have done
xawo will have been done, will have happened
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL)
PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xayu would have done
xawu would have been done, would have happened
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoye is about to do
xowe is about to be done, is about to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoya was to be done
xowa was to be done, was to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xuye is supposed to do
xuwe is supposed to be done, is supposed to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xuya was supposed to do
xuwa was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen

Predicate Types[edit]

Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to whether the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed as a question (INTERROGATIVE), a declaration (DECLARATIVE), a negation (NEGATIVE), affirmation (AFFIRMATIVE), or combinations of these.

Making Predicates Interrogative[edit]

To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duves Tell me whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos? What?, Hot? Who(m)?, or Hom? where?. Note that the Du in Duves means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duves...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word ves without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duves is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos? What? and Hom? Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Et se tadsa..... You are married. Duves et se tadsa?.... Are you married?
Ha mari se maya..... The stars are bright. Duves ha mari se maya?.... Are the stars bright?
Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?.... Who won?
Iyt aka glas.....He won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?.... How much did she win?
It paye..... He has gone. Hom it paye?.... Where has he gone?
Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
  • Et tame ha yubem?.... You live in the neighborhood?
Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duves usually are answered with va yes, ve maybe, or vo no or their equivalents.
YES-NO QUESTION ANSWER
Duves eta dyun se John?.... Is your name John? Vo, se Bill..... No, it's Bill.
Duves eta apet aka?.... Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka....Yes. Mine won indeed.
Duves et texe vas ha malyen gafiso hijub?.... Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve..... Maybe.
Fe per bay at?... Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.... Maybe tomorrow.

Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit]

The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
  INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION
AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe.... Yes, I indeed/do/really agree.
DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po..... Maybe. I may/possibly will go.
NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva..... No. I would not be happy.

Mixing Them Up[edit]

The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
  • Duves et voy se tadsa?.... Aren't you married?
  • Avhos iyt se voy tadsa?.... Why isn't she married?
  • Vey voy mamilo..... It may not rain.
  • At vay voy tadso iyt..... I will certainly not marry her.
  • Et peyo, vya?.... You will go, right?
  • Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa..... No. That may indeed be wrong.
  • Et te ha dud, vya?.... You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
  • At voy te. .... I don't know.
  • At te voy. .... I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]

Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit]

An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the hypothetical without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
  • Ipu!.... Go away!
  • Tiju!.... Wake up!
  • Su fiat!.... Be a good person!
Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer vas that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive' mood.
  • Vas yat fadilu..... Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
  • Vas et aku hia ifek..... May you win this game.
  • Vas ha edeb yagteju..... Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
  • Vos dalu at huyen..... Don't (you) speak to me that way.
  • Vos yit oku..... May they not lose.
  • Vos yat toxu it..... Let's not forget him.

Complementizers[edit]

Vas, ves, and vos are part of a whole system of complementizers:
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZERS MEANING MIRAD
EXAMPLE
ENGLISH
EQUIVALENT
INTERROGATIVE duves...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duves eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John?
CONDITIONAL ves if, whether Ves et te, du has.
At utdide ves it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL oves unless Oves et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win.
POSITIVE/HORTATIVE vas that, so that, let, may At ta vas it upo.
Vas yat dilo.
Vas et su iva.
At xa has vas et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let's pray.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE vos Don't, let...not, lest Vos teaxu at.
Vos yat su uva.
At pio vos et futepyensu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.

Subjunctive Clauses[edit]

The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer vas that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
  • Ha ideb dila vas at tyoibu za it..... The king asked that I kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa vas et upu gwa ig..... It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
  • Dirwa vas hyat dolu..... It was ordered that everyone be silent.
A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer vos don't, lest.
  • Su bikaya vos et pyosu..... Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
The conditional complementizer ves if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
  • At sexu tam ves at su nasika....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
  • Hos et xu ves et baysu ga nas?...What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
  • Ha ideb dila at tyoiber za it..... The king asked me to kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig..... It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
  • Hyat dirwa doler..... Everyone was ordered to be silent.
  • Su bikaya voy pyoser..... Be careful not to fall.

If-Then Conditional Clauses[edit]

A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer ves if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
IF-CLAUSE THEN-CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Ves ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
ot akxe.
one succeeds.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
Ves et ta,
If you knew,
et dola.
you kept quiet.
FUTURE INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
Ves et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
Ves at su nasika,
If I were rich,

Ves et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nusbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.

et testu.
you would understand.
PAST HYPOTHETICAL PAST HYPOTHETICAL
Ves at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."

If/Whether Subordinate Clauses[edit]

Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer ves whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
At utdide
I wonder
ves it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
At voy te
I don't know
ves yit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
At voy te
I don't know
ves et akxo.
if / whether you will succeed.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
At utdide
I wonder
vas et yantexu.
if / whether upi would agree.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
At voy ta
I didn't know
ves it se tadsa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
At dida
I asked
ves iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
PAST INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
At voy ta
I didn't know
ves it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
At dida
I asked
ves it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST HYPOTHETICAL
At dida
I asked
ves it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
The negative conditional complementizer oves unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Ot voy akxe
One does not succeed
oves ot yexe kyotepay.
unless one works hard.
FUTURE INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Et voy teato at
You won't see me
oves et upo.
unless you come (= will come).

Relative Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses are of two types:
  • Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
  • Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.

Bound Relative Clauses[edit]

The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
  • Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jab, bayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
  • Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
  • Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
  • Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
  • Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
  • Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya ob it je gla jabi....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha toybi hu at deuza av iyti fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/iyta/yita/yiyta (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
  • Ata yubati, hu yita tam sa jay ga aga ev atas, agaxa yita param gajod.'...Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
  • Ha dyeni hu at dyedi (hasi) zamaj sa hya fiasi....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good (ones).

Free Relative Clauses[edit]

Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS MIRAD...ENGLISH EXAMPLE
THING(S) has hu...what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu...what/those which/the things that
hyes hu...whatever/anything that
hyesi hu...whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu...everything that/all that
hyasi hu...all (things) that
hyos hu...nothing (that)
hyosi hu...none of the things (that)
haas hu...which one
haasi hu...which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futepyenua at....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu...who//the person (who)
hati hu...those who/the ones who
hyet hu...whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu...whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu...everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu...all (people) who
hyot hu...nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu...no people (that/who)
huta hu...whose
haat hu...which one
haati hu...which ones
Hat hu et teata pia....The person you saw left.
Hsti hu at tye yantexe....The people I know agree.
At teapo hyet wa at fe....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtya sa fiyena....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hati hu ifpot his se....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe....I know which ones (people) I like least.
RELATIVE ADVERBS MIRAD ADVERB...ENGLISH ADVERB EXAMPLE
PLACE ham hu...where
hyem hu...wherever
hyam hu...everywhere
hu...bi ham...from where, whence
hu...bu ham...to where, whither
Yat teje ham hu ha malyem se ema....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu...when
hyej hu...whenever
hyaj hu...everywhere
Du at haj hu et puo....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu...how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu...however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu...how, to what extent
hyigla hu...just as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se....You'll never know how happy I am.
At popo hugla hu yib at yafe....
I will travel as far as I can.
QUANTITY hagla hu...how much, how many
hyegla hu...however much, however many
hyigla hu...as much/many as
Duhev et te hagla hu nas it bayse?...Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla hu tami yat sexa....You guys asked us however many houses did we build.
Et niso hyigla hu nas at xe....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON avhas hu...why, for what reason
avhyes hu...why ever, for whatever reason
Duhev et te avhas hu it xa hus....Do you know why he did that?
Yat voy teste avhyes hu et xu hus....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
  • RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu yata mer zyupe has dyunie ha amar. The star that our planet goes around (Lit: it) is called the sun.
  • NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha amar, hu yata mer zyupe has, se vay ahay mar. The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a star.

Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit]

As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.

Indirect Discourse[edit]

Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer vas (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad vas complementizer can never be omitted.
  • At ta vas et upo..... I knew that you would (= will) come.
  • Ata ted da vas it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut..... My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
  • Se vyaa vas at gra tele..... It is true that I eat too much.
  • At jada vas et puo jwa..... I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
The conditional complementizer ves if, whether and the negative complementizer vos lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.

Direct Discourse[edit]

Direct discourse works exactly as in English. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
  • Iyt da, "At voy fe per." She said, "I don't want to go."
  • At dida it, "Hot sa eta ted?". I asked him, "Who was your father?"

Transitivity[edit]

Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit]

Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE
xer do ser be
agxer grow (something) agser grow (up)
amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up
buxer push buser jump
per go ber put
aber put on aper get on
yaber raise yaper rise
poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop
yuber bring near yuper approach
yeber insert yeper enter
  • At agxe vobi..... I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ha vobi agseye ig..... The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ha par!.... Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ha par posa..... The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ha mis..... I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ha amar yapaye..... The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].

Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity[edit]

Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer to sleep vs. tujper to fall asleep.
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
Ha mes yija....The door opened.
Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open.
At yijba ha mes....I opened the door.
Ha mes yuja.....The door closed.
Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned.
At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door.
Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started.
Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately.
At ijba ata tul.....I started my meal.
Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended.
Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end.
A ujba ha dyen.....I finished the book.
Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening.
Ha tob tojpa.....
The man dropped dead.
Hot tojba ha tob?....Who killed the man?
Teju.....Live!.
Tejpu!.....Come alive!.
Yat efe tejber ha tob.....We need to revive the man.
Ha tobob taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Iyt tajba awa tobob zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday.
At tija jwe.....I woke up on time.
It voy tijpa.....
He did not come to..
At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early.
At tujeya.....I was sleeping.
At tujpeya.....
I was falling sleep.
At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep..
The transitive voice of verbs like those in the above chart can be made passive with w:
  • Ha tob tojbwa zomoj.....The man was killed last evening.
  • Ha tobob tajbwo bey ha bekut.....The baby will be delivered by the nurse.
  • Ha bukwat voy yafe tejbwer.....The injured person cannot be saved.
  • Ha mis yijbwa je ha moj.....The window was opened during the night.

Reflexive Verbs[edit]

Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye atut..... I am going to kill myself.
  • Tu etut!.... Know thyself!
  • It gorba itut bay gorbar..... He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer otut..... One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber.... commit suicide
  • utboler.... support oneself
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyimiler etut..... You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
  • Et efe utvyimiler.....You need to wash up.

Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit]

Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE
per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home., It pa Paris. He went to Paris.
der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name., Du at has. Tell it to me.
peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me.
buer give (to) Buu at hua dyen. Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu has bu at. Give it to me.

Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs[edit]

Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE
-xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaxer
to magnify
agxer
to grow
ana
one
anaxer
to unify
anxer
to unite
yona
apart
yonaxer
to separate
yonxer
to cut
yaga
long
yagaxer
to lengthen
yagxer
to stretch
yuga
slow
yugaxer
to retard
yugxer
to brake
sana
formal
sanaxer
to formalize
sanxer
to form
gea
equal
geaxer
to equalize
gexer
to copy, equate
jaa
prior
jaaxer
to prioritize
jaxer
to prepare
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE
-ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaser
to get bigger
agser
to grow
ana
one
anaser
to unify
anser
to unite, become united
yona
apart
yonaser
to become separate
yonser
to break


Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
  • Ansu ey yet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Hisi agaxo has hu et teate. These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
  • Hia tobot agseye ig. This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom. My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]

Derived from Nouns[edit]

Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE
mog ash mogxer
to incinerate
mogser
to become ashes
yan collection yanxer
to collect
yanser
to get together
tad spouse tadxer
to marry
tadser
to get married
yom ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
yomser
to freeze/become ice
mag fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
magser
to burn, get burned
uk void ukxer
to empty
ukser
become empty, empty out

Derived from Verbs[edit]

Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
  • At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj..... I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at..... You cannot make me go.
  • It tojbuxa yit..... He had them killed.
  • At efe milabuxer ata par..... I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa him avhes..... You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et..... I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at..... You cannot make me sing.
  • At ivteuduxwa..... I was made to laugh.
  • Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat..... Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Hav het ivasuxu et..... May someone get you to be happy.

Directional Verbs[edit]

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED
bier to take buer to give
nier to consume nuer to supply
nyier to order nyuer to deliver
nunier to buy nunuer to sell
nazunier win a prize nazunuer award a prize
noysier pay off noysuer charge
ojbier borrow ojbuer lend
tadier get married taduer marry off
papier take flight papuer send off flying
pipier set sail pipuer dock
simbier take a seat simbuer offer a seat
tampier leave home tampuer arrive home
tamier settle in tamuer shelter
nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell
telier to eat teluer to feed
gonbier to participate gonbuer to share
tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink
teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out
teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show
taxier to memorize taxuer to remind
alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire
ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak
ifier to enjoy ifuer to please
dier to ask duer to suggest
dider to question duder to respond
tier to study tuer to teach
pier to depart puer to arrive
kebier to choose kebuer to distribute
tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep
tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill
byier to originate byuer to target
mempier to take off mempuer to land
sinier visualize sinuer display
xier to result xuer to cause

Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
ab on aber apply aper get on, mount
ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yob down yober take down yoper descend
yeb in yeber insert yeper enter
yeb in yepuxer throw in yepuser jump in
oyeb out oyeber expose oyeper exit
oyeb out oyepuxer eject oyepuser jump out
zyu around zyuber rotate zyuper revolve
zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour
yub near yuber bring near yuper approach
ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene
yan together yanber compose yanper meet
iz direct izber lead izper head
uz curved uzber divert uzper diverge
Note:
The prefix yeg- again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember to positionyegember to reposition, replace
  • der to sayyegder to repeat
  • sanxer to shape, formyegsanxer to reshape, reform
The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer to build, constructlosaxer to destroy, deconstruct
  • yonxer to uniteloyonxer to disunite
  • xer to doloxer to undo
The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
  • nadxer to alignvyonadxer to misalign
  • der to sayvyoder to misstate, lie
  • utbier to appropriatevyoutbier to misappropriate
The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer to operateyanexer to cooperate
  • tamer to dwellyantamer to cohabit
  • napber to put in orderyannapber to coordinate
The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
  • teaper to visitzoyteaper to revisit
  • uper to comezoyuper to return, come back
  • buxer to pushzoybuxer to repel, push back
  • puxer to throwzoypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison
The prefix az- (from aza strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
  • yujber to closeazyujber to lock
  • der to sayazder to emphasize
  • duer to suggestazduer to urge
  • dizeuder to laughazdizeuder to guffaw

Modal Verbs[edit]

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.

Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
POSITIVE   NEGATIVE
afer may
ayfer might
efer need ofer may not
oyfer might not
ifer love
iyfer like
fer want ufer hate
uyfer dislike
yafer can, be able
yayfer might, could
yefer must, have to
yeyfer ought, should
yofer cannot
yoyfer could not, might not
yifer dare   yufer be afraid
yiver have a right, be free   yuver be bound
If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
  • At fe per..... I want to go.
  • At fu per..... I would like to go.
  • Et yafe aker..... You can win.
  • Et yafu aker..... You could win.
  • Yet yefe iper..... You must leave.
  • Yet yefu iper..... You ought to leave.
Post-iotating the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
  • At ife et. ....I love you.
  • At iyfe et. ....I like you.
  • Et yefe iper..... You must leave.
  • Et yeyfe iper..... You should leave.
  • Iyt yafe aker..... She can win.
  • Iyt yayfe aker..... She might win.
  • At ufa uda tuz..... I hated that art.
  • At uyfa uda tuz..... I disliked that art.
By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
  • Hua toyb yufxa at..... That woman scared me.
  • Hua toyb yulfxa at..... That woman intimidated me.
  • Hua toyb yurfxa at..... That woman terrorized me.
  • Hia yex efwo..... This work will be necessary.
  • Hia yex elfwo..... This work will be critical.
  • Hia yex erfwo..... This work will be indispensable.
  • Su yifa..... Be brave.
  • Su yilfa..... Be bold.
  • Su yirfa..... Be heroic.
  • Et yuve buer nas..... You are supposed to give money.
  • Et yulve buer nas..... You are bound to give money.
  • Et yurve buer nas..... You are absolutely compelled to give money.
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe oyeper ay ifeker..... You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer..... We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier him..... One is prohibited to smoke here.
  • Mavier him ofwe..... Smoking here is prohibited.
  • At ife dyeer..... I love to read.
  • He et fe yebuper?.... Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et edjub..... I would like to visit you some day.
  • It ufaye hyaj teaxwer..... He has always hated being looked at.
  • Duhev et iyfe per tilami?.... Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa..... I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu..... You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas..... You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay..... You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi..... I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der hyea fuas..... I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Hov yufu der has hu et tesde..... Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut..... You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuve kyoejer..... We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit]

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented", eg:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED VERB SUBJECT-ORIENTED ADJECTIVE PATIENT-ORIENTED VERB PATIENT-ORIENTED ADJECTIVE
afer may afa allowed afwer be permitted afwa permissable
efer need efa needful efwer be necessary efwa necessary, required
ofer be unallowed ofa prohibited ofwer be prohibited ofwa banned
yafer be able yafa able yafwer be possible yafwa possible
yefer must yefa obliged yefwer be obligatory yefwa obligatory
yofer be unable yofa unable yofwer be impossible yefwa impossible
fer want fa willing fwer be desirable fwa desirable, wanted
yifer dare yofa daring, brave yifwer be safe yifwa safe
yufer be afraid yifa afraid yufwer be a danger yufwa frightning
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him. It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa) puxer ofwasi him. It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) hav yet dolu. It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser him gajob. It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder. It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe hav et piu ig. It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi? Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo. More help will be needed.

Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit]

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
afxer allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer permit (something to be done)
efxer require efwaxer necessitate
ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit
yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible
yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory
yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable
yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe
yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening
ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant

Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit]

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE
SUBJECT-ORIENTED yafa able to yofa unable to
PATIENT-ORIENTED yafwa possible to yofwa impossible to
SUBJECT-ORIENTED ifa fond of ufa averse to
SUBJECT-ORIENTED yika having difficulty Xing yuka having ease Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED yikwa hard to yukwa easy to
SUBJECT-ORIENTED efa need to
PATIENT-ORIENTED efwa necessary to be Xed
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyafer be able to see teatyofa blind teatyofer be blind
PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa visible teatyafwer be visible teatyofwa invisible teatyofwer be invisible
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyafer be able to hear teetyofa deaf teatyofer be deaf
PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa audible teetyafwer be audible teeyofwa inaudible teeyofwer be inaudiable
SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa able to speak dalyafer be able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb dalyofer be mute, dumb
SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa patriotic doabifer be patriotic doabufa rebellious doabufer rebel
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa sensitive tosyafer be able to feel tosyofa insensitive tosyofer be numbed
PATIENT-ORIENTED tosyafwa palpable tosyafwer be palpable tosyofwa numb tosyofwer be impalbable, numb
PATIENT-ORIENTED tidyukwa easy to understand tidyukwaxer make easily understood tidyikwa hard to understand tidyikwaxer make hard to understand
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa thirsty tilefer be thirsty
SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa hungry telefer be hungry
PATIENT-ORIENTED xefwa necessary to be done xefwer to be necessary to be done

Sensing Verbs[edit]

Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern:
VISUAL AUDIAL OLFACTORY GUSTATORY TACTILE
teab eye teeb ear teib nose teub mouth tayob skin
RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE teater see teeter hear teiter smell teuter taste tayoter feel
RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE teatwer be seen teetwer be heard teitwer be smelled teutwer be tasted tayotwer be felt
STATIVE teaser seem teeser sound teiser smell teuser taste tayoser feel
(or) toser
DYNAMIC/ACTIVE teaxer look at teexer listen teixer sniff teuxer taste tayoxer touch
(or) toxer
DYNAMIC/PASSIVE teaxwer be looked at teexwer be listened to teixwer be sniffed teuxwer be tasted tayoxwer be touched
(or) toxwer
CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE teatuer show teetuer make hear teixuer make smell teuxuer offer a taste tayoxuer make feel
(or) toxuer
CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE teatuwer be shown teetuwer be made to hear teituwer be made to smell teutuwer be given a taste tayotuwer be made to feel
(or) toxuwer
INCHOATIVE/ACTIVE teatier perceive,
catch sight of
teetier catch the
sound of
teitier get a whiff of teutuer get a taste of tayotier get the sensation of
INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE teatiwer be perceived teetiwer be heard teitiwer be whiffed teutiwer be tasted tayotiwer be felt
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/
STATIVE
teatyofer be blind teetyofer be deaf teityofer be unable to smell teityofer be unable to taste tayotyofer be insensitive
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/
STATIVE
teatyofwer be invisible teetyofwer be inaudible teityofwer be undetectable
odorwise
teityofwer be insipid tayotyofwer be undetectable
by touch
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofxer blind teetyofxer deafen teityofxer desensitize
to smell
teutyofxer desensitize to
taste
tayotyofxer desensitize
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofwaxer make invisible teetyofwaxer make inaudible teityofwaxer make odorless teutyofwaxer render tasteless tayotyofwaxer numb

Prepositions[edit]

Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.

Single-word Prepositions[edit]

Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
SPATIAL
POSITIVE
SPATIAL
NEUTRAL
SPATIAL
NEGATIVE
ab on, upon eb between ob off, off of
ayb over, above eyb among, amid oyb under, below
bu to be at bi from, of
byu as far as, up to   byi since, starting with
bay with bey by boy without
ub toward   ib away from
yub near (to) yeb in
oyeb out of
yib far (from)
yaz flush with yez along yoz perpendicular to
yuz around   yiz beyond
za in front of ze at the middle of
zey across
zo behind, in back of
zu (to the) left (of)   zi (to the) right (of)
zya throughout zye through  
TEMPORAL
POSITIVE
TEMPORAL
NEUTRAL
TEMPORAL
NEGATIVE
ja before je during, while jo after
ju until   ju since
RELATIONAL
POSITIVE
RELATIONAL
NEUTRAL
RELATIOANL
NEGATIVE
av for, about ev than, as, compared to ov against
ay and ey or oy but, except
MATHEMATICAL
POSITIVE
MATHEMATICAL
NEURAL
MATHEMATICAL
NEGATIVE
gab plus, +   gob, - minus
gal times, x gel like
ogel unlike
gol, ÷ divided by
gar to the power of gor to the root of
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ha dyen se ab ha sem..... The book is on the table.
  • Vos et pyosu ob ha abtamas!.... Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ha pati papa ayb ata tam..... The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ha yagsim..... He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb hut ay at..... Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati..... We live among good people.
  • Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?.... What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • His se ifek bi kyen..... This is a game of luck.
  • Duvas et sa be hua duzun zomoj?.... Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil..... We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis..... She walked up to the door.
  • Ha tob tojbwa bey gobar..... The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at ev boy at..... You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ha amar..... Look away from the sun.
  • Hov teaxu iz ub ja man..... Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Et efe tyoyaper yuz ha ovon..... You need to walk around the obstacle.
  • Yat yofe per yiz hia nod..... We are prohibited from going beyond this point.
  • Iyt simpa za at. .... She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb..... You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu has zu ha mis..... Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simpo zi et..... I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ha pat poosa ze ha tim..... The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Diwe vas et poosu yeb ha tam..... Please stay in the house.
  • At so oyebdom av yoga joob..... I will be out of town for a short while.
  • Ha mimpar mimpa yaz ha mip..... The boat sailed along the river.
  • His xwa zya ha doob..... This happened throughout the nation.
  • Mil upeye zye ha mes..... Water is coming through the door.
  • His xwo ja zajub. .... This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ha moj..... There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj..... Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub..... I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe xu hes av at..... Please do something for me.
  • Hia dyen se din av ewa fiuti..... This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia ev nas. Friendship is better than money.
  • Hos se ge fua ev hus hu yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat..... They were working against us.
  • Et ay at yeyfe ser dati..... You and I should be friends.
  • Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
  • Hyat oy hut ta ha dud..... Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at..... You are not like me.
  • Et se hyagla ogel at..... You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u..... Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e..... Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u..... Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a..... Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya..... Four squared equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Asya gor e gese u..... The square root of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the root of two...)

Directional Adverbs[edit]

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming complex prepositions:
yub near yib far
yab up yob down
zay forward, ahead zoy back
iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout

Phrasal Prepositions[edit]

Phrasal prepositions contain one or more prepositions in some combination with either a noun or an adverb. This chart shows some examples:
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bu near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et..... I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi far from Ha amar se yib bi ha meir..... The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam..... He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi up from Su yab bi ha sim..... Get up from the bed.
yab bey up (along) Yat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab..... We will walk up the hill.
yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos..... Run down to the cellar.
yob bi down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam..... The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey down from Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab..... She ran down the hill.
yob ab down on top of Has kawa yob ab eta oybmos..... It was found down on your floor.
zay bu on to, forth to Ha elyanaadpar popa zay bu zona doym..... The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat..... She sat across from us.
zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ha yexim..... I am back from the office.
iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fom! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim..... He came right back from the office.

Idiomatic Prepositional Phrases[edit]

The following chart shows other prepositional phrases that are considered idiomatic, because they are somewhat abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun in these phrases:
OTHER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of
be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of
be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between
be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above
be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below
be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of yez eybem bi in the midst of
be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of
be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of
be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of
be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of
be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of
be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with
be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with
be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route
bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of
be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of
be nod bi at the point of be yezem bi at the interior of, inside be yozem bi at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay in line with yez kunad bi alongside be tes bi in the sense of
be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with
be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of

Conjunctions[edit]

Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. They are divided into coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Also some conjunctions consist of a combination of words.

Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

This chart shows the coordinating conjunctions used in Mirad:
ay and
ey or
oy but
oey nor
Usage examples:
  • At oveko ay at ako. I will compete and I will win.
  • Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et. Be still or I will spank you.
  • It yeka oy it oka. He tried but he lost.
  • At voy tilo oey at telo. I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.

Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

The above coordinating conjunctions can be associated in correlative pairs, as follows:
hya ewa...ay both...and
hye awa...ey either...or
hyo awa...oey neither...nor
voy hya awa...oy (gay) not only...but (also)
Examples:
  • At hya ewa dyede ay dre Mirad..... I both read and write Mirad.
  • Et yafe hye awa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun..... You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
  • Yat hyo awa move oey tile..... We neither smoke nor drink.
  • At voy hya awa deuze oy gay at daze.....I not only sing but also I dance.

Complementizers[edit]

There are three complementizers (= subordinating conjunctions) that either connect clauses, where the second clause is subordinate to the main clause, or introduce a certain kind of statement.
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZER CLAUSE LINKER SENTENCE INTRODUCER
POSITIVE / HORTATIVE vas that, so that May (something happen), Let (something happen)
CONDITIONAL ves if, whether --
NEGATIVE / PROHIBITIVE vos lest, that...not Don't
ANTI-CONDITIONAL oves unless --
INTERROGATIVE Duves...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)?
Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
  • At ta vas et upo..... I knew that you would come.
  • At xa has vas et testu..... I did it so that you would understand.
  • At voy ta ves et upo..... I did not know whether you would come.
  • Ves et te ha dud, du has..... If you know the answer, say it.
  • At yufa vos et upu..... I feared lest you come.
  • At voy upo oves et upo gay..... I will not come unless you come, too.
Example of these conjunctions introducing a sentence:
  • Vas yat fadilu..... Let us pray. (HORTATIVE)
  • Vas yit teliu avol!.... Let them eat bread.
  • Vas ad edeb yagteju..... May the king live long.
  • Duves et te ad dud?.... Do you know the answer?
  • Duves et se tadsa..... Say whether you are married.
  • Vos (et) yufu..... Don't (you) be afraid.
  • Vos ud xwu..... Let that not happen.
  • Ves et te, du has..... If you know, say so.
  • Ves hus se vyaa otwe..... Whether that's true is unknown.
  • Ves et upo ey voy, at voy tebike..... Whether you come or not, I don't care.
The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duves (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether....
  • Duves et se tadokayt?.... Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).

Composite Conjunctions[edit]

Other conjunctions are formed with two or more words, which, because of their frequency, are usually written together as one word:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES
jahu.... before Du hay jahu et pio..... Say hi before you leave.
jehu.... while Jehu at so him, at xo gle yex av et..... While I'm here, I'll do some work for you.
johu.... after At buo et has johu et nuso..... I will give it to you after you pay.
juhu.... until Yat voy ijo juhu et puo him..... We won't start until you get here.
jihu.... since At voy teataya huyenas jihu et sa hum..... I had not seen such a thing since you were there.
hajhu.... when Hajhu et pua, ha iv ija..... When you arrived, the fun began.
johus.... then Yat deuza johus hyat daza..... We sang, then everyone danced.
jehus.... meanwhile Jehus, at ujba hyas..... Meanwhile, I finished everything.
hamhu.... where At voy te hamhu it pa..... I don't know where he went.
avhashu.... why Duhev et te avhashu it xa his?.... Do you know why he did it?
avhashu.... because It xa has avhashu it fa teatuer yat hes..... He did it because he wanted to show us something.
geyhu.... even if Geyhu et yontexe, at bolo et..... Even if you disagree, I'll support you.
hayenhu.... as if Yat yeyfe axer hayenhu yat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing.
gelhu.... as if Yat yeyfe axer gelhu yat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing.
geyovhu.... even though Geyovhu ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.....Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it.
ovhu.... (al)though At po ovhu at voy fe..... I'll go, although I don't want to.
avhus.... so, therefore It vuda at, avhus at pia..... He insulted me, so I left.

Interjections[edit]

Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
va yes
ve maybe, perhaps
vo* no
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, it voy se tadsa. He is not married.

Examples:
  • Va. At se otadsa..... Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadsa..... Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay..... Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa..... Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo?.... Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay..... Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et..... No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe hov xu has..... No! Don't do it.
  • Et se Amerikama, va vo?.... You're American, yes or no?
  • Hev va, xu has..... If so, do it.
  • Hev vo, wo xu has..... If not, don't do it.
Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
INITIAL GREETING hay! Hello!, Hi!
VOCATIVE GREETING hey! Hey!, O!, Oh!
TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is...
DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is...
POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hway!* Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!,Hurrah!, Thanks!
SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hwey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!, You're welcome!
NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hwoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!, Sorry!
  • hw is pronounced like the wh in English words.
Examples:
  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Hoyena et se?....Hey, John, how are you?
  • Hey, Fyaat! O, God!
  • Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ha dyen et dila..... Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tobyan..... Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundraf..... Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xawa..... Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy hos at yaka..... There's what I expected.
  • Hway et!.... Good for you!
  • Hway! Et utnaze his...... Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hwey via maj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hwey At ta voy hav et upo..... Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hwoy at..... Woe is me.
  • Hwoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay..... Pity!. Better luck next time.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.

Syntax[edit]

[This page under construction]

Mirad is an SVO language like English, that is, the subject (S) comes first, then the verb (V) predicate, then the object (O). Determiners (D) and adjectives (A) generally precede the noun (N) they modify. Adverbs (AD) can float more freely, as long as no ambiguity results.

Following are some example sentences showing this word order:

  • Yat (S) iyfe (V) pit (O)....We (S) like (V) fish (O).
  • Yat (S) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O) gla(AD)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O) very much (AD).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) hia (D)yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O) gla(AD)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) this (D) fried (A) fish (N O) very much (AD).
  • Yat (S) gle (AD)) iyfe (V) hia (D)yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) rather (AD) like (V) this (D) fried (A) fish (N O).


Greetings and Other Polite Expressions[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
Hay! Hello!
Hey! Hey!
Hoy! Bye!
Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici
Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voila
Hway!* Great! / Good for you! / Thanks! / Congratulations!
Hwey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well! / Your're welcome!
Hwoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!'
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fimoj! Good evening!
Hoyen et xeye? How are you? (Lit. How are you doing?)
Fi. Ay et? Fine. And you?
Iftaxwo.
Hway.
Thank-you. (Lit. (It) will be fondly remembered.)
Toxu.
Hwey.
You're welcome. (Lit. Forget (it).)
Diwe. Please. (Lit. It is asked.)
Yovobu (at).
Hwoy.
Excuse (me).
Fipop! Bon voyage!
Su valta! Be safe!
Igbaksu! Get well soon!
Yanivtos!
Hway!
Congratulations! (Lit: together-happy-feeling)
Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday!
Yanuvtos!
Hwoy!
My condolences! (Lit: together-sad-feeling)
  • hw is pronounced in Mirad like a wh in English words.

Word Formation[edit]

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings have been attached to consonants and various values have been ascribed to vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of core words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Word Formation[edit]

The vocabulary is built on root morphemes, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from root morphemes in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules.

Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. These root morphemes are divided into two groups:
  • 1st Group:  consisting of nouns
  • 2nd Group:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs.

Root Morphemes of the 1st Group: Nouns[edit]

All noun root morphemes are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
f o b plant
The classifier and generic letters are consonants, so one needs to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings[edit]
CONSONANT 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 2nd Group Root Morphemes Numeric Value
  CLASSIFIER GENERIC CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS
b organ, illness, body, etc. organism gesture, manner, movement
p animal, vehicle movement
s thing, furniture form, thing hundred
x do, action do, action
d society person, thing reading, writing
t person person intelligence, knowing
f vegetation clothing volition
v plant, color linen veracity
g measurement quantity
k condition, risk change, chance
j time time time
z jewel, precious, art spatial
l element, liquid ten
m nature place, building, furniture, metal ml = million
n mechandise abstraction
r tool, machine thousand, mr = billion
The letters l and r are used before or after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word. The letter y, if used before a stem vowel intensifies the semantics of the word, but mitigates the semantics if it follows the stem vowel.
The letter h is used only in certain interjections, conjunctions, and determiners and has no semantic identity.
The letter w has no semantic identity of its own, but is used only to form the passive of verbs and to form a counter morpheme used in numbers, and sometimes to substitute for y when the latter letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants.
Ordinal Vowels of the 1st Group Root Morphemes and Their Values[edit]
  • Numeric Values:
The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-iotated vowels.
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu alo ala ale
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve
A vowel with a numeric value is sometimes prefixed to nouns to form a hierarchy of nouns:
MIRAD
deb
ENGLISH
ruler
MIRAD
dab
ENGLISH
rule
adeb emperor adab empire
edeb king edab kingdom
ideb prince idab principality
udeb duke udab duchy
yodeb marquis, margrave yodab marquisate
yadeb earl, count yadab county, earldom
yedeb lord, vassal yedab dominion
yideb viscount yidab viscountcy
yudeb baron yudab barony
alodeb tribal chief alodab tribe
Sometimes the numeric vowel falls inside the word after the ordinal vowel. This happens with the names of the planets, as shown here:
MIRAD
mer
ENGLISH
planet
Mear Mercury
Meer Venus
Meir Earth
Meur Mars
Meyor Jupiter
Meyar Saturn
Meyer Uranus
Meyir Neptune
Meyur Pluto
So, as you can see, Earth is the "4rth rock from the sun."
The word for star is mar, but sun is amar, the number one star, at least for us!
Similarly, the word for satellite is mur, but moon is amur, the number one satellite as far as we earth-bound citizens are concerned.
  • Positional Values:
The positional value of vowels is shown below (Rule nr. 10):
  a.... up, superior, north, ahead, on  
u.... left, west, near e.... center, middle i.... right, east, away
  o.... down, inferior, south, back, off  
  za.... front, ahead  
zu.... left ze.... middle zi.... right
  zo.... back  
  zamir.... north  
zumir.... west zemir.... equator zimir.... east
  zomir.... south  
  ab.... on  
ib.... away eb.... between ub.... toward
  ob.... off  
  yab.... up  
yib.... far yeb.... in yub.... near
  yob.... down  
  ja.... before  
ji.... since je.... during ju.... until
  jo.... after  
  • Geophysical Values:
o outer space, nature
a air, gas, sky
e land, soil, earth
i liquid, water, juice
u underground, minerals
Some examples:
mol nature mom outer space poper travel pot animal mop orbit dop military mor cosmos
mal air mam sky paper fly pat bird map wind dap air force mar star
mel soil mem land peper ride pet land animal mep road dep army mer planet
mil water mim sea piper sail pit fish mip river dip marines mir world
mul mineral mum underground puper burrow put bug mup tunnel dup submarine force mur moon
Ordinal Vowels of 2nd Group Root Morphemes and Their Values[edit]
  • Positive-Intermediate-Negative Values:
  • POSITIVE a, ya oppose NEGATIVE o, yo
  • INTERMEDIATE e, ye
  • POSITIVE i, yi oppose NEGATIVE u, yu
Some examples:
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE
ag- big eg- normal og- small
az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak
va yes ve maybe vo no
ak- win ek- play ok- lose
yad everything yed anything yod nothing
ig- fast ug- slow
im- wet um- dry
fi- good fu- bad
kyi- heavy kyu- light
  • Directional Values:
VOWEL CONTACT DIRECTION EXAMPLE
a- free movement from above onto aber apply
-a movement with contact from above onto baer lean
ya- free movement upward yaper rise
-ya movement with contact upward pyaser jump
o- free movement from below upward ober remove
-o movement with contact from below onto boer uphold
yo- free movement downward yoper descend
-yo movement with contact fall pyoer fall
u- free movement toward the center uper come
-u movement with contact toward the center buer give
yu- free movement near yuber bring
-yu movement with contact near byuer touch
i- free movement away iper leave
-i movement with contact away bier take
yi- free movement far away yiper move far away
-yi movement with contact far away pyier originate
e- stop   eper intervene
-e pause   peser wait
ye- in   yeper enter
-ye in   byexer contain
  • Special Values of Certain Vowels:
  • The prefixes a-, an- have to do with one, single, singular and are opposed to:
  • The prefixes ya-, yan- meaning together, plural.
  • The prefix yan- contrasts with yon- meaning apart.
Some examples:
auta individual, private yauta communal
at I, me yat we, us
anla singular yanla plural
yanper join yonper separate
yanmel continent yonmel island
adut the one person yadut everybody

1st Group Root Morphemes and What They Mean[edit]

The meaning of the 1st Group root morphemes comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the generic consonant, as show in the chart below. Most often, the root morphemes have a zeroth element in which the ordinal vowel is o. Related, usually hierchically subordinate, words are created by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel.
ROOT MORPHEME CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT
tob man t = human, animal b = organism
tod family t = human, animal d = society
tof clothes t = human, animal f = tissue
tov lingerie t = human, animal v = linen
tol food t = human, animal l = fluid, substance
vob plant v = plant b = organism
tom building t = human, animal m = place
dob state d = social b = organism
dom city d = social m = place
dop military d = social p = movement
som furniture s = thing m = place
pot animal p = movement t = human, animal

2nd Group Root Morphemes and What They Mean[edit]

The 2nd Group root morphemes come from a combination of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel (which is sometimes zero). The vowel can be pre- or post-iotated and modified with the scalar enhancer consonants r, l, and w. Here is a chart showing the principle root morphemes of this group. The root morpheme itself is in boldface, sometimes followed by derived words incorporating that root.
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE OPPOSITE
ja before, pre-
jana previous
japer precede
je during
jena current
jeper continue
jo after, post-
jona next
joper follow
ji since
 
 
ju until
 
 
aj past
ajna old
ej present
ejna new
oj future
ojna next
ij beginning
ijna initial
uj end
ujna final
jya-
jyaa early
 
jye-
jyea punctual
 
jyo-
jyoa late
 
yij opening
yija open
yijber open
yuj closure
juja closed
yujber close
ga more
gaber add
galer multiply
gra too much
gwa most
ge equal
geber equate
gean equality
gre enough
 
go less
gober substract
goler divide
gro insufficient
gwo least
gi- point
gin point
gia sharp
 
 
gu- angle
gun angle
gua dull
 
 
gya- fat
gyaxer fatten
gyo- thin
gyoxer emaciate
gyi- solid
gyian solidity
gyu- fragile
gyuan fragility
ag- big
agaxer magnify
agla huge
eg- normal
egaxer normalize
egan normality
og- small
ogaxer miniaturize
ogla tiny
ig- fast
igay quickly
igper rush
ug- slow
ugay slowly
ugper amble
yag- long
yagaxer lengthen
yeg- re-
yegxer re-do
yog- short
yogaxer shorten
yig- hard
yigaxer harden
yug- soft
soften
ka- find
kaxer find
kader reveal
kaxwas trove
ke- seek
kexer seek
keder inquire
kexwas pursuit
ko- hide
koxer hide
koder cover up
koxwas stash
ki-
kia diagonal
kim slope
 
ku-
kua lateral
kun edge
kum side
 
ak- win
akun gain
ek- play
ekun risk
ok- lose
okun loss
ik- full
ikber fill up
uk- empty
ukber empty out
kya- variable
kyaser change
kye- random
kyeser happen
kyo- fixed
kyoser stand still
kyi- heavy
kyiaxer weigh down
kyu- light
kyuaxer lighten
yak- expect
yakwa expected
yek- try
yekwa attempted
yok- be surprised
yokwa unexpected
yik- difficult
yikan difficulty
yuk- easy
yukan ease
va- yes
vader affirm
ve- maybe
veder equivocate
vo- no
voder deny
vi- beautiful
vila gorgeous
vu- ugly
vula hideous
av- for
avon favor
ev- than
evon condition
ov- against
ovon hindrance
iv- happy
ivan happiness
uv- sad
uvan sadness
vya- true
vyan truth
vye- relative
vyen relation
vyo- false
vyon error
vyi- clean
vyisa pure
vyu- dirty
vyusa foul
yav- innocent
yavder acquit
yev- fair
yevder judge
yov- guilty
yovder accuse
yiv- free
yivxer release
yuv- captive
yuvxer capture
fa- holy
fader bless
f- want
fer want
fo- profane
foder curse
fi- good
fider praise
fu- bad
fuder malign
fya- proud
fyan pride
fyo- ashamed
fyon shame
fyi- useful
fyin worth
fyu- damaging
fyun harm
af- allow
afwa allowed
ef- need
efwa necessary
of- ban
ofwa prohibited
if- love
ifwa beloved
uf- hate
ufwa despised
yaf- able
yafer can
yef- obliged
yefer must
yof- unable
yofer cannot
yif- brave
yifer dare
yuf- afraid
fear
ba-
baer lean on
baler press
barer crush
baxer shake
→abaxer stroke
→abalxer rub
b-
ber put
be at
beser stay
bexer hold
beler keep
bo-
boxer carry
boler support
→oboler drop
 
 
bi from
bier take
bixer pull
bilxer yank
birxer uproot
 
bu to
buer give
buxer push
bulxer shove
burxer kick
 
bay with bey by boy without
ab on
aber put on
abem top
eb between
eber block
ebem gap
ob off
ober take off
obem bottom
ib away
iber receive
ilber obtain
ub toward
uber send
ulber deliver
yab up
yaber raise
yalber lift
yaper rise
yeb in
yeber introduce
yelber insert
yeper enter
yob down
yober lower
yolber down
yoper descend
yib far
yiber remove
yilber banish
yiper flee
yub near
yuber bring near
yolber abduct
yuper come
bya-
byaxer erect
bye-
byeer behave
byen manner
byo-
byoxer hang
byi since
byiser spring from
byu up to
byuser reach
pa- motion
paser move
paxer move (tr.)
 
p-
per go
peser wait
pexer trap
po- rest
poyser pause
poser stop
poxer stop (tr.)
pi- motion away
pier leave
piser withdraw
pixer catch
pu- motion toward
puer arrive
puser jump
puxer throw
pya- strong upward motion
pyaser jump up
pyaxer launch
pye- strong inward motion
pyeser bump into
pyexer strike
pyo- strong downward motion
pyoser plunge
pyoxer knock down
pyi- strong motion away
pyiser spring
pyixer snatch
pyu- strong motion toward
pyuser pounce
pyuxer ram
za in front of
zaper precede
ze in the middle of
zeber balance
zo behind
zoper succeed
zi- right
zituyaba right-handed
zu- left
zutuyaba left-handed
zay forward
zayper advance
zey across
transit
zoy back
zoyper recede
az- strong
aza strong
ez- medium
eza medium
oz- weak
oza weak
iz- straight
izper go straight
uz- curved
uzper turn
zya- wide
zyaber spread
zye through
zyeteatuwa transparent
zyo- narrow
zyober restrict
zyi- flat
zyixer flatten
zyu- round
zyuper rotate
yaz- vertical
yazber stand upright
yez- horizontal
yezber lay flat
yoz- perpendicular
yoza perpendicular
yiz- beyond
yizper surpass
yuz- around
yuzper surround
da-
daler talk
 
 
 
 
d-
der say
drer write
dryer print
de-
deler declare
do-
doler be silent
 
 
 
 
di-
dier ask
dider question
diler request
direr demand
din story
du-
duer suggest
duder answer
duler insist
durer prod
dun word
dye-
dyeder read
dyen book
dyi-
dyier phone
dyu-
dyuer call
dyun name
ta-
taxer remember
tajer be born
 
 
 
 
t- know
ter know
te-
texer think
teder mean
teser sense
tejer live
to-
toxer forget
tojer die
 
 
 
 
ti- learn
tier learn
tider understand
tixer study
tin doctrine, -ism
titam school
tijer wake
tu- teach
tuer teach
tuder explain
tuxer instruct
tun science, -ology
tutam institute
tujer sleep
tya-
tyan race
 
 
tye-
tyen craft, occupation
tyeer be familiar with
tryen industry
tyi-
tyier get acquainted
 
 
tyu-
tyuer acquaint
 
 
sa-
san form
saxer make
saun kind
 
 
s-
ser be
son thing (abstract)
sat being
se-
sexer build
so-
soer undergo
 
 
 
 
si-
sin image
siun sign
 
 
 
su- thing
sun thing
 
 
 
 
sya-
syan type
sye-
syen style
syi-
syin subject
syu-
syun object
as-
aser become
es-
eser exist
os-
oser vanish
is-
iser be the result
us-
user be the cause
xa-
xaer execute
xaler accomplish
x-
xer do
xe-
xen action
xeler conduct
xi-
xier result
xu-
xuer bring about
xuler provoke
xye-
xyen practice
xyel exercise
xyi-
xyier wear out
xyu-
xyuer proceed
ax-
axer act
alxer operate
ex-
exer function
 
ox-
oxer be idle
 
ix-
ixen effect
ux-
uxer cause
 
yex-
yexer work
yelx labor
yelx drudgery
yix-
yixer use
yilxer hire
yirxer exploit
yux-
yuxer help
yulxer serve
yurxer slave
na-
naxer cost
ne-
neser save
no-
noser spend
ni-
niser earn
nu-
nuser pay
ha so that he whether ho lest

Vowel Patterns in 2nd Group Root Morphemes[edit]

Note that that in 2nd Group core words there is a three-way contrast with the root vowels a, e, o and a two-way contrast with the root vowels i and u, as in the chart below, where the root vowels are underlined:

PATTERN TYPE POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE
3-WAY (a-e-o) aza strong eza medium oza weak
2-WAY (i-u) fia good -- fua bad

Meaning of the Classifier Consonant in 2nd Group Root Morphemes[edit]

Most human qualities are presented in the 2nd Group root morphemes that contain the consonants f or v.
Root morphemes relating to time all have the letter j.
The letters g and k relate mostly to physical qualities, measurements, and actions.

Parallelism in Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes exhibit both vertical and horizontal parallelism in meaning as shown in some sample charts below:
aza za va vyaa yava
strong front yes true innocent
eza ze ve vyea yeva
moderate middle maybe relative fair
oza zo vo vyoa yova
weak back no false guilty
ja jya aja kaer aker
before early past find win
je jye eja keer eker
during on time present seek play
jo jyo oja koer oker
after late future hide lose
fia via vyia fyia iva yiva ifer
good beautiful clean proud happy free to love
fua vua vyua fyua uva yuva ufer
bad ugly dirty ashamed sad bound to hate
tab tib tub tyob tayob tayeb tyab
body trunk arm foot skin hair ovary
fab fib fub fyob fayob fayeb fyab
tree tree trunk branch root bark leaf fruit
vab vib vub vyob vayob vayeb vyab
plant stem twig root peel leaf seed

Ordered List of Root Morphemes[edit]

O A E I U
o zero
o- un-
a one
an- mono-
ayn- whole
e two
en- bi-
eyn- half-
i three
in- tri-
iyn- terci-
u four
un- quadri-
uyn- quarti-
-o (future tense) -a (past tense)
-a (adjective)
-ay (adverb)
-e (present tense) -i (plural) -u (hypothetical mode)
ob off ab on eb between ib away ub toward
of- must not af- may ef- need to if- love uf- hate
og- small ag- big eg- normal ig- fast ug- slow
oj future
aj past
ej present
ij beginning uj end
ok- lose ak- win ek- play ik- full uk- empty
-ol? -al gas -el food
-yel oil
-il liquid
om- cold am- hot im- wet um- dry
-om building -am house -em place -im room
-on (issue) -an (abstract quality -en (present gerund) -in (-ism) -un (thing)
op- get off ap- get on ep- stay ip- go away up- come
-or system -ar instrument -er (infinitive) -ir device -ur machine
os- be absent as- become es- exist is- be the result us- be the cause
ot one at I et you it he ut self
-ut one who
ov against av for ev than iv- happy uv- sad
ox- be idle ax- act ex- operate ix- result ux- cause
oy but ay and ey or
oz- weak az- strong ez- moderate iz- straight uz- curved
bo- support
byo- hang
boy without
ba- lean on
bya- stand
bay with
bax- gesture
b- put
be- have
be at
bex- carry
byex- strike
bi from
bi- take
bix- pull
byi since
bu to
bu- give
bux- push
byu as far as
bok illness
byok pain
bak health bek treatment
byek cure
bik care buk wound
do- be silent da- speak
-ad (language)
d- say
de- declare
dyed- read
dr- write
drye- print
deu- voice
di- ask
did question
du- suggest
dud answer
dob state dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister
dom city dam airport dem park dim pool
dop military dap air force dep army dip marine
dot society dat friend det mate dit citizen dut gentleman
doz? daz dance dez theatre
dyez cinema
drez poetry
diz comedy duz music
fo- profane
foz witchcraft
fa- holy
faz miracle
fi- good
fiz honor
fu- bad
fuz shame
fom metal
fyo? fyi- worth fyu- waste
go less
glo few
gro insuffiently
gwo least
gyo- thin
ga more
gla very
gra too
gwa most
gya- thick
ge equal
gle nquite
gre enough
gin point gun angle
gya- fat thin gyi- solid gyu- delicate
ho- which?
hyo- no
hov don't
hoy! bye!
hyoy! boo!
ha the
hya- every
hav that
hay! hello!
hyay! hurrah!
he some
hye- any
hev if
hey! hey!
hyey! thanks!
hi this
hyi- same
hiy... voici...
hu- that
hyu- other
huy...voila...
jo after
jwo late
joy then
ja before
jwa early
jay already
je during
jwe on time
jey still
ji since
jiy ago
ju until
juy hence
job time
jwob hour
jab year
jwab minute
jeb season
jweb second
jib month jub day
jod occasion jud date
jog- young jag- old
ko- hide ka- find ke- seek ki- slant ku- side
kyo- fixed kya- mobile kye- random kyi- heavy kyu- light
lo- (dis-)
mo-
mon dark
ma-
man light
mob galaxy? mab? meb mountain mib lake? mub valley? volcano?
mod? mad paradise med park mid fountain
mof? maf cloud mef brick muf pole
mog ash mag fire meg stone
moj night maj day
mok cosmic dust mak electricity? mek dust
mol nature mal air mel soil mil water mul matter
mom space mam sky mem land mim sea mum underground
mop orbit map wind mep road mip river mup tunnel
mor cosmos mar star mer planet mir world mur moon
mos floor mas wall mes door mis window mus stairs
mov smoke mav flame mev porcelain miv muv rod
moz- black mBold textaz- white mez- crystal
no- spend
noz jewel
na- money
naz value
ne- save ni- consume nu- supply
nob? nab rank
nap order
nod point nad line ned plane nid volume nud column
nof textile
nov linen
nyov ribbon
nyof film
naf cloth nef web
nyev bag
nyef sack
nif thread
niv strand
nyiv lace
nyif rope
nuf leash
nyuf knob
nog grade
nok degree?
nag measure
nak meter
sag number
syag count
jag age
neg level nig space
nik liter?
nom? nem place
-em place
nyem box
-yem enclosure
-im room
po- stop
pyo- fall
pa- move
pya- jump
p- go
pyex- attack
pi- leave
pix- catch
pu- arrive

pux- throw
pyux- bump
pop- travel pap- fly pep- drive pip- sail
pot animal
pyot wild beast
pat bird pet land animal pit fish
sam armoire sem table sim chair sum bed
son matter
syoz fantasy
san form
saz sculpture
s- be sin image
siz painting
sun thing
syun object
suz artifact
sor?
-or means
sar instrument
-ar instrument
sir machine
-ir machine
sur apparatus
-ur apparatus
tob human
tyob leg
tab body teb head tib trunk tub arm
tod family tad spouse ted parent tid uncle tud godfather
tof clothing taf suit tef hat tif vest tuf sleeve
toj death taj birth tej life tij- awake tuj sleep
tol nourishment
tyal meal
-al gas
tel food
-el food
-yel oil
til drink
-il liquid
tul dish
tom building tam house tem hall tim room tum cell
top soul tap physique tep mind tip psyche tup member
tos- feel tas- t- know
tes- mean
tye- recognize
tea- see
tee- hear
tei- smell
teu- taste
teud- shout
tis- learn tus- inform
tox- forget tax- remember tex- think tix- study tux- teach
toz- skin color taz- statue tez- culture
tyez- magic
tiz- tuz- art
vo no va yes ve maybe vi- beautiful vu- ugly
vob plant vab grass veb tuft vib stem vub twig
vog- don't want vag- want veg- can
vol vegetable
voy not vay indeed vey perhaps
voz color vaz- green
vyo- false vya- true vye- relative vyi- clean vyu- dirty
-w- (passive voice)
xo- xa- execute x- do
xey- behave
xeus- noise
xi- result xu- affect
yob down yab up yeb in yib far away yub near
yof- cannot yaf- can yef- should yif- dare yuf- fear
yog- short yag- long yeg- again yig- hard yug- soft
yoj- young? yaj- old? yij- open yuj- close
yok- surprise yak- expect yek- try yik- difficult yuk- easy
yom ice yam fire
yon- apart yan- together -yen manner
yop- descend yap- ascend yep- enter yip- move away yup- approach
yot they yat we yet you yit they yut selves
yov- guilty yav- innocent yev- just yiv- free yuv- bound
yox- be idle yex- work yix- use yux- serve
yoz- concave yaz- convex yez- horizontal yiz beyond yuz around
zo behind za before ze middle zi right zu left
zoy back zay ahead zey across
zyo- narrow zya- wide zye through zyi- flat zyu- round

Rules for Deriving New Words[edit]

Derived words, that is, words that are built from root morphemes and other words, are formed following certain very simple rules of vocabulary-building:
These word-building rules govern:
  1. Combining whole words
  2. Affixation
  3. Scaling Words through numerically-ordered Vowels
  4. Combining partial words
  5. Word-building by adding ordinal vowels
  6. Swapping endings
  7. Scientific word-building
  8. Feminizing words
  9. Geophysical vowel codification
  10. Directional and positional vowel codification
  11. Mnemonic markers
  12. Creating nuances of meaning

Rule #1: Combining Whole Words[edit]

Compound words are formed by the combination of two or more words. When compounding, the determining word is placed very simply in front of the determined word.
  • mar star + tun sciencemartun astronomy
  • mag fire + meb mountainmagmeb volcano
  • tul meal + dren documenttuldren menu
  • nax cost + aga bignaxaga expensive
  • nax cost + oga smallnaxoga cheap
  • amar sun + yap ascentamaryap sunrise
  • amar sun + yop descentamaryop sunset
  • mam sky + par vehiclemampar airplane
  • map wind + yaf powermapyaf windpower
  • dom city + teas viewdomteas cityscape
  • tej life + tun sciencetejtun biology
  • man light + tam housemantam lighthouse
Such compounds sometimes consist of more than two agglutinated words, for example:
  • mam' sky + par vehicle + tam househangar

Rule #2: Affixation[edit]

Affixes can be prefixed or suffixed to verbs, nouns, and other parts of speech.
Prefixes[edit]
Adverbs and prepositions can serve as prefixes, especially for forming new verbs, eg.:
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUNDED VERB
go less ber put gober subtract
yeb in ber put yeber* introduce
oyeb out ber put oyeber* oust
yuz around ber put yuzber surround
ob off ber put ober* remove
ig fast xer do igxer accelerate
ug slow xer do ugxer brake
ja before xer do jaxer prepare
je during xer do jexer continue
oj future xer do ojxer plan
ab on per go aper1 get on
yeb in per go yeper* enter
oyeb out per go oyeper* exit
zay ahead per go zayper advance
zoy back per go zayper retreat
ja before per go japer precede
jo after per go joper follow
yuz around per go yuzper circulate
va yes der say vader affirm
vo no der say voder deny
fi good der say fider praise
fu bad der say fuder malign
ja before der say jader predict
ja before dren writing jadren preface
jo after dren writing jodren postscript
*Note: If the prefix is an adverb or preposition ending in b and is being affixed to the verb per go or ber put, then the b of the prefix is dropped. See the next section for this:
Prefixes Ending in b with Verbs per and ber[edit]
Prepositional prefixes ending in b lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab up ber put yaber raise (NOT: yabber)
yab up per go yaper rise (NOT: yabper)
ab on ber put aber put on, apply
ab on per go aper get on, mount
yob down ber put yober take down
yob down per go yoper descend
ob off ber put ober take off, remove
ob on per go oper get off, dismount
yeb in bux a push yebux impulse
yeb in pyoser fall yepyoser collapse
Prefixing with Whole or Clipped Words[edit]
The two or three first letters of a root morpheme can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza weak der say ozder whisper
yaga long der say yagder ramble
aja past der say ajder evoke
yoga short der say yogder summarize
tyoyab foot per go tyoyaper walk
dreer write sar tool dresar pencil
tuyob hand dren writing tuyodren manuscript
mam sky mil water mamil rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs.
Prefixing with Prefixes Per Se[edit]
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
o un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendlyodata unfriendly
lo un-, same as o but used where o is not clear gla manylogla rare
yo un-, same as o but more intense dat friendyodat enemy
av pro- fatin religionavfatina pro-religious
ov anti-, counter- dropek warovdropeka anti-war
hyas all-, pan-, omni- tea awarehyastea omniscient, all-knowing
ja before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj birthjataja pre-natal
jo after, post- judrer to datejojudrer post-date
yiz beyond, meta- tapa physicalyiztapa metaphysical
ey(n) semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate
yeg- re-, again yeganxer reunite, yegder repeat, yegvader reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad[edit]
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yo(b)per < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye(b)bixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yebber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder
penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo yegxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
Suffixes[edit]
Mirad has semantic suffixes, grammatical suffixes, and part-of-speech-changing suffixes
  • Semantic Suffixes
Semantic suffixes are generally formed from the two last letters of a root morpheme. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIX SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS
mil water -il liquid teabil tear < teab eye
    teubil saliva < teub mouth
    tayebil sweat < tayeb skin
    mamil rain < mam sky
tam house -am house apatam chicken coop < apat chicken
    apelatam beehive < apelat bee
    melyexam farmhouse < melyex agriculture
    datibam hostel < datib guest-reception
nem place -em place vobyexem plantation, farm < vob plant + yex work
    vabem field < vab grass
    abem top, surface < ab above, upper
    obem bottom < ob below
nof cloth -of material tof clothes < t- human
    misof curtain < mis window
    faof wood < fa(b)- tree
    tayof leather < tayo(b) skin
sar tool -ar instrument par vehicle < p- motion
    zyupar rotor < zyup turn
    gorbar knife < gorb cut
    syaagar computer < syaag computation
sun thing -un thing dun word < d- utter, say
    gorfun piece, scrap < gorfer rip, shread, tear
    zyiun plaque, plate < zyia flat
    vyun spot < vyua dirty
tin doctrine -in -ism totin theism, religion < tot- god
    Kristin Christianity < Krist Christ
    vyisatin puritanism < vysiat puritan, clean person
    otofin nudism < otofa nude
fuf pipe -uf cylinder object manuf candle < man light
    tiibuf artery < tiib heart
    miluf toilet < mil water
    movuf cheminee < mov smoke
yel oil -yel oil, gel, wax, pulp kafyel olive oil < kaf olive
    apelatyel wax < apelat bee
    levyel jam, jelly, confiture < leve sugar, sweet
    bekyel salve < bek care, treatment
    megyel cement < meg stone
    yanyel paste < yan together
  • Grammatical Suffixes
Mirad has only a few grammatical or derivational (non-inflexional*) suffixes:
DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX BASE WORD → SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-er (verb infinitive) sag- cipher sager to count
nab ranknaber to rank
yex work yexer to work
-n (deverbal or deadjectival noun) yexe works yexen working
via beautiful vian beauty
yuba near yuban proximity, nearness
-a (adjective) yib- far away yiba remote
mor universe mora universal
ake wins akea winning
-y (deadjectival adverb) iga- quick igay quickly
yiba remoteyibay remotely
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
  • Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack
  • Suffixes Forming Nuanced Adjectives
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-aya full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekaya dusty
-oya empty of, -less, -free vyun spot vyunoya spotless
-ika full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekika dusty
-uka empty of, -less, -free miek dust miekuka dust-free
-ea (present active particple) doing X, -ing, -ant, -ent ilp flow ilpea flowing, fluent
-yea given to doing X, -ive vyod lie vyodyea mendacious, given to lying
-wea (present passive participle) being Xed vyixer to clean vyixwea being cleaned
-yena like, -ly, -ic tat angel tatyena angelic
-(a)wa (past passive participle) Xed oter to ignore otwa or otawa unknown
-uwa (potential passive participle) -able, liable to be Xed teater to see teatuwa visible
  • Other Suffixes
SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-an abstract quality, -ness, -hood, -ity iva happy ivan happiness
    via beautiful vian beauty
    ama hot aman heat
-at person who has the quality of yova guilty yovat guilty party
    oga little ogat little person
-ut agent, practitioner, one who does X, -er, -ant, -ent yuxer to help yuxut helper, assistant
    vyoder lie vyodut liar
-eat one who does X vyixeat cleaning person
-(a)wat one who has been Xed tujber to kill tujbwat or tujbawat murder victim
-(a)was what is/was Xed ter to know twas or tawas what is known, fact
-et a person a level down ted father tedet son
    tid uncle tidet cousin
    tad spouse tadet brother
-es item of lesser importance nas money nases change, coin
-ob child of, offspring tob man tobob infant
    apet horse apetob foal
-un < sun concrete thing viber decorate vibun ornament
-on < son abstract thing kyiser weight down kyison problem
    ifer to love ifon love
-tun science, ...ology tej life tejtun biology
    tob man tobtun anthropology
-in < tin doctrine, -ism tot god totin theism, religion
    dot society dotin socialism
-yan collection, aggregate fab tree fabyan forest
    mar star maryan constellation
-ar < sar instrument, tool, device per go par vehicle
    teab eye teabar eyeglasses
-ur < sur machine yalb lift yalbur elevator
Many of the above suffixes and prefixes can be combined as in the following example:
  • ov- against, anti- + dot society + -in ism + -at person having the quality of + -yena like, -ish ovdotinatyena anti-socialistic

Rule #3: Scaling Words through Numerically-ordered Vowels[edit]

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to root morphemes of the 1st group. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the root morpheme stem as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
  • First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m
tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant som furniture
tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree sam armoire
teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop sem table
tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk sim chair
tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum wing dub ministry fub branch sum bed
tyob leg jyob* hour fyob root
    jyab* minute
    jyeb* second
* Easier to pronounce as jwob, jwab, and jweb.
  • Second-level Ordinal Scaling
A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b
mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg
miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip
miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh
miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee
miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin
miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle
tuyab hand tyoyab foot
tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel
tuyib palm tyoyib sole
tuyub finger tyoyub toe
tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
  • Third-level Ordinal Scaling
A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
Example:
...tuyub
tuyub finger
atuyub thumb
etuyub index
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = man
FIRST-LEVEL tub arm
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub thumb
  • Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
Example:
...dob ...pet ...mer
dob state pet animal mer planet
adob empire apet horse Amer Mercury
edob kingdom epet bull Emer Venus
idob principality ipet ass Imer Earth
udob duchy upet ram Umer Mars
yodob marquisate yopet goat Yomer Jupiter'
yadob county yapet pig Yamer Saturn
yedob dominion yepet dog Yemer Pluto

Rule #4: Portmanteau Compouding[edit]

When forming a compound word, the generic consonant (the last one) of the determinant (first word) is the same as the classifier consonant (first) of the determined (2nd word), the generic consonant is suppressed so as to avoid two of the same consonants in a row. This is also called portmanteau compounding.
  • dom city + mep waydomep boulevard
  • pat bird + teub mouthpateub beak
  • pat bird + tub armpatub wing
  • teb head + bok illnesstebok headache
When forming a compound word, the principal word has one or two prefixed vowels, this vowel or these vowels come at the beginning of the compound word.

Examples:

  • tuyub fingeratuyub thumbiatuyub right thumb
Codifying the Negative and Opposite Senses[edit]
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 1st group, the negative sense or opposite sense is obtained by adding the prefixes o and yo, the latter being more intense.
  • mola naturalomola unnatural, artificial
  • tobyena humaneotobyena inhumane
  • data friendlyyodata inimical
  • tat angelyotat devil
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 2nd group, the opposite sense is obtained by prefixing lo dis-, un-, de- if followed by a consonant, or ol if followed by a vowel, eg.:
  • fwa wantedlofwa unwanted
  • yuxer to tie uployuxer to untie
  • axaxer to activateolaxaxer to deactivate
  • afwa allowableolafwa disallowed

Rule #5: Codification by the Addition of Ordinal Vowels[edit]

a) When you wish to form a compound word with words from a same family of vowels, if the ordinal vowel is an o, you replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING
a d o b republic
  d e b leader
a d e b president
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING
i d o b kingdom
  d e b leader
i d e b king
b) If, on the other hand, the two words are already subordinate, then the vowel of the determinant is placed between the ordinal vowel of the determined and the generic consonant.
Examples:
  • mil watermal airmial steam, vapor
  • mel soilmil watermeil mud
  • tul mealtil drinktuil soup
c) You can also form new compound words by applying the Rule # 6 above (a and b).
Examples:
  • adob republicdab governmentadab government of the republic
  • adab government of the republicdeb leaderadaeb president of the republic
  • (Applying Rule #8 on feminizing words by post-iotation) ⇒ adaeyb Madam President of the Republic

Rule #6: Swapping Endings[edit]

When the generic consonant of a core word is replaced by that of another core word, all of the vowels of this latter word undergo the transformation required by the new generic consonant.
Examples:
TOB
man
TOF
clothing
NOF
cloth


TYOYAB
foot
TYOYAV
sock
NOV
linen
tob man tof clothing tov lingerie
tab body taf suit  
teb head tef hat tev scarf
teib nose   teiv handkerchief
tib' trunk tif vest  
tiab chest   tiav shirt
tyob leg tyof pants tyov underwear shorts
tyoyab foot tyoyaf shoe tyoyav sock
tuyob hand tuyof glove  

Rule #7: Scientific Vocabulary-building[edit]

Chemical Elements[edit]
The names of chemical elements are formed from a number representing the element's atomic number (number of electrons), followed by a letter combination indicating whether it is a metal or metalloid, and followed, if pertinent, by a combination of letters indicating whether it is a gas or liquid. The table that follows shows how this composition works:
ELEMENT ELECTRON COUNT METAL GENERIC = m
silver 47 = ulye ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali alim
iron 46 = elya elyam
gold 79 = yelyum yelyum
copper 29 = elyu elyum
tin 50 = yolo yolom
    METALLOID GENERIC = ms
phosophorus 15 = alyo alyoms
carbon 6 = ya yams
    GAS = al LIQUID = il
hydrogen 1 = a amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi yimsal
mercury 80 = yilo yilomsil
The words amsal, yemsal, and yimsal each carry three pieces of information.
The first letter indicates their classification by number of electrons.
The two following letters: mc indicates metalloids; The two last letters: al indicates that they are a gas.
The word yilomil also carries three pieces of information:
The three first letters: 'yi-l-o show classification by number of electrons.
The fourth letter, m, indicates that it's a metal.
The two last letters, il, indicates that it's a liquid.
Other Non-elemental Substances[edit]
Non-elemental natural and man-made substances and alloys are formed using mnemonic components.
  • steel = elyamyig < elyam iron + yig(a) hard
  • plastic = sanyel < m- shape + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • rubber = yigyel < yig- soft + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • glass = zyev < zy(e) (see) through + (m)ev porcelain
  • bronze = elyumyig < elyum copper + yig(a) hard
  • paint = vozil < voz color + -il liquid
  • ink = dril < dr(er) write + -il liquid
  • coal = yamsmumun < yams carbon + mum mine + -un substance
  • glue = yanil < yan together + -il liquid
  • paste = yanyel < yan together + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • resin = defabyel < defab pine tree + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • wood = faof < fa(b) tree + (n)of material, tissue
  • leather = tayof < tayo(b) skin + (n)of material, tissue
  • concrete = yanmulmeg < yan together + mul matter + meg stone
  • tar = movyik < mov smoke + yik(a) solid
  • lava = magmebil < mag fire + meb mountain + -il liquid
  • fuel = magil' < mag fire + -il liquid
  • shampoo = tayevyiyel < taye(b) hair + vyi(a) clean + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • detergent = vyunobil < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -il liquid
  • soap = vyunobyel < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cheese = bilyig < bil milk + yig(a) hard
  • butter = bilyug < bil milk + yug(a) soft
  • syrup = gyalevil < gya extremely + lev(el) sugar, sweet + -il liquid
  • gravy = taobil < taob flesh, meat + -il liquid
  • alcohol = fil < (levaf) ferment + -il liquid
  • wax = apelatyel < apelat bee + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • honey = apelatil < apelat bee + -il liquid
  • brick = mef < m(el) earthen + (no)f hard material
  • porcelain = mev < m(el) earthen + (no)v soft material
  • gem = mez < m(el) earthen + (no)z value, precious
Atomic and Subatomic Particles[edit]
From the word mul matter, substance, stuff, we get the following derivatives:
  • mul matter, substance, stuff
  • mula material, substantial, physical
  • omula immaterial, unsubstantial, non-physical
  • ovmul anti-matter
  • omul nothingness, void, nihil
  • omulxer anihilate
  • moza mul black matter
  • multun physics
  • multuna physics-related
  • multut physics scientist
  • mulog particle
  • muloga particulate
  • mulogxer crush, crumble, pulverize
  • vamulog proton
  • omulog neutron
  • vomulog electron
  • vomuloga electronic
  • vomulp electricity
  • vomulpa electric, electrical
  • vomulpaxer electrify
  • mules element
  • mulesa elemental
  • mulesyan compound
  • yanmul mix, mixture, chemical
  • yanmula chemical
  • yanmultun chemistry
  • yanmultuna chemical
  • yanmultut chemist
  • gwomul atom
  • gwomula atomic
  • obgwomula subatomic
  • zemul nucleus
  • zemula nuclear

Rule #8: The Feminization of Words[edit]

To form the feminine of a word or to indicate that an object or thing belongs to females, post-iotate (append a y) to the ordinal vowel of the word.
Examples:
MALE-RELATED FEMALE-RELATED
tob man toyb woman
tad spouse, husband tayd wife
tadet brother taydet sister
ted father teyd mother
tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt
tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
apet horse apeyt mare
epet bull epeyt cow
tiav shirt tiayv blouse
tyof pants tyoyf skirt
tulyuxut waiter tulyuxuyt waitress
Note that personal pronouns can be feminized as well. The unfeminized form is either masculine or neutral with respect to gender.
MASCULINE FEMININE
at I / me ayt we / us women
et you eyt you gals
it he / him iyt she / her
yat we / us yayt we females / us women
yet you guys yeyt you gals
yit they / them yiyt they / them (f.)
This process works for the possessive adjective derivatives of these pronouns:
  • iyta her
  • yeyta you gals'
The animate demonstrative pronouns (animate deictic determiners) can also be feminized:
  • huyt that female person, she, her
  • huyti these females, they, them


The generic pronouns ot one, yot they (generic) and (y)ut are not normally feminized.

Rule #9: Geophysical Vowel Coding[edit]

Geophysical vowel coding, as it's name indicates, occurs on vowels by giving them a particular geophysical meaning.
  • a = air, gas, skyward
  • e = soil, ground
  • i = water, liquid, juice, etc.
  • u = concrete thing, material, mineral, underground
  • o = abstract thing, initial item, outer space
This codification occurs on the ordinal vowel of 1st Group core words only.
Examples:
m...m m...p d...p p...t m...l p...p
mom outer space mop galaxy dop military pot animal mol nature pop travel
mam sky map wind dap air force pat bird mal air pap flight
mem land mep way dep army pet (land) animal mel soil pep ride
mim sea mip river dip navy pit fish mil water pip sea voyage
mum underground mup tunnel dup submarine force mul mineral pup tunneling
Vowel coding also allows for arriving at other combined-concept word categories by placing a vowel having the value ascribed to it by Rule # 9 just a before the generic consonant of the initial word. (See Rule #5)
Examples:
COMBINED-CONCEPT WORD CODIFICATION
pait aquatic bird pat bird + liquid / sea
piat flying fish pit fish + skyward / air
diap naval aviation dip navy + skyward / air
meil mud mel soil + liquid / sea

Rule #10: Directional and Positional Vowel Coding[edit]

Directional and positional vowel coding works along lines of the charts below. Those vowels preceded by a y (iotated vowels) are, for this analysis, considered to be vowels pure and simple. Those vowels that are capitalized are positional in nature and serve as prefixes to 1st group words. Those vowels that are italicized are directional as prefixes to 2nd group words. The vowels that are underlined are directional in nature and are infixed just after the classifying consonant of 2nd group words, mostly verbs.
A a a ya ya
U u u yu u E e e ye ye I i i yi yi
O o o yo yo
VOWEL FUNCTION ATTACHMENT MEANING EXAMPLE
A positional 1st group prefix above, north zamer north
a directional 2nd group prefix on, onto aber put on, ab on
a directional 2nd group infix on, onto baer lean on
ya directional 2nd group prefix up yaber lift up, yab up
ya directional 2nd group infix upward pyaser jump up
O positional 1st group prefix under, south zomer south
o directional 2nd group prefix off, under, below ober take off, ob off
o directional 2nd group infix from below, downward boer support
yo directional 2nd group prefix down yober lower, yob down
yo directional 2nd group infix down with contact pyoser fall down
U positional 1st group prefix left, west zumer west, utuyab left hand
u directional 2nd group prefix toward uper come, ub toward
u directional 2nd group infix to, toward with contact puer arrive, bu to
yu directional 2nd group prefix near yuber bring, yub near
yu directional 2nd group infix up to, as far as byuer touch, byu up to, as far as
I positional 1st group prefix right, east zimer east, ituyab right hand
i directional 2nd group prefix away iper go away, ib away from
i directional 2nd group infix away with contact pier depart, bi to
yi directional 2nd group prefix far away, far from yiper go far away, yib far
yi directional 2nd group infix since, starting from byier originate, byi since
E positional 1st group prefix center, middle equator zemer equator, eb between
e directional 2nd group prefix staying in the middle, between eper stay
e directional 2nd group infix stopped in the middle, at beer hold, be at
ye directional 2nd group prefix inside yeber contain, yeb in
ye directional 2nd group infix inside byeer keep
Examples of verbs undergoing the rules of directional coding:
With ber put (transitive):
aber put on eber hold ober take off iber receive uber send
yaber raise yeber contain yober lower yiber put away yuber bring
baer lean on beer keep boer hold up bier take buer give
byaer lift byeer conserve byoer hang byier obtain byuer reach for
With per go (intransitive):
aper get on eper stay oper get off iper go away uper come
yaper rise yeper enter yoper descend yiper put away yuper bring
paer stand peer wait poer fall pier depart puer arrive
pyaer get up pyeer stick around pyoer get down pyier originate pyuer reach

Rule #11: Codifying Mnemonic Markers[edit]

By changing the classifying or generic consonant of a derived word, a new, but related meaning can be obtained. Also, the classifying consonant can be replaced with an entire or partial word. The relationship among the altered word forms is therefore mnemonic. Here are some examples:
teub mouth teud cry     (d = communicate, utter, social)
teuz voice     (z = precious, art, etc.)
deuz song     (d = communicate, utter, social)
tayab fat fayab vegetable fat     (f = vegetable)
mayab mineral fat     (m = nature, mineral)
tub arm fub branch     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vub twig     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
dub minister     (d = communicate, utter, social)
xub department     (x = do, work)
patub wing     (pat = bird)
pitub fin     (pit = fish)
tayob skin fayob bark     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vayob peel     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
piyetayob shell     (piyet = mollusk)
pitayob scale     (pit = fish)
epeytayob cowhide     (epeyt = cow)
tayeb hair fayeb leaf     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
pitayeb scale     (pit = fish)
potayeb fur     (pot = animal)
patayeb feather     (pat = bird)
vosayeb petal     (vos = flower)
mayeb foil     (m = nature, mineral)
gorbayeb blade     (gorb = cut)
taob flesh, meat faob wood     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vaob hay     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
epeytaob beef     (epeyt = cow)
kovaob thatch     (ko = cover + v = plant)
fyaob pulp     (fy(ab) = fruit )
faof board, plank     (f = vegetable, tree, etc. )
teater see teaxer look     (x = do, teab = eye)
teaper visit     (p = go)
teaser seem     (s = be)
teader testify     (d = communicate, utter, social)
izeader indicate     (iz = direct )
izteaxer aim     (x = do)
beaxer watch     (b(eer) = keep)
abeaxer survey     (ab = over)
yoneater discern     (yon = apart, t = know )
vyaleaxer check     (vyal = accurate )
yageaxer stare     (yag = long )
Suppressing Syllables for Brevity[edit]
Sometimes, syllables of longish words can be omitted for brevity as long as no confusion of meaning results. Here are some examples:
  • vafil wine < vafyabil (vafyab grape + -il liquid)
  • bil milk < tilabil (tilab breast + -il liquid)
  • ateuder neigh < apeteuder (apet horse + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • iteuder bray < ipeteuder (ipet donkey + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • bilyig cheese < tilabilyig (tilab breast + -il liquid + yig(a) hard)

Rule #12: Creating Nuances of Meaning[edit]

Words following Rule #12 are those that relate to one another through similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances indicated by phonetic devices that activate these nuances.
These nuances are obtained by:
a) Adding a sub-ordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
Examples:
NORMAL NUANCED
valay surely vaalay assuredly
nad line naad rail
dab government daab administration
dob state doob nation
tam house taam home
vyab rule vyaab regime, system
job time joob era, time period
b) Post-iotating ordinal vowels and subordinal vowels. Often, the meaning of the word with the post-iotated vowel is a mitigated nuance of the word without the iotated vowel:
NORMAL DIMINISHED NUANCE
nad line nayd ray
vua ugly vuya plain
ifer love iyfer like
iva happy iyva content
tam house taym cottage
ab on ayb over
ob off oyb under
en- two- eyn- half-
ud that uyd such
ama hot ayma warm
c) Adding the sense-augmenting consonants l and r, the latter being the stronger.
NORMAL AUGMENTED NUANCE FURTHER-AUGMENTED NUANCE
iva happy ivla glad ivra delighted
via beautiful vila magnificent vira marvelous
yifa brave yilfa courageous yirfa heroic
fua bad fula awful fura horrendous
alo hundred aro thousand amso million
yufxer intimidate yulfxer frighten yurfxer terrorize
aga big agla huge agra tremendous
Note: Sometimes the l or r nuance-enhancing consonants come after the generic consonant.
d) Adding consonants other than l and r as generic consonants. Sometimes, more than one nuance-altering consonant is added in the same word:
vala = sure
valta = safe

fua = bad
futa = evil [t usually refers to people or animals]

vyaa = true
vyala = authentic
vyafa = precise
vyama = real [m usually refers to nature, minerals, etc.]
vyava = exact [v usually refers to veracity]
vyalva = right
vyaba = regular [b usually refers to an organization or organism]
vyada = frank [d usually refers to communicating, talking, writing, etc.]
vyata = reliable
vyasma = concrete

Forming Adjectives[edit]

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
Examples:
NOUN ADJECTIVE
taam home taama domestic
doob nation dooba national
tej life teja vital
tyoyapyaf ability to walk tyoyapyafa ambulatory
martun astronomy martuna astronomical
PRONOUN ADJECTIVE
at I, me ata my
etut yourself etuta your own
hiyen this kind hiyen this kind of
hot? who? hota? whose?
GERUND ADJECTIVE
ifeken recreation ifekena recreational
VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE)
teje (he) lives tejea living
tojo will die tojoa moribund, about to die
tojbu would kill tojbua lethal
twe is known twa known


Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
Examples:
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
voz color vozaya colorful
futax resentment futaxaya resentful
tiibil blood tiibilaya bloody
yilf courage yilfaya courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
voz color vozoya colorless, pale
tajyaf talent tajyafoya untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya)
map wind mapika windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya)
nas money nasuka broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of
tobob child tobobyena childish, infantile
tot god totyena divine, godly
pit fish pityena fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t- know twa or tawa known
dal- speak dalwa or dalawa spoken, oral
nisbu- sell nisbuwa sold
-ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot- not know otea ignorant
tej- live tejea living, alive
tuj- die tujea dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb- kill tujbyea murderous
tex- think texyea pensive, thoughtful
tox- forget toxyea forgetful
ax- act axyea active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex- operate exuwa operable
tos feel tosuwa palpable
tex- think texuwa conceivable
tel- eat teluwa edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafa sightful, able to see
dyed- read dyedyafa literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafwa visible
tax- remember taxyafwa memorable
teet- hear teetyafwa audible
tel- eat telyafwa edible
-yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofa blind
tyoyap- walk tyoyapyofa lame
teet- hear teetyofa deaf
dal- speak dalyofa dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofwa invisible
teet- hear teetyofa inaudible
tox- forget toxyofa unforgetable
dal- speak dalyofa unspeakable
-ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
pot animal potifa pet-friendly
hyitoob- same-gender hyitoobifa homophile
tobot child tobotifa pedophile
fitel food fitelifa gourmand
doob nation doobifa patriotic
-ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
tob human tobufa misanthropic
hyut- other person hyutufa xenophobic
toyb- woman toybufa misogynist

Negating Adjectives[edit]

The sense of an adjective can be negated with the prefix o or the more intensive yo.
Examples:
  • vlea probable ovlea improbable
  • vyafa perfect ovyafa imperfect
  • twa known otwa unknown
  • bosa calm yobosa worried
  • tatyena angelic yotatyena diabolical

Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes[edit]

As in English, the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin. Here are the most common:
ENGLISH PREFIX MIRAD ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
un-, a(n)-, in-, non- o- obaka unhealthy, oyezyebeya incontinent, oyelpea non-invasive, ototina atheist
anti-, counter- ov- ovzuina anti-leftist, oviztida counter-intuitive
pseudo- kovyo- kovyotepina pseudo-intellectual
all-, pan-, omni- hyas- yadtea all-knowing, omniscient
re- yeg- yegtajbwa re-born
mis- vyo- vyoseudwa mispronounced
semi-, half- eyn- eynlevelaya semi-sweet, eyntija half-awake
ultra-, super- yiz-, gwa- gwadoobina ultra-nationalist, yizmola supernatural
under-, hypo- gro- grojaga under-aged
over-, hyper-, uber- gra- graagxwa overgrown, gratoseya hypersensitive
miso- [see suffixes]
multi-, many-, poly- gla- glakuma multilateral, glatadaya polygamous
mal-, ill- fu- futeyenxwa ill-conceived, fusanxwa malformed
well- fi- fitofabwa well-dressed
quasi- yuyb- yuybdaba quasi-governmental
pre-, (a)fore-, pro- ja- jateyenxwa pre-conceived, jaigdawa aformentioned
post- jo- jodropeka post-war

English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison[edit]

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
-ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya colorful, tuzika skillful
-ous full of -aya, -ika nazika precious, milaya aqueous
-filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoke-filled
-y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoky,
-ous of, like -a totina religious, vyosa erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena godly, toybyena womanly
-like like -yena patyena bird-like
-ish like -yena tobobyena childish
-y like -yena fyabyena fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena artistic, silyena acidic
-ic of, related to -a tuna scientific, , beka therapeutic
-ical of, related to -a zyunida spherical, iztexa logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina militarist(ic), nasyanina capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa xenophonic, tobyanufa misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobobifa pedophilic, tobifa philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena bestial
-al of, pertaining to -a teja vital, amana thermal
-less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka lifeless, toboboya childless
-free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka ice-free, vyosoya, error-free

Forming Adverbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-iotating the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Examples:
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia good fiay well
vyaa true vyaay truly
gyua easy gyuay easily
iga quick igay quickly
auta personal autay personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of deadjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig. He walks fast.
  • Yit xa ad fi. They did it well.

Special Adverbs[edit]

Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
Here are the principal such adverbs:
SPECIAL ADVERB
vay.... indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va.... yes)
vey.... possibly, may, might (cf. ve.... maybe)
voy.... not (cf. vo.... no)
ga.... more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gay.... also, moreover, further, still
ge.... as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gey.... even
go.... less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
goy.... no longer, no more
gla.... very
glay.... quite, rather, so
gle.... so
glo.... not very, not so
gra.... too
gre.... enough, sufficiently, over-
gro.... not...enough, inadequately, under-
gwa.... most, super-
gwe.... average
gwo.... least, sub-
The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa..... Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa..... Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yurxut..... I am not your slave.
The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
  • Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
  • Et peya gra ig.'.... You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
  • It gra dale.'.... He talks [=VERB] too much.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES
yab up Ad pat papa yab bu ad mam. The bird flew up to the sky.
yob down Teaxu yob bu ad mel. Look down to the ground.
yub near Pesu yub ad mas. Stay near the wall.
yib far Ad tobi igpia yib ad yovbyokam. The men fled far from the prison.
ib away Teaxu ib, diwe. Look away, please.
ub this way Tyoyapu ub. Walk toward this way.
yeb in, inward, inside Kyedu odut ogja tyoyapa yeb! Guess who just walked in!
oyeb out, outside 'It tyoyapa oyeb zye ad zama mes. He walked out through the front door.
yuz around Yit daza yuz yat. They danced around us.
yiz beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz id titam av yux. You must look beyond this school for help.

Pro-adverbs[edit]

There are also adverbial expressions that are agglutinated with deictic and quantitative morphemes to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-verbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Determiners in Deictic Pro-adverbs.

Forming Verbs[edit]

Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.

Forming Verbs from Nouns[edit]

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
NOUN VERB
syag count syager to count
tof clothes tofer to dress
tam house tamer to dwell, live, reside
dyun name dyuner to name, call
teud cry, shout teuder to cry, shout, exclaim
taj birth tajer to be born
tej life tejer to live
toj house tojer to die
ej present ejer to continue
ij beginning ijer to begin
uj end ijer to end
yuj sleep tujer to sleep

Verb Formants[edit]

Sometimes an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser to be usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefitting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefitting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • -ter to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see_
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB VERB
yav innocence der to say yavder to acquit
yov shame, guilt aber to apply, put on yovaber to shame, accuse
yov shame, guilt ober to remove, take off yovober to excuse, exculpate
tof clothes aber to apply, put on tofaber to dress, don
tof clothes ober to remove, take off tofober to undress, strip
det associate ser to be, become detser to associate
dat friend xer to do, make datxer to befriend
san form ser to be, become sanser to form (intransitive)
san form xer to do, make sanxer to form (transitive)
tel food (b)ier to take telier to eat, consume
tel food (b)uer to give teluer to feed, nourish
if pleasure (b)ier to take ifier to enjoy
if pleasure (b)uer to give ifuer to please
taj birth (b)uer to give tajuer to give birth
tej life (b)ier to take tejier to come alive
tej life (b)uer to give tejuer to bring to life
toj death (b)ier to take tojier to drop dead
toj death (b)uer to give tojuer to kill
tij wakefulness (b)ier to take tijier to wake up
tij wakefulness (b)uer to give tijuer to awaken
tuj sleep (b)ier to take tujier to fall asleep
tuj sleep (b)uer to give tujuer to put to sleep
tax memory (b)ier to take taxier to recall
tax memory (b)uer to give taxuer to remind
yev justice der to say, tell yevder to judge
vyan truth der to say, tell vyander to tell the truth
vyon falsehood der to say, tell vyonder to tell a lie
il liquid aker to gain ilaker to take on liquid
il liquid oker to lose iloker to leak, lose liquid
il liquid (b)ier to take ilier to soak up
il liquid (b)uer to give iluer to pour, water
il liquid ikser to get full ilikser to be soaked (intransitive)
il liquid ikxer to fill up ilikxer to flood, soak (transitive)
il liquid ukser to become empty ilukser to drain (intransitive)
il liquid ukxer to empty ilukxer to flush (transitive)
il liquid ser to be, become ilser to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il liquid xer to do, make ilxer to liquify, melt (transitive)
il liquid aber to apply, put on ilaber to wash (transitive)
il liquid aper to get on ilaper to float (intransitive)
il liquid per to go ilper to flow (intransitive)
il liquid zyaber to spread ilzyaber to spray, shower (transitive)
il liquid zyober to squeeze ilzyober to squirt (transitive)
il liquid pyexer to strike ilpyexer to splash (with liquid)
il liquid yujer to close ilyujer to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser[edit]

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aza strong azaxer fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser get strong
oza week ozaxer weaken ozaser grow weaker
kyia heavy kyiaxer weigh down kyiaser grow heavy
kyua light kyuaxer lighten, make lighter kyiaser get lighter
yana together yanaxer bring together yanaser get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aga big agaxer magnify agaser get big
agxer grow agxer grow up, mature
iga fast igaxer accelerate igaser speed up
igxer rush igser hurry up
baka healthy bakaxer make healthy bakaser get healthy
bakxer heal bakser heal
sana formal sanaxer formalize sanaser become formal
sanxer form, shape sanser form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per[edit]

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITON
BASE
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB
ab on aber apply, put on aper mount, get on
eb between eber block eper intervene
ob off ober remove, take off oper dismount, get off
ib away iber receive iper leave
ub toward uber send uper come
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yeb in
oyeb out
yeber insert
oyebertake out
yeper enter
oyeper exit
yob down yober lower yoper descend
yib far yiber take away yiper move away
yub near yuber bring yuper approach
zay forward zayber advance zayper advance, go forward
zey across zeyber take across, transfer zeyper cross, go over, transit
zoy back zoyber set back, return zoyper retreat, go back, return
iz straight izber guide izper aim for
uz crooked uzber divert uzper turn, diverge
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper pass by
yuz around yuzber take around yuzper go around
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
bluserswoop || bluxershove || pluserlunge, pounce || pluxerthrust
apluxer
GESTURE VERB GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB MOTION VERB
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
ber put
beer have
byeer contain
beler
carry
per go
baer lean on barer press
yanbarer compress
yobarer depress, suppress
yuzbarer hug
zoybarer repress
paer ?
baser gesticulate baxer make a gesture
abaxer caress, pat
paser move paxer move
byaser stand up byaxer set up, erect pyaser jump up pyaxer shoot, launch
blaser budge blaxer rouse
ablaxer massage
plaser get excited plaxer excite
aplaxer sweep
braser shake braxer shake
abraxer rub
apraxer brush
beser stay bexer hold
zoybexer restrain
yobexer detain, hold down
peser wait pexer trap
byeser behave byexer hit pyeser run into, bump into pyexer strike, knock
yonpyexer break
yopyexer knock down
yanpyexer fight
apyexer attack
ovpyexer offend
kunpyexer sideswipe
tuyapyexer slap
bleser adhere blexer retain plexer pound, beat
aplexer assault
yonplexer shatter, burst
yanpreser implode
yonpreser explode
prexer blast, bomb
boser calm down
boyser rest
boxer quieten, quell poser stop
poyser pause
poxer stop
byoser hang byoxer hang pyoser fall
yonpyoser decay
pyoxer drop, throw down
yopyoxer topple
biser originate bixer pull
yanbixer contract
yonbixer distract
yubixer attract
yibixer distract
oyebixer extract
yebixer push in
pixer catch
bliser spring blixer yank plixer snag, capture
yiplixer abduct
buser be destined buxer push, drive
zyobuxer squeeze
yebuxer expel
abuxer impose
apuser assault puxer throw, thrust
byuser bump into byuxer touch
yanbyuxer contact
pyuser run into pyuxer crash
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX VERB
baxer gesture, make a bodily motion
ab on abaxer caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz straight izbaxer point
teb head tebaxer nod
va yes vatebaxer nod yes
vo no votebaxer nod no
ve maybe vetebaxer shrug
tuyab hand tuyabaxer wave
tub arm tubaxer flail, swing
teubab tongue teubabaxer lick
teab eye teubaxer wink
patub wing patubaxer flap
tiyub tail tiyubaxer wag
baser gesticulate
ig- fast igbaser jerk
zay forward igzaybaser lurch
zoy back zoybaser recoil
yob down yobaser bow, bend down
ku- side kubaser slide
ig- fast igkubaser slip
iz straight + uz curved izuzbaser sway, swagger, swish
zi right + zu left zizubaser wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative Verbs[edit]

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by affixing the syllable eg to the verb stem. Here are some examples:
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB
paser move paseger shake, shudder
pyaser jump pyaseger bounce
paper fly papeger flutter, flit
braser shake braseger shudder, quivver, vibrate
teupixer bite teupixeger nibble
ilzyaber spray ilzyabeger sprinkle

Word Families[edit]

The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub mouth:
ceux sound
xeus noise
xeuz tune
teuz voice
deuz song
seuz tone
deus accent
Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
teb head deb leader xeb boss feb treetop
tub limb dub minister xub subsidiary fub branch vub twig patub wing petub paw pitub fin
teub mouth pateub beak peteub muzzle
tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale fayeb leaf vosayeb petal potayeb mane
tayob skin tayof leather petayob hide fayob bark vayob peel
tyob leg fyob root vyob plant root
tib trunk fib tree trunk vib stem
tulob nail petulob claw fulob thorn defulob needle mulob pin, prick
tiibuf artery fuf pipe muf stick, rod movuf cheminee fauf log manuf candle
til drink teabil tear teubil saliva dril ink mil water mamil rain tayobil sweat bil milk

The xer (Do) Family[edit]

The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this core word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).

Core Words[edit]

This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
axer act exer function oxer abstain ixer effect uxer cause
alxer activate elxer operate olxer fail ilxer react ulxer influence
arxer perform
xaer execute xeer exercise xoer undergo, submit xier result xuer affect
xeyer behave
xaler accomplish xeler practice xoler fail xiler undertake xuler achieve
yexer work yoxer be idle yixer use, hire yuxer help, serve
yerxer struggle yorxer resign yirxer exploit yurxer slave

Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes[edit]

Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
PREFIX BASE DERIVATION
ana single xer make anaxer unify
an- one- xer make anxer unite
yana together 'exer operate yanexer cooperate
yan- together yexer work yanyexer collaborate
yon- apart xer make yonxer split
ge- equal xer make gexer copy
ja before xer make jaxer prepare
je while xer do jexer continue
ig- fast xer do igxer rush
ug- slow xer do ugxer delay
oj future xer do ojxer plan
yeg- re- xer do yegxer redo
sa(n) shape xer make saxer create
se(n) being xer make sexer build
lo- un- sexer build losexer destroy
mel soil yexer work melyexer plough
tea(b) eye xer do teaxer look
o- un- yirxer hire oyirxer fire
mag fire xer cause magxer burn
yuf fear xer cause yufxer frighten
dofun crime xer do dofunxer commit a crime
gra too much xer do graxer exaggerate
yeg- re- axer act yegaxer react
fu- bad xeyer behave fuxeyer misbehave

Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

Hundreds of verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
ADJECTIVE VERB
aga big agaxer magnify
goa lesser goaxer diminish
fia good fiaxer improve
jwoa late jwoaxer retard
uva sad uvaxer sadden
via beautiful viaxer beautify
ebdooba international ebdoobaxer internationalize
Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
The passive of xer, xwer to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
  • Hoj hus xwa? When did that happen?
  • At uvaxwa ham wa at teata ad tobob. I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.

Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms[edit]

The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
  • xer deuz to perform a song
  • xer ifpop to take a cruise
  • xer ebdid to conduct an interview

Derived Words[edit]

Here are some important derivations of the verb xer:

xer do

xen doing
xun deed
xut doer
xwa done
xwer be done, happen
xwen happening, event
xwas fact, happening, deed, event
xwasyan facts, news, happening, events
eja xwasyan current events
xwasdren fact sheet, log
xwasa factual, actual
loxer undo
loxen undoing
loxwa undone
yegxer redo
yegxwa redone
xeut agent
xeun business
xeem agency
xeon fact
xeona factual
xeoj case
xeoja casual
xej event
xeja eventual
xejay eventually
xejan eventuality
xejaya eventful
xejes incident
xejesa incidental
xejesay incidentally
xem studio, office, bureau
xemsem desk
xeb boss, manager, foreman
xag frequency
glaxaga frequent
glaxagay frequently, often
gloxagay seldom
hoxag? how often?
hyoxag never
hexag sometimes
gaxag more often
goxag less often
gexag as often
gexag ev yafwa as often as possible:::

axer act, perform

ax act, performance
axyan activity
oax inaction, non-action
axen action, performance
axea acting, performing
oaxea inactive
oaxean inactivity
jaaxea proactive
jaaxean proactivity
loaxer deactivate
loaxen deactivation
loaxwa deactivated
axeya active
oaxeya inactive
axar activator, on switch
loaxar deactivator, off switch
axut actor, performer
axun act, performance
joax followup

alxer operate

alxen operation
alxena operational
alxut operator
alxim operating room

exer operate, function, work

ex function
exa functional
oex dysfunction, breakdown
oexa dysfunctional, out of service
exen operation
exena operational, functional
exea operational, functioning, in service
oexea out of service, not operating, non-functioning, out of service
exean operating state
exuwa operable
oexuwa inoperable, disfunctional
exuwan operability
exut operator
exutyan operating staff
exeb chief, boss, manager, foreman

oxer be idle

oxen idling
oxea idling, idle

yexer work, labor

yex work, labor, job, employment
yexes task, job
yexen working
yexea working
yexut worker, laborer
yexem worksite
yexam workplace
yexim work room, laboratory, office, lab
yexsem desk
yexeb boss, task master
yextaf work attire
yexpox strike
yexpoxut striker
yexpoxer strike
yexirper retire
yexirpen retirement
yexirpa retired
yexirpat retiree
yexoya jobless
yexoyan joblessness
yexoyat jobless person
yexoyaser become jobless
yexorber fire, dismiss
yexorbwer be fired, be dismissed
yexorbwa fired, dismissed
yexorben firing, dismissal
tuyabyex manual labor
tuyabyexut manual laborer
yexwer struggle, work hard, try, endeavor
melyex farming, agriculture
melyexut farmer
melyexam farmhouse
melyexem farm
melyexa agricultural
gonjob yex part-time work
ganjob yex full-time work
yizjob yex overtime work
onus yex pro bono work
fanaya yex volunteer work
yurxwat yex slave work
yex jwobyan work schedule
azatay yexer work hard, work strenuously
azyexer work hard
azyexut hard worker
ozyexer slack off
ozyexut slackard
grayexut workaholic
grayexen workaholism
grayexea workaholic, overly industrious
groyexut slackard, underworker
groyexen slacking off, underworking
groyexea slackard, underworking, unindustrious
yanyexer cooperate, collaborate, work together
yanyexen cooperation, collaboration, working together
yanyexa cooperative, collaborative
yanyexeya cooperative
yanyexeyan cooperativeness
oyanyexeya uncooperative
yanyexut colleague, co-worker, collaborator
yexyan works
yonyexer work apart, compete
tamyexer work at home, telecommute, work domestically
tamyexut work-at-home, telecommuter, house worker
tamyexen working from home, telecommuting
tamyex house work, domestic chore
ebyexer interwork
ebyex interworkings, network, complex

xaer execute

xaen execution
xaeya executive
xaut executive

xaler accomplish

xal accomplishment
xalwa accomplished
xalaya accomplished, gifted
graxalaya very accomplished, very gifted

xeyer behave

xeyen behavior, comportment
xeyena behavioral

xelier busy oneself, occupy oneself, take on business xeluer busy, occupy

xel practice, rite
faxel sacrifice, mass, holy service, sacred rite
faxela ritual, ceremonial, sacrificial
faxeler perform the mass, perform a sacred service
faxelut celebrant, priest
ivxeler celebrate
ivxel celebration, feast, ceremony
ivxela celebratory, festive, ceremonial

xerer exercise, practice, profess

xeren practice, profession,, occupation
fuxeren malpractice
xerena practical, professional
xerenan practicality
xerut practicioner, professional

xena active

xenaxer activate
xenaxen activation
xenaxwa activated
oxenaxer deactivate
oxenaxen deactivation
oxenaxwa deactivated

xeut agent, author

xeem agency
xeon fact
xeoj case:
xeun business
xeunut businessman
xeunuyt businesswoman

xuer affect, bring about

xun effect, factor
xuen affecting
xuna affective
xuwa affected

xier result

xin result
xiea resulting
xina resultative
ge xin as a result
ge xin bi as a result of

uxer cause

ux cause, factor
uxen causation
uxa causal
uxwa caused
uxeya causative
bi odux? why?
bi adux lav because

ulxer influence

ulx influence
ulxwa influenced
ulxeya influential

uyxer motivate

uyx motive
uyxen motivation
uyxena motivational
uyxwa motivated

ix effect

ux ay ix cause and effect
ixeya effective, effectual
oixeya ineffectual, ineffective
ixeyan effectiveness

yuxer help, aid, assist, serve

yux help, aid, assistance, service
yuxut helper, aid, assistant, servant
yuxen helping, aiding, assisting, serving
yuxun means, aid
yuxwa helped, aided, assisted, served
yuxea helping, assisting, serving
oyuxea unhelpful
yuxeya helpful
yuxeyan helpfulness
fiyuxer benefit
fiyux benefit
fiyuxea beneficial
aayux first aid
igefyux emergency assistance
igefyuxut emergency assistance personnel

yulxer serve

yulx service, labor
yulxen serving
yulxut server, servant, laborer
yulxutyan service staff
yulxun means, agent
yulxam agency
yulxuwa serviceable

yurxer be a slave, slave

yurxen slavery
yurxut slave
yurxwa enslaved person, slave
yurxwat enslaved
yurxwan enslavement

yixer use, utilize

yix use, utility
yixen using, utilization
yixwa used, utilized
oyixwa unused
yixut user
yixun utility, tool
yixunyem toolbox
yixunyan equipment
fiyix good use, benefit
fiyixuwa beneficial
fiyixer put to good use
fiyixwa well-used
fuyix misuse, abuse
fuyixer misuse, abuse
fuyixut abuser
fuyixwa abused, misused:

yilxer employ, hire

yilx employment, hire
yilxen employment, hiring
yilxut employer
yilxwa employed, hired
yilxwat employee
oyilxwa unemployed
oyilxwan unemployment
oyilxuwa unemployable
oyilxwat unemployed person
yilxpar taxi, taxicab, cab

yirxer exploit

yirx exploit
yirxen exploitation
yirxena exploitational
yirxwa exploited
yirxuwa exploitable
yirxuwan exploitability
oyirxwa unexploited
oyirxwa unexploitable
oyirxwan unexploitability
yirxut exploiter
yirxeya exploitative
yirxeyan exploitativeness

jaxer prepare, ready

jaxen preparation, readying
jaxena preparatory
jaxwa prepared, ready
ojaxwa unprepared, not ready
jaxwan preparedness, readiness
jaxeya preparative
jaser prepare oneself, get prepared, get ready

jexer continue

jexen continuation
jexeya continual
jexea continuing, continual
jexwa continued
lojexer discontinue
lojexen discontinuation
lojexwa discontinued

gexer copy

gex copy
gexar copier
gexun copy
gexwa copied
gexut copycat

egxer re-do, repeat

egxen re-doing, repetition
egxwa re-done, repeated
egxeya repetitive

ojxer plan, project

ojxen planning
ojxun plan
ojxwa planned
olojxwa unplanned, spontaneous
ojxut planner

xeser organize

xes organ
xesa organic
oxes mess, disarray, disorganization
xesen organizing, organization
xesena organizational
loxeser mess up, disorganized
loxesen disorganization
xeswa organized
oxeswa disorganized
xesut organizer

egfiaxer fix, repair

egfiaxen reparation
egfiaxeya reparative
egfiaxena reparational
egfiaxwa repaired, fixed
egfiaxut repairman
egfiaxam repair shop
egfiaxuwas fixer-upper

loxer undo

loxen undoing
loxwa undone

igxer hurry, hasten, rush

igxen hurring, haste, rush
igxwa hurried, rushed
igser hurry up, rush, hasten

aaxer initiate

aaxen initiation
aaxwa initiated
aaxut initiator
aaxwat initiate

saxer make, fabricate, create, craft

saxun creation
saxut creator, manufacturer
saxen creation, fabrication, making, craft, manufacturing
saxwa created, fabricated, made, crafted, manufactured
tamsaxwa homemade, domestically crafted
saxem factory, plant
saxim studio, lab
saxwat creature
saxeya creative
saxeb manufacturer
tuyabsaxwa hand-made, hand-crafted, made by hand

sexer build, construct

sexun building
yabsexun skyscraper, highrise
sexen construction
sexeya constructive
sexeyan constructiveness
osexeya unconstructive
sexut builder, constructor
sexeb master builder
visextun architecture
visextut architect
visextuna architectural
sexem construction site
sexwa built, constructed
fisexwa well-built
fusexwa shoddy
osexer destroy
osexen destruction
osexeya destructive
osexut destroyer
osexwa destroyed

amber found

ambun foundation
ambut founder
ambea ted founding father
amben founding
ambwa founded
Note the following parallelism:
xyen industry byen manner tyen occupation syen fashion tryen profession

The ser (Be) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
Summary:
aser become eser exist, there to be oser cease to be iser start out user end up

Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
ADJECTIVE STATIVE VERB
aga big agaser get big
aga big agser grow
uza curved uzaser curve, bend, bow
kyaa mobile kyaser change, vary
mayna clear maynaser clear up
iga fast igaser become fast, accelerate
iga fast igser rush, hurry
Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
  • It agxe vafyabi. He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Vafyabi voy agse fi him. Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
  • His kyaxa yata teji. This changed our lives.
  • Yata teji kyasa hujub. Our lives changed on that day.
  • Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi. The winds bent the trees.
  • Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag. The trees bowed during the storm.
  • Wo igxu at. Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Igsu! Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)

Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns[edit]

The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
NOUN STATIVE VERB
meg stone megser petrify, become rock
abnod peak abnodser peak, climax
mus scale, stair musser escalate
yom ice yomser freeze
maf cloud mafser cloud over
il liquid ilser liquefy, melt

Creating Dynamic Verbs from Inherently Stative Verbs[edit]

Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic/transitive counterparts end in -ber. Here are some examples:
STATIVE VERB DYNAMIC VERB
tojer die tojber kill
tajer be born tajber give birth (to), bear
tejer live tejber bring to life
tijer be awake tijber awaken
tujer sleep tujber put to sleep
ijer begin ijber begin (something)
ujer end ijber finish, put an end to
yijer open up yijber open up (something)
yujer close yujber close, bring to a close

Derived Words[edit]

Here are some common words derived from ser:

saer form, represent, comprise

san shape, form, representation
sanaya shapely
sanayan shapeliness
sanxer form, shape [transitive]
sanxen formation, shaping
sanxena formational
sanxeya formative
sanxwa formed, shaped
fisanxwa well-formed
fisanxen reformation
fusanxwa poorly-formed, malformed, deformed, misshapen
fusanxen malformation, deformation, misshapening
egsanxer reshape, reform, shape up
egsanxen reshaping, reformation
egsanxwa reshaped, reformed
egsanxut reshaper, reformer
kyasanxer transform
kyasanxen transformation
kyasanxena transformational
kyasanxwa transformed, morphed
kyasanxar transformer
kyasanxeya transformative
sanser form, morph [intransitive]
kyasanser change shape, transform
egsanser shape up, get into shape
yansanser conform
yansanen conformity
yansanin conformism
yansanina conformist
yansaninat conformist
oyansanina non-conformist
oyansanin non-conformism
oyansaninat non-conformist
santun morphology
santuna morphological
santut morphologist
oyebsan aspect, outer form
oyebsana aspectual
sana formal
sanaxer formalize
sanaxen formalization
sanan formality
sanay formally
osana informal
osanan informality
sanin formalism
sanina formalistic
saninat formalist
ansana uniform
ansanan uniformity
anasana unique
anasanan uniqueness
sanoya formless
sanoyan formlessness
visana classic
visanyena classical
visantun classics
visantut classisist
vyasan original, true form
vyasana original
vyasanan originality
zyusan round shape, circle
ukunsan rectangle, rhombus
ukunsana rectangular, rhomboid
ugekunsan square, rectangle
ugekunsana square, square-shaped, rectangular
igunsan triangle
igunsana triangular
ugunsan tetragon
ugunsana tetragonal
yogunsan pentagon
yogunsana pentagonal
yagunsan hexagon
yagunsan hexagonal
yigunsan octagon
yigunsana octagonal
agvusan blob, big ugly shape
sandren formulation
sandrena formulaic
sandrer formulate
sandrun formula
yansaner constitute
yansan constitution
yansana constitutional
yansanea constituent

saun model, pattern, kind, genre, type, genus, species, sort

sauna generic, typical
saunaber classify, assign to a type, sort
saunaben classification, sorting
saunabwa classified, sorted
saunaser typify, be modeled after

salun specimen aasaun prototype, archetype, pattern, model

aasauna prototypical, archetypical

asauna special, especial, specific

asaunay especially, specially, specifical
asaunan speciality
asaunaxer specialize
asaunaxen specialization
asaunaxwa specialized

yasauna general

yasaunay generally
yasaunaxer generalize
yasaunaxen generalization
yasaunaxwa generalized

yansaun class anasauna unique

anasaunay uniquely

saunes sample

saunesier sample
saunesien sampling

utsaun example

utsauna exemplary

vyasaun original, original specimen

vyasauna original

vyosaun counterfeit, fake

vyosauna counterfeit, fake

visaun classic

visauna classic, classical, high-class

vusauna degenerate, low-class, base gesauna same kind of hisauna this kind of husauna that kind of, such duhesauna? what kind of? hyasauna every kind of hyesauna any kind of, whatever kind of hyosauna no kind of, no sort of hasauna the kind of hesauna some kind of hisauna the same kind of, the very kind of husauna another kind of, a different sort of hihusauna various kinds of: soer undergo, submit

soen submission
soeyea submissive

son matter, thing, subject, affair, issue

kyison important matter, grave matter, grave issue
kyisona important, grave
kyisonay importantly, gravely
kyisonan importance, gravity
kyuson triviality, trivial matter
kyusona trivial
kyusonay trivially
kyusonan triviality
dalson issue, topic, subject
zeson focus
zesoner focus
zesonwa focussed
ozesonwa unfocussed
gyison problem, difficult matter, hard issue
gyisona problematic, difficult
gyisonxer complicate
gyisonxen complication
gyisonxwa complicated
ogyisonxer uncomplicate, resolve
ogyisonxen resolution
oson non-issue, blank, nothingness, nihil
koson secret, mystery
kosona secret
kosonan secrecy
kosonaya secretive, mysterious
kason solution
kasoner solve, resolve
kanonen resolution
vyeson theme, subject, topic
vyesona thematic, topical, relevant
ovyesona irrelevant, immaterial, athematic
ifson pleasure, fun
ifsonuer please
ifsonuea pleasing, pleasant
ifsonier enjoy, have fun
ifsoniuwa enjoyable
yevson law case, court case, suit
doyevson civil case
ovson suit
evson contingency
avson cause, case
ivson comedy
ivsona comic
uvson tragedy
uvsona tragic
keson question, query
igefson emergency, crisis
igefsona critical
jeson situtation
jesona situational
kyeson imponderable matter

sin picture, image

sina pictorial
sinxer depict, describe
sinxun depiction, description
sinyuz picture frame
tepsin imagination
tepsina imaginary
tepsiner imagine
otepsinuwa unimaginable
sinier visualize, imagine
sinien visualization, imagination
siniwa imagined, imaginary
sinuer display, exhibit, show, depict
sinuun display, exhibit, show, depiction
sinuut display artist, exhibitor
sinuwa displayed, exhibited, depicted
sinuem scene, stage, exhibition site, display site
sinuwasyan scenery
sinuwasyana scenic
mansin photograph, photo, still shot
mansina photographic
mansinar camera, still camera
mansinxer photograph
passin movie, motion picture
passinam movie theatre, cinema
passinar movie camera
passinagat movie star
fasin icon, idol
fasina iconic
fasinxer iconify
fasinxen iconification
fasinxwa iconified
fasinifrer idolize
fasinifrun idol
fasinifren idolatry, idolization
tujsin dream
tujsiner dream
tujsinut dreamer, reverer
tujsinen dreaming, reverie
tujsina chimeric
tujsinaya dreamy
tujsinyena dream-like
otujsinwa undreamed of
pensin trace
pensiner trace
pensinwa traced
zoysin reflection
zoysiner reflect
zoysineya reflective
zoysinar reflector
zoysinwa reflected
tabsin figure
tabsina figurative
tebsin face
tebsina facial
tebsinay facially
tebsinuer face
tobsin portrait
tobsinut portrait artist
tobsinun portrayal
tobsiner portray
utsin character
utsiner characterize
utsinen characterization
utsinwa characterized
utsineya characteristic
olutsineya uncharacteristic
memsin landscape, scene
memsina scenic
memsinyan scenery

siun sign

siunmuf signpost
mansiun signal, light
tuyabsiun hand sign
tuyabsiuner wave
tebsiuner nod
siunar signal
siunarer signal
siunaren signaling
siundaf sign board
mepsiun road sign
siuner make a sign, give a sign, signal
siunen signing
dyunsiun signature
dyunsiuner sign
dyunsiunen signing
dyunsiunut signer, signatory
dyunsiunwa signed
odyunsiunwa unsigned

siyn mark

siyner mark
siynun marking
siynwa marked
osiynwa unmarked

sun thing

suna real
sunan reality
sunxer realize
sunxwa realized
sunxen realization
osun nothing, nihil, nil
osunxer anihilate
osunxen anihilation
osunxwa anihilated
osunin nihilism
osunina nihilistic
osuninat nihilist
sunyen structure
sunyena structural
sunyener structure
sunyenwa structured
osunyenwa unstructured::

syen style

syenxer style
syenxwa styled
syena stylistic
syeen fashion, manner, mode
be syeen bi a la mode, in the fashion of
syeenaya fashionable
syeena manneristic
syeeninat fashionista
utsyen genre
xesyen process
yixsyeen manner of use
syentun manners

syin subject

syina subjective
syinay subjectively
syinan subjectivity

syun object

syuna objective
syunay objectively
syunan objectivity
syunes article
syufi effects

eser exist, there to be

ese there is, there are, exists
esen existence
esea existant
eson entity

oser cease to exist

osea nonexistant
osean nonexistance
oson nonentity

syemer establish

syem establishment
yansyem corporation, company, firm
yansyema corporate
yansyemeb CEO, chief corporate office
syemwa established
syember install, set up
syemben installation
osyember uninstall
dosyem public institute, institution
dosyember institute
dosyemben institution
dosyema institutional

The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families[edit]

The core words ber to put and per to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.

Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels[edit]

PREFIX GESTURE MOTION PREFIX GESTURE MOTION
ab on aber put on aper get on baer lean paer stand
yab up yaber raise yaper rise byaer lift pyaer jump
ob off ober remove oper dismount boer hold up poer hang
yob down yober lower yoper descend byoer hang pyoer fall
ub toward uber send uper come bu to buer give puer arrive
ib away iber receive iper go away bi from bier take pier leave
yub near yuber bring yuper approach byu up to byuer touch pyuer reach
yib far yiber take away yiper move far away byi since byier emanate pyier originate
eb between eber block eper intervene yeb in
oyeb out'
yeber inject
oyeber eject
yeper enter
oyeper exit
za front zaber advance zaper advance zay forward zayber promote zayper proceed
zo behind zober put behind zoper follow zoy back zoyber put back zayper return
ze middle zeber balance zeper mediate zey across zeyber transfer zeyper cross
zu left zuber put to the left zuper go left uz crooked zuber turn zuper detour
zi right ziber put to the right ziper go right iz straight ziber guide izper head
zya all over zyaber spread zyaper tour zye through zyeber interject zyeper permeate
zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper roll yuz around yuzber turn yuzper circulate
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper surpass zyag stretched out zyagber stretch zyagper stretch out
ja before jaber prepare japer precede aj past ajber pass ajper pass
jo after jober delay joper follow oj future ojber postpone ojper wait?
je during jeber continue jeper continue ej present ejber present ejper present oneself
yan together yanber assemble yanper join bay with bayber impart bayper accompany
yon apart yonber take apart yonper separate boy without boyber deprive boyper go without
ki oblique kiber bend kiper slant
ku side kuber set aside kuper avoid

The der (Say) Family[edit]

Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
daler speak der say
deler
announce
doler be silent diler request
direr demand
duler suggest
durer urge
drer write
dryener print
droer erase
dyeder read dider ask duder answer
deser pronounce
dyen book
drez verse
din story dun word
dyun name
drun phrase
daf card
dyaf notebook
def paper dof cardboard dyuf sheet
dyuv page
Here are the most common words in this family:

der say, tell, utter, communicate

den utterance, saying, telling
denyen diction, manner of saying
teypden proverb, saying
teypdena proverbial
teypdenay proverbially
teypdenaxer proverbialize
teypdenaxen proverbialization
teypdenaxwa proverbialized
otedden gibberish::
dwa uttered
dwas utterance
odwa unsaid
odwas something left unsaid
dut sayer, teller
vyandut truth-teller
vyondut liar
dun word
duna verbal
oduna non-verbal
dunxer verbalize
dunxen verbalization
dunika wordy, verbose
dunikan wordiness, verbosity
dunnyan list
dunnyanaber list, put on a list, register
odunnyanabwa unlisted, unregistered
dunnyanober de-list
dunnyanobwa de-listed
dunyan vocabulary, lexicon
dunyana lexical
dunyantun lexicology
dunyantuna lexicological
dunyantut lexicologist
dundyen dictionary
dundyentun lexicography
dundyentuna lexicographical
dundyentut lexicographer
dunnad sentence
dunnayd phrase
dunnayda phrasal
dunnaydyan phraseology
dunnadyan text
dunnadyana textual
fadun blessing
fodun curse
fudun bad word, epithet
fidun compliment
sundun noun
sunduna nominal
sundunxer nominalize
sundunxen nominalization
sundunxwa nominalized
xundun verb
zunduna verbal
vyendun preposition
vyenduna prepositional
sindrendun adjective
sindrenduna adjectival
byendun adverb
byenduna adverbial
yanardun conjunction
dungon syllable
dungona syllabic
dungonxer syllabicize
dungonxwa syllabicized
gladungona polysyllabic
andungona monosyllabic
endungona disyllabic
zadunes prefix
zadunesaber prefix, attach a prefix
zadunesaben prefixation
zodunes suffix
zodunesaber suffix, attach a suffix
zodunesaben suffixation
zedunes infix
zedunesaben infixation
abdunes affix
abdunesaben affixation
yuzdunes circumfix
dunsan morpheme
dunsana morphemic
dunsantun morphology
dunsantuna morphological
dunsantut morphologist
yuddunsan allomorph
dunseux pronunciation, sound of a word, enunciation, articulation
dunseuxer pronounce, enunciate, articulate, sound out a word
vyodunseuxer mispronounce
deser pronounce
desen pronunciation
vyodeser mispronounce
vyodesen mispronunciation
vyodesun mispronunciation, pronunciation error
vyadeser pronounce correctly, dictate, enunciate properly
vyadesyen diction
vyadesen dictation
vyadesar dictation device, dictaphone
odesuwa unpronounceable
dreser spell
dresen spelling
vyodreser misspell
vyodresun misspelling, spelling error
vyadreser spell correctly
vyadresyen orthography
vyadresyena orthographical
dresek spelling bee::
avder favor, advocate
avdwa favored
fander volunteer, express willingness
fandut volunteer
fader bless
fad blessing
fadwa blessed
foder curse
fod curse
fodwa cursed
layder greet, say hello, salute
loyder say goodbye
sagder count out loud, enumerate
sagden counting, enumeration
sagdwa enumerated
egder repeat, retell, say again
egdeya repetitive
egdeyan repetitiveness
egden repetition
ekder pretend
ekden pretending
ekdut pretender
ekdeya pretentious
ekdeyan pretentiousness
epader quack
epeder snort
epeyder moo
evfiader critique
evfiadut critic
evfiden critique
fepader warble, yodel
flider praise, eulogize
fliden praise, eulogy
fliduwa praiseworthy
fliduwan prasieworthiness
fiader recommend
fiaden recommendation
fiadwa recommended
fiaduwa recommendable
fider congratulation, bless
fiden congratulation, blessing
fivader approve, affirm
fivaden approval, affirmation
fivadwa approved, affirmed
frider brag, brag out, flatter, glorify
friden bragging, flattery, glorification
fridut bragger, bragadoccio, flatterer
flyuder insult
flyud insult
flyudea insulting
fruder blaspheme
frud blasphemy
frudut blasphemer
frudeya blasphemous
fruder castigate
fruden castigation
fryuder outrage
fryud outrage
fryudeya outrageous
fuader criticize, demean, malign
fuaden criticism, maligning
fuadeya critical, demeaning
fuder curse, damn
fud curse
fuden damnation
fudwa cursed, damned
fuivader mock
fuivaden mockery
fuvader condemn
fuvaden condemnation
fuvadwa condemned
ebder discuss
ebden discussion
ebdut discutant
gelder echo
grader exaggerate
graden exaggeration
gradwa exaggerated
groder underplay, minimize
groden minimization
gyapyoder laugh like a hyena
ivder thank
ivden thanks
ipader gobble
ipeder bray
ipeder hehaw
ivsader laugh
ivsaden laughter
ivsaduwa laughable, ridiculous
izder say frankly
izeader indicate
izeaden indication
izeadeya indicative
izeadar indicator
iznoder focus
jader predict, foretell
jad prediction
jadwa predicted
jaduwa predictable
ojaduwa unpredictable
jaduwan predictability
ojaduwan unpredictability
javeder guess
javed guess
jouvder mourn
jouvden mourning
jwader warn, forewarn
jwad warning
jwadwa forewarned
boy jwad: without warning
kader admit, confess
kad admission, confession
kebider vote
kebid vote
kebidut voter
kebidaf ballot
kebidafyem ballot box
kider hint
kid hint
klapeder squeek
koder deny
kod denial
okoduwa undeniable
okoduway undeniably
kuder remark, comment
kud remark, comment
kudut commentator
kyoder insist
kyoden insistence
kyodea insistent
lopyeder hiss
naxder cost out
nazder evaluate, estimate
nazden evaluation, estimate
nazdut evaluator, estimator
oder keep silent
oden keeping silent
ofder ban
ofden banning
ofdwa banned
ofivader disapprove
ofivaden disapproval
ofivadwa disapproved
ogelder disagree
ogelden disagreement
ojder foretell
ojden foretelling
ojdwa foretold
ovader contradict
ovaden contradiction
ovder object, oppose
ovden objection, opposition
ovduwa objectionable
ozder hint
ozden hint
pader chirp, tweet
poder make an animal noise
rapyoder roar
repyoder growl
rupyoder howl
tapader parrot
tapeder make monkey noises
tapelader chirp
tatader bless, sanctify
tataden blessing, sanctification
tatadwa blessed, sancified
teader witness
teaden witnessing
teadut witness
tepyoder growl
teuder scream, yell, shout
teud scream, yell, shout
teuden screming, yelling, shouting
tider understand
tid understanding
tidwa understood
vyotider misunderstand
vyotid misunderstanding
vyotidwa misunderstood
teder mean, signify, intend
ted meaning, intention
tedwa intentional
tuder explain, explicate, clarify
tud explanation, explication, clarification
tuda explanatory
otuduwa unexplainable, unexplicable
otuduwan unexplainability, unexplicability::
ujder conclude
ujden conclusion
ujdeya conclusive
upeder bleat
upeden bleating
uvader apologize
uvad apology
uvder complain
uvden complaint, complaining, plea
uvdut plaintiff
uzder say indirectly, equivocate
uzden equivocation
vaader affirm
vaaden affirmation
vaadwa affirmed
vader assent
vad assent
vadea assenting
valder assure
valden assurance
valdwa assured
volder threaten
volden threat
voldea threatenin
veder guess, suppose, speculate
ved quess
veden speculation
vedwa speculative
vetexder express doubt
viader compliment
viad compliment
viadeya complimentary
vikader express admiration
virader marvel
vodebder prohibit
voder deny
vod denial
vodwa denied
vuader malign, insult
vuad insult
vuadea insulting
vyader swear
vyad oath
vyaden swearing
vyadwa sworn
vyander tell the truth
vyandut truth-teller
vyoder lie
vyod lie
vyodut liar
vyodeya mendacious
yevder judge
yevden judgment
yevdut judge
yevdeya judgmental
yevdun verdict
yavder acquit, excuse
yavden acquittal
yavdwa acquitted, excused
yovder indict
yovden indictment
yovdwat indictee
yovduwa indictable
yokder improvise
yokden improvisation
yokdwa improvised
yokteuder exclaim
yokteud exclamation
yokteudwa exlamatory
yagder elaborate
yagden elaboration
yagdwa elaborated
igder mention, make note of
igden mention, notation
igdwa mentioned
nazea igdwer worth mentioning, notable
yapader coo
yapeder squeal
yepeder bark
yipder meow
yiypeder purr
apeder neigh
yogder summarize
yogden summary
yogdwa summarized
zyader announce, broadcast
zyad announcement
zyadut announcer
ozyadwa unannounced
afder permit, allow
afden permission, license
afdwa permitted
oafwa illicit
afdren permit, license
fuder decry, frown on, reject, reprove
fud rejection, reproval, objection
fudwa decried, reproved, rejected, frowned on
fuader badmouth, criticize, insult
fuad insult, criticism
fuadeya critical
fyuder insult
fyud insult
fyudea insulting
fyudwa insulted

daler' speak, talk

dal speech, talk
dalen speaking, talking
dalut speaker, talker, orator
dalutsem pulpit, dais
dalun speech, talk, oration
dalwa spoken, oral
odalwa unspoken
odalwas something unspoken
odaluwa unspeakable
odaluwas something unspeakable
daltuz rhetoric
daltuza rhetorical
daltuzut rhetorician
dalyen language
dalyena language-related, lingual
gladalyena multilingual
gladalyenut polyglot
dalyentun linguistics
dalyentuna linguistic
dalyentut linguist
dalyenes dialect
meama dalyenes: regional dialect
dalyenesa dialectal
dalyenestun dialectology
dalyenestuna dialectological
dalyenestut dialectologist
dalbyen manner of speaking, speaking style, figure of speech, idiom
dalbyena idiomatic
dalbyenay idiomatically
be dalbyen: in a manner of speaking
fadaler preach, sermonize
fadalut preacher
fadalun sermon
fadalsem pulpit
avdaler speak of behalf of, advocate, campaign for, defend, argue for, pitch, plead
avdal argument, defense, plea
avdalen advocacy, defense, pleading
avdalut advocate, defender
avdalutan advocacy, defense
ovdaler speak out against, protest, condemn, oppose, argue against, downplay
ovdalen protest, condemnation, opposition, counterargument
ovdalut protester, opponent, prosecutor
ovdalutyan prosecution
dodaler speak in public, orate, stump
dodalen speaking in public, oration
dodalun public speech, oration
dodalut orator, public speaker
dodalsem rostrum
izdaler address, speak directly
izdalun address, demarche
izdalwat addressee
ebdaler communicate, discuss
ebdal communication, exchange, linguistic exchange, discussion, discourse
ebdalun communique
ebdalut communicant, interlocutor, discutant
ebdaloger chat
ebdalog chat
ebdalogen chatting
glaebdalogut chatterbox
ebdaleya chatty
ozdaler mumble, murmur, mutter
gradaler yammer, talk too much, harangue
yagdaler ramble on, blab, speak at length
daleker debate
dalek debate
daleken debating
dalekut debator
dalekutyan debate team
dalekem debate forum::::

doler: be quiet, be mute, shut up, be silent

dol quiet, silent
dolxer shut up, muzzle, silence
dolxen muzzling, silencing
dolxwa muzzled, silenced
dolser stay quite, be mum, be silent
dolea mute, mum, silent
dola quiet, silent

dier ask, request

dien request
diut requester, asker
diun request

Diwe! Please!, it is requested

fadier pray
fadiun prayer
fadiena precatory
fadiim chapel
diler demand
dil demand
dilea demanding
dilun demand
direr require
dir requirement
odir option
odira optional
diren requirement
dirwa required
odirwa optional

did' question

dider question, interrogate
diden questioning, interrogation
didut questioner, interrogator
diduwa questionable
dida interrogative
didsiun question mark

din story, account, tale

dinder narrate, tell a story, relate
dinden narration, story-telling, recitation, narrative
dindut narrator, story-teller, reciter
yogdin short story, tale
yagdin novel
yagdinut novelist
ajdin history
ajdina historical
ajdinyena historic
ajdindren historiography
ajdindrena historiographical
ajdindrut historiographer
ajutbyendin tale of tradition, lore, tradition
ajutbyendina traditional, folkloric
ajutnyandin folklore, folk tale, lore, popular myth
ajutnyandina folkloric, mythical
dodin history, public record
dodina historical
dodindyen history book, public record
agdodin epic, saga, legend
agdodina epic, legendary
agdin epic, saga, legend, tall tale
agdina epic, legendary, epical
tejdin biography, life story, bio
tejdina biographical
tejdinut biographer
tojdin obituary, obit
ifondin love story, romance
ifondina romantic
ifondinaxer romanticize
ifondinaxen romanticization
ifondinaxwa romanticized
dezdin musical, musical story
dezdinog operetta
dezdinag opera
dezdinaga operatic
dezdinagifut opera buff, opera lover
dezdinagut opera performer
jubxwasdin news story, news account, news of the day, news article, daily news report
jubxwasdinut reporter, news reporter, journalist
jubxwasdinam news station
jubxwasdinen journalism
zyadinuer report, broadcast
zyadin report, rumor, broadcast
zyadinuut reporter, broadcaster
zyadinuen reportage, reporting, broadcasting
zyadinam broadcasting station
dinier catch a story, hear, receive a report
dinuer report, put out a story
dinuen reporting
dinuut reporter
dinuun report
kodin cover story
vyodin lie, false story, fabrication, fake news, tall story, slander, calumny
vyodiner lie, purjure oneself
vyodinen perjury, lying, calumny
vyodinuer spread a false story, slander
vyodinea slanderous, calumnious
eyvyodin white lie, fib
eyvyodiner fib
eyvyodiut fibber
eyvyodinen fibbing:::
zyudin rumor, story going around, story circulating
zyudinwer be rumored
zyudinut rumormonger
'kadin expose
kadiner expose
kadinen exposure
kadinwa exposed::
tyezdin saga, legend
tyezdina legendary
ivdin joke, funny story, comedy
ivdina comical, jocular
ivdinyena comedic
ivdiner joke, tell a funny story
ivdinen comedy, joking
ivdinut joke-teller, comedian, comic
uvdin sad story, dirge, tragedy
uvdina tragic
uvdinyena tragic, tragical
aguvdin tragedy
aguvdina tragic
uvivdin tragicomedy::
tujdin dream
tujdiner dream
tujdinyena dreamlike, dreamy
tujdinut dreamer
tujdinem dreamscape, dream world
vyomdin fantasy, fiction, fairy tale
vyomdina fantastic, ficticious
vyamdin prose, factual story
vyomdina factual, prosaic
podin fable, tale of animals
podina fabled
podinut fabulist
dofindin morality tale, fable, parable
todin myth, tale of the gods
todina mythical
todintun mythology
todintuna mythological
todintut mythologist
todiner mythologize
todinen mythologizing
agfindin myth, saga
agfindina mythical
agfindinyan mythology
agfindinyana mythological
kosdin mystery, mystery tale
kosdina mysterious
taxdin memoire
fadin gospel, sermon, hadith
fadinyan collection of holy tales, testament
fadina testimonial
fadiner preach, sermonize, testify
fadinut preacher, sermonizer

duer suggest, propose

duen suggestion, proposition
duun suggestion, proposal
dueya suggestive
duut suggester, proponent
duwa suggested, proposed
duwas something suggested, proposition
duuwa suggestible
duuwan suggestibility
ozduer hint
ozduun hint
ozduuwa hinted
azduer urge, strongly suggest
azduen strong suggestion, urging
azduuwa strongly suggested, urged
azdueya urgent
azdueyan urgency
azdueyay urgently
duler insist
dulen insistence
duleya insistant
dulut insister
dulwa insisted
oduler back off, resist
odulen resistance
oduleya resistant
odulut resistor
odulutyan resistance
durer prod, instigate, provoke, incite
duren instigation, provacation
dureya instigative, provocative
durut instigator, provocateur

dud answer, response

duder answer, respond
duden aswering, responding
dudut respondant
duduwa responsible
duduwan responsibility
oduduwa irresponsible
oduduwan irresponsibility
dudeya responsive
odudeya unresponsive
dun word, vocable, lyric, utterance
duna verbal, lexical
dunay verbally
dunan verbality
dunaxer verbalize
dunaxen verbalization
dunaxwa verbalized
gladuna multi-word
yanbwa dun compound word
fodun curse word, cuss word, curse
ebdun message
kudun remark
kodun code word
zadun foreword
erdun verb
erduna verbal
adun adjective
aduna adjectival
aydun adverb
ayduna adverbial
sundun noun
sunduna nominal
yanxdun conjunction
vyexdun preposition
yokdun interjection, exclamation
yokduna exclamatory
yokdunsiun exclamation point
dunaun lexeme
dunauna lexemic
dunyan list, verbiage, wordlist, collection of words, vocabulary
dundyen dictionary, lexicon
dundyena lexical
dundyenaxer lexicalize
dundyenaxen lexicalization
dundyenaxwa lexicalized
dundyentun lexicography
dundyentuna lexicographic
dundyentut lexicographer
be yuda duni in other words
dunes syllable
dunesa syllabic:
duyn term, lexeme
duyna lexemic
duynyan terminology, glossary, lexicon, term bank, vocabulary
duynyana terminological, lexical::
drun phrase, expression
druna phrasal, expressive
drunyan phraseology
drunyana phraseological
drundyen phrase book
druner phrase, express
drunen phrasing, expression
drunwa phrased, expressed
anutdrun idiom, idiomatic expression
anutdruna idiomatic
anutdrunay idiomatically
egdruner rephrase
egdrunen rephrasing
egdrunwa rephrased
ayndrun clause
ayndruna clausal, holophrastic
ikdrun sentence
ikdruna sentential

dyeder read

dyeden reading
dyedun passage, reading, lecture
dyeduner lecture
dyedunut lecturer
dyedunyan conference, series of lectures
dyedunyanem conference hall
gladyedea well-read
glodyedea unread, illiterate
dyedut reader
dyedutyan readership
gladyedut avid reader
dyedutem lecture hall
dyedutseym lecturn
dyedyafa literate, able to read
dyedyafan literacy
dyedyofa illiterate, unable to read
dyedyofan illiteracy
dyen book
dyenyan book collection
dyentam library
dyntamut librarian
dyennam bookstore
dyennamut bookseller
dyennames bookstall
dyenog libretto, pamphlet
dyenifut bibliophile
dyenifon bibliophilia, love of books
dyensam bookcase, bookstall
dyensamneg bookshelf
dyennyami stacks
dyenabdren book title, book label
dyendyun book title, book name
dyendyunyan bibliography, list of book titles
dyendyunyana bibliographical
dyudren title
dyudrer title
dyudrwa titled, entitled
dyudrena titular
dyenyena bookish
dyenyenat bookworm, nerd
dyenes volume, tome
dyenabun bookcover
dyensiundaf bookmark
dyenujun bookend
yixwa dyen used book
yixwa dyennam used book store
dyenem book gallery
dyen dodryenxut book publisher
dyen dodryenxen book publishing
dyen dodryenxam book publishing house, book publishing firm
dyes document, piece of literature
dyesyan literature, documentation, readings
vidyes work of literature
vidyesyan litterature, belles lettres
vidyesa literary
vidyesana literary
dodyes official document
dodyesyan official documentation, paperwork
dodyesgran redtape, bureaucracy

dyun name

dyuna nominal
dyunay nominally
dyuner call, name
dyunwa called, named, denominated
odyunwa unnamed, nameless
dyunen naming, calling, appelation, denomination
dyunwer be called, be named
At dyunwe... My name is...
dyunyan list
dyunyaner list
dyunyanwa listed
odyunyanwa unlisted
dyunder cite, address
dyunden citation, addressing
dyunaber assign a name, designate
dyunaben name assignment, designation
egdyuner rename
egdyunwa renamed
egdyunen renaming
dyunzayber nominate
dyunzayben nomination
dyunzaybwat nominee
emdyun address
emdyuner address
emdyunwa addressed
vyosemdyunwa misaddressed
dyundaf name badge, name card
zadyun first name, given name
zedyun middle name
zedyunij middle initial
abdyun surname, last name, family name:toda dyun: family name
tajdyun given name, birth name
yogdyun nickname, short name
auta dyun proper name
dodyun official name, public name
ijdresini bi ota dyun initials of one's name
nundyun trade name, label, commercial label, product name
lyudyun alias, alternate name
dezdyun stage name
drutdyun pen name
kodyun code name, secret name, hidden name
ifpota dyun pet name
yogjoba dyun temporary name

drer write, record

dren writing, script
drenyan scripture, collection of writings
vidrenyan literature
vidrenyana literary
jodren postscript
drenes article
dreyn text
dreyna textual
dreynnad line of text
dryeynxar editor
drenvyasaxer edit
drenvyasaxut copy editor
drenvyasaxen copy-editing
drenvyasaxwa edited
odrenvyasaxwa unedited
egdrer rewrite, revise
egdren rewriting
egdrwa rewritten, revised
egdrawa rewritten, revised
egdrun rewrite, revision
igdrer jot, scribble, scrawl
igdrawa jotten, scribbled, scrawled
abdrer inscribe, label, title
abdren inscription, label, title, superscript
tuyadrer write by hand
tuyadren manuscript, handwriting, chirography
yagtuyadren long-hand
yogtuyadren short-hand
yugtuyadren block script
vituyadren calligraphy
vituyadrut calligrapher
vituyadrena calligraphic
tuyadrwa handwritten
tuyadrawa handwritten
obdrer subtitle
obdren subscript, subtitle
sindrer describe
sindren description
sindrena descriptive
osindruwa indescribable
osindruway indescribably
ebdrer mail, post:
ebdren letter, post, missive, message
ebdrenyan mail, correspondence, post
ebdrenyanam post office
ebdrenuber mail, post
ebdrenubut mailman, postman, messenger
ebdrenyem post box, letter drop, mailbox
vyedrer correspond
vyedren correspondence
vyedrut correspondent
vyedrea corresponding
sandrer formulate
sandren formulation
sandrena formulaic
sandrun formula, form
dyudrer title
dyudren title
dyudrwa titled
yibdrer wire, telegraph
yibdren telegram
yibdrenuber send a telegram, wire, telegraph
yibdrur telegraph machine
dyundrer sign
dyundren signing, signature
dyundrwa signed
dyundrwa unsigned
dyundrut signatory, signer
obdyundrwat undersigned
tubdyundrer sign in, register, sign up
tubdyundren signing in, registration, signup
tubdyundrwa signed in, registered, signed up
tubdyundrwa unregistered
tubdyundrut registree
tubdyun member name
sardrer type, typewrite
sardrar typewriter
sardrwa typewritten
sardrawa typewritten
sardren typewriting
sardrun typewritten manuscript
sardrut typist, secretary
sardrutyan typist pool, secretary pool
bardrer print
bardren printing
bardrwa printed
bardrawa printed
bardrawas printed material, something printed
bardrut printer
bardrar printing press, press
bardrun printed copy, print
geldrer copy
geldren copying
geldrwa copied
geldrun copy
geldrar copier::
dreun document
dreunyan documentation
dreunxer document
dreunxen documentation
dreunxwa documented
odeunxwa undocumented
dreundyez documentary
dreundyezut documentarian
dreder report
dred report
dreden reporting
dredyan reportage
dredut reporter
dredwa reported
odredwa unreported
drut writer
drwa written, graphic
drawa written, graphic
drwas something written, notation, graph
drawas something written, notation, graph
odrwa unwritten
odrawa unwritten
drevyab grammar
drevyaba grammatical
odrevyaba ungrammatical
drevyabdyen grammar book
drebyen writing style
dres note, notation, missive
ifondres love note
dres bi uttujbut suicide note
dreser note
dresen notation
kudreser annotate
kudresen annotation, annotating
kudres annotation
kudreswa annotated
dodres bulletin
dresam office, bureau
dresem desk
dresim den, bureau, office
dresin design, draft, plan
dresiner design, draft, plan
dresinut designer, drafter, plan
dresinen designing, drafting, planning
domdresin urban design
dresinam design studio
dreyeb wallet
nodrer punctuate, dot
nodren punctuation, dotting
nodrun point, dot
nodrwa punctuated, dotted
siyn mark
nodren siyn punctuation mark
pos siyn period
pos nodrun period
pes siyn comma
pos pos siyn colon
pos pes siyn semi-colon
yok siyn exclamation point
yok nodrun exclamation point
'did siyn question mark
yebdun siyn hyphen
ebdun siyn dash
zenades dash
yebzenades hyphen

dryener print

dryenam printing plant
dryenut printer
dryenen print, impression
dryenar printing press
dryen print
jubdryen newspaper
jubdryenyan press
jubdryenut journalist, newspaperman
jubdryenutyan journalist pool
jubdryentun journalism
jubdryentuna journalistic
jubdryentut journalist
yejubdryen weekly magazine
jibdryen monthly magazine
deldryen advertisement, ad
sinjobdryen magazine, illustrated review
cindryen illustration
cindryener illustrate
cindryenwa illustrated
dryenes ticket, billet
dryenesam ticket office
dryenesar ticket machine
dryenesmis ticket window
dryenog ticket, billet
zyadryen poster
zyadryener post
dryesun type, printer's type, font character
dryesunyan font
dryesin letter, grapheme, glyph, character
dryesina litteral, graphemic, graphic, glyphic
dryesinay litterally
dryesinder spell
dryesinden spelling
vyodryesinder misspell
vyodryesindun misspelling
voyodryesindwa misspelled
vyadryesinden orthography
vyadryesindena orthographical
vyadryesindek spelling bee
dryesinyan alphabet
dryesinyana alphabetical
odryesinyana unalphabetic
dryessinyanxer alphabeticize
dryesinyanxen alphabeticization
dryesinyanxwa alphabeticized
dryesinij initial, initial letter
dryesinijber initialize
dryesinijbwa initialized
dryesinijben initialization
andryesin monograph
endryesin digraph
indryesin trigraph
fadryesin hieroglyph
fadryesinyan hieroglyphics
sindryes ideograph, pictorial character
sindryesa ideographic
dodryen publishing
dodryenyan publicity
dodryenxer publish
dodryenxen publication
dodryer publicize
dodryut publicist
dodryun publication

daf chart, card, badge

dafnyan stack of card, deck of cards
jabdaf calendar
judaf calendar
judar calendar
ekdaf playing card
ekdafyan deck of cards
mepdaf map, route map, street map
mepdafer map
mepdafwa mapped
mepdaftun cartography, mapmaking
mepdaftuna cartographic
mepdaftut cartographer
mircindaf atlas, world map, geographic map
jwobdaf schedule
jwobdafer schedule
jwobdafen scheduling
jwobdafwa scheduled
jonusdaf credit card
jonisdaf debit card
valdaf certificate, security badge
dyundaf name badge
ebdrendaf postcard
popdaf postcard, picture postcard

def paper

defyan paperwork, stationery
defnam stationery
defnamut stationery shopowner
defnyan stack of paper
milukdef toilet paper
defes scrap of paper, piece of paper

dof cardboard

dofnyem cardboard box
siundof signboard, sign, poster

dyof board

maksiundyof electronic signboard
ijujbar dyof: switch board

dyaf notebook

yagdyaf register
yagdyafut registrar
yagdyafer register
yagdyafen registration
yagdyafam registry
yafdryafwa registered
dyafes book

dyuf sheet, leaf of paper

dyufbuar sheetfeeder
dyufes leaflet

dyuv page

zyedyuver page through, leaf through, paginate
zyedyuven pagination
zadyuv front page
zodyuv back page
zedyuv middle page
dyuvsan page layout, layout
gladyuva many-paged, thick

drar pencil

draryeb pencil holder
drarer pencil, draw
drarun drawing
drarwa drawn
yilemdrar lead pencil, pencil
drasin drawing, illustration, picture, depiction
drasiner draw, illustrate, depict
drasinwa drawn, illustrated
drasinut illustrator
drasinam drafting studio, picture studio
drasintem picture gallery
tejdrasinen life drawing
tejdrasin life drawing
tejdrasiner draw from life
tejdrasinwat life drawing model
tejdrasinam life drawing studio
tebdrasin portrait
tebdrasinyan portraiture
tebdrasiner portray
tebdrasinut portrait artist
tebdrasinam portrait studio
tebdrasintem portrait gallery
tebdrasien portrayal
uttebdrasin self-portrait, selfie:

dril ink

drilar ink pen, pen
drilyeb inkwell
drilvyun ink stain
drilardyun pen name
drilarer pen
drilarwa penned

lodrer erase

lodrun erasure
lodrar eraser
lodrwa erased

drear feather pen

drearyeb feather penholder

vozdrar crayon meyagdrar chalk, stick of chalk meyagdyof chalkboard

The ter (Know) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental activities like knowing and thinking:
Summary:
tep mind, intellect top soul
taxer remember
taxier memorize
taxuer remind
texer think
ter know
tyer recognize
tyier familiarize oneself
tyuer acquaint
tez culture
ten knowledge
tyen skill, craft
teyen idea
teyenier conceive of
teyenuer seed the idea
tijtep conscious mind
tujtep subconscious
vyatex reason
vyaten wisdom
vatex belief
vatexuer persuade
vetex suspicion
votex doubt
votexuer dissuade
toxer forget tixer study tuxer teach
taser feel
tayoter feel
teser mean
tesier infer
tesuer imply
tester understand
tesder explain
tiser learn
tin doctrine
iztis intuition
tuser inform
tun science
tuin theory
tuz art
Here are the most important words derived from ter to know:
ter know
ten knowledge
twer be known
twa known
fitwa well-known
zyatwa known all around, famous
zyatwan fame
glatwa much-known
twas known fact, fact, datum, something known
twasyan data, information, known facts, news
twassyagar computer, data calculator
oter not know, ignore
oten ignorance
otwa unknown, ignored
otwas mystery
otwasyena mysterious
otwasyenan mysteriousness
otea ignorant
otean ignorance
oteat ignorant person
yadter know everything, be omniscient
yadtea all-knowing, omniscient
yadtean omniscience
yadteat omniscient person
glater know a lot
glatea knowledgeable, savant
glatean knowledgeability
yekter be interested, be curious
yektea interested, curious
yektean interest, curiosity
tyek inquiry, question, curiosity, interest, interrogation, research
tyeker inquire, ask about, query, interrogate
tyeken inquiry, inquisition, questioning, interest
tyekut inquirer, inquisitor, questioner, interrogator, researcher
tyekeya inquisitive, interrogative
tyekeyan inquisitiveness
tefer want to know, be interested, be curious
tefea interested, curious
tefeat interested person, curious person
tef interest, curiosity
tefier take an interest in
tefuer interest, make curious
tefuea interesting
otef lack of interest
otefuwa uninterested
otefuwan boredom
tefder express interest, query, question, inquire
tefden expression of interest, inquisition, inquiry
tefdeya inquisitive
tefdeyan inquisitiveness:::
vyater see through things, be wise, possess insight
vyatea wise, sagacioius, witty
vyatean wisdom, sagacity, wit
vyaten wisdom, sagacity, insight
vyatut sage, wise man, wise person, wit
jater know in advance, be prescient
jatea prescient
jatean prescience
jaten foreknowledge
jatwa known beforehand, anticipated
ojatwa unanticipated, surprise
ojter see the future, foresee, anticipate
ojten foresight, anticipation
ojtut seer
ojtwa anticipated
ajter know the past, be wise
ajtea wise, sagacioius
ajten wisdom
ajtut sage
oter be unaware, not know, ignore
otea unaware, not knowing, ignorant, unfamiliar
otean ignorance, unfamiliarity
tyer be familiar with, know, recognize
tyen familiarity, recognition, acquaintanceship, skill, craft
tyea familiar, acquainted
otyer be unfamiliar with, fail to recognize, not know
yegtyer recognize
egtyen recognition
egtyawa recognized
egtyuwa recognizable
egtyuwa recognizability
oegtyawa unrecognized
oegtyuwa unrecognizable
tyawa known, familiar
tyawan familiarity, acquaintanceship
tyawat acquaintance, familiar person
otyawa unfamiliar, unknown, unrecognized
otyawan unfamiliarity
glatyawa famous, renown, illustrious
glatyawat celebrity, famous person
glatyawan celebrity, fame, renown
glatyawaxer celebrate
glatyawaxen celebration
glatyawaxena celebrational
glatyawaxwa celebrated
yagtyawa long-known
zyauvtyawa notorious, infamous
zyauvtyawan notoriety, infamy
zyauvtyawat notorious individual, infamous person
zyauvtyawaser gain notoriety, become infamous
tyuer familiarize, acquaint, introduce
tyuen familiarization, introduction
tyuwa familiarized, acquainted
tyier become familiar, get acquainted, become acquainted with
tyien acquaintance
tijter know consciously, be conscious, be aware
tijten consciousness, awareness
tijtea conscious, aware, alert
tijteay consciously
tijtean consciousness, awareness
otijtea unconscious, unaware
otijtean unconsciousness, unawareness
gratijtea hyperconscious
gratijtean hyperconsciousness
tijtuer alert, make aware, prompt
tijtier be alert, pay attention, keep oneself aware
tijtien attention, paying attention
tijtiea attentive, alert
tijtep conscious mind
tujten subconscious
tujtena subconscious
tujtep subconscious, subconscious mind
taxer remember, recall
tax memory
taxon memory, recall
taxun memory, recollection
taxos memory, seat of memory
taxen remembering, recollection
taxwa remembered
taxwas something remembered, recollection
taxuwa memorable
taxuwas keepsake, souvenir
otaxuwa unmemorable
taxdin memoir
taxbeler memorize, keep in one's memory, remember
taxbelen memorization
taxbelwa memorized
bi tax from memory
taxmeg monument, headstone
taxmega monumental
taxem memorial, memorial grounds
taxxel commemoration, memorial
taxxeler commemorate, memorialize
taxxela commemorative, memorial
taxxelen commemoration, memorialization
tajtax birthday
tajtaxxel birthday celebration, birthday party
xeler ota tajtax celebrate one's birthday
taxier recollect, recall, commit to memory, memorize, make a note of
taxien recollection, recall, memorization, notation
taxuer remind
taxuun reminder, memorandum, memo
taxkyoer memorize, fix in one's memory
taxkyoen memorization
taxkyowa memorized, fixed in one's mind
texer think, cogitate
tex thought, cognition
texa cognitive, cogitative
texen thinking, cogitation, cognition::
texij idea, notion, concept
texija ideational, notional, conceptual
kyotexij idee fixe, fixed notion
igtex quick thought, flash, sudden thought
texeya pensive, thoughtful
texeyan pensiveness, thoughtfulness
texier consider
texien consideration
otexieya inconsiderate
texuer make think, give the idea, suggest the thought, seed the thought
yagtexer ponder, reflect, meditate
yagtexen pondering, reflection, meditation
jayagtexer premeditate
jayagtexwa premeditated
ojayagtexwa unpremeditated
yantexer agree
yantexwa agreed
yantex agreement
yantexder consent, express agreement, assent
yantexdut consenter
yantexden consensus
yontexer disagree, dispute
yontex disagreement
yontexder dissent, express disagreement, contest, dispute
yontexdut dissenter, disputant
yontexden dissension, disputation
yontexdeya disputatious
yontexduwa disputable
oyontexduwa indisputable
oyontexduwan indisputability:
avtexer assent, favor
evtexer question, wonder, be neutral
ovtexer contest, oppose
vatexer think so, believe, expect
vatex belief, expectation
vatexut believer
vatexuwa believable, credible, expected
vatexuwan believability
ovatexuwa unbelievable, incredible
ovatexuwan unbelievablity
vatexuer make believe, persuade, convince
vatexueya convincing
vatexuuwa credulous, convinceable
vatexuuwat credulous person
vetexer suppose, guess, hypothesize
vetex supposition, guess, hypothesis
vetexena suppositional, hypothetical
vetexwa supposed, guessed, hypothesized
fuvetexer suspect
fuvetex suspicion
fuvetexea suspicious
ofuvetexea unsuspecting
fuvetexwa suspected, suspect
fuvetexwat suspect
fuvetexuer make suspicious, arouse suspicion
fuvetexuea suspicious
votexer think not, disbelieve, doubt
votex disbelief, doubt
votexea circumspect, doubtful
votexuwa dubious, doubtful
votexut disbeliever, doubter
ovotexuwa undoubtable, indubitable
ovotexway undoubtedly, indubitably
vyatep reason, seat of reason, logical mind
vyatexer reason, rationalize
vyatex reason, rationale, logic
vyatexa rational, logical, reasonable
vyatexen rationalization, reasoning
vyatexwa reasoned
vyatexuwa reasonable
vyatexea reasoning, rational
ovyatexa irrational, unreasonable, illogical
vyatextun logic, study of logic
vyatextuna logical
vyatextut master of logic
vyatexin rationalism
vyatexina rationalistic
vyatexinat rationalist
vyatexan rationality
ovyatexan irrationality
vyatexyaf faculty of reason, ability to reason
vyotexer think wrongly, err
vyotex wrong-headedness, fallacy, false reasoning
vyotexa wrong-headed, fallacious, irrational
iztex logic?
jatexer plan, think ahead, project, premeditate
jatex plan, project, forethought
jatexen planning, premeditation
jatexutyan planning staff, oroject committee, board
jatexwa planned, projected, premeditated
jatexdren plan, draft, blueprint
ojatexwa unpremeditated, unplanned
jotexer ponder the aftermath of, review
jotex afterthought, recollection, review
ivtexer be grateful, be thankful, appreciate
ivtex thanks
ivtexder express thanks, thank
Ivtexwe! Thanks!, Thank-you!
uvtexer regret, remorse
uvtex regret, remorse
uvtexder express regret, express remorse, apologize
uvtexden apology, expression of regret
uvtexdea apologetic, regretful
Uvtexwe! Sorry!, Excuse me!, My condolences!
futexer resent, harbor ill feelings
futex resentment
futexder express resentment
futexeya resentful
futexika resentful
futexikan resentfulness
futexaya resentful
futexayan resentfulness
futexwa resented
texuer persuade, convince, make thing, suggest
texueya persuasive, convincing, suggestive
texuen persuasion, suggestion
texier get the idea, conceive of
texien conception
texiun concept
texiuna conceptual
texiuwa conceived
otexiuwa inconceivable
otexiuwan inconceivability
teyxer opine, believe
teyx opinion, belief
oteyx disbelief
teyxdren opinion piece, editorial
kitex bias
kitexea biased
kitexuer bias, slant one's views, sway
texyen opinion, view, belief, way of thinking, mental bias
texyener opinion, have the opinion, be of the view, believe
texyender express the opinion, opine
texyenika opinionated, biased
texyenaya opinionated, biased
antexyena single-minded, biased
antexyen bias, single-mindedness
kitexyena biased, slanted
kitexyen bias, slant
kitexyenuer bias, slant, influence, sway
geltexyena like-minded, of a similar opinion
geltexyener think alike, be of a similar opinion
ogeltexyena of a different opinion
ovtexyena of the opposite opinion, opposed, contrary
ovtexyener believe the opposite, think the contrary, dispute
ovtexyeneya contrarian, disputatious
ovtexyeneyan contrarianism
ovtexyeneyat contrarian, disputant
entexyena of two minds, split in one's opinion, divided
aztexyender strongly opine, express a forceful opinion, argue vehemently
texyendek debate, crossfire, battle of opinions, arguing, dispute
texyendeker debate, argue, dispute
texyendekut debator
texyendekutyan debate team
texyendekuwa debatable
textun philosophy
textuna philosophical
textut philosopher
tep mind, intellect
tepa mental, intellectual
tepay mentally, intellectually
tepyen mentality, mental framework, mood, disposition, state of mind, attitude
tepyena attitudinal
fitepyena in a good mood, well-disposed
futepyena in a bad mood, ill-disposed
vatepyena optimistic, favorably-disposed
votepyena pessimistic, negatively-inclined
tepyenika moody
tepyenikan moodiness
kyetepyena volatile, given to swing moods
kyatepyena in an altered state of mind, distracted
kyotepyena in a fixed mood, stable-minded, attentive
tijtep conscious mind
tijtepa conscious, aware, alert
teptija mentally alert, conscious, attentive
teptijan altertness, consciousness, attention
oteptija unattentive, unalert, distracted
oteptijan unattentiveness, unaltertness
eyteptija semi-alert, semi-conscious
eyteptijan semi-alterness, semi-consciousness
tujtep subconscious mind
tujtepa subconscious
teptuja mentally asleep, unconscious
teptujan unconsciousness
tepaza smart, intelligent, mentally strong
tepazan smartness, intelligence
tepoza dumb, stupid, of weak intelligence, mentally weak
tepozan dumness, stupdity, weak intelligence
tepeza mentally normal
tepezan average mental competence
tepiga quick-witted, witty, sharp-minded
tepigan quick-wittedness, wittiness, sharp-mindedness
tepuga slow-witted, mentally slow, dull-minded
tepugan slow-wittedness, mental dullness
tepyiga stern, strict, hard-minded, stubborn, tough-minded
tepyigan sternness, strictness, stubbornness, tough-mindedness
tepyigat stickler, tough cookie
tepyuga lax, soft-hearted, lenient
tepyugan laxness, soft-heartednes, leniency
tepyija open-minded
tepyijan open-mindedness
tepyuja closed-minded
tepyujan closed-mindedness
tepava favorable, favorably disposed, pro
tepova unfavorable, contrarian, con
tepbaka sane, mentally sound, of sound mind
tepbak mental health
tepbakam mental health facility
tepbakan sanity, mental soundness
tepboka insane, mentally ill
tepbok mental illness
tepbokan insanity, mental illness
tepbokat mental ill person
tepbek psychiatry
tepbeka psychiatric
tepbekam psychiatric clinic
tepbekim mental ward
tepbekwat mental patient
tepbekut psychiatrist
teptun psychology
teptuna psychological
teptut psychologist
tepsin mental image
tepsiner imagine
tepsinen imagination
tepsinwa imaginary, imagined
vyotepsin illusion, hallucination
vyotepsina illusory
vyotepsiner hallucinate
vyotepsinen hallucination
vyotepsinwa hallucinatory, illusory
vyatepa wise, sagacious
vyatepan wisdom, sagacity
vyatepat sage, wiseman, wise person
vyotepa foolish
vyotepan folly
vyotepat fool
yotepa crazy
yotepat crazy person
yotepan craziness
anagtepa simple-minded
anagtepat simpleton
anagtepan simple-mindedness
tepaga broad-minded
tepagan broad-mindedness
tepagat broad-minded person
tepoga silly, narrow-minded, petty
tepogan silliness, narrow-mindedness, pettiness
tepogat silly person, narrow-minded person, petty person
gitepa mentally sharp, keen
gitepan mental sharpness, acuity, keenness
gitepat keen wit
gutepa dull-minded
gutepan dullness, stupidity
gutepat dullard
zyatepa broad-minded
zyatepan broad-mindedness
zyatepat broad-minded person
zyotepa narrow-minded, petty
zyotepan narrow-mindedness, pettiness
zyotepat narrow-minded person, petty person
vatepa optimistic, positive
vatepan optimisim
vattepat optimist, positive person
votepa pessimistic, negative-minded
votepan pessimism
votepat pessimist, negative person
tepiza straight-minded, focused, clearheaded
tepuza scatterbrained
tepyiva free-spirited
tepyuva close-minded
tepyeva fair-minded
tepiva cheerful
tepuva downcast, depressed'
kyatepa flexible-minded
kyatepan flexibility
kyotepa fixed-minded
kyotepa fix-mindedness
kitepa slanted, biased
okitepa unbiased
kutepa distracted
gyitepa easy-minded, forgiving, lenient
gyutepa hard-minded, tough-spirited
kotepa opaque-minded
kyitepa serious-minded, serious, grave
kyutepa light-hearted, frivolous, silly:::
tyep intelligence
tyepa intelligent
tyepay intelligently
otyepa unintelligent
tyepaga ingenious
tyepagan ingeniously
tyepagan genius, ingenuity
tyepagat genius
toxer forget
toxwa forgotten
toxwas forgotten item
toxuwa forgettable
toxuwan forgettableness
toxeya forgetful
toxeyan forgetfulness
taxun memory
taxuna mnemonic
tixer study
tixut student
tixutyan student body
tixen study
tit pupil
tityan class, body of pupils
tin doctrine, lesson, study
tina doctrinal
tinuer indoctrinate, brainwash
tinuen indoctrination, brainwashing
tinuwa indoctrinated, brainwashed
tuinn theory
tuina theoretical
tuinxer theorize
tuinxen theorization
tuinxut theoretician
tijob training course, course of study, course
titim classroom
titam school
titameb principal
titamdyen schoolbook, textbook
titamem schoolyard
titamper matriculate, go to school, attend school
atitam grade school, primary school
atitamut grade-schooler
aajaba atitamut first-grader, first-year grade school pupil
etitam high school, secondary school
etitamut high-schooler
ititam college
ititama collegiate
ititamut college student
utitam university
utitama university, of a university
utitamut university student
aajabat freshman
eajabat sophomore
iajabat junior
uajabat senior
joutitam post-graduate school
joutitamut post-graduate student
tuxer teach, inform
tuxut teacher, informant
tuxutyan faculty
tut scholar, scientist, doctor, -ologist
tun science, information, -0logy
tuna scientific, -ologic
tutam academy
tutama academic, scholarly, scholastic
tutaman academia
tutamat scholar, academician
tiser learn
tisen learning
tisut learner
tisutyan class
tisun lesson, class
tisundyen lesson book
eftisun homework
tisim classroom
tisem lecture hall
tin doctrine
tina doctrinal
tit doctor
tuser inform
tusut informant
tusun information
fituswa well-informed
tas feeling, sense
taspan emotion
taspana emotional, emotive
taspaner emote, express emotion
taspanier get excited, get aroused
taspanuer move, excite, arouse
taspanuea moving, exciting, emotional, rousing
taspanuen exicitement, excitation
taspanuwa excited, aroused
taspanuuwa excitable
taspanuuwan excitability
tes meaning, significance, sense
teser mean, signify
tesaya meaningful, significant, important
tesayan meaningfulness, significance, importance
tesoya meaningless, insignificant, unimportant
tesoyan meaninglessness, insignificance, unimportance
tesier infer, understand, apprehend, comprehend
tesuer imply
tester understand, comprehend
otestuwa incomprehensible
tesder explain
otesduwa unexplainable
glatesaya important
tesaya meaningful, significant
tesoya unmeaningful, senseless
tayoter feel, physically feel
tayotun feeling, sensation
tayoxuwa palpable
tayoxuwan palpability
tayoxer feel, sense
tayoxar feeler, sensor
tayoxer touch, contact, palpate
tayoxen touching
tayoxena tactile
tayoser feel
fitayoser feel good
futayoser feel bad
tayosyea sensitive
tayosyean sensitivity
otayosea numb
otayosean numbness
tayosober numb
tayosobwa numbed
tayosobeya numbing:
tuser inform
tusut informant, lecturer
tusen instruction, lecturing
tusun information
tusuna informational
tusundyen information manual
tusunyan information
tusam institute
tusama institutional
tusim classroom
tusem lecture hall
tuseya instructive
tester understand, comprehend, apprehend
testen undertanding, comprehension, apprehension
bay testen ha with the understanding that
testwa understood, comprehended
otestawa not understood
testuwa understandable, comprehensible
otestuwa incomprehensible
otestuwan incomprehensibility
vyotester misunderstand
vyotesten misunderstanding
vyotestwa misunderstood
fitestwa well-understood
futestwa poorly-understood
eytestwa half-understood
iztesten intuition, direct apprehension
iztester intuit, directly apprehend, get it off the bat
oiztesten lack of intuition
bey iztesten through intuition
iztestyea intuitive
iztestyean intuitiveness
iztestwa intuitive
iztestwan intuitivness
iztestwas something intuited
iztestway intuitively
oiztestwa unintuitive
tesuer 'imply, suggest
tesuen implication, suggestion
tesuwa implied, suggested
otes nonsense
otesa nonsensical
glatesea meaningful, important, great significance
glatesean meaningfulness, importance, great significance
glotesea of little important, not very meaningful
glotesean unimportance, insignificance:
tesun symbol
tesuna symbolic
tesuner symbolize
tesunen symbolization
tesunyan symbology
tesier infer, get the sense, take it
tesien inference
tesieya inferential
tesder explain, explicate, clarify
tesden explanation, reason, rationale, explication, clarification
tesdena explanatory, rational
bay owa tesden with no explanation
boy tesden without explanation
tesden explaining, explanation
tesdawa explained, explicit
otesdawa unexplained, unclear
otesdawas something unexplained, mystery
otesduwa inexplicable
otesduwan inexplicability
otesduwas something inexplicable
bey tesin bi by reason of, by dint of
bay tesin ha because
tesdier seek an explanation, ask why
tesduer suggest an explanation, explain why
bay od tesin? Why?
tez culture
teza cultural
tezay culturally
tezyena cultured
otezena uncultured, uncouth
otezenan uncouthness
tezuer acculturate
tezuen acculturation
tezuwa acculturated
tezier acculturate oneself, get accustomed
tezien acculturation, accustomization
teziwa accultured, accustomed
tezxer cultivate
tezxen cultivation
tezxwa cultivated
yobtez subculture
yobteza subcultural
yabtez high culture
yabtezut a person of high culture
teyz cult
teyza cultic
teyzin cultism
teyzina cultist
teyzinat cultist
koteyz occult
koteyza occultic
koteyzat occultist
fateyz magic, wizardry
fateyza magical
fateyzer practice magic
fateyzut magician, wizard
foteyz witchcraft, sorcery
foteyza of witchcraft
foteyzer practice witchcraft
foteyzut witch, sorcery
foteyzuyt witch, sorcerer
xetyen practice
xetyena practical
xetyener practice
xetyenut practitioner
xetyenem practice venue
xyen industry
xyena industrial
xyenaxer industrialize
xyenaxen industrialization
xyenaxwa industrialized
xyenem industrial site
xyenam industrial plant
xyeneb plant manager
yexyen occupation, trade
yexyena occupational
yexyentitam trade school
yexyenijer start a trade, intern
yexyenijut intern, rookie, novice, freshman
xetun practice
xetuna practical
xetunan practicality
xetunaber apply a practice
xetunabut practicioner
tetun technique
tetuna technical
otetuna non-technical
tetut technician
tetunyan technology
tetunyana technological
tetunyanut technologist
tetunaber apply a technique
tuz art, skill, craft, practice
tuza art, of art, artificial
tuzam art museum
tuzem art fair, art exhibition
tuzut artist, practicioner
tuzyena artistic, skillful
tuzyen artistry, skill
tuzaya skillful, skilled
tuzayan skillfulness
tuzoya unskilled
tuzun artifact, piece of art, art object, objet d'art
tuzunyan art collection
tuzunyanam museum of art
tuzier gain skill
tuzuer teach a skill
tuzunxer craft
tuzunxen crafting
tuzunxut craftsman
tuzunxun craftiwork
tuzunxwa crafted, artificial
tuyz artisanry, craft
tuyza artisanal
tuyzyena crafty, artisanal
tuyzut artisan, crafter
tuyzun piece of artisanship
tuzyan set of skills
vituz art, fine art
vituz of fine art
vituzam fine arts museum
vituzyan beaux arts, fine arts
vituzut fine artsman, artist
vituzyena finely crafted, artistic
vituzaya artful, artistic
tuyatuz handicrafts
tuyatuzun handiwork, handcrafted item, knick-knack
tuyatuzunswa handicrafted, made by hand
tuyatuzut hand craftsman
teyen idea, concept
teyena conceptual, ideal, abstract, ideational, notional
teyenser conceive, conceptualize
teyenxer conceptualize, conceive
teyenxen conceptualization, conception
teyenxwa conceived, conceptualized
teyenier get the idea, abstract, get the notion
teyeniun abstraction
teyeniwa abstracted, abstract
teyenuer give the idea, suggest
teyenueya suggestive
teynueyan suggestiveness
teyenuen suggestion
teyenyan ideology, set of ideas
teyenyana ideological
teyenyanut ideologue
teyenin idealism
teyenina idealistic
teyeninat idealist
teyentun philosophy
teyentuna philosophical
teyentut philosopher
kyoteyen idee fixe, fixed idea
koteyen hidden concept
ijteyen initial concept, germ of a notion
agteyen grandiose idea, grande idee, grand ideal
teyentun philosophy
teyentuna philosophical
teyentut philosopher
obteyen underlying notion, basic idea
abteyenxer abstract
abteyena abstract
abteyenxen abstraction
abteyenxwa abstracted
zeyteyen metaphor, crossover notion
zeyteyena metaphorical, transnotional
izteyen direct concept
tyen technique, skill
tyena technical, skilled
tyenay technically
tyenan technicality
tyenson technicality, technical issue
tyenar technical device, tool
tyenarut technician
tyenaryan toolset, equipment, technology
tyenaraya equipped
tyenaram tool shop
tyenijut apprentice
tyenijutan apprenticeship
tyeneb master technician
tyentun technology
tyentuna technological
tyentut technologist
tyenyan industry, skillset, technology
tyenyana industrial, technologal
tyenyanxer industrialize
tyenyanxen industrialization
tyenyanxwa industrialized
jatyenyana pre-industrial
jotyenyana post-industrial
tyenyanem industrial site
eytyenyana semi-industrial
tyenier train, take training, master
tyenien training, learning a skill, mastery
tyeniut apprentice, trainee
tyenuer train, supply training, school, familiarize
tyenuut trainer, master
tyenuam training facility
tyenuuwa trained
tyenuwat trainee
tyenmep career
tajtyen talent, in-born skill
tajtyenaya talented
tajtyenoya untalented, talentless
kotyen hidden skill, secret technique, hidden power
tyez magic, wizardry, divination
tyeza magical
tyezay magically
tyezer perform magic, divine, charm
tyezut magician, wizard, diviner, enchanter, charmer
tyezun charm, magical object
tyezil magic potion
fatyez miracle, thaumaturgy
fatyeza miraculous, thaumaturgical
fatyezay miraculously
fatyezer perform a miracle
fatyezut miracle-worker, shaman, thaumaturge
fotyez witchcraft, sorcery
fotyeza of witchcraft
fotyezer perform witchcraft
fotyezut witch
fotyezuyt witch, sorceress
fotyezil witch's brew
kotyez occult
kotyezin occultism
kotyeza occultic
kotyezer practice occult
kotyezut occultist

The job (Time) Family[edit]

Here are the most important words derived from job time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to an point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning 'frequency', which is translated by jod in Mirad.

Calendar Time Units[edit]

TIME SEASONS MONTHS DAYS OF THE WEEK
job time jeab spring jiab January juab Monday
jab year jeeb summer jieb February jueb Tuesday
jeb season jeib autumn jiib March juib Wednesday
jib month jeub winter jiub April juub Thursday
jub day jiyob May juyob Friday
jwob* hour jiyab June yuyab Saturday
jwab* minute jiyeb July juyeb Sunday
jweb* minute jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
OTHER
yejab week sojab century amlojab millennium
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.

Times of Day[edit]

TIMES OF DAY
maj daytime
ijmaj dawn
imaj morning
eymaj noon
joeymaj afternoon
ujmaj dusk
umaj evening
moj night
eymoj midnight

General Time Words[edit]

GENERAL TIME WORDS
job time
jod time, instance, occasion
jodsag frequency
jud date
jood period
jag age

Some Parallel Time Terms[edit]

taj birth aj past ja before jana previous ajna old
tej life ej present je during jena current ejna new
toj death oj future jo after jona next ojna future
tij wakefulness ij beginning ji since ijna initial
tuj sleep uj end ju until ujna final

Time Questions and Answers[edit]

In the chart below, there may be a shorter alternative expression in the second line of each row.
WHEN HOW OFTEN HOW OLD
hojob?....when?
hoj?
hogla jodi?.... how often?
hoxag
hogla jaga?.... how old?
hojaga?
hajob hu....when
haj hu
hagla jodi hu.... as often as
haxag hu
hagla jaga.... of the age
hajaga
hejob.... sometime
hej
hegla jodi.... sometimes
hexag
hegla jaga.... of some age
hejaga
hijob.... now
hij
higla jodi.... this often
hixag
higla jaga.... this old
hijaga
hujob.... then
huj
hugla jodi.... that often
huxag
hugla jaga.... that old
hujaga
huyjob.... at such a time
huyj
huygla jodi.... so often
huyxag
juygla jaga.... so old
huyjaga
hyojob.... never
hyoj
hyogla jodi.... never
hyoxag
glejaga.... rather old
hyajob.... always
hyaj
hyagla jodi.... at all times
hyaxag
glajaga.... very old
hyejob.... whenever
hyej
hyegla jodi.... however often
hyexag
grajaga.... too old
hyijob.... at the same time
hyij
ge jodi.... as often grojaga.... under-aged
hyujob.... some other time
hyuj
oge jodi.... not as often gejaga.... as old, of the same age
be jobi.... at times awa jod.... once awa jab jaga.... one year old
be hujobi.... in those times ewa jodi.... twice yuwa jabi jaga.... two years old
byu jobuj.... forever gla jodi.... very often
glaxagay
alo jabi jaga.... ten years old
byi hujob.... since that time
byi huj
aloni bi jodi.... hundreds of times ga jaga ev et.... older than you

Words in the job Family[edit]

job time
joba temporal
ponjob vacation
ivjob leisure time
yogjob short time
yogjoba temporary
yagjob long time
yagjoba chronic
jejoba chronic
gonjob part-time
gonjoba part-time
joob epoque
jooyb era
ejjoba contemporary, present-day
ebjob interval
jobuj end of time
byu jobuj until the end of time, forever
ojobuj eternity
ojobuja eternal
ojobujay for eternity, eternally
jobij beginning of time
byi jobij since the beginning of time, forever, always
igjobay soon
glojo soon, not long after
odjob when...?
byu odjob until when...?
byi odjob since when...?
byu odgla job for how long...?
byi odgla job for how long...?
bye odgla job for how long...?
adjob when, at the time (that)
edjob sometime (when)
idjob now, at this time
byu idjob up to now, so far, heretofore
byi idjob from now on, henceforth, hereafter
idjobi these days
udjob then, at that time
byu udjob until then
byi udjob since then
udjobi in those days
udyenjob at such a time
udyenjobi at such times
yadjob always
yadawa jod each time, every time
yadjod each time, every time
yadjodi at all times
yedjob at any time, whenever, at any time whatever, at whatever time
yidjob at the same time, at the very time
yudjob some other time, at another time
yudjobi at other times
yodjob never, not at any time, at no time
yodawa jod on no occasion, never, not a single time
gajob longer, yet, more time, still
Iyt yexe idem gajob She still works here.
Iyt voy yexeyo idem gla gajob She won't be working here much longer.
voy gajob no longer
gojob less time
glajob a lot of time, much time, a long time
ja glajob a long time ago
gla ajay long ago
be yuba aj in the recent past
glojob a little time, a short while
jo glojob soon, in a short while
glo ojay very soon
be yuba oj in the near future
bi job bu job from time to time
jod point in time, instance, moment, occurrence, occasion, time, instant
jodsag frequency
glajoda frequent
glajoday frequently
odgla jodi how often? (lit: how many times?]
idgla jodi this often
udgla jodi that often
udyengla jodi so often
gle jodi somewhat often
ga jodi more often
ga jodi ev more often than
ge jodi as often
ge jodi ev as often as
go jodi less often
go jodi ev less often than
gla jodi very often
gle jodi rather often
glo jodi not so often, seldom
gra jodi too often
gre jodi often enough
gro jodi not often enough
gya jodi most often, as often as possible
gyo jodi least often, as seldom as possible
ajod once
awa jod once, one time
be awa jod at one time
awa ga jod one more time, again, once again
ejodi twice
ewa jodi twice, two times
be ewa jodi on two occasions
ewa ga jodi two more times
ga jod again
awa ga jod again, once again, one more time
be awa ga jod at one more point in time
ewa ga jodi two more times
Eku ud gajod, Sam! Play it again, Sam!
idjod this time
be ida jod at this moment
idjodi on these occasions, at these times
udjod that time
be uda jod at that moment
udjodi on those occasions, at those times
udyenjod at such a time
be udyena jod at such a moment
yodjod never, at no point in time
be yoda jod on no occasion
yadjod every time, always
be yada jod at every occasion
yadawa jod each time, on each occasion
yadjodi at all times, on all occasions
yedjod at any moment, any time
be yeda jod at any point in time
ed jodi on some occasions, at times
be eda jodi at certain times, at times, on occasion
odjod at what point?
odjodi on what occasions?
eg- re-, again, over
egxer redo, fix
egteaxer review
egtajwa reborn
egder repeat
jab year
jaba annual, yearly
jabay annually, yearly
sojab century
idjab this year
udjab that year
yadjab every year
axagay lyajab once a year
je ad jab during the year
eynjaba semiannual
eynjabay semiannually
ejaba biannual
ejabay biannually
jabjea year-long
jabij new year's
jeb season
jeba seasonal
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, fall
jeiba autumnal
jeub winter
jeuba hibernal
jeuber hibernate
jib month
jiba mensual
ijib trimester
yajib semester
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyob September
jiyub October
jilab November
jileb December
jibjea month-long
jub day
juba diurnal, daily
edjub someday
idjub today
udjub that day
yadjub every day
yad ea jub every other other
ejodi yadjub twice a day, two times a day
yedjub any day, whatever day
yidjub the same day
yudjub another day, the other day, some other day
odjub which day
zajub tomorrow
zajub imaj tomorrow morning
zajub umaj tomorrow evening
zajub moj tomorrow night
zojub yesterday
yejub week
yejuba weekly
yejubuj weekend
ojna yejub next Monday
ajna yejub last Monday
id yejub this Monday
juab Monday
be juab on Monday
ja juab before Monday, by Monday
ji juab since Monday
ju juab until Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
jazojub the day before yesterday
Fijub! Good day!
ivjub feast, holiday
ivjuber celebrate
ivjuben celebration
ivjuba festive
ivjuban festivity
jabjub anniversary
tajjub birthday
fatajjub Christmas
zoybitojjub Easter:
jwob hour
jwoba hourly
jwobar watch
tuyojwobar wrist watch
jwobur clock
sagzyiun dial, face, screen
jwodar hour hand
jwadar second hand
jwobder tell time
jwab minute
jwayb moment
jwayba momentary
jweb second
jweyb instant
jweyba instantaneous
maj daytime
imaj morning
imaja matinal, morning
jimaj dawn
eymaj noon
joeymaj afternoon
umaj evening
ujmaj dusk
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fijoeymaj! Good afternoon!
Fiumaj! Good evening!
moj night
moja nocturnal, nightly
mojob nighttime
eymoj midnight
Fimoj! Good night!
jud date
judrer date
judrawa dated
ojudrawa undated
jojudrer post-date
jojudrawa post-dated
jajudrer ante-date
jajudrawa ante-dated
judar calendar
dulojud? on what date?
Dulojud se idjub? What date is today?
tajjud date of birth
Od se eta tajjud? What is your date of birth?
ujjud deadline, end date
judnab date range
jag age
Odjaga et se? How old are you?
Du eta jag? How old are you?
At se elijaga I am twenty-three years old.
jaga old, aged, year old, elderly
jagan old age, seniority, senility
jagat old person, oldster, senior, elder
jagser get old, grow old, age
jagsen growing old
ajaga one-year-old
ajagat a one-year-old baby
alojaga ten years old
aloyjaga teenaged
aloyjagat teenager
aloyjagan teens
yilojaga octogenarian
gyejaga adult
gyajagan adulthood
grojaga minor
gyojagat minor
zejaga middle-aged
zejagat middle-aged person
jagyena elderly, old-acting, senile
joga young
jogan youth
joganika youthful
joganik youthfulness
joganoker lose one's youth
jogat youngster, boy, young man, neophyte, newbie, rookie
jogayt girl, young lady
jogtob young man
jogtoyb young woman, young lady
egjogaxer rejuvenate
egjogaxen rejuvenation
egjogaxwa rejuvenated
jogyena youthful, youngish
jogyen youthful manner
ajna old, olden, ancient, stale
ejna new, current, modern, young, fresh
ojna not out yet, future

The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families[edit]

The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.
Summary:
...AG WORDS N..[DBP] WORDS
ag size nod point
sag number nad line
syag count ned plane
syaag calculation nid volume
nog degree nab rank
nag measure nap order
neg level naab organization
jag age naap system
xag frequency nyap rule
yag length
sag number, cypher
saga numeric
sager count
sagder enumerate, number
sagdawa numbered
osagdawa unnumbered
sagaya numerous
sagtun mathematics
sagtuna mathematical
sagtut mathematician
asagtun arithmetic
asagtuna arithmetical
asagtut number cruncher
esagtun geometry
esagtuna geometric
esagtut geometrist
isagtun trigonometry
usagtun algebra
yosagtun calculus
syag count, computation, tally
syaga computational
syager count, compute
syagar computer
syagartun computer science
syagartut computer scientist
osyaguwa countless
syagdyen account
syagdyentun accounting
syagdyentut accountant
syagsem counter
jag age
jaga aged, old, stale
zejaga middle-aged
yilojaga octogenarian
jagoya ageless
jagser get old, age
jagxer age, make old
jagan oldness, age, antiquity
jagat elder, oldster, old person
jagatam elder care facility, old folks' home
joga young, new
jogan youth, newness
jogat youngster, young person
jogas novelty, something new
jogaser become young
jogaxer rejuvenate
jogaxen rejuvenation
jogaxwa rejuvenated, renewed, refreshed
ag size
aga big, large, great
agan' bigness, largness, greatness, size
agaser get big
agaxer magnify
agaxwa magnified
agaxen magnification
agaxar magnifier
agxer grow
agser grow up
agsa grown, adult
agsat grown-up, adult
agsatan adulthood
agseat adolescent
agseatan adolescence
yabaga tall
yobaga deep
yaboga short
yabaga shallow
yag length
yaga long
yagan longness, length
yagaxer lengthen
yagxer stretch
yagxwa stretched
yagjob long while, long time
yagdin novel
yagder narrate
ja yagjob a long time ago
jo yagjob a long time from now
yagjoba long-term
yoga short
yogaxer shorten, abbreviate
yogdun abbreviation
yogdin short story
yogder summarize
yogxer cut, clip, snip
yogjob short while, short time
ja yogjob a short while ago
jo jogjob soon, a short time from now
yogjoba temporary, short-term


nog degree
musnog step
musnogar ladder, step ladder
finnog grade
tyoyanog step, pace, stoop
tyennog degree
tyennogier get one's degree, graduate
tyennoguer graduate, give out a degree
duznog pitch
duzijnog key
yabnog step up
yabnoga high-grade, upscale
yobnog step down
yobnoga downscale, low-grade
amnog degree of temperature
nogder grade
nogper escalate, climb
nogpen escalation
onogber de-escalate
onogben de-escalation
noga gradual
yignoga steep
yugnoga gradual
anoga primary
enoga secondary
inoga tertiary
unoga quaternary
zanoger graduate, advance
yobnoguer downgrade, degradate, downscale
yobnogier become degraded, step down
yabnoguer upgrade, upscale
yabnogier go up in grade, advance, step up
yabnogper climb, scale
yabnogput climber
anoga primary
enoga secondary
odnog how (to what degree)?
adnog to the degree
ednog somewhat
idnog this, to this extent
udnog that, to that extent
uydnog so, to such an extent
yodnog in no way
yadnog completely
yednog in any degree, however
yidnog just as
yudnog to a different extent
nogyan scale
nogyana scalar
nogyena gradual
nogyenay gradually
noog stage
nag measure, measurement
naga metric
nager measure
nagder measure
nagdar meter
amnagdar thermometer
barnagdar barometer
ignagdar speedometer
yabnagdar bathymeter
nayg dimension
nayga dimensional
anayga one-dimensional
enagya two-dimensional
inayga three-dimensional
neg level
glanega multilevel
negser level out
negxer level
ebnegar elevator
nig space, room
niga spatial
yeznig inner space
yoznig outer space
yuznig environment
yuzniga environmental
yuznigtin environmentalism
yuznigtinat environmentalist
nigay spatially
yonnigxer space apart
yonnigxwa spaced apart
gloniga cramped
glonigaxer cramp
glaniga roomy
nod point, tip
nodxer punctuate
nodxwa punctuated
noda punctual
uknod hole, puncture
uknodxer puncture, create a hole
uknodxwa punctured
zenod midpoint, focus, center point, hub, bull's eye
zenoder focus, target
abnod summit, top, tiptop, peak, vertex
obnod zenith, bottom point, nadir
yabnod highpoint, climax, peak
yabnoda climactic
yabnoder climax, top out
yobnod lowpoint, ebb
yobnoder ebb, bottom out
ijnod starting point, origin
ujnod end point, target, destination, pole
drenod dot
drenoder dot
drenodwa dotted
abdrenod diacritic
drunod punctuation mark
ujdrunod period
poysdrunod comma
eyndrunod semi-colon
eondrunod colon
yokdrunod exclamation point
diddrunod question mark
drunoder punctuate
drunoden punctuation
mepnod mile marker
byinod original
byunod destination, direction, target
ebnod intersection, node
ebnoda nodal
ebnodyan grid
ebnoder intersect
amir north
yibamir north pole, far north, extreme north
amira northern
aomira north-south
omir south
'yibamir south pole, far south, extreme south
omira southern
imir west
imira western, occidental
iumira east-west
umir east
umira eastern, oriental
emnod locus
kyonod fixed point
kyanod moving target
emnoder locate, spot
zenod focus, nucleus, hub
zenoda focal, nuclear
zeynod crosspoint, intersection, crossing
mepzeynnod highway intersection
mirnod pole
mirnoda polar
amirnod north pole
omirnod south pole
yibnod extremity, pole
yibnoda polar
yibnodan polarity
yibnodaxer polarize
yibnodaxen polarization
yibnodaxwa polarized
zyupnod pivot, hub, fulcrum
ozoypnod point of no return
dalnod talking point
gyisonnod sticking point, point of difficulty
nodeaxer point out, point, demonstrate, show, aim, target, pinpoint, focus
nodeaxar pointer
iznoder point to, focus, aim, target, pinpoint
ginod sharp point, apex
nad line
nada linear
nadan linearity
onada non-linear
onadan non-linearity
ebnad line in-between
ebnada interlinear
be nad bay in line with
zenad midline, median, line down the middle
yuznad border, frame, outline, circumference, periphery
yuznader frame, outline
yuznadwa framed, outlined, bordered
zyunad circle
zyunada circular
be zyunad bi around, circling
iznad straight line, vector, bee-line, direction
iznada vectorial, directional
be iznad bu on a straight path to
uznad curve, curved line, crooked line, arc
uznada curved, curvilinear
uznader curve, arc, arch
uznadwa curved, arched
uznadea curving
uznadaya curvaceous
aonad vertical line, vertical, north-south line
aonada vertical, along a north-south line
aonadan verticality
iunad horizontal line, horizontal, east-west line
iunada horizontal, along an east-west line
iunadan horizontality
zyenad perpendicular line, perpendicular
zyenada perpendicular
zyenadan perpendicularity
zeynad transverse line, transverse
zeynada transversal
zeynader cut across, transverse
kunad edge, frontier, sideline
be kunad bi on the edge of, bordering on
zakunad front edge
gikunada sharp-edged
ogikunada blunt-edged
zyokunad brink, narrow edge
be zyokunad bi on the brink of, on the verge of
yuz kunadi bi around the edges of
kunadyuba close to the edge
kunadyuban brinkmanship
kinad diagonal line, slant, slope, slash
kinada diagonal
kinader slope, slant
kinadwa sploped, slanted
eykinad radius
eykinada radial
eykinader radiate
eykinaden radiation
yankunad parallel line, parallel
yankunada parallel
yankunadan parallelism
yankunader parallel
be yankunad bay on a parallel with
mamnad skyline, horizon
mamnada horizontal
elyanad rail, rail line
elyanadpar train, locomotive
elyanad posam railroad station, train station
ijnad starting line
ujnad limit
yoza ujnad outer limit
ujnader limit
ujnaden limitation
ujnadwa limited
oujnadwa unlimited, absolute
oujnadway without limitation, absolutely
ujnadoya limitless
abnad upper limit, maximum
obnad lower limit, minimum
oyebnad outline
fufnad pipeline
yelfufnad oil pipeline
milfufnad water pipeline
aomirnad longitude
aomirnada longitudinal
iumirnad latitude
iumirnada latitudinal
eymirnad equator
eymirnada equatorial
nadxer align
nadxen alignment
vyonadxer misalign
vyonadxen misalignment
vyonadxwa misaligned
mipkunad river bank
mimkunad sea coast
nadgorber score
nadgorbwa scored
yaknad queue, waiting line, line
yaknader queue up, line up
jopnad line of succession, sequence, lineup
izuznada snaky, serpentine
naad lane, file
annada single-file, single-lane, one-way lane
ned plane
neda planar
nedes facet
domned plaza, place, public square
glanedesa multifaceted
abned surface, top, roof
abneda superficial, top
obned bottom, base, floor, lower surface, foundation, lower plane
obneda basic, fundamental, bottom
kuned side, lateral surface, wall, face, flank
kuneda lateral
kuneder flank
zaned front, front side, face, frontal plane
zaneda frontal
zoned back, dorsal plane, rear, backside
zoneda rear, dorsal, back
zyagned expanse, area, field
zyagneder expand, spread out
ebneda interplanar
geneda even, smooth, level
genedxer even out, smooth over
ogeneda uneven
ogenedan unevenness
nid volume
nidaya voluminous
zyunid sphere, globe, ball
zyunida spherical, global
eyzyunid hemisphere
zyunidog globule, droplet, bead
nyefnid cube
yakumnid cube
yakumnida cubic
igunid pyramid
zyuginid cone
defyabnid cone
defyabnida conical
nab rank
nabder rank
granabdwa over-ranked
gronabdwa under-ranked
nabxer arrange
nabxen arrangement
nabxwa arranged
nabyan array, grid, pattern, matrix
debnabyan hierarchy
debnabyana hierarchical
onab disarray
dopnab military rank
yobnaba low-ranking
yabnaba high-ranking
zenaba mid-ranking
abnaba superior in rank, ranking
obnaba inferior in rank
genaba equal in rank
ogenaba unequal in rank
aanaba first-ranking, top
eanaba second-ranking
eanabat runner-up
nabuer assign a rank, rank
nabier take on a rank, rank
aonab column
'aonaba columnar
iunab row
be aonabi ay iunabi in rows and columns
nap order
napa ordinal
be nap bi in order of
napyena orderly
onapyena disorderly
napber put in order, arrange
napbwa ordered, arranged
finapbwa well-ordered
onapbwa unordered, random, mixed
funapbwa disordered, messy, poorly organized
vyonapbwa misordered, out of order, mixed up, discombobulated
ebnapber mix up, shuffle, intersperse
ebnapbwa mixed up, shuffled, interspersed
napder ordain, order, command
napdut one giving the orders, commander
napden ordinance, order, commandment
donapden public ordinance, public mandate
dota napden social ordinance
dopa napden military order
onap disorder, mess
yonap utter mess
onapa messy, disordered
onapxer mess up
onapxwa messed up
donap public order
janap priority
janapa prior, last, previous
jonap sequence
jonapa sequential, next
glajonap' series
glajonapa' serial
napbyen discipline
napbyena disciplinary
napbyenier discipline
naab organization
naaba organizational
naabser organize
naabxer organize
onaabxwa unorganized
naabaya organized
naaboya unorganized
naap system
naapa systematic
naapay systematically
naapyena systemic
naapaxer systematize
naapaxen systematization
naapaxwa systematized
nyap rule
nyapa regular
aanyap principle, standard
aanyapaya principled
utnyap discipline
utnyapaya disciplined
utnyapber impose discipline, discipline
nyapbyen' rule of law, legal discipline
nyapdyen rulebook
nyapber impose a rule
nyapder decree, rule, dictate
'nyapden decree, regulation, dictat
nyapdena regulatory
'nyapdut governor, ruler
nyapyan regime
donyap law
donyapa legal
doynyapa licit
odoynyapa illicit
odoynyapan illiciteness
doynyapa legitimate
doynyapan legitimacy
odonyaypa illegitimate
odonyaypan illegitimacy
odonyapa illegal
donyapan legality
donyapay illegally
odonyapan illegality
donyapaxer legalize
donyapaxen legalization
donyapyan constitution
donyapyana constitutional
odonyapyana unconstitutional
odonyapyanan unconstitutionality
donyapxer legislate
donyapxut legislator, parliamentarian, deputy
donyapxutyan legislature, parliament
donyapxutim chamber of deputies, congress
donyaptun jurisprudence
donyaptut doctor of jurisprudence
donyaptuna juridical
donyaptitam law school
donyapxeen practice of law
donyapxeut lawyer
donyapxeam law office

Shapes[edit]

Summary:
zyus circle
zyuys oval
zyunid sphere
unizgun rectangle
ungekun square
ungun quadrangle
unoizgun rhombus
ingun triangle
yoongun pentagon
ginid cone
yagunid cube
inguginid pyramid
fufnid cylinder
amezsan diamond
tosan cross
uznad arc
ilpsan wave
gunsan wedge
amarsan star
san shape, form, figure
sana formal
osana informal
sanaxer formalize
sanaxen formalization
sanan formality
sanser form
sanxer form, shape
yegsanxer reform, re-shape, reconfigure
yegsanxen reformation, re-shaping, reconfiguration
yegsanxwa reformed, re-shaped, reconfigured
sanxen formation
fisanxwa well-formed
fusanxwa malformed
fusanxen malformation
fusanxun malformation
fisan good form, good figure
fusan bad form
sandren formula
sandrena formulaic
sandrun formula
sandruna formulaic
sandrunxer formulate
sandrunxen formulation
gin sharp point
gun angle
unizgunsan rectangle
ungekunsan square
ingunsan triangle
ungunsan quadrangle
unoizgunsan rhombus
ginid cone
ingunginid pyramid
yagekunid cube
nyem box
zyusan circle, circular shape
zyusana circular
zyusanan circularity
zyusandrer draw a circle
eyzyusan semi-circle
eyzyusana semi-circular
zyus cycle, wheel, circle
anzyus unicycle
enzyus bicycle
inzyus tricycle
unzyus four-wheeler
yazyus six-wheeler
zyusun tire
yigyelzyusun tire, rubber tie
ozyusa wheelless
zyusa cyclical
'ozyusa uncyclical
zyuysan oval
zyuysana oval-shaped
patijsan oval, egg-shape
patijsana egg-shaped, oval
fufsan cylinder
fufsana cylindrical
zyuf wrinkle
zyozyes slit, groove, slot
yagmeluk furrow, ditch, trench
mob chasm, precipice, dropoff, cliff, abyss
moab gulf, gulch
moeb ravine, valley, dale
moib cave, cavern
moibog cavity
moub ditch, furrow, trench
moyab dimple, depression, dip
moyeb hole, hollow, pit, depression, well, shaft
meb mountain
mebyan mountain chain
mebnad mountain range
mebaya mountainous
mebika mountainous
meyb mount
zyimeb plateau
zyiabmeb plateau
meab hill
meabaya hilly
meabog hillock
meeb knob
meib mound, protrusion, swell, tumor
meibser swell, protrude
meibsa swollen
meub ridge, fold
meyob bump
meyobika bumpy
omeyoba smooth
meyab pimple
nod point
zenod hub, focus, center-point, mid-point
ijnod starting point
ujnod endpoint, extreme, pole
ujnoda polar
ujnodan polarity
ujnodaxer polarize
ujnodaxen polarization
ujnodaxwa polarized
enujnoda bipolar
zyenod intersection, throughpoint
zyenoder intersect
zeynod cross point, crossover point
ebnod junction
abnod peak, tip, zenith, summit, top
abnodser peak
obnod lowpoint, bottom, nadir
obnodser bottom out
yabnod highpoint, summit, peak
yobnod lowpoint, bottom, nadir
yannod point of convergence, meeting point
yonnod point of divergence, split off point
drenod dot
drenodber dot
drenodbwa dotted
andrunod period
endrunod colon
eydrunod semi-colon
iznod' target, aim, focus
kyonod fixed point, target, focus, pinpoint
kyanod variable point, moving target
kelnod goal, target
byunod destination, goal
nad line
nada linear
nadan linearity
onada non-linear
ijnad starting line, threshold
ujnad finish line, limit
yuznad border, fence, frame, periphery, circumference
kunad edge, border, boundary
mimkunad coast
yankunad parallel
yuzkunad frame, periphery
mesyuzkunad door frame
obmisyuzkunad door threshold, door sill
misyuzkunad window frame
obmisyuzkunad window sill
zakunad front edge
zokunad back edge
mepkunad road shoulder
mipkunad river bank
yankunad parallel line
kinad slope, slant, diagonal
eykinad radius
iznad vector, straight line, bee-line, direction
iunad horizontal line
aonad vertical line
iumirnad latitude
aomirnad longitude
mamnad horizon, skyline
manad ray, beam
abnad upper limit
obnad lower limit
uznad curve, arc, arch, bend, bow, crook
mamuznad rainbow
oyebnad outline
fufnad pipeline
jopnad line of succession
dreznad verse, verse of poetry
elyanad rail, iron way, railroad
emirnad equator
dobnad frontier, border
amarnad sunray, sunbeam
ebnad separating line
dunnad sentence, line of text
jobujnad time limit, deadline
mebnad mountain chain
besnad queue, wait line
fabnad treeline
teasnad line of sight
tejnad lifeline
zanad frontline
zonad rearline
zyenad penpendicular line
zenad median, mid-line
zeynad transverse
ned plane, level, story
neda planar
glaneda multiplanar, multi-level, multi-story
anneda uni-level, single-story
enneda bi-level, split-level, two-story
abned surface, top, upper plane
obned bottom, lower surface, nether plane
zaned front, foreplane, face
zoned back, rear, dorsal plane
ebned interplane
yebned inner plane
oyebned outer plane
yabned raised surface, platform, stage
kined sloped plane
geneda even, level
ogeneda uneven, unlevel
kuned lateral plane, side
nid volume
zyunid sphere, ball
ugunid cube

The tom (Building), em (Place) Families[edit]

The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.
Summary:
FULL WORDS ENDINGS
tom building -em general place
tam house -am indoor place
tem hall -yem enclosed space
tim room -im room
tum cell -yeb container
tom building, structure, edifice
toma structural
tomxer build, construct
yegtomxer rebuild, reconstruct
yegtomxen rebuilding, reconstruction
yegtomxwa rebuilt, reconsructed
tomxen construction
tomxut builder, construction engineer
tomxem construction site
otomxer destroy, demolish
ootomxen destruction, demolition
otomxwa destroyed
otomxeya destructive
otomxeyan destructiveness
otomxuwa indestructible
otomxuwan indestructibility
tomyofwa indestructible
tomtun architecture
tomtuna architectural
tomtut architect
tomsan structure
tomsana structural
tomyan complex, block, building complex
toom residence, residential building, habitat, habitation, apartment building, dwelling
tooma residential, habitational
toomer reside, inhabit, live, dwell
toomut resident, inhabitant
tomof tent
tomofem campground
tomofsum sleeping bag
tomes apartment, flat
tomesyan apartment complex
tomfaob timber
tombelut concierge
zyutom tower
jobnuer lease, let, rent out
jobnuut lessor
jobnuwat lessee
jobnuwa rental
jobnier rent
jobnien rental
jobniut renter
jobniuta yantexdren rental agreement, lease
fatom church, temple, mosque, sacred building
tomog abode
beer have, own, possess
beut owner, possessor, proprietor
beutan owernership, proprietorship
bewa own
bewaxer take ownership of, repossess
obewa unowned
obewaxer disown, appropriate, dispossess
obeer let go, release
bewas property, possession
bewaseb property manager, lord, proprietor
tam house, domicile
tama domiciliar
tamog hut
tamoyg cottage
tamyog shack, shanty, hovel
vutamog shack, ramshackle
tamyogdom shantytown, slum
tamag mansion
mebtam cabin
domtam brownstone, townhouse
vitamag palace
vitamaga palatial
tamaz castle
vitamaz chateau
tambeut homeowner
tamoya homeless
tamoyat homeless person
tomoyan homelessness
taam home, household, domain
taama domestic, tame
taamxer domesticate, tame
taamxen domestication, taming
taamxwa domesticated, tamed
otaamxwa undomesticated, untamed, wild
tamer live, dwell, inhabit
tamut inhabitant, dweller
tamier settle
tamien settlement
tamiut settler
tamuer house, shelter
tamuen housing, sheltering
tamuwa housed, sheltered
tamyan block of houses, block
tamyex house work, domestic chores
tamyexer work at home, telecommute
tamyexut domestic, work-at-home
tamyuxut house servant, domestic
tamyuxuyt maid, house maid
tamper go home
tampier leave home
tampuer arrive home
tampet pet
tampettel pet food
tampeta tame
tapetxer tame, housebreak
tampetxwa tamed, domesticated, housebroken
otampetxwa untamed, undomesticated, unhousebroken
tamtyal in-home meal, take-out
tamsaxwa home-made
tamoyeper go outdoors
tamyeper go indoors
yebtama indoor
tamtuler dine at home
tamtulxwa home-cooked
tamkum side yard
tamzam front yard
tamzom backyard
tambeser stay at home
tambesut stay-at-home
tameb head of household, master, lord
tameyb mistress
tameber dominate, master, lord over
tameben dominance, mastery, lording over
tambeya domineering, dominant
tamab domain
tamber settle, take up residence
tamkyaxer move, change residence
tamkyaxen moving
tamober uproot
tamkeler house hunt
tamkelut house hunter
tamkelen house hunting
tamyuva house-bound
titam school
jatitam pre-school, kindergarten
atitam grade school
etitam high school
ititam college
utitatam university
joutitam post-graduate school
donyaptitam law school
tutam academy, institute
totam church, house of God
judina totam temple
kristina totam Christian church
islama totam mosque
potam hotel
potameb hotelier
kostam cloister
dyentam library
fabtam treehouse
tem hall
abtem gallery
yagtem gallery
zatem lobby, foyer
zotem back room
zyutem rotunda
zyetem corridor, hallway
kutem side hall
obtem cellar, cave
drasintem picture gallery, art gallery
dyeduntem lecture hall
datuputtem reception hall
tultem dining hall
tim room, chamber, salon
abtim attic
bektim hospital room
beltim holding cell
fatim sacristry
obtim basement, cellar
teltim dining room
tapektim exercise room
tutim classroom
tultim kitchen
tiltim bar, saloon
tojtim death chamber
yantim suite
yebtim inner chamber
yontim apartment, compartment, quarters, flat
zatim antechamber
zyotim corridor
zotim backroom
miltim bathroom, restroom, washroom
igef biktim emergency room
deztim theatre salon
dezzatim theatre lobby
mimpartim ship cabin
mimparebtim ship's captain quarters
pestim waiting room
popdatim guest room
yextim bureau, den, office
timog closet
sumtim bedroom
glasumtim dormitory
datim living room, salon, sitting room
mustim stair well
timyan quarters
timuf wing
tum cell, compartment, unit, section
tuma cellular, compartmental
tumaxer compartmentalize
tumaxen compartmentalization
tumaxwa compartmentalized

The a (One) yan (Together) Families[edit]

The stems in this family are based on a one, and yan together and their opposites, o zero and yon apart.
Summary:
Header text Header text
a one o zero
an- uni- on- non-
yan together yon apart
yad all yod none

a one

a gab a gese e: 1 plus 1 equals 2
anapa first, primary, foremost
anapan primacy
anapber rank first, put in first place
anoga primary, first-rung, first-degree, first-ranking
anogay primarily
ajaga one year old
ajagat one-year-old
awa jaga one year old
anida single-file, serial
aniday in a single line, single-file, serially
anidser line up, queue up
anidxer serialize
anidxen serialization
yanida parallel
yanid parallel, parallel line
yaniday in tandem, in parallel
an- mono-, uni-, one-, single-
antyoba one-legged
anteaba one-eyed, monocular
anteabar monocle
antepyena single-minded, obstinate
antoosa unisex
anzyuspar unicycle
anfatin monotheism
antex obsession
antexa obsessed
antexer obsess
antexeya obsessive
antada monogamous
antadan monogamy
antotin monotheism
antotina monotheistic
antotinut monotheist
annusutyan monopoly
annusutyanxer monopolize
annusutyanxwa monopolized
annaad monorail
aniznad one-way, single direction
aniznada one-way
anmepesa single-laned
anteuza monotone
anteuzan monotony
anteuzaya monotonous
antima unicameral
antuyabay single-handedly
annayga unidimensional
anvoza monochromatic
anzyus monocycle
anteaba one-eyed
anzyemepa one-track, single-track
anteuza unanimous
anteuzan unanimity
ansana uniform
ansanan uniformity
olansana disparate, non-uniform
andab dictatorship, autocracy
andaba dictatorial, autocratic
andeb autocrat, dictator
andalyena monolingual
anes unit
anesa unitary::
awa one
awas one, one of them, one thing
awat one person, one, one of them
awan oneness, unity
away only
awa jod once, one time
awa ga jod once again, again, another time
aa first, prime
aas first one, first, first thing
ad aas the first thing
aat first person, numero uno
aan priority, primacy
aanxer prioritize, make first
aanxem prioritization
aanxwa prioritized
aanay primarily
aay firstly, first
aaper go first
aapen going first
aaput person who goes first
aayux first aid
aadudut first respondant
aatajba first-born
aana unique
aanan uniqueness
aanay uniquely
aa- arch-, proto-, original, prime
aasaun prototype, model, archetype
aasauna prototypical, model, archetypical
aaovekut archrival
aayodat arch enemy
aaojduut prime lender
aafox original sin
aatex principle
ay and
aon whole, entirety
aon- holo-
aonina holistic
aonyamxen holocaust
aona whole, entire, integral, complete, perfect
olaona unwhole, incomplete, imperfect
aonay wholly, entirely, completely, perfectly
aonas whole thing, entire thing, sum
ad aonas the whole thing, the entire thing
aonan entirety, integrity, perfection
aonxer integrate, complete, perfect
aonxen integration, completion, perfection
aonxwa integrated, completed, perfected, perfect
olaonxwa unintegrated, imperfect, uncompleted
aonser become whole, heal, integrate
aonsag integer, whole number
aonsagyan set of integers
olaonxer disintegrate
olaonxen disintegration
olaonxwa disintegrated
aonder sum up
aonden summation
aondwa summed up, summary
ad aona mir the whole world
gel aon as a whole
aun unit, component, item
auna unitary
aunxer itemize
aunxen itemization
aunxwa itemized
aunyan complex
aunyana complex::
yaun component, constituent
anyan series, chain
anyana serial
anyanxer serialize, string together, chain together
anyanxen serialization
anyanxwa serialized
olanyanxer break the chain, unchain
anyanes link, chain link, item in a series
angona united, consisting of one part, whole, integral, unipartite
angonan wholeness, unison, integrality
alo ten
aloti group of ten people
alosi a group of ten things
lojab decade
ala eleven
ale twelve
aleon dozen
aleoni dozens
alogoler decimate
aluna decimal
aso one hundred, hundred
sojab century
sojaba centennial
asa one hundred one
ase one hundred two
asoney per cent
asoneyn percentage
asoni hundreds
aro one thousand
rojab millennium
rojaba millennial
rojabat millennial
aroni thousands
amlo one million, million
amloni millions
amro one billion, billion
amroni billions
aan unison
aanxer unify
aanxen unification
aanxwa unified
aanay in unison
aana unique, one and only
aanan uniqueness
aanay uniquely
be aan in unision
ana single, only, solitary, sole
ad ana the only, the sole
anay only, solely, merely
anan singularity, unison
ad anas the only thing
ad anat the only person
ad anasi the only things
ad anati the only people
anta alone, solitary
antan aloneness, solitude
antaxer isolate
antaxen isolation
antaxwa isolated
antaser isolate oneself, stay alone
antasa isolated
yanta combined
yantaxer combine
yantaxen combination
yantaxwa combined
yantaxun combination
anla singular
anlan singularity
anlaxer singularize
anlaxen singularization
anlaxwa singularized
yanla plural
yanlan plurality
yanlaxer pluralize
yanlaxen pluralization
yanlaxwa pluralized
anxer unite
anxen union
anxon union
anxan unity
anxwa united
olanxer disunite, break up
olanxwa disunited, broken up
yonxer divorce, separate, disunite, break up
yonxen divorce, separation, breakup
yonxwa divorced, separated, broken up
yonper go apart, separate, deviate, diverge
yonpea divergent, deviant
yonpen divergence, deviance, separation
yonput deviant
yonber put asunder, break apart
yonbun break
yonbyexer break, crack, disrupt, rupture
yonbyexun crack, disruption, rupture. fissure
yonbuxer push apart
yanbuxer push together, compress
yanbuxen compression
yanpeper ride together, share a ride
yanteler eat together, dine together
yantelut dinner companion
yandaler converse, discuss, deliberate
yandal conversion, dialog, communication, discourse, discussion, deliberation
yandala deliberative
yagyandaler converse at length
yandalut deliberator, discutant
yandalutyan congress, parliament, convention
yandalutyana congressional, parliamentary
yondaler dispute, argue, debate
yondal dispute, argument, debate
yondalut disputant, debater
yondaleya disputatious, argumentative
yondaleyan disputatiousness, argumentativeness
yandat ally
yandatan alliance
yandatser ally, become allies
yandatxer ally, make allies
yandatsa allied
yanek match, meet, competition, game
yanekut competitor
yanekeya competitive
fiyanekbyen gamesmanship, good sportiveness
ekutyan team
ekutyantup team member
anyafer tie, bind, connect
anyaf tie, binding, ligature, bond, connection
anyafwa tied, bound, connected
anyafen tying, binding, connection
olanyafer untie, unbind, disconnect, unlace
olanyafen untying, unbinding, disconnection, unlacing
olanyafwa untied, unbound, disconnected, unlaced
yanifer sew, stitch
yanif thread, stitch
yanifen sewing, stitching
yanifwa sewn, stiched
yanifar stitching needle
yanivar needle
yanifur sewing machine
yaniftyen couture
yanker combine
yank combination
yanken combination
yankwa combined
zoyyanber reassemble, rejoin, put back together
zoyyanben reassemblage, rejoining
zoyyanbwa put back together, reassembled, rejoined
yanbixer attact, pull together, contract
yanbixen attraction, contraction
yanbixeya attractive
yonbixer distract, pull apart
yonbixen distraction
yonbixea distracting
yonbixwa distracted
yanmul mix, melange, fusion
yanmulxer mix, fuse
yanmulxen mixing, melange, fusing
yanmulxwa mixed, fused
yanmel continent
yanmela continental
zeyyanmela transcontinental
yonmel island
yonmela insular
eyyonmel peninsula
eyyonmela peninsular
yanmeg concrete
yanmegyel cement
yanmegyelber cement
yanmegyelbwa cemented
yanbyeer conform, keep together
yanbyeen conformance
yanbyeya conformant
yanbyeyan conformity
yanbyea bay in conformance with
oyanbyea non-conformant
yansaner constitute
yansanen constitution
yansanea constituent
yanbexer adhere, hold together, cling, stick together
yanbexea adherent
yanbexeya clingy, sticky
yanbexen adherence
yanbexut adherent
yanbexwa adhered, held together, stuck
yanbexof adhesive
yanbexil paste, glue
yanbexiler paste, glue
yanbexilwa pasted, glued
yanbexilwas poster, sticky, sticker
yanbexileya sticky
yanas funds
yanasbuer fund
yanasbuwa funded
yanasbuen funding
yanasbuut funder
yanabier collect, harvest
yanabien collection, harvesting
yanabiut collector, havester
yanabiwa collected, harvested
yanabiut collector, havester
yantamer live together, cohabit
yantamen cohabitation
yantamea cohabiting, living together
yantamut cohabitor
yanyexer work together, cooperate, collaborate
yanyex cooperation, collaberation
yanyexa collaborative
yanyexut collaborator
yantexer agree, concord
yantex agreement, concord
yantexwa agreed
yantexuwa agreeable
yantexdren written agreement
yantexea bu according to, in accordance with
yontexer disagree
yontex disagreement, discord, dispute
yontexaya discordant
yontexwa disputed
yontexeya disputatious
yontexeyan disputatiousness
yanteser sympathize, commiserate, empathize
yantesea sympathetic
yantes sympathy, empathy
oyantes lack of sympathy
oyantesea unsympathetic
yonteser feel antipathy, resent
yontes antipathy, resentment
yontesea antipathetic:
yanbyen harmony
yanbyena harmonic
yanbyenxer harmonize
yanbyenxen harmonization
yanbyenxwa harmonized
be yanbyen bay in harmony with
yonbyen disharmony
topyanat soul-mate:
ebyana mutual
ebyanay mutually
ebyanan mutuality
ebyona rival
ebyonut rival, contestant
ebyonan rivalry
ebyonut rival
ebyonutser rival:
anaxer unify
anaxen unification
anaxwa unified
yanbier bring together, collect
yanbien collection
yanbiwa collected, brought together
ya- multi-, more than one
yatada polygamous
yatadan poygamy
yadalyena polyglot
yadalyenat polyglot
yasana poly-morphic, generic
yasauna various, varied
yasun chain
yasuna serial
yasunxer concatenate
yasunxen concatenation
yasunxwa chained, concatenated::
yan- co-, fellow-, mate
yanmemut fellow-countryman
yandit fellow citizen
yanfatinat co-religionist
yanpoput fellow-traveler, travelmate
yan together
yana together
yanay together
yanat partner, fellow, mate, companion, associate
yanatan partnership, fellowship, companionship, association
yanatser partner, mate, associate
yanatsen partnering, mating, association
yanatseya sociable
yanatseyan sociability
yanatyan association, society, committee
yanatyana associational, societal, social
timyanat roommate
sumyanat sleep-mate, bed-mate
telyanat dining companion
yanil glue
yanilber glue
yanilbwa glued
oyanilbwa unglued
yanilben gluing
yanyel paste
yanyelber paste
yanyelben pasting
yanyelbwa pasted
yanyelyena pasty
yanxer gather, assemble, collect
yanxen gathering, meeting, assemblage
yanxwa gathered, assembled
yanxon assembly
yanser join, meet, collect, assemble
yansen meeting, collection, assembly
yans meeting
yansem meeting place
yanper go together, accompany, associate
yanput accompanist, companion, associate
yanputan companionship, companion, association
yanuper meet, come together, assemble
yanup meeting, convocation, get-together
yanupem meeting venue:
yanber put together, compose, assemble
yanben composition, assemblage
yanbut composer, assembler
yonber take apart, break up, disassemble
yonben disassemblage
yanyeber mix
yanyeben mixing, tangling
yanyebun mixture, melange, mixup, tangle
yanyebwa mixed, tangled
yonyeber disentangle, untangle
yonyeben untangling, resolution
yanun pile, accumulation, stack, grouping, heap
yanuna cumulative
yanunser pile up, accumulate, stack up, group
yanunxer pile up, stack, stack up, make a pile
yanunxwa piled up, stacked, accumulated, heaped up
yanunxen piling up, stacking, accumulation, heaping
nyaun pile, mass, heap, cluster
nyauna massive
nyaunser pile up, cluster
nyaunxer pile together, cluster, group, amass
nyaunxwa piled together, clustered, grouped, amassed
nyaunag bloc, crowd
nyaunagser crowd together, form a bloc
nyaunagxer crowd together, make into a bloc:
nyan ensemble, gathering, collection
nyana collective
nyanay collectively
nyanan collectivity
nyanaxer collectivize
nyanaxen collectivization
nyanaxwa collectivized
nyanag mass, herd, crowd
nyanaga massive
nyanagber mass, crowd, gather, assemble, herd together, gather together
nyanagbwa crowded, massed, herded together
nyautyan crowd
nyautyana crowded
-yan: collection, grouping
fabyan forest
tobyan humankind, mankind, humanity
potyan animal kingdom
patyan flock of birds
tulyan meal, set of dishes
dunyan verbiage
yanar link, joint, juncture, nexus, yoke
yanarser link up, join
yanarxer link, join
yanarxen linking, joinning
yanarxwa linked, joined
yanaryan chain
yanzyus chain
yanzyusaber chain, shackle
yanzyusaben chaining, shackling
yanzyusabwa chained, shackled
yanzyusober unchain, unshackle
yanzyusoben unchaining, unshackling
yanzyusobwa unchained, unshackled
aut person
agaut personage, v.i.p.
ogaut little guy, man on the street, average Joe
auta personal
autaxer personalize
autaxwa personalized
autan personality, personhood
autyan public
autyana public
autyanyux public service
autyanyuxut public servant
autyander publicize, advertise
autyanden publication, publicity, advertisement, ad
anut individual, private person
anuta private, particular, individual
anutay privately, individually
anutan privacy, ndividuality, particularity
anutaxer privatize
anutaxen privatization
anutaxwa privatized
olanutaxer de-privatize
olanutaxen de-privatization
olanutaxwa de-privatized
yanuta general
yanutan generality
yanutay generally
yanutaxer generalize
yanutaxen generalization
yanutaxwa generalized
yanaut people
yanauta popular
yanautan popularity
yanautaya populous
yanautber populate
yanautben population
yanautin populism
yanautina populist, populistic
yanautinat populist
yauta common, communal
yautay commonly
yautan community
yautana communitarian, communal
yaut commune::
yautin communism
yautina communist
yautinat communist
yautinyena communistic, communist-leaning
ovyautina anti-communist
avyautina pro-communist
autnyan community
autnyana communitarian, communal
utyan group
utyanser group together
grautyan crowd, mass of people
grautyanser crowd together, mass
grautyansa crowded
asana special
asanay specially, especially
asanan specialty
asanxer specialize
asanxen specialization
asanxwa specialized
asanxut specialist
asuna specific
asunay specifically
asunder specify
asunden specification
asunxwa specified
yasana general
yasanay generally
yasanan generality
yasanxer generalize
yasanxen generalization
yasanxwa generalized
yasuna generic, typical
yasunay generically, typically
oyasuna ungeneric, atypical:
tyan class
tyana classic, classical
tyanxer classify
tyanxen classification
tyanxwa classified
tyanes genre, type, genus
tyanesa generic, typical
aatyan first class
eatyan second class
iatyan third class
yabtyan high class
yabtyana high-class
yobtyan low class
yobtyana low-class
zetyan middle class
zetyana middle-class
vityana classical
vutyana vulgar
vutyanan vulgarity
vutyanun vulgarism
vutyanxer vulgarize
vutyanxen vulgarization
tyanin classism
tyanina classist
tyantijtea class-conscious::
utyan group
utyanser group, band together
utyansen grouping
utyanxer group, band
utyanxen grouping
utyanxwa grouped
utyana collective
utyanan collectivity
utyanaxer collectivize
utyanaxen collectivization
yebutyan in-group
oyebutyan out-group
utyanes team
utyanesyex teamwork
ovutyanes opposite team
utyanog band
utyanogser band together
avutyan party
dobtuna avutyan political party
avutyana partisan
avutyanan partisanship
ovutyan opposition party
utnyan assembly
syan species, type
syana specific
syanes type
syanog category
syanogxer categorize
syanogxen categorization
syangoxwa categorized
syanoga categorical
asyan series
asyana serial
asyanxer serialize
asyanxen serialization
asyanxwa serialized
yasyan collection
yasyanxer collect
yasyanxen collection
yasyanxut collector
nyanut union, syndicate
nyanuta syndical
nyanutan syndicalism, unionism
nyanutut unionist
ebnyanuta intersyndical, interunionist
nyanutyan federation
nyanutyana federal
nyanutyanan federalism
yanyanutyan confederation
yanyanutyana confederal
yanyanutyanan confederalism
yonxer separate
yonxen separation
yonxuwa separable
oyonxuwa inseparable
oyonxuwan inseparability
yonzyaber disperse
yonzyaben dispersal
yonzyabwa dispersed
yonkuber sideline, set aside
yonkuben sidelining, setting aside
yonkubwa sidelined, set aside, benched
yanifer sew, stitch
yanifen stitching
yanifwa stitched, sewn
oyanifer take out the stitches, unstitch
nyaf knot, tangle
yanyafer knot, tangle
yanyafwa knotted, tangled
yanyafen kotting, tangling
oyanyafer untangle
oyanyafen untangling, denouement
yonofer tear, tip
yonof tear, rip
yonofen tearing, ripping
yonofun tear, tip
yonofwa torn, ripped
yonofar ripping device, scissors
yaniler glue
yanilun glueing
yanilwa glued
oyaniler unglue
oyanilwa unglued
yaner tie, link
yanen liason, tie
yoner untie, unlink
yonen untying, unlinking
yanler attach
yanlen attachment
yanlwa attached
yonler detach
yonlen detachment
yonlwa detached
yonrer cut
yonren cutting
yonrwa cut
yonrar knife, cutter
yonrares blade
yanxer join
yanxen joining
yanxwa joined
yonxer unjoin, partition, separate
yonxen unjoining, partitioning, separation
yonxwa disjoined, unjoined, partitioned, separated
yonxun partition, separation, gap
yontader divorce
yontaden divorce
yontadwa divorced
yonaxer separate
yonaxen separation
yonaxwa separated
yona apart, separate
yonay apart, separately
yonan apartness, separateness
yonim apartment
yonimyan apartment complex
yon apart
yonay apart, sunder
yonan apartness
yonser come apart, separate
yonsen coming apart, separation
yan together
yanay together
yanan togetherness
yanuper meet
yanup meeting
yanupem meeting venue
yanat mate, partner, fellow
yanatan mateship, partnership, fellowship
yanan togetherness
tamyan housing complex, block of houses
tomyan building complex, block of building
sumtimyan dormitory
patyan flock of birds
maryan constellation
saryan instrumentation, equipment
yandal colloquy, discussion
yandaler discuss
yandalut discutant, interlocutor
yanber compose, put together
yanben composition
yanbena compositional
yanbut composer
yanbwa composed
yonber take apart, decompose
yonbem decomposition
yonbwa decomposed
yontim apartment, flat
yontimyan apartment complex
yonyem separate space, compartment
yonyemxer compartmentalize
yonyemxen compartmentalization
yonyemxwa compartmentalized
tomyan block of building, block, complex
tamyan block of houses, housing complex
sumtimyan dormitory
maryan constellation
suryan equipment
siryan machinery
ajtedyan ancestry
amulyan molecule
apelatyan swarm of bees
atulyan breakfast
saryan toolset
sayryan instrumentation
somyan furniture
sunyan reality
suzyan art collection
syagyan account
dafyan deck of cards
debyan leadership
defyan stationary
detyan club
dityan citizenship
dlunyan phraseology
dopsuryan ordnance
doutyan bourgeoisie
dresinyan alphabet
drenyan scripture
dreunyan documentation, dossier
drevyan grammar
drezyan poety
dyedutyan readership
dyendyunyan bibliography
dyenyan book collection, library
dunyan glossary, lexicon
dyuvyan ream of paper
etulyan lunch
bapeltyan swarm of ants
faybyan shrubbery, thicket
fayebyan foliage
itulyan dinner
jogatyan youth
jubdryenyan the press
kobiunyan loot
masyan masonry
mepyan network
naafyan drapery
nasyan capital
nesyan savings
neunyan reserves
nibyan array, grid, matrix, web
nisyan earnings
nifyan wiring
nozyan jewelry
nofyan textiles
nusbiutyan clientele
nunamyan shopping center
patayebyan plumage
patyan poultry
peltyan swarm
pityan school of fish
potyan animalia
tadetyan fraternity
tadyan husband and wife
taibyan skeleton
taydetyan sorority
teesiutyan audience
telaryan cutlery
teipibyan denture
tiutyan student body
tolaryan dishes
totyan pantheon
tulyuxutyan wait staff
tulyan meal
tutamyan university
tuutyan academe
tyadetyan grandchildren
tyadyan grandparents
tyunyan ideology
vazasunyan greenery
vidrenyan literature
vosyan bouquet
vulobyan thorn patch
ebdrenyan mail
yexyan handiwork
yipetobyan litter
av for
ava in favor, pro
avan advocacy

o zero

oun null, nil
osun nothing
osunxer anihilate
osunxwa anihilated
osunxen anihilation
osunan nothingness
owa no, not any, not a
owas not a thing, nothing
owat nobody, no one, not a single person
o- non-, un-, dis-
otwa unknown
ol- non-, un-, dis-
olafwa disallowed
olo- non-, un-, dis-
ov against
ovaxer counteract
ova against, opposite
ovader contradict
yo- non-, un-, dis-, the opposite of
tat angel
yotat devil

The tob (Man) Family[edit]

The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism or organ. The words have to do with the human being and the human body.

tob man, human

toyb woman
toyban womanhood
toban humanity, manhood
tobyan humanity, humankind, mankind
tobaxer humanize
tobaxen humanization
tobaxwa humanized
tobin humanism
tobina humanist
tobinat humanist
toybin feminism
toybina feminist
tobinat feminist
toob male
tooba male
tooyb female
tooyba female, feminine
tobtun anthropology
tobtuna anthropological
tobtut anthropologist
tobyena manly
tobyenan manliness
toybyena womanly
toybyenan womanliness
tobava humanitarian
tobavin humanitarianism
tobavina humanitarian
tobavat humanitarian
tobot child, baby, infant
tobota infantile
tobotan childhood, infancy
tobotsim highchair
tobotyena childlike, babyish, infantile
tobotyenan infantility
tobottojben infanticide
tobottojbena infanticidal
tobottojbut baby-killer
tobog midget
tobyog urchin
tobet boy
tobetan boyhood
tobetyena boyish
tobetyenan boyishness
toybet girl
toybetan girlhood
toybetyena girlish
toybetyenan girlishness
joga tob young man
joga toyb young woman
jaga tob old man
jaga toyb old woman:::
tobtujben homocide, killing
tobtujbena homocidal
tobtujbut killer
tobsana anthropomorphic
tobsanan anthropomorphism
tobifina philanthropic
tobifin philanthropy
tobifinat philanthropist
tobufina misanthropic
tobufin misanthropism
tobufinat misanthrope

tab body

taba bodily, corporal
taban corporality
tojtab corpse
tojtabnyem coffin
tabnyem coffin
tabnyef body bag
tabkyojun remains
tabaga corpulent
tabagan corpulence
tabog corpuscle
taboga corpuscular
taob flesh
taoba carnal
taaban carnality
taobaya fleshy, carnal
taobser become flesh, incarnate
taab lymph
taaba lymphatic
tabil humor
tabila humoral
taeb muscle
taeba muscular
taebyan musculature
taebaya muscle-bound
taib bone
taiba osseous, bony
taibyena bony
taibyenan boniness
taibser ossify
taibsen ossification
taibsa ossified
taibnyan skeleton
taibnyana skeletal
taibyan frame, framework, bone structure
tekib vertebra
tekiba vertebral
tekibnyan spine, spinal column
tekibnyana spinal
taub cartilege
tauba cartilaginous
tayob skin, hide
tayobil sweat, perspiration
tayobiler sweat, perspire
tayobilaya sweaty
tayoba cutaneous, dermal
tayobtun dermatology
tayobtuna dermatological
tayobtut dermatologist
tayobober skin, strip, flay
tayoboben skinning, flaying
tayobobwa skinned, flayed
tayobdril tattoo
tayobdriler tattoo
tayobbok skin disease, dermatitis
tayab fat
tayaba fatty
tayeb hair
tayeba capillary
tayebaya hairy
tayebayan hairiness
oytayeba bald, hairless, smooth
oytayeban baldness, hairlessness, smoothness
tayeyb fuzz
tayeybyena fuzzy
tayeybyenan fuzziness
omoltayeb wig, hairpiece
tayib nerve
tayiba nervous
tayiban nervousness
tayibxer enerve, get on one's nerves, annoy
tayibxea enerving, annoying
tayibxen annoyance
tayiser grow nervous, get excited
tayisen excitement
teb head
tebnyem cranium, skull
tebnyema cranial
tebos brain
tebosa cerebral
teboses cerebellum
zateb forehead
zateba frontal
tebzan face, countenance
tebzana facial
obteb neck
obteba cervical
zoobteb nape
zaobteb throat
yobteb chin
tep mind
tepa mental
tepyen mentality, attitude
tijtep consciousness
tujtep subconscious
tepaza intelligent
tepoza stupid
teob cheek
teoba jugal
zeteob cheekbone
teobyeb beard
teobyebaya bearded
teab eye
teaba ocular, optic
teabigyijer blink
zeteab pupil
teabyeb eyelash
fateab eyelid
fateaxer blink
fateabyeb eyebrow
teabar eyeglasses, glasses
teabil tear
teabiles teardrop
teabiler tear up
teapiler cry, weep
teapileya weepy
teabtun ophthalmology
teabtuna ophthalmological
teabtut ophthalmologist
teater see
teat vision, sight
teatyofa blind
teatyofat blind person
teatyofan blindness
teatyofxer blind
teatyofxeya blinding
teatyofxwa blinded
teatyaf ability to see, sight
teatyafa sightful, able to see
yeatyafat seeing person
oteatwa unseen
oteatwas something unseen
jateater foresee
teatuwa visible
teatuwan visibility
oteatuwa invisibile
oteatuwan invisibility
teatuer show
teatuen demonstration
teatueya demonstrative, showy
teatier catch sight of, perceive
teatien perception
teatiwa perceived
teaxer look
igteaxer glance
yagteaxer glare
kyoteaxer stare
yokteaxer peek
zyoteaxer peer
zyateaxer scan
yabteaxer look up
yobteaxer look down
yebteaxer look in
oyebteaxer look out
yubteaxer examine
abteaxer supervise
ugteaxer gaze::::
teaser seem, look, appear
teas appearance
teaseay apparently, seemingly
fiteasa good-looking
futeasa ugly
teaper visit
teap visit
teaput visitor
teabizer aim
anteaba one-eyed, monocular
teeb ear
teeba aural, auricular
fozteeb earlobe
teeter hear
teet hearing
teetyaf ability to hear
teeta auditory
teeten hearing, audition
teetyofa deaf
teetyofan deafness
teetyofat deaf person
teetyofxer deafen
teetyofxeya deafening
teetyaf ability to hear
teetyafa able to hear, hearing
teetuwa audible
teetuwan audibility
oteetuwa inaudible
oteetuwan inaudibility
oteetwa unheard of
oteetwas something unheard of
teetar hearing aid
teetyuxar hearing aid
teexer listen
teexut listener
teexutyan audience
teexar earphone, headphone, earpiece
teeser sound, sound like
tees sound, audio
teesag noise
teesa acoustic, audio
teesyen acoustics
teesaga noisy, loud
fiteesea nice-sounding, sweet-sounding, melodious
futeesea bad-sounding, cacophonous
teeper attend
teeput attendee
teeputyan attendance, audience
teib nose
teiba nasal, rhino-
teibyes nostril
teibil snot, mucus
teibila mucal
teiv handkerchief
teibilober blow one's nose
teibukxer sneeze
teiter smell
teit odor, smell, scent, whiff
teita olfactory
teitier sniff, smell, take a whiff of
teiz perfume
teizam perfumery
teizaber perfume
teizabwa perfumed
teituer smell up, give off an odor
teityofa unable to smell
teiser smell, smell like
fiteisea fragrant, sweet-smelling
fiteis fragrance
futeisea stinky, bad-smelling, foul, odorous
futeis stink, foul smell, odor
teis scent, smell, odor
teisaya smelly, odorous
oyteisa odorless
teixer smell, sniff
teixen olfaction
teixa olfactory
teixeuser snore
teixeusen snoring
teub mouth
teuba oral, buccal
teubil saliva, spit
teubiler salivate
teubiluer spit
teubilier swallow
teubyijer yawn
teuder shout, scream, yell, cry, call out
teud shout, scream, yell, cry
teuden shouting, screaming, yelling, crying
uvteuder cry, moan, sigh
azuvteuder wail
ivteuder laugh
azivteuder laugh out loud, laugh uproariously
ozivteuder chuckle, snicker
yokteuder exclaim
yokteuden exclamation
yokteudena exclamatory
ivteuxer smile
ivteux smile
ivteuxea smiling
ivteuxaya smiley
uvteuxer frown, grimace
uvteux frown, grimace
teuter taste
teuxer taste, try
teuser taste
fiteusea delicious, good-tasting
fiteus good taste
futeusea bad-tasting
futeus bad taste
oyteusa tasteless, insipid
oyteusan tastlessness, insipidness
teubob lip
teuboba labial
enteuboba bilabial
teubozer smile
teuboxer kiss
teusozer laugh
teubobier suck
teubab tongue
teubaba lingual
teubaber lick
teubeb gum
teubeba gingival
teubebbok gingivitis
teubib jaw
teubixer chew
teumib palate
teumiba palatal
teupib tooth
teupiba dental
teupibyan denture
teupibut dentist
teupibbek dentistry, dental hygiene
teupibbekut dental hygienist
teupixer bite
teupixun bite
yebteupixer crunch
yebteupixeya crunchy
yebteupixeyan crunchiness
teupixoger nibble
ateupib central incisor
eteupib lateral incisor
iteupib canine
uteupib premolar
yoteupib molar
tez crown
abteupimul enamel
ebteupimul dentine
megil cement
fyob root
fyob ebmip root canal
teuz voice
teuza vocal
teuznyem voice box, larynx
teuznyema larygeal
zoyteuz echo
zoyteuzer echo
zoyteuzim echo chamber
teuzun vowel
teuzibar telephone, phone
teuzibarer telephone, phone
teuzibara telephonic
teus phone, sound
teuson phoneme, elemental sound
teusa phonetic::::
teustun phonology
teustuna phonological
teustut phonologist
teusontun phonemics
teusontuna phonemic
teusontut phonemicist
teustin phonetics
teustina phonetic
teustinay phonetically
teustinut phonetician
deser pronounce, articulate
desen pronunciation, articulation
desun consonant
deuz song
uvdeuz dirge
yogdeuz ditty
yagdeuz chant
ogdeuz tune, air
detdeuz anthem
fadeuz hymn, canticle, psalm
ivdeuz carol
ajdeuz ballad
yandeuz chorus, harmony
yandeuzer harmonize
yandeuza harmonic
egdeuz refrain
videuz melody
videuza melodic
deuzer sing, vocalize
yagdeuzer chant
endeuz duet
deuzut singer
deuzutyan chorale, chorus, choir
deuzuyt songstress, female singer
deuzen singing
deuzduni lyrics
dudeuz antiphon
dudeuza antiphonal
deuzes verse
duz music
duza musical
duzan musicality
duzut musician
duzutan musicianship
duzutyan band, orchestra
duzun concert
duzunam concert hall
duzunyan concerto, symphony
yanduz harmony:::
duzer play music
duzar musical instrument
duzaryan orchestra, band
duzaryana orchestral
duzarer play an instrument
duzaryt instrumentalist, player
duznod musical note, note
duznodyan chord
duzmuys musical scale, scale
duzdyuf music sheet, sheet of music, score
duzes piece of music
duztun musicology
duztuna musicological
duztut musicologist
duzam music venue, music hall, concert hall
duznog pitch
duznogyan range
duzijnog key
duznap musical arrangement
duznagun measure
duzbyex beat
duzbyexyan rhythm
duzbyexyana rhythmical
jaduz prelude
ebduz interlude
egduz refrain
duzyen music genre
duzigan tempo
seux sound
seuxa sonic, acoustic
seuxer make a sound
seuser sound, sound like
viseux melody
viseuxa melodic
viseuxaya melodious
seuxes tone
seuxesa tonal
seuxesan tonality
vyiseuxes pure tone
anseuxesa monotonous
anseuxesan monotony
seuxtun acoustics
seuxtuna acoustic
seuxtut acoustics expert
seuxpaan sound wave, acoustic wave
seuxpaandren sonograph
seuxpaandrar oscilloscope
seuxibar radio, radio receiver
seuxibun radio reception
seuxubun radio transmission, radio broadcast
seuxubar radio transmitter:::
seuxdrar recorder
seuxdren recording, record, phonograph
seuxdrer record
seuxaya sonorous
seuxoya silent
seuxoyan silence:
xeus noise
xeusaya noisy
xeusayan noisiness
xeusoz faint noise
xeusaz loud noise
xeusaza loud
xeusazan loudness
xeusoya noise-free, silent
xeusoyan silence
xeusar noise-maker
xeusag boom, loud noise, bang:
xeuspyex boom, crack, bang, thunder::
tib trunk
zetib waist
zetif belt
zotib back
zotiba dorsal
zotibnyef backpack, rucksack
tibuzer bow, bend over
tiab chest
tilab breast
tilabil breast milk
bil milk
bilier milk, suck
biluer give milk
biliar milking machine
tilaf brassiere, bras
tieb lung
tieba pulmonary
tiexer breathe
tiexen respiration, breathing
tiexun breath
tiebmal breath
yebtiexer breathe in
tiebier breathe in
tiebien breathing in
tiebuer breathe out, expire
tiebuen expiration
oyebtiexer breathe out, expire
oyebtiexen expiration
tiebukxer cough
tebukxen cough, coughing
tiib heart
tiiba cardiac
tiibil blood
tiibiler bleed
tiibilea bleeding
tiibilaya bloody
tiibilayan bloodiness
tiibilika blood-filled
oytiibila bloodless
omtiibila cold-blooded
tiibiluer bloody
tiibilier suck blood
tiibiliut vampire
tiibuf artery
tiibufa arterial
tiibufog arteriole
zoytiibuf vein
zoytiibufa venous
zoytiibufog venule, veinlet
tiibpos cardiac arrest
tiiba igef heart attack, cardiac emergency
tiub belly
tiuba ventral
tiuyb abdomen
tiuyba abdomenal
zetiub belly button
zotiub buttock, butt
tiyob kidney
tiyoba renal
tiyobil urine, pee, piss
tiyobiler urinate, pee, piss
tiyobilim urinal, pissoir
tiyab penis, phallus
tiyaba penile, phallic
tiyayb vagina
tiyayba vaginal
ebtiyaba sexual
ebtiyaxer have sex, copulate
ebtiyaxen copulation, sex
ebtiyaxena copulatory
tikob esophagus
tikoba esophageal
tikab stomach
tikaba gastric
tikabil chyme
tikabukxer vomit, throw up
tikabukxun vomit
tikeb liver
tikeba hepatic
tikub intestine
tikuba intestinal
tikubil chyle, feces, shit
tikubila fecal
tikubiler defecate, shit
tikubilen defecation
tikubilena defecatory
tikubuj anus, asshole::
tikubuja anal
tikubuja teubabien analingus
tub arm, limb
tuba brachial
tubyuzer embrace
tuab shoulder
tuapyener bump
tueb upper arm
tuib elbow
tuiber elbow
tuub forearm
tuyob wrist
tuyoxer wave
tuyab hand
tuyaba manual
tuyaber handle
tuyabar handle
tuyapyener slap
tuyabirer grab hold of
tuyabyanxer shake hands
tuyabyanx handshake:::
tuyeb fist
tuyepyener box, hit, sock, punch
tuyib palm
tuyipyener slap
tuyibaner pat
tuyub finger
tuyuba digital
atuyub thumb
etuyub index finger
etuyubizer point
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinkie
uatuyub left hand thumb
uetuyub left hand index finger
uituyub left hand middle finger
uutuyub left hand ring finger
uyotuyub left hand pinkie
iatuyub right hand thumb
ietuyub right hand index finger
iituyub right hand middle finger
iutuyub right hand ring finger
iyotuyub right hand pinkie
tuyuxer touch, feel, finger
tulob fingernail, nail
tuloxer scratch
tyob leg
tyoab hip
tyoeb thigh
tyoub leg
tyouv stocking
tyoyob knee
tyoyoper genuflect
tyoyab foot
tyoyaf shoe
tyoyafxut shoemaker, cobbler
tyoyav sock
tyoyaper walk
tyoyapen walking, walk
tyoyapea ambulatory, walking
tyoyapar walker
tyoyap step
igtyoyaper run
igtyoyaput runner
igtyoyapem running track, course
tyoyapem sidewalk
tyoyaput pedestrian, walker
tyoyapyener kick
tyoyabarer stomp:::
tyoyeb ankle
tyoyib sole
tyoyub toe
tyolob toenail

Bodily Fluids and Functions[edit]

tob human being tab body -il liquid til drink -el food tel food -yel oil, gel -al gas, air tabil humor tilier drink tiluer give to drink, water telier eat teluer feed ilier absorb iluer pour alier breathe in aluer aerate, blow taib bone taibil marrow taibober de-bone taibser ossify tayob skin tayobil sweat tayobiler perspire, sweat tayobober flay, skin tayoboser itch tayib nerve tayixer excite, irritate tayiser get excited teb head tep mind tes feeling tespan emotion ter know texer think vyatexer reason vyetexer wonder vatexer believe vetexer suppose votexer doubt ivtexer be thankful uvtexer regret teser feel fiteser feel good futeser feel bad ivteser feel happy uvteser feel sad tespaner emote tebaxer nod vatebaxer nod yes votebaxer nod no vetebaxer shrug tebsin face tebsiner face zaytebsiner face forward ovtebsiner confront ibtebsiner face away vutebsiner grimace, sneer vitebsiner grin teab eye teabil tear teabiler weep teater see teaxer look igteaxer glance kyoteaxer stare yagteaxer glare ugteaxer gaze zyoteaxer peer eyteaxer squint yubteaxer examine zyateaxer survey, peruse koteaxer peek izteaxer focus jateaxer preview, foresee teatuer show teatier perceive, catch sight teaser seem teaper visit teatyofuer blind teatyofser disappear teatyofier go blind teatyofxer make disappear teatyofer be blind teabigyujer wink teabyeb eyelid teabyebyujer blink teeb ear teebyel ear wax teeter hear teexer listen teetuer inform teetuwer be rumored teetier get wind of teeser sound (like) teetyofuer deafen teetyofier go deaf teetyofser become inaudible teeyofxer make inaudible yuvteexer obey koteeter overhear koteexer snoop ekteexer audition, audit yekteexer try, hear (a case) teib nose teibil snot teibukxer blow one's nose teixeuser snore teiter smell teixer sniff teiser smell (like) futeiser stink ebteiber nose in, meddle teibaber nuzzle teub mouth teubil saliva, spit teubiler salivate teubier swallow teubiluer spit teubiloker slabber, drivel teubyijer yawn teuder shout teuser taste (like) teuxer taste (try) ivteuber smile, grin uvteuber frown, grimace uvteuder moan, groan ivteuder laugh ozivteuder chuckle, giggle ozuvteuder whimper, sigh ufteuder scowl ifteuder coo teubob lip teuboxer kiss teubozer smile, grin teusozer laugh teubobier suck teubab tongue teubaber lick teabaxer wag teubib jaw teubixer chew, masticate teupib tooth teupibyel pulp teupixer bite yagteupixer gnaw teupixeger much ogteupixer nibble tib trunk uztibser bow, bend over iztibser stand erect zyatibser stretch yobtibser crouch yuftibser cringe tiib heart tiibil blood tiibiler bleed tiibiloker lose blood tiibiluer get blood on tiibilglalser coagulate, clot tilab breast tilabil milk bil milk biluer breastfeed bilier milk (a cow) bilyigser curdle tieb lung tiebal oxygen tiexer breathe tiebalier breathe in tiebaluer expire, breathe out tieboker cough tiebyujer suffocate, choke tiebaloker burp, belch tiyob kidney tiyobil urine tiyobiler urinate, piss tiyab phallus, penis tiyayb vagina tiyabil pre-cum tiyaybil vag. fluid ebtiyaxer have sex, copulate tiyaybiler menstruate tiyabier fellate, suck tiyagiber fuck tiyabraxer masturbate tiyabober castrate, geld tiyagorber circumcise, cut tiyeb testicles tiyebil semen tiyebiloker ejaculate, cum tiyebiluer inseminate tikab stomach, gut tikabil chyme tikabel guts tikabeloker vomit, throw up tikeb liver tikebil bile tikub intestine tikubil chyle tikubober disembowel tikubuj anus tikubujil feces tikubujal wind tikubujiler defecate tikubujaler fart, break wind tub arm tubaxer flail, swing tubyuzyuber fold one's arms tubyuzer embrace, hug patubaxer flap tuib elbow tuiber elbow, nudge tuyab hand tuyabuer hand, deliver tuyabier grab yantuyabier shake hands tuyapyexer slap tuyabaxer wave tuyabexer handle,manipulate futuyabexer mishandle kyituyaber maul tuyapixer clasp pyotuyaber paw tuyasiuner sign tuyeb fist tuyepyexer sock, deck tuyebyujer clench one's fist tuyedeker fist-fight tuyebarer pound tuyebraxer shake one's fist tuyib palm tuyibaber palm tuyibaxer pat, caress yantuyipyexer clap, applaud tuyibraxer wave tuyub finger tuyuxer palpate, feel, touch iftuyuxer tickle tuyugiber poke tuyubifeker fiddle tuyupyexer tap, rap tuyubizeaxer point, indicate tuyubizder point out, indicate tulob fingernail tuloxer scratch pyotuloxer claw, maul tyoib knee tyoiber genuflect tyoiper crawl tyoyab foot tyoyaper walk igtyoyaper run, jog, rush yogigtyoyaper sprint, dash igektyoyaper race iftyoyaper stroll, jaunt tyoyapyexer kick tyoyabarer trample,tread tyoyakyeper hobble ugtyoyaper saunter, amble apetyoyaper gallop doptyoyaper march zyatyoyaper perambulate ivtyoyaper prance fyatyoyaper strut, sashay yagtyoyaper stride vyotyoyaper stumble, trip yantyoyaper walk alongside kutyoyaper step aside zaytyoyaper step forward nogtyoyaper pace, march iztyoyaper walk straight yibtyoyaper hike mebtyoyaper hike daztyoyaper promenade kyetyoyaper meander

The bak (Health) Family[edit]

Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:
Summary:
bak health
bek treatment byek cure
bok illness
book fatigue
byok pain
byork torture
bik care
buk injury
bruk mutilation

bak health

baka healthy, sound
bakay healthily, soundly
bakan healthiness, soundness, well-being
bakat well person, healthy person
obaka unwell, ill, unsound
obakan illness
Bak! Gesundheit!
bakam health clinic
bakamut health clinician
bakxer heal, make well
bakxen healing
bakxut healer, doctor
bakxwa healed
bakser get well, heal
baksea healing
bakxwat patient
bakser get well, heal
egbakser recover
egbaksen recovery
egbaksea recovering, in recovery
egbaksa recovered
egbakim recovery room
baktun health science, medecine, hygiene
baktuna health science-related, medicinal, hygienic
baktut health scientist, medical scientist, hygienist
bakxetyen practice of medecine, medecine, health practice
bakxetyenut health practioner
baktyentun health technology
fibak well-being
fibaka well, salubrious, in good health
fibakan wellness, salubriety
fibakxer make well, heal, bring back to health
fibakxen healing
fibakxwa recovered, healed
fibakser heal, get well
Fibaksu ig! Get well soon!, Have a speedy recovery!
Fibak bu et! To your health!
fibakden salutation, greeting
fibakder salute, greet, say hello
fubak ill health, sickness
fubaka ill, sick, in poor health, unwell
fubakan illness, sickness, poor health
fubakxer make ill, make sick, sicken
fubakxea sickening
fubakxwa sickened
fubakser get ill, get sick
baktel health food
baktea health conscious
bakdub health ministry, health department, health administration
tepbak mental health
fitepbaka sane, in good mental health
fitepbak sanity, mental health
futepbak insanity, mental illness
futepbaka insane, mentally ill
futepbakat insane person, mentally ill person
futepbakser go insane
futepbakam insane asylum
tapbak physical health
topbak spiritual health, salvation
teabaktun opthamology
teabbaktuna opthamological
teabbaktut opthamologist
teubak oral hygiene
teubaktun oral hygienics
teubaktuna oral hygienic
teubaktut oral hygienist
baak sanitation
baaka sanitary
baakxer sanitize
baakxwa sanitized
baakxen sanitization
baakxil sanitizer
baakan sanitariness
obaaka unsanitary
obaakan unsanitariness

bek treatment, therapy, remedy

beker treat, nurse, remedy
beken treatment, nursing
bekun remedy
bekam sanatorium
bekwa treated, nursed
beka therapeutic, clinical, remedial
bekut nurse
bekuyt female nurse
bektun medecine, medical science
bektuna medical
bektut doctor, physician, medical scientist
abektun surgery
abektuna surgical
abektut surgeon
bekam clinic, hospice, treatment center
bekwat patient
bekil medicine, remedy, drug
bekila medicinal, pharmaceutical
bekiluer medicate, drug
bekiluen medication, drugging
bekilnam pharmacy, drugstore
bekilnamut pharmacist, druggist
bekiltun pharmacology
bekiltuna pharmacological
bekiltut pharmacologist
bekildren prescription, drug prescription
fubeker mistreat
fubeken mistreatment
fubekwa mistreated
fibeker treat well, pamper
fibeken good treatment, pampering
fibekwa well-treated, pampered
bekuwa treatable, remediable, curable
bekuwan treatability, remediability, curability
obekuwa untreatable, unremediable, uncurable
obekuwan untreatability, unremediability, uncurability
tepbek psychiatry, psychiatric care
tepbekut psychiatrist
tepbeka psychiatric
tepbekwat psychiatric patient
tuyabek manicure
tyoyabek pedicure
byek cure
byeka therapeutic
byeker cure
byekwa cured
byekeya curative
byekuwa curable
obyekuwa uncurable
byekam sanatorium

bik care, custody, vigilence, caution

biker care, care for, watch over, monitor
bikam clinic
bikames dispensary
yanbikam polyclinic
bikuer provide care, care for, give care
bikuut caregiver
bikier take care, watch out, be cautious
Bikiu! Watch out!, Take care!
biken custody, caretaking
bikut custodian, caretaker, nurse
bikam care facility
bikeya careful, watchful, vigilent, cautious
bikeyan carefulness, watchfulness, vigilence
bikeyay carefully
obikeya unvigilent, unwatchful, careless
bikoya careless, uncautious
bikoyan carelessness, uncautiousness
bikoyay carelessly
bikwa cared for
bikwat patient under care
obik danger, threat, peril
obikaya dangerous, perilous
obikuer endanger, threaten, emperil
obikueya dangerous, perilous
azla bik intensive care
azla bikim intensive care unit, ICU
azla bikimut ICU nurse

bok illness, sickness, bad health

boka ill, sick, infirm
bokam hospital, infirmery
bokamber hospitalize
bokamben hospitalization
bokambwa hospitalized
bokxer make ill, sicken
bokxeya sickening
bokxwa sickened
bokser get sick, get ill, grow ill, grow infirm
bokat sick person, ill person, patient
bokatam hospital, infirmery
boktun pathology
boktuna pathological
boktut pathologist
boktunay pathologically
tayobbok skin disease
tepbok mental illness, insanity
tepbokat mentally ill person
bokil poison, venin
bokila poisonous, venimous
bokiluer poison
bokiluen poisoning
bokiluwa poisoned
bokilier take poison, poison oneself, ingest poison
ovbokil antidote
ambok inflammation
amboka inflammatory
amatan fever
amata feverish
amatser come down with a fever
vyusbok infection
vyusbokxer infect
vyusbokxen infection
vyusbokxwa infected
vyusbokser get infected
tiebok pneumonia
tiebokier catch pneumonia
tieboyk cold
tieboykier catch a cold
ombok flu
ombokier catch the flu:
tiyobok kidney disease, renitis
tikebok liver disease, hepatitis
tiibok heart disease
tikabok gastritis
tayobok dermatitis
teibok rhinitis
tikubok enteritis
booka tired, fatigued, worn out
book fatigue
bookan tireness
bookxer tire, fatigue, wear out
bookxwa tired, fatigued, worn out
bookser get tired, grow fatigued

byok pain

byoker hurt, ache
byokea aching, painful, hurting
byokaya painful
byokoya painless, pain-free
byokoyan painlessness, analgesia
byokoyxer relieve pain, analgesize
byokoyxil analgesic, pain reliever
byokuer punish, hurt, inflict pain, induce pain
byokueya punishing, pain-inducing
byokuen punishment, penalty, pain-inducement
tikabyok stomach ache
tebyok headache
teebyok ear ache
byook suffering, misery
byooker suffer
byookea suffering, miserable
byookut sufferer
byookuer make suffer, inflict
byork torture, agony
byorker writhe in torture, agonize
byorkuer torture, antagonize
byorkueya tortuous, agonizing
byorkuut torturer
byorkuwat torture victim
byorkuwa tortured:

buk injury, harm, trauma, wound

buker injure, harm, wound, traumatize
bukwa injured, harmed, wounded
bukwat injured person, casualty, wounded
buken injury, harming, wounding
bukeya injurious, harmful, traumatic, traumatizing
bukuwa vulnerable
bukuwan vulnerability
obukuwa invulnerable
obukuwan invulnerability
obuk safety
bukun injury, wound, trauma
kyebuk danger, risk, peril, threat, potential harm
kyebukaya dangerous, risky, perilous, theatening
kyebukuer endanger, put at risk, imperil, threaten
kyebukuen endangerment
kyebukuwa endangered
bukes scratch, minor injury
bukesuer scratch
bukesuwa scratched up
bukesier get a scratch
buyk sore
sumbuyk bedsore
tayobuyk skinsore
jobuk scar
jobukxer scar
jobukxen scarring
jobukxwa scarred
jobukser get scarred, scar
bruker mutilate, mangle
bruken mutilation, mangling
brukwa mutilated, mangled

tiibtun cardiology

tiibtuna cardiological
tiibtut cardiologist

tiebtun pneumology

tiebtuna pneumonology
tiebtut pneumonologist

tiyobtun renology

tiyobtuna renological
tiyobtut renologist

tikebtun hepatology

tikebtuna hepatological
tikebtut hepatologist

taptun physiology

taptuna physiological
taptut physiologist

The tod (Family) Family[edit]

Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.
Summary:
tod = family
tad husband tayd wife tadet brother taydet sister
jatad fiance jatayd fiancee taodet brother-in-law taydet sister-in-law
ted father teyd mother tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
tud brother-in-law tuydet sister-in-law tudet nephew tuydet niece
tyod father-in-law tyoyd mother-in-law tyodet son-in-law tyoydet daughter-in-law
tyad grandfather tyayd grandmother tyadet grandson tyaydet granddaughter
tyed relative tyeyd female relative
tyid godfather tyiyd godmother tyidet godson tyiydet goddaughter
tyud tutor tyuyd nanny tyudet pupil tyuydet female pupil

tod family

toda familial
toyd home
todama domestic, household
todamuyt housewife
todana familiar

tad spouse, husband

tayd wife
tada marital, spousal
tadser get married, wed
tadsen marriage, wedding
tadsa married, wedded
otadsa unmarried, unwed
tadsenxel wedding
tadxer marry
otadsat unmarried person, bachelor
otadsayt spinster
tadokat widower
tadokayt widow
tadokatan widowhood
tadoker be widowed
tadet brother
tadeta fraternal
tadetan brotherhood, fraternity
taydet sister
taydeta sisterly
taydetan sorority, sisterhood
taodet brother-in-law
tayodet sister-in-law

ted father

teyd mother
teda paternal, parental
teyda maternal
tedan paternity, parentage
teydan maternity
tedif papa
teydif mama
tedet son
teydet daughter
tedeta filial
teodet son-in-law
teyodet daughter-in-law

tid uncle

tida avuncular
tiyd aunt
tidet cousin
tiydet cousin

tud brother-in-law

tuyd sister-in-law
tudet nephew
tuydet niece

tyod father-in-law

tyoyd mother-in-law
tudet son-in-law
tuydet daughter-in-law

tyad grandfather

tyayd grandmother, grandchild
tyadyena grandfatherly
tyaydyena grandmotherly
tyadet grandson
tyaydet granddaughter
tyadyan grandparents
tyedetyan grandchildren

tyed relative

tyeyd female relative
tyedyan kin, kindred, kinfolk, kith
tyeda related, kindred, kin
tyedan relateness, kinship
tyedser become related

tud godfather

tuyd godmother
tudet godson, godchild
tuydet goddaughter
tuder serve as godfather
tuyder serve as godmother

tyud tutor

tyuyd female tutor
tyudet pupil
tyuydet female pupil
aytyuder adopt

oyted orphan

oyteyd female orphan
oytedser become orphaned
oytedsa orphaned
oytedam orphanage

oytad widower

oytayd widow
oytadser become widowed
oytadsa widowed
oytadsen becoming widowed

otad celibate person, bachelor

otayd unmarried female
otadan celibacy

yontad divorce'

yontayd divorcee
yontader divorce
yontadsen get divorced
yontadxer divorce
yontadsa divorced
yontadxen divorce

jatad fiance

jatayd fiancee
jatadser become engaged, become entrothed
jatadsa engaged, betrothed
jatadsen engagement, betrothal

ajted ancester

ajteda ancestral
ajtedan ancestry
ajtedyan ancesters

jaut ascendant

jautan ascendance

jout descendant

joutan descendence

tobot child, boy

toybot female child, girl
tobotan childhood, boyhood
toybotan girlhood
tajat baby, baby boy, infant, infant boy
tayjat baby girl, infant girl
tajatan infancy, babyhood
tajatyena infantile, babyish
tobog young man, little fellow
toybog young woman, little lady
joga young
jogat young person, young man, youth, boy, juvenile
jogatan youth, boyhood, juvenility
joygat young lady, girl, female juvenile
joygatan young ladyhood, girlhood
grojoga minor
grojogat minor
grojoygat female minor
jaga old, aged, elderly
jagat old person, old man, elder, senior
jagatan old age, elderliness, seniority
jaygat old woman, female elder, old lady
lojaga teenage, teenaged
lojagat teenager, teenaged boy, teen
lojaygat teenaged girl
lojag teens, teenhood
gyejaga old enough, mature, adult
gyejagaser reach adulthood, become an adult
gyejagat adult
gyejagatan adulthood
zejaga middle-aged
zejagat middle-aged person::
jagser grow
jagsen growth
jagsa grown
jagsat grown-up
jagaser grow old, get old, age
jagasen aging, getting old
jagasea getting old, aging
grajaga too old, over-aged
grajagan advanced age

The dot (Society) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.
Summary:
dot society
dat friend
det comrade, mate
dit citizen
dut gentleman, sir
dout bourgeois
auta personal
yauta public

Societal Vocabulary[edit]

dot society

dota social, societal, public
dotser socialize
dotxer socialize
dotxen socialization
dotxwa socialized
dotay socially
doteya sociable
doteyan sociability
dotyena social, civil
odotyena unsocial, uncivil
odotyen uncivility
dotsyen civilization
dotsyenser civilize
dotsyenxer civilize
dotsyenxwa civilized
odotsyenxwa uncivilized
yodota savage, wild, barbarous
yodatan savagery, wildness, barbarity
yodotat savage, barbarian
dotin socialism
dotina socialistic
dotinat socialist
doyt association, club
doyta associational, associate
doytaser associate
doytaxer associate
doytaxen association
dotyux public service
dotyuxut public servant
dotyuxutyan bureaucracy
dotvalan social security

dat friend, ally

data friendly, allied
datan friendship, alliance
datyena friendly, amicable
datyenan friendliness
dayt female friend, girlfriend
daat buddy
daatan buddyship
daayt girl buddy, girlfriend
odata unfriendly
odatan unfriendliness
datser befriend
yodat enemy
yodata inimical
yondatan enmity
ovdata hostile
ovdatan hostility

det comrade, mate, fellow

detan comradeship, fellowship
aydet companion, mate, fellow
aydetan companionship, company
popdet travel mate, traveling companion, fellow traveler
pepdet fellow passenger
teldet dining companion
titamdet school mate
timdet roommate
sumdet bedmate
memdet fellow countryman
tildet drinking companion
jobdet contemporary
tejdet life mate
tapdet sex mate
tapdetser copulate, have sex, share sex, mate:

dit citizen

ditan citizenship
dityan citizenry
dita civilian, civil
dita yux civil service
dita yuxut civil servant
dityena civil
dityenan civility
dityenaxer civilize
dityenaxwa civilized
odityenaxwa uncivilized
ditbyen civility
doita civic
doitan civicism
ditser become a citizen
ditsen becoming a citizen
mirdit world citizen, cosmopolitan
mirdita cosmopolitan

dut sir, mister, master, senor

abdut master
abduter master
abduten mastery
duyt madam, ma'am, lady
duytyan mesdames, ladies
duut sire, lord, don, gentleman, milord
abduut overlord, don
abduuter lord over, dominate
abduuten domination
dutyan sirs, messieurs, ladies and gentlemen
duyut lady, dame, mylady, gentle lady
duyutyan ladies, mesdames
duyuytet young lady, demoiselle, damsel
duyuytetyan mesdemoiselles
dutet young man, squire, esquire

dout bourgeois, member of the middle class, burgess

douyt bourgeoise
doutan bourgeoisie
doutyan bourgeoisie

ibdat host

ibdayt hostess
ibdata hospitable
ibdatan hospitality
datiber host, welcome, greet, receive a guest
datibut host
datibam hostel, inn, hotel, guesthouse
datuper visit, be a guest
Datupu! Welcome!

aut person

auta personal
autay personally
autyan public
autyana public
anuta particular, individual
anutay particularly
anutan individuality
yanuta public, communal
yanutan communality, community
yanutyan public, community, commune
yanutaxer publicize
yanutaxen publication
yanutaxwa published, publicized
yanutaxut publisher
yanutaxam publishing firm
yonuta private
yonutay privately
yonutan privacy
yonut private person, individual
agaut personnage, vip
utyan group
utyanser group
utyanxer group
utyanxen grouping
utyanxwa grouped
grautyan crowd
grautyanxer crowd
grautyanser get crowded
grautyanxwa crowded::
utnyan people, population
utnyana popular
utnyanan popularity
utnyanaxer popularize
utnyanaxen popularization
utnyanber populate
utnyanben population
outnyanbwa unpopulated
utnyanika populous
utnyanuka unpopulous, deserted
yauta common, collective
yautan commonality, collectivity
yautana communitarian
yautxer collectivize
yautxen collectivization
yautin communism
yautina communist, communistic
yautinat communist
utbyen personal manner, behavior
utbyenyan mores
ajutbyen tradition
ajutbyena traditional
oajutbyena untraditional
utyanbyen custom
utyanbyena customary
utyanbyenay customarily
utyanbyenxer customize
utyanbyenxen customization
utyanbyenxwa customized
jubyen habit
jubyena habitual, usual
jubyenay habitually, usually
jubyenser habituate, get used to, accustomize oneself
jubyenxer habituate, accustomize, train
jubyenxwa habituated, accustomed, used to
ojubyenxwa unaccustomed

The tof (Clothes) Family[edit]

The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof cloth and nov lingerie. The words have to do with clothing.
Summary:
BODY PART CLOTHING ITEM
tob man tof clothing
tab body taf suit, tayf dress
teb head tef hat
teyob neck teyof necktie
tuab shoulder tuaf shawl
tib trunk tif vest
zetib waist zetif belt
tiab chest tiav shirt, tiayv blouse
tilab breast tilav bra
tuyab hand tuyaf glove
tyob leg tyof pants, tyoyf skirt

tof clothing, apparel, garment, item of clothing

tofyan clothes, clothing, gear
tofer wear
otofer go naked, go nude
otofen going naked, going nude
otofea naked, nude, going naked, going nude
otofin nudism
otofina nudist
otofinat nudist
tofut wearer
tofsam clothes closet
oytofa nude, naked
oytofan nudity, nakedness
oytofat nude, nude person, naked person
oytofayt female nude
tofaber put on, don, clothe, dress
tofabim dressing room
tofabwa dressed
egtofaber put clothes back on, redress
egtofabwa redressed
tofober undress, disrobe, take off, strip
tofobwa undressed, disrobed, naked, nude, stripped
tofoben undressing, disrobing, getting naked, stripping
abtof outerwear
obtof underwear, undergear
tofvyixar laundry machine, clothes washer
tofvyixen laundry
tofvyixer launder, do the laundry, wash clothese
tofvyixim laundry room
tofvyixam laundromat
tofnyeb laundry basket, clothes hamper
tofsam cubbord, armoire
tofimes clothes closet
taf suit, outfit
tayf dress, robe, outfit
abtaf coat
abtaaf overcoat
abtaayf cardigan
pontav pijamas
abtayv work blouse
abtaves overalls, apron, smock
tafut tailor
tayfut dressmaker
tayfuyt couturiere
ozyemilaf raincoat:::
tef hat, headgear
atef cap, baseball cap
etef beret
itef bonnet
utef top hat
yotef derby hat
yatef shapka
zyakuntef wide-brimmed hat
yiktef hardhat, helmet
tebuz crown
eytebuz diadem
tebuzaber crown
tebuzaben coronation
tev scarf
teyov collar
aybtev scarf, headdress, veil
yabtev headband
teaf eye patch
teabkof blindfold
teef earmuffs
teebuz earring:
teif muffler
teibuz nose ring
teiv handkerchief
teyof tie, necktie
abteyof scarf
aybteyof head scarf
teyofes bowtie
teyobuz necklace
teyof belar tie rack
teyof nivar tie tack
tuaf shawl
eytuaf sash
aybtuaf shoulder strap, shoulder pad
eybtuabuz epaulette
tif jacket, suit coat, waist coat, blazer
tifes vest
fotif bulletproof jacket
zetif belt
zetif fyafar belt buckle (fyaf < fom+nyaf = metal fastener/clasp)
zetiv sash
tiav shirt, long-sleeved shirt
tiavog short-sleeved shirt
tiayv blouse, long-sleeved blouse
tiayvog short-sleeved blouse
nefiaf pullover, sweater
tiabuz broche
eytiav tank top
tilav brassiere, bra
tilabuz tit ring
tiuf corset, bodice
tiuv underwear, underpants
atiuv boxers
etiuv briefs
itiuv jockstrap
utiuv g-string
yotiuv longjohns
yatiuv loincloth
tiuyv panties, underwear, knickers
utiuv g-string
zetiubuz belly button ring
tuf sleeve
otufa sleeveless
tuyaf glove
eytuyaf mitten, mit
tuyafyem pocket
tuyafyember pocket
tapyentuyaf boxing glove
fotuyaf gauntlet
tuyafyag fireman's glove
tuyubuz ring
tuyof cuff
tuyobuz bracelet
tuyubuz ring
tyof pants, trousers
yovoztyof bluejeans
abtyof overalls, trousers
vityof slacks, dress slacks
tyofyog shorts, bermudas, cutoffs
tyofyag long pants
tyoyf skirt
tyoyfes petticoat
obtyoyf slip
tyofober depants
tyoif kneepad
tyoiv kneesock
tyouf puttee
tyoyaf shoe
tyoyayf high-heels
abtyoyaf boot
yebtyoyaf slipper
faotyoyaf wooden shoe
atyoyaf patent leather shoe
etyoyaf tennis shoe
ityoyaf sandal
utyoyaf:
tyoyav sock
tyoyayv stockings
tyoyafut shoemaker, cobbler
tyoyafaber shoe
apetyoyaf horse shoe
apetyoyafut blacksmith
apetyoyafam blacksmith shop
apetyoyafaber shoe a horse
tyoyafnyiv shoe lace::
tyoyafeyub shoe horn (teyub = horn):
tyoyafobwa barefoot
otyoyafa barefoot, shoeless
otyoyafan shoelessness, barefootedness
tyoyef talon, spur
tyoyev ankle sock
tyoyif sole, shoe sole
tyoyuf heel
yabtyoyuf highheel
tiyuf train, dragnet, tail, tassle
tiyabuz cock ring

The tom (Building) and em (Place) Family[edit]

The stems of words in this family begin with t for human and end in m for place. The words have to do with buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and places:
Summary:
WORD ENDING
tom building -m place
tam house -am enclosed place
tem hall -em location, place
tim room -yem enclosure, box
tum cell -yeb container
-yef bag

tom building, habitation, habitat, residence, apartment building

toma habitational, residential
tomer inhabit, live, reside
tomut inhabitant, resident
toym residence, dwelling
toymer reside, dwell
toem domicile
tomof tent
toom lodging
toomer lodge
ogtom abode
toomes lodge
tomes apartment
tomtun architecture
tomtuna architectural
tomtut architect
tombuer rent out
tombier rent
tombiut renter
tombiwas rental unit
utomut owner, proprietor
utomutan owernship, proprietorship
tomnas rent
tombelut concierge
zyutom tower
tomxer build, construct
tomxut builder, construction engineer
tomxen building, construction
tomxwas edifice, construction
otomxer demolish, tear down, destroy
otomxen destruction, demolition
egtomxer rebuild
egtomxwa rebuilt, reconstructed
egtomxen rebuilding, reconstruction
tomxem construction site
tomsan structure
tomsana structural::

tyem residence

tyemut resident
tyemer reside
tyema residential

tam house

agtam mansion
ivagtam palace
ivagtama palatial
potam hotel
ogtam cottage
ogtames cabin:
taam home, household, domain, dominion
taama domestic, tame
taamaxer domesticate, tame
taamaxen domestication, taming
taamaxwa domesticated, tame
taym pavillion
tamper go home
tamuper come home
tamupen home-coming
tamber settle, set up home
tambut settler
tamben settling
tambun settlement
tameb head of household, master
tameber dominate
tamebeya dominant
tambeyan dominance
tameyb mistress
tamab dominion, domain
yebeytam courtyard, inner courtyard
zatam facade
param garage
tamzam front yard
tamzom back yard
tamkum side yard
tamyan block of houses
tamuer house, shelter
tamuen housing
tamier take up residence, move in, settle, settle in
tamien taking up residence, moving in, settlement
tamiut settler

tem hall

telem cafeteria, refectory, mess hall
tujem dormitory
abtem gallery
yuzyujem court, courtyard
obtem cave, cellar
yagtem gallery
dyedem lecture hall
dezyem performance hall
dazyem dance hall
duzyem music hall
kutem side hall
zatem lobby, foyer
zetem central hall, main hall

tim room, chamber

telim dining room
tujim bedroom
datim salon, living room, parlour
zyotim hallway, hall
zyotiym corridor
zatim antechamber, frontroom, lobby
zotim backroom
yextim bureau, office, den
yexim laboratory, lab
ifekim playroom
miltim bathroom
milim water closet
tofmilbim laundry room
telxim kitchen
abtim attic
obtim basement
yebtim inner room, inner chamber, chamber
tiym nook
kutim side room
tilim bar
tutim classroom
uzkumim bay
yebmilim bath, bathroom
yontim compartment, apartment
movim smoking den
mimpartim ship cabin
milabim shower room, shower
milpunsim shower room
fatim sacristry
bekim hospital room, treatment room
datuputim guestroom
dyedim lecture room
magelim kitchen
tapektim exercise room
fadiim chapel
teasibarim den, t.v. room
novim linen closet, closet
pestim waiting room
ebtim room in between:

tum cell, compartment

tuma cellular, compartmental
tumaxer compartmentalize
tumaxen compartmentalization

The mos (Floor) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
Summary:
MASONRY
mos floor
mas wall
mes door
mis window
mus stairs

mos floor

omos ground floor
amos first floor
emos second floor
abmos top floor, attic
obmos basement
ebmos mezzanine
ebmospar elevator, lift

mas wall

mays partition, bulkhead
abtammas roof
abmas roof
aybmas ceiling
obmas foundation
oybmas floor
oybmasaof parquet
agmas great wall
massin mural
uzabmas vault
abzamas balcony
abkumas ledge, cornice
obzamas porch, portico
masyan masonry
mastyen masonry
mastyena masonic
mastyenut mason
yebmas inner wall
yebmasber wall in
yebmasbwa walled-in
oyebmas outer wall
eybmasa intramural
domyuzmas city walls
zamas front wall
zomas back wall
ebmas partition
ebmasber partition
ebmasbwe partitioned
yonmasber wall off, partition
yonmasben walling off, partitioning
yonmasbwe walled off, partitioned

mes door, portal

meys gate
zames threshold, front door, entryway
zamesag porte-cochere
zomes back door
eymes half-door
mesmep doorway, entrance, gateway
mesnyuf door knob
mestuyar door handle
mesazyujar door lock
mesyuznad door frame
zyup mes revolving door
zoyzap mes swing door

mis window

mises ticket window
misag dormer window
abmis fanlight
misof curtain
eymis shutter, flap
vozzyefmis stained glass window
cinmis picture window
miszyef window pane
zamisabun awning

mus stairway, stairs, staircase

muys ladder, scale, step ladder
muysa scalar
muysaxer escalate
muysaxen escalation
omuysaxer de-escalate
musyaper go up the stairs, climb, scale
musyaput climber
musyapen climbing
musnog step, stair rung
pasmus escalator
musim stairwell
musmep stairway
magmus fire escape
igirpmus fire escape
musabnod climax
musabnoda climactic

The som (Furniture) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
Summary:
FURNITURE
som furniture
sam armoire, chest
sem table
sim chair
sum bed

som furniture, furnishing

somber furnish
somben furnishing
sombwa furnished
osombwa unfurnished
somyan real estate, furnishings, furniture
somxer make furniture
somxut carpenter
somxen carpentry
comiper move
milsom sink

sam armoire, chest

telarsam china cabinet
telsam cupboard
tofsam closet
dyensam library
masam cubboard
tovsam chest of drawers

sem table

semes board, chart, blackboard, tablet
semof table cloth
dresem desk
dalsem pulpit
cemnyem drawer
bemer sit down to the table
tilsem bar, counter
yagsem counter
agsem banquet table
yuzsem round table
yuzsem ebdal round table discussion
yopissem chart, blackboard, whiteboard, pull-down chart
jaber la sem set the table

sim chair

siym seat
agsim armchair
panetsim rocking chair
zaypzoypsim rocking chair
yagsim couch, divan, sofa
eysim stool
tilsem eysim bar stool
parsim car seat, coach seat
yagyuksim bench
siim bench
bimer sit, sit down
bimea seated, sitting
tobobsim high chair
zyupsim swivvel chair
debsim throne
mimkumsim beach chair
amulpsim electric chair

sum bed

suam cushion, bed cushion
suaym pillow
suem mattress
malsuem air mattress
yezsuem futon
suav pillow case, pillow slip
suev sheet
absuef bedspread, bed cover
suef blanket, cover
obsuev liner
suim box spring, spring
sumnyan bedding
bumer go to bed, recline, lie down
bumea in bed, reclining, lying down, recumbent
summuf bed post
jaber la sum make the bed
eonsum twin bed
eysum day bed
igsum day bed, temporary bed, cot
suym couch
iksum full-size bed, queen-size bed
agsum king-size bed
ogsum cot
nyanxwa sum bunk bed, stacked bad
kusum side bed, bunk, cot
milsum waterbed
pyowa sum hammock
tabsum sleeping bag
tomofsum sleeping bag
summanar bed lamp

The sar (Machine) and par (Vehicle) Family[edit]

Stems having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile.
Summary:
MACHINES/TOOLS
sar instrument, tool, implement
sir machine
sur apparatus
syir motor, engine
syur device
Note that the part of the above words minus the initial s are used as endings for many tools, machines, and devices.

Vehicles[edit]

Vehicle words all end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument.
VEHICLES
par vehicle, car
mampar airplane
mempar automobile
mimpar boat, ship
kyipar truck
elyanadpar train
yautpar bus
zyuspar bicycle

par vehicle, car

para vehicular
parizber drive, steer
parizbut driver
parizbar steering wheel
parposem parking lot, car park
parposember park
parposam garage, carport
pep ride
peper ride
pepier ride off
aypeper run over, ride over
zeypeper ride across
ifpep pleasure ride
peput rider, passenger
mempar automobile, car, land vehicle
autpar car, automobile, private vehicle
yautpar bus, public vehicle, omnibus
nusyixpar taxi, taxicab, cab
jobyixpar rental car
parog cart, carriage, buggy
apetparog horse and buggy
elyanad rail
elyanadpar train
elyanadpares train car
elyanadpar posem train station, railroad station, railway station
iga elyanadpar high-speed train
igmep elyanadpar express train
ema elyanadpar local train
elyamep iron road, railroad
obniufpar cable car
abniufpar tram
ebdompar intercity bus, coach
parilp traffic
parilp siunman traffic light. traffic signal
parilp yanbar traffic jam, traffic congestion
paper fly
papier fly away, take flight
papuer alight
aypaper fly over, overfly
oypaper fly under
zyepaper fly through
yepaper fly into
oyepaper fly out
mampar airplane, plane
mamparizber pilot a plane
mamparizut pilot
mampareb pilot
mamparem airport
mamparyem hangar
mampartam hangar
mempier take off
mempien takeoff
mempuer land
mempuen landing
mempuen mani landing lights
mempuem landing strip, runway
mampop flight, air travel
mamyuxut flight attendant
mamper fly
mampier fly away
mampiem departure zone
mampuem arrival zone
mimpar ship
mimpayr boat
mimparizber pilot a ship, navigate, sail
mimparibut ship's captain
mimpareb ship's captain
mimparyexut crew member, airline attendant
mimparyexutyan ship's crew
mimpop sea voyage, cruise
mimpoper cruise, sail
mimpier set sail
mimpuer dock
mimpuem dock, harbor
mimper sail, cruise, navigate
piper cruise, sail
piput sailer, seafarer
pip cruise, sea voyage
mimof sail
mimofpar sailing ship
mimofper sail
kyimimpar cargo ship
dropekpar warship
dopekpar battleship
mamparbelea mimpar aircraft carrier
anzyuspar unicycle
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
enzyuspur motorcycle
kyipar truck
kyipares wagon, cart
zyuskyipares wheelbarrow
nyemkyipar van
bixpar tractor
pop travel, trip, voyage
poper travel
zyapoper travel around, travel widely
poput traveler,, voyager
ifpop vacation travel, leisure trip
ifpoput tourist, vacationer
ifpopen tourism, pleasure-tripping, vacationing
popizbut travel guide
popyuxam travel agency, travel bureau
popyuxut travel agent
podet travel mate, traveling companion, fellow-traveler
potam hotel
potaym inn, hostel
parpotam motel
igpotam motel
potamdat hotel guest
potamdatibut hotel receptionist, hotel host
datibam hostel, guesthouse, inn
pomep itinerary
pomepdaf travel map
podaf travel map
podryen travel brochure
ponyem suitcase, luggage

Tools, machines, and devices[edit]

sar instument, tool, device, utility

sara instrumental
saryan instrumentation, toolset
sarser be instrumental, help, be a tool
sarxer utilize, make use of
sarnyem toolbox
sartim toolshed

-ar instrument

anteabar monocle
anzyuspar unicycle
yanifar stitching needle
yanivar needle
yanar link, joint, juncture, nexus, yoke
yonofar ripping device, scissors
yonrar knife, cutter
obmimpar submarine
igefpar ambulance
ograsteaxar microscope
yagpar train