Mirad Version 2

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Introduction[edit]

Contents

Glojo, ha mir gonbeo yansauna gabyuxea dalyen. (Soon, the world will share a common auxiliary language.)

Mirad ( aka Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, and is pronounced mee-RAHD, is categorized by constructed language experts as philosophical because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the word stock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.

The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.
Mirad is constructed on the following principles:
  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, or semantic value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
  • Word opposites (such as "big" vs. "little") differ only in the stem vowel.
This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:
  • The letter w was added, mainly to indicate the passive voice of verbs.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair
  • The letter h was added, mainly to create some new grammatical particles.
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • The determiners like "this, that, such, which" were modified and systematized.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • A definite article was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The writing system now consists only of letters, with no diacritics.


Alphabet[edit]

Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English (see Orthography). Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
UPPERCASE A B C* D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q* R S T U V W X Y Z
LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z
NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
* Not used in "native" Mirad words.
Spelling a word means uttering the names in succession of the letters in the word. For example:
  • Miradmi i ro a da
  • anxwaa ni xu wu a
The letters w and h have only limited, functional (non-semantic) values in Mirad.
The letters c (pronounced as ch in English chair) and q (pronounced variably, depending on the context) are used only to represent foreign words and names. For example, Ce is used to represent Che in Che Guevara.

Phonology[edit]

The phonological system of Mirad consists of 20 consonant phonemes and 5 vowels phonemes.

Consonant Phonemes[edit]

The following IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) chart shows the articulation of the consonant sounds:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m
Plosive voiced b ɡ
unvoiced p k
Affricate voiced
unvoiced (t͡ʃ)*
Fricative voiced v z ʒ
unvoiced f s ʃ h
Approximate j w
Flap ɽ

Consonant Graphemes[edit]

The consonant graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above consonant phonemes are as follows:

GRAPHEME b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w x y z
PHONEME b (t͡ʃ)* d f g h ʒ k l m n p ɽ s t v w ʃ j z
  • Note that the grapheme c is used only in foreign words, but represents the unvoiced affricate sound t͡ʃ.

Vowel Phonemes[edit]

This IPA chart shows the articulation of Mirad vowel phonemes:

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Vowel Graphemes[edit]

The vowel graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above vowel phonemes (sounds) are as follows:

GRAPHEME a e i o u
PHONEME a e i o u

Pronunciation[edit]

The letters in Mirad are consonant phonemes or vowel phonemes and have only one basic pronunciation, although the letter y represents a special case. The y acts as a consonant when beginning a syllabic nucleus, and is pronounced as in English yes, but can also be used to form what are known as post-iotated vowel diphthongs (see Vowel Diphthongs, below).

Vowels[edit]

  • Simple Vowels
The vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some examples.


VOWEL IPA* SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH
a a mano la ah!
e e hecho é day (without the y-glide)
i i si oui see (without the y-glide)
o o no eau so (without the w-glide)
u u tu vous too (without the w-glide)
* IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Post-iotated Vowel Diphthongs
Vowels in Mirad can be post-iotated with the consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a word or before a syllable beginning with a consonant. For example, igAY and EYna contain post-iotated vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-RA-ya) does not.
POST-IOTATED VOWELS ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION SPANISH/FRENCH PRONUNCIATION
ay my hay ( Sp. there is)
ey day (with y-glide) rey ( Sp. king)
iy see (with y-glide) abeille (Fr. bee)
oy boy Spanish hoy (Sp. today)
uy gooey Spanish muy (Sp. very)
Syllables starting with a y (ya, ye, etc.) form a set of what are known as pre-iotated vowels. Vowels, pre-iotated vowels, post-iotated vowels, and circum-iotated vowels (that is, those beginning and ending with a vowel like yay, yoy, etc.) are sometimes considered a class of vowels in the grammar of Mirad.

Consonants[edit]

The consonants in Mirad are pronounced not altogether differently from their English counterparts, except for x, which is sounds like English sh in ship and j which resembles the zh sound in Zhivago or mirage. However, the so-called stops p, t, and k sound more closely like their European equivalents in that they are not aspirated, i.e. their is no puff of breath following them as in English.
The consonants q and c are not native to Mirad and are used only to represent foreign names and expressions. In that case, c is used for the English ch sound in China. For example, Cinader, meaning to speak Chinese, is pronounced as in English chee-nah-DEHR.
The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and certain numerical expressions and is pronounced as English w or the ou in French oui. The letter h is also used in certain function words and is pronounced like English h in house. It is also sometimes used to simulate sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach.
Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
CONSONANT IPA ARTICULATION CLOSET EQUIVALENTS
b b unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy
c tʃ * unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words)
d d unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog
f f unvoiced bilabial fricative English fog
g g unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i)
h h glottal fricative English house (or a glottal stop or other similar sounds like German Bach
j ʒ * voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage
k k unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English kite (without aspiration) or French comment
l l voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell.
m m voiced bilabial nasal English mother
n n voiced alveolar nasal English nobody
p p unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English pan (without aspiration)
q - - (Only used in foreign words, where it has various gutteral pronunciations)
r r alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma
s s unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose)
t t unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English top (without aspiration)
v v voiced bilabial fricative English very
w w voiced labio-velar approximant English water, French oui
x ʃ * unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher
y j voiced palatal approximant English yard (except when post-iotating a vowel to create a vowel diphthong like oy)
z z voiced alveolar fricative English zone

Note: If you see a blank here instead of an IPA symbol, it probably means that the font you are using to display characters in your browser does not support these characters.

Syllabification[edit]

Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-iotate or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the glides r, l, and w, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide or non-y consonants, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
CASE EXAMPLE SYLLABIFIED
1 ama hot a-ma
2 ayma warm ay-ma
3 aymsea warming up aym-se-a
4 pyerxwa exploded pyer-xwa
5 upayo will have come u-pa-yo
6 vyaa true vya-a
7 vyaay truly vya-ay
8 vyay (not a word) vyay
9 tambwa settled tam-bwa

Phonotactics[edit]

Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
PATTERN EXAMPLES
V[y] o, ay
C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre
V[y]C iyt, ad, ant, aynt
C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, toyb, xwer
V[lrn]C alx, arx, yalp, yarp, yank
Two non-glide consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.

Stress[edit]

Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel. In this case, y is treated like a consonant, and so a word ending in ay is stressed on that syllable (since the a is non-final). The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
teja vital te-ja
igay quickly i-gay
Mirad Mirad Mi-rad
booka sick bo-o-ka
bookan sickness bo-o-kan
tejea alive te-je-a

Orthography[edit]

Orthography has to do with the way words are spelled.

Capitalization[edit]

Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
  • The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
  • Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
  • All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English
Amerikam America
Amerikama American
Amerikat an American
Amerikad American English
Ivan Ivan
Dropek ay Poos War and Peace
At Mirade. I speak Mirad.
Hyat be ha mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon.
Yat tameya Boston. We were living in Boston.
His se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine.
Ha Anxwa Doobi gey dyunwe ha AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.

Punctuation[edit]

Punctuation and the rules governing it are the same as in English. The most common punctuation marks are:
PUNCTUATION MARK NAME
. period
, comma
; semi-colon
: colon
' single quote
" double quote
( left parens
) right parens
-- dash
! exclamation point
? question mark
* asterisk

Nouns[edit]

Types of Nouns[edit]

Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in these various ways:
  • common vs. proper
COMMON PROPER
tam...house Meer...Venus
yagsim...bench Fransam...France
dyes...book Notre Dame...Notre Dame
tej...life Tot...God
  • concrete vs. abstract
CONCRETE ABSTRACT
tab...body ifon...love
mil...water oyman...coolness
deuz...song deuzen...singing
  • countable vs. mass
COUNTABLE MASS
pat...bird pattel...bird food
patayeb...feather patayebyan...plumage
meg...rock mil...water
  • gender-neutral / male-oriented vs. female-oriented
GENDER-NEUTRAL / MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED
tob...human being, man toyb...woman
taf...suit, outfit tayf...dress
apet...horse apeyt...mare
  • singular or plural
SINGULAR PLURAL
dom...city domi...cities
gon...part goni...parts
jub...day jubi...days
  • inanimate (things) or animate (humans and animals)
INANIMATE ANIMATE
mam...sky pot...animal
tom...building aut...person
job...time tobot...child
Nouns also include gerunds, i.e. abstract nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen singing < deuzer to sing or osexen destruction < osexer to destroy.
In Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a CONSONANT. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat birdpati birds).
The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.

Pluralization of Common Nouns[edit]

A singular common noun is made plural by suffixing the plural marker vowel i. So, the plural of par car is pari cars.
SINGULAR PLURAL
tam...house tami...houses
toyb...woman toybi...women
tej...life teji...lives

Articles[edit]

In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ha the; There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Latin. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
MIRAD ENGLISH SPECIFICITY
tam a house indefinite, no article
ha tam the house definite
ha tami the houses definite, plural
tej life general, no article
fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article
ha tej (...at bayse) the life (...I have) specific
Fransad French general, no article
Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article
Ha yivani hu yat ifie. The freedoms we enjoy. abstraction specified
Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."

Proper Nouns[edit]

Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take a definite article only in a few cases like Ha Anxwa Doebi the United States. Otherwise, a country name like Fransam does not take a definite article, just as in English.

Modifiers: Placement and Agreement[edit]

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Mirad English
ha ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifa taxi many pleasant memories
hya fia tob every good man
ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja teji My past lives

Noun Linkage[edit]

Nouns can be
  1. linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
  2. juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
  3. compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
  4. hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
Examples:
LINKAGE EXAMPLE CONSTRUCTION
Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and)
ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or)
hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but)
dunnyan boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without)
tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi of
ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of)
job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
dyen ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about)
dropek jaxeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jaxeni (preparations)
dom yautpar....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yautpar (bus)
tojvaf....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun vaf (wish)
jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league)
maj-moj...a day-and-night two or more equal nouns hyphenated
The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person. The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Prepositions or Conjunctions.
Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Word Formation.

Noun Derivational Suffixes[edit]

Nouns can be divided into:
  • simple nouns such as par vehicle
  • compound nouns such as naadpar train < naad rail + par vehicle
  • derived nouns such as fabyan forest < fab tree + -yan, a suffix meaning collection
Derived nouns are formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
SUFFIX MEANING BASE ONTO WHICH
SUFFIX IS ADDED
EXAMPLES
-yan collection, grouping, -ary noun tob mantobyan mankind
mar starmaryan constellation
fab treefabyan forest
dyen bookdyenyan library
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant verb stem beker treatbekuyt nurse
poper travelpoput traveler
aker winakut winner
-en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifier enjoyifien enjoyment
deuzer singdeuzen singing
axer actaxen action, acting
-ob, -oyb (f.) offspring, baby of noun tob human beingtoboyb baby girl
apet horseapetob foal
yopet goatyopetob kid
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem via beautifulvia beauty
yeva fairyevan fairness, equity
toba humantoban humanity, humanness, manhood
-(s)(u)n object, thing various stems vyua dirtyvyun spot
tamber settletambun settlement
gorfer shredgorfun scrap, shred
yod not a singleyodsun not a single thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems ifer to loveifon love
ov againstovon obstacle
aza strong → azon force
'yika' difficultyikson problem
-in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot godtotin religion, theism
otofa nudeotofin nudism
yulf terroryulfin terrorism
-tun science of, -ology noun tot godtottun theology
tob mantobtun anthropology
vob plantvobtun botany
-es small item, part noun tom buildingtomes apartment
saun kindsaunes sample
dreuz poemdeuzes stanza
mek dust, powdermekes speck, gain
-et sub-level version of (persons only) noun tad fathertadet son
tuyd aunttuydet niece
tyud tutor → tyudet pupil
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas first one, first thing
otwa unknownotwas mystery
tejea livingtejeas living thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat second one, second person
faa holyfaat holy one, saint
ujna lastujat last one, last person
Amerika AmericanAmerikat an American
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla EnglishAnglad English (language)
Mira of the worldMirad Mirad (world speech)
apet horseaped neigh, whinny
-(e)m place various stems hoa? what? → hom? where?
yex workyexem worksite
ab on, aboveabem top, surface
kua lateralkum side
-(a)m place, house, building various stems nun merchanise → nunam store
til drink → tilam bar, tavern
fyadiler to prayfyadilam church
-im room, chamber various stems fadiler to prayfadilim chapel
mageler to cookmagelim kitchen
tofer to dresstofim dressing room
-[aou]r instrument, device, machine usu. verb stem per to gopar car
drer to writedrar pencil
gorber to cutgorbar knife
yalber to liftyalbur elevator, lift
dop militarydopur machine gun
-ag big noun tam house → tamag mansion
tyal mealtyalag banquet
tilar spoontilarag ladle
-ayg big and cute noun tam housetamayg cozy mansion
epet dogepetayg wolfie
-yag big and ugly noun tud uncletudyag dirty old uncle
toyb womantoybyag hag
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet horseapetog pony
tyal mealtyalog snack
gorbun cutgorbunog cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam housetamoyg cottage
apayt chickenapaytoyg chickadee
mimpar boatmirparoyg dingy
-yog little and ugly noun tam housetamyog shack
epat duckepatyog ugly duckling
kod secretkodyog little dirty secret
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man lightmanig flash
pyex strokepyexig swat
yopaper dive, fly downyopapig swoop
-if love of, -philia noun tel foodtelif gourmandise
doab homelanddoabif patriotism
dyes bookdyesif bibliophilia, love of books
-ef need of noun tel foodtelef hunger
iga fastigef emergency
til drinktilef thirst
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf hydrophobia
totin religiontotinuf hatred of religion
toyb womantoybuf misogyny
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet snakelopyetyuf fear of snakes
mil watermilyuf hyrophobia
-yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teater to seeteatyaf ability to see
texer to thinktexyaf cognition
tester to understandtestyaf comprehension
noser to spendnosyaf spending power
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teater to seeteatyof blindness
teeter to hearteetyof deafness
paser to movepasyof paralysis
tujer to sleeptujyof insomnia
-yef compulsion to, mania verb stem vyoder to lievyodyef compulsion to lie
kobier to stealkobiyef kleptomania, compulsion to steal

Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be of the following types:
  • descriptive
  • qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
  • denominal (noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
  • deverbal (verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
  • preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
  • determinative
  • deictic, like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
  • numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
  • quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (to much)
  • pronominal, like heta (whose), ata (my), hyeta (anyone's)
Only descriptive adjectives are discussed here in the section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participals, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal adjectives (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.
All descriptive adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
  • fi- root qualitative morpheme ⇒ fia good
  • par noun vehiclepara vehicular
  • dalw- passive stem of the verb speakdalwa spoken
  • ab preposition onaba superior
Descriptive adjectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
  • aga tam....a big house
  • ha fia toyb....the good woman
  • ata boka ted....my sick father
  • fia telsyeb bi vafil.....a good bottle of wine
  • Yata dooba doof....our national flag
  • Ata tejea tyedi.....my living relatives
doba xeut state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
pata bok avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.

Comparison of Adjectives by Degree[edit]

As in English, descriptive adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINER COMPARISON
ga more ga fia better
ge as, equally ge fia as good
go less go fia less good
gla very gla fia very good
glay so glay fia so good
gle rather/quite gle fia rather/quite good
glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good
gra too gra fia too good
gre enough gre fia good enough
gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good/not good enough
gwa most gwa fia best
gwe average gwe fia good on average
gwo least gwo fia least good
The relative conjunction vyel is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison or than in a non-equalitative comparison. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga vyel etas. My house is bigger than yours.
  • Hia tam voy se ge aga vyel atas. This house is not as big as mine.
  • His se ha gwa aga tam bi yata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative and often other adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
ADJECTIVE ABSTRACT QUALITY
fia good fian goodness
yeva just yevan justice
uja final ujan finality
joga young jogan youth
teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity
dooba nation dooban nationality
tojbuwa lethal tojbuwan lethality

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives[edit]

Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing the vowel o. This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
Here are some examples:
NORMAL NEGATED
ega normal oega abnormal
twa known otwa unknown
geyla similar ogeyla dissimilar
iva happy oiva unhappy
data friendly odata unfriendly
yodata inimical, enemy-like

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

All qualitative adjectives end in at least the suffix a.
The suffix yena makes a noun into an adjective having the meaning like, -ish, -ly, having the qualities of, eg.:
  • fyaat godfyaata divinefyaatyena godly, godlike
  • tob mantoba humantobyena virile, manly, human-like
  • pot animalpota animalpotyena bestial, animal-like
  • mir worldmira globalmiryena wordly
The suffix aya or ika means full of like the English endings -ful, -ous, -y, eg.:
  • mil watermilaya or milika watery
  • meb mountainmebaya or mebika mountainous
  • mel soilmelaya or melika soily, dirty
  • tex thoughttexaya or texika thoughtful
The opposite of this suffix is oya or uka meaning empty of, -less, -free, eg.:
  • mil watermiloya or miluka waterless
  • teb headteboya or tebuka headless
  • level sugarleveloya or leveluka sugar-free
The suffix ina adds the notion of given to thinking like or an -ism much like English -istic, eg.:
  • tob humantobin humanismtobina humanistic
  • kyeoj fatekyeojin fatalismkeyojina fatalistic
  • yautin communismyautina communistic
The suffix tuna adds the notion of pertaining to the study of like English -ological, eg.:
  • tob humantobtun anthropologytobtuna anthropological
  • vob planttobtun botanyvobtuna botanical
  • teyen ideateyentun philosophyphilosophical
The suffix ea, which makes an present active participle from a verb stem, is like English -ant, -ent, -ing, eg.:
  • agser to growagsea growing as in the growing grass
  • oker to loseokea losing as in the losing team
  • kyaxer to mutatekyaxea mutant as in a mutant gene
The suffix yea, which makes a more intensive present active participle from a verb stem, is like English -ive, meaning apt or given to doing something, eg:
  • dal- talkdalyea talkative'
  • zoybux- repulsezoybuxyea repulsive
  • vad- affirmvadyea affirmative
  • tox- to forgettoxyea forgetful
  • if- to loveifyea amiable, loving
The suffix (a)wa, which makes a past passive participle from a verb stem, is like English -ed, eg.:
  • ok- loseokwa lost as in the lost child
  • alk-' defeatalkawa defeated as in the defeated enemy
  • anx- uniteanxwa united as in the United States
The suffix oa, which forms a future active participle from a verb stem, means apt to, liable to, eg.:
  • toj- dietojo will dietojoa moribund, about to die
  • pu- arrivepuo will arrivepuoa about to arrive, next
The suffix ua (active) or uwa (passive), which forms a conditional (hypothetical) participle from a verb stem, means "liable to, able to, eg.:
  • tojb- killtojbua lethal
  • tel- eatteluwa edible
  • belk- curebelkuwa curable

Pronominalization of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be pronominalized (or: substantivized) by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN
fia.... good fias.... a good thing
fiasi.... good things
fiat.... a good person
fiati.... good persons
aga.... big agas.... something big
agasi.... big ones
agat.... a big person
agati.... big persons
joga.... young, new jogas.... something new, novelty
jogasi.... new ones
yogat.... young person, youth
yogati.... youngsters
jaga.... old jagas.... antique
jagasi.... old ones
jagat.... elderly person
jagati.... oldsters
awa.... one
ewa....two
awas.... one (of them)
ewasi.... two (of them)
awat.... one (of them)
ewati.... two of them
hia.... this hias.... this one
hiasi.... these (things)
hiat.... this one
hiati.... these
gla.... much, many glas.... a lot (of stuff)
glasi.... many (things)

glati.... many (people)
Examples:
  • Hia tyoyaf se ogre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
  • Yat fu daler bay ha gwa jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
  • At fe teaxer ha jogas, voy ha jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
  • Ha ujnati so ha aati. The last shall be the first.

Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs can be derived from adjectives by replacing the adjective ending a with ay.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia good fiay well
yeva fair yevay fairly
uja final ujay finally
joga new jogay newly
teyda maternal teyday maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi. She sings well.
  • At upo ig. I'll come quickly.

Inherent Adverbs[edit]

There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives. Here are a few examples:
  • yab up
  • yeb in
  • yob down
  • oyeb out
  • vay indeed, certainly
  • vey perhaps
  • voy not
  • yub near
  • yib far
  • ub toward
  • ib away
  • zay ahead
  • zey across
  • zoy back
The above words are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab. I looked up.
  • Duhev et hyej upo zoy? Will you ever come back.
  • Et po yib be tej. You will go far in life.
Some of them can double as prepositions. See Prepositions.
Many of them can be prefixed to verbs to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
  • oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (take out)  [NOT: oyebbier]
  • zey (across) + per (go) = zayper (transit, cross)
  • yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (approach)  [NOT: yubper]
  • yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (telephone)

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze viay. He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer gwa ig. You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et hyoj ako firxa ivan. You will never gain perfect happiness.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit]

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of quantitative determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE
fiay well ga fiay vyel better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
igay quickly ge igay vyel as quickly as (Lit: equally quick-ly as)
ugay slowly gwa ugay as quickly as possible (Lit: most quick-ly)
yikay easily go yikay less easily

Determiners[edit]

Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context. Determiners can be categorized in Mirad as the following types:
TYPE ENGLISH EXAMPLES
Quantitative more, less, very
Numerical one, half, first
Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when
Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
Furthermore, as for part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.

Quantitative Determiners[edit]

Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
  • specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
  • specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
  • specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
  • Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
  • Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
The following table presents most of these word forms:
ADVERB / ADJECTIVE SINGULAR INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL ANIMATE PRONOUN
DEGREE: How...(big / quickly)?
AMOUNT: How much...(money)?
NUMBER: How many...(books)?
AMOUNT: How much...(+ STUFF)? NUMBER: How many...(+ THINGS)? NUMBER: How many...(+ PEOPLE)?
ga more gas more (stuff) gasi many (things) gati many (people)
ge as, as much, as many ges as much (stuff) gesi as many (things) geti as many people
go less, fewer gos less (stuff) gosi fewer (things) goti fewer (people)
gla very, much, many
glay so, so much, so many
glas much (stuff)
glays so much stuff)
glasi many (things)
glaysi so many (things)
glati many (people)
glayti so many (people)
gle rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles quite a lot (of stuff) glesi quite a lot (of things) qleti quite a few (people)
glo slightly, a little, few glos a little bit glosi a few (things) gloti few (people)
gra too, too much, too many gras too much (stuff) grasi too many (things) grati too many (people)
gre enough gres enough (stuff) gresi enough (things) greti enough (people)
gro insufficiently, too little, too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people)
gwa most gwas the most (stuff) gwasi the most (things) gwati most people
gwe so, so much, so many gwes so much (stuff) gwesi so many (things) gweti so many (people)
gwo least gwos the least (stuff) gwosi the least (number of) gwoti the least number (of people)
Examples Using Quantitative Determiners
Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
  • At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
  • Et sa gro uga.....You were too slow.
Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
  • Tobi dale ge igay vyel toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
  • Yat yexe ga igay vyel yet.....We work faster (= more fast) than you.
Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
  • Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
  • Gra nas noswa....Too much money was spent.
Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun:
  • At ayse gro sari....I've got too few tools.
  • It yeyfe at gle nas.....He owes me quite a bit of money.
  • Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something:
  • Gas ilokeye.....More is leaking.
  • Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much.
  • Yat keo gwas.....We will seek as much as possible.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
  • Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
  • At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but not enough.
Pronouns referrring to a countable number of people:
  • Grati xaye vyoci be hi yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this worksite.
  • Glati dyunwe oy gloti kebiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.text

Numerical Determiners[edit]

Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:

Cardinal Numbers[edit]

The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
  • The units are formed from the plain and pre-iotated vowels:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
The numerals 5-9 are pre-iotated versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
  • The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91
ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
  • By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
  • asa 101
  • asale 112
  • usyulyu 199
  • The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
  • aro 1,000
  • aro a 1,001
  • ero isi 2,300
  • yoro yasula 5,641
  • The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
  • emlo 2,000,000
  • umlo 4,000,000
  • The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
  • yamro 6 billion
The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
iro asyulyo 3,195
yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922

Cardinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Cardinal numerical determiners are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical determiner goes first. Cardinal numerical determiners are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added to monosyllabic numbers simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numerical determiner is 2 or more, then the noun is pluralized.
Mirad English
owa tam singular! no houses, zero houses
awa tam singular! one house, a house
ewa tami plural two houses
iwa tami three houses
uwa tami four houses
yowa tami five houses
yawa tami six houses
yewa tami seven houses
yiwa tami eight houses
yuwa tami nine houses
alo tami ten houses
ase tami a hundred two houses
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses
Cardinal numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun thing or suni things. The t ending is short for aut person or auti persons. For example:
  • Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas (= awa sun). You have one house. I have one too.
  • At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay alosi (= alo suni). I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti (= aso auti) yeb ha duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi huti. We must choose twenty-four females from those people.

Ordinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Determiner
o.... zero oa.... zeroth
a.... one aa.... first
e.... two ea.... second
i.... three ia.... third
alo.... ten aloa.... tenth
asu.... 104 asua.... 104th
The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
  • anapa.... first, first in order, primary*
  • enapa.... second, second in order, secondary
  • inapa.... third, third in order, tertiary
  • alanapa.... eleventh, eleventh in order
There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
  • ijna.... initial, first, original
  • ujna.... last, final
  • ajna.... past, ex-, former
  • ojna.... future
  • ejna.... present, current
  • jana.... previous, last
  • jona.... next, following
Ordinal numerical determiners and adjectives can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Adjective Adverb
aa.... first aay.... firstly
anapa.... first anapay.... primarily
ea.... second eay.... secondly
ujna.... last ujnay.... finally
Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
  • ha aas.... the first thing
  • ha aat.... the first person
  • ha aati.... the first people
  • hua aayt.... that first female
  • ha eas.... the second thing
  • eat.... another / a second person
  • ha ujnati so ha ijnati.... the last shall be first
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • hua uwa aga tami.... those four big houses
  • ha aa alo oga tami.... the first ten little houses
  • ata anapa ewa oga tobobi.... my first two little children

Fractional Numerical Determiners[edit]

Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -y(n) for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
CARDINAL NUMBER FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB
o.... zero oyn.... a void, vacuum oyna.... non-existant -- oy(n)-.... devoid of oynaxer.... annihilate
a.... one ayn.... whole
ha ayn.... the whole
ayna.... entire, whole aynay.... entirely ay(n)-.... holo-, whole-, all- aynaxer.... integrate
e.... two eyn.... a half eyna.... half eynay.... halfway ey(n)-.... half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynaxer.... halve
i.... three iyn.... a third iyna.... third iynay.... by a third iy(n)-.... terci- iynaxer.... cut in third
u.... four uyn.... a quarter uyna.... quarter uynay.... quarterly uy(n)-.... quadri- uynaxer.... quarter
alo.... ten aloyn.... a tenth aloyna.... tenth aloynay.... by a tenth aloy(n)-.... deci- aloynaxer.... decimate
aso.... hundred asoyn.... hundredth, percent asoyna.... hundredth asoynay.... by a hundredth asoy(n)-.... centi- asoynaxer.... cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • His uxo ha oynaxen bi yata mir..... This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ha ayna mir te ayv et..... The whole world knows about you.
  • Has se gas ev ha ayn bi hasa goni..... It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Fransad se ayn-druna dalyen..... France is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn..... You can take half.
  • Yat yefo eynaxer eta yexnix..... We will have to halve your salary.
  • Hus sa eyn-vyan..... That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eyn-zyunida dropek..... There is going to be a hemispheric war.
  • Duhev his se eyn-exea dopar?.... Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynaxu hua ableyavol..... Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay iynaxwer..... He should be drawn and (be) quartered.
  • Hia nas se aloyn bi has yat baysa zojab..... This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ha dep aloynaxwu..... The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan bakasa..... Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Hia tom se anay asoyngel aga vyel hua tom..... This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi..... You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka..... She almost (=halfway) threw up.

Multiplicative Numerical Determiners[edit]

Multiplicative numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal number if the number is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
CARDINAL NUMBER MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER
o.... zero oon.... null oona.... nil on-.... zero- onaxer.... cancel, zero out
a.... one aon.... single aona.... single aonay.... singly an-.... uni-/mono- anaxer unify
e.... two eon.... twosome, double eona.... double eonay.... doubly en-.... di-/bi- enaxer double
i.... three ion.... threesome, triplet iona.... triple ionay.... triply in-.... tri-- inaxer.... triple
u.... four uon.... quartet uona.... quadruple uonay.... quadruply un-.... quadri-/tetra- unaxer.... quadruple
yo.... five yoon.... quintet yoona.... quintuple yoonay.... quintuply yoon-.... quinti-/penta- yoonaxer.... quintuple
alo.... ten alon.... decade alona.... decadic alonay.... by a multiple of ten alon-.... deca- alonaxer.... multiply by ten
aso.... hundred ason.... hundredfold asona.... hundredfold asonay.... by a hundredfold ason-.... hecato- asonaxer.... multiply by a hundred
The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa..... Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
  • aonat.... solo, single
  • aonatser.... become single
  • eonat.... duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eonatser.... couple up, copulate
  • ionat.... trio, threesome, trinity
  • Ionatin.... Trinitarianism
  • uonat.... quartet, foursome
  • yoonat.... quintet, group of five people
  • yoonati.... quintets


By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun.... unit
  • auna.... unitary, individual
  • aunser.... unite
  • aunyan.... series
  • aunyana.... serial
  • eun.... pair
  • euna.... even, paired, binary
  • oeuna.... odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oeunat.... odd man out
  • eunaxer.... even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat vyaptyoyapa be eonati yez ha mep..... We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu is ovdal..... Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Hia ivxel xwe enyabay..... This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untubokat..... She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ha auni..... Please count the units.
  • Et gafisa aronay!.... You have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se entyoyaba sat..... Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • anzyus.... monocycle
  • enzyus.... bicycle
  • ingun.... triangle
  • ungun.... quadrangle
Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon apart and yan together.
  • yoongona.... quintipartite  BUT: yonper.... separate, go apart
  • yaongun.... hexagon  BUT: yanuper.... meet, come together

Frequentative Determiners[edit]

There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
  • Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
  • Using xag meaning frequency
Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING
hogla jodi? hoxag? how often?, how many times?
hagla jodi haxag as many times, as often
hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions
higla jodi hixag this often, this many times
hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times
huygla jodi huyxag so often, so many times
hyogla jodi hyoxag never, on no occasion
hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times
hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often
hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times
hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi gaxag more often
ge jodi gexag as many times
go jodi goxag less often
gla jodi glaxag many times, often
gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom
gra jodi graxag too often
gre jodi grexag often enough
gro jodi groxag too seldom
gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times
gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times
gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible
owa jod -- never, at no time, zero times
awa jod -- once, one time
ewa jodi -- twice, two times
iwa jodi -- thrice, three times
alo jodi -- ten times
ge jodi ev et fu gexag vyel et fu as often as you would like

Arithmetical Expressions[edit]

The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT
gaber.... add gab.... addition gabwas.... addend gabeas.... adder gab.... plus, + gabsin.... plus sign gabix.... sum
galer.... multiply gal.... multiplication galwas.... multiplicand galeas.... multiplier gal.... times, x galsin.... times sign galix.... product
garer.... exponentiate, raise gar.... power galwas.... number being raised gareas.... exponent gar.... raised to the power of galsin.... exponent galix.... raising result
gober.... subtract gob.... subtraction gobwas.... subtrahend gobeas.... subtractor gob.... minus, - gobsin.... minus sign gobix.... difference
goler.... divide gol.... division, fraction golwas.... dividend goleas.... divisor gol.... divided by, ÷ golsin.... division sign golix.... quotient
gorer.... cut, uproot gor.... cut, root gorwas.... radicand goreas.... radical gor.... lower to the power of, √ gorsin.... radical gorix.... root lowering result
geler.... equal gel.... equation gelwas.... thing being equated geleas.... equator gel.... equal to, as, like gelsin.... equal sign gelix.... equation results
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gele u..... Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gele ya..... Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gele yu..... Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gele o..... Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gele i..... Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gele i..... Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gele alo..... One hundred squared equals ten.

Calendar Expressions[edit]

The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:

Basic Calendar Units[edit]

Time is divided using the following basic terms:
MIRAD ENGLISH
job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jwob hour
jwab minute
jweb second
Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical morphemes to some of the time units above:
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA
arojab millenium year x 1,000
asojab century year x 100
alojab decade year x 10
eynjab half year year x 1/2
uynjab quarter year x 1/4
yejub week day x 7
eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
MIRAD ENGLISH
hijub
hia yejub
hijab
today
this week
this year
zojub
ha jana yejub
zajab
yesterday
last week
last year
zajub
ha jona yejub
zajab
tomorrow
next week
next year
hujub
hua yejub
hujab
that day
that week
that year
jazojub
ja ewa yejubi
jazojab
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jozajub
jo ewa yejubi
jozajab
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next

Seasons of the Year[edit]

Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
MIRAD ENGLISH
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, Fall
jeub winter
Examples of usage:
  • be jeab.... in spring
  • ja jeeb.... before summer
  • ju jeib.... until autumn
  • ji jeub.... since winter
  • je ha jeb.... during the season
  • ub ha uj bi jeeb.... toward the end of summer
  • eb jeab ay jeeb.... between spring and summer
  • jeeba gemoj.... vernal equinox
  • jeiba fayebi.... autumn leaves
  • jeba til.... seasonal drink
  • jeubyena jebmalyen.... wintry climate
  • jeabyena malyen.... spring-like weather
  • jeuben.... hibernation

Months of the Year[edit]

Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
MIRAD ENGLISH
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
Some expressions using the months:
  • be jilob.... in October
  • ja jiyab.... before June
  • ja zajiyeb.... by next July
  • hijib.... this month
  • zojib.... last month
  • zajib.... next month
  • bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis... month-to-month rent
  • jibay... monthly
  • jibi joy... months later
  • jiba sindryen.... monthly magazine
  • hujiba jobnis.... that month's rent
  • hya ionjib.... every trimester
  • jiber.... menstruate

Days of the Week[edit]

Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
MIRAD ENGLISH
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
MIRAD ENGLISH
hojub? which day
hajub hu... the day that...
hejub someday
hijub today
hujub that day
hyijub (on) the same day
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
zajub yesterday
zojub tomorrow
ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
jazojub the day before yesterday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
hya ea jub every other/second day
hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
Examples of Usage:
  • be juyob....on Friday
  • ju juib....until Wednesday
  • ji zojub.... since yesterday
  • lojo jubuj.... by [Lit: not after] day's end
  • jo zajub.... after tomorrow
  • je ha jub.... during the day
  • bi juab bu juub... from Monday to Friday

Parts of the Day[edit]

Here are the principal parts of a day:
DAYTIME NIGHTTIME
maj....daytime, day moj....nighttime, night
bi maj....A.M. bi moj....P.M.
jaijmaj....pre-dawn jaijmoj....pre-dusk
ijmaj....daybreak, dawn ijmoj....dusk
amaryap....sunrise, sunup amaryop....sunset, sundown
imaj....morning
zaimaj....tomorrow morning
hiimaj....this morning
zoimaj.... yesterday morning
huimaj....that morning
hyaimaj....every morning
imoj....evening
zaimoj....tomorrow evening
hiimoj....this evening
zoimoj.... yesterday evening
huimoj....that evening
hyaimoj....every evening
jwaimaj....early morning jwaimoj....early evening
jwoimaj....late morning jwoimoj....late evening
eymaj....noon eymoj....midnight
joeymaj....afternoon joeymoj....after midnight
ujmaj....dusk, day's end gwomoj...late night
  • Examples of Usage:
  • At tijia ja ijmaj.....I woke up before dawn.
  • At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa joeymaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
  • It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
  • Be gwa umaji, at teaxe teasibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.

Expressing Dates[edit]

The following is a how a date is normally expressed:
  • be juab, 11 jieb 2018 JaK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
The day in the above expression is pronounced ali.
The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
The acronym for A.D. is JaK, short for Ja Krist (before Christ).
The acronym for B.C. is JoK, short for Jo Krist (after Christ).
Other date expressions follow:
  • be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
  • ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
  • eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (elo awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
  • zya hua alojab....throughout that decade
  • At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
  • Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
  • Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.

Telling Time[edit]

Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
The usual time-of-day question is Se hojwob? What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
The typical answer is in the format Se aa/ea... jwob gab/gob alo/ali... bi maj/moj. (Lit: (It) is (the) first/second... hour plus/minus ten/eleven...of day/night.
Here are some typical answers:
  • Se aa jwob..... It is one o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) first hour.] [NOTE: The article "the" is left unexpressed.]
  • Se ea jwob..... It is two o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) second hour.]
  • Se alea jwob..... It is twelve o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) twelfth hour.]


  • Se ia jwob bi maj*..... It is three o'clock A.M.  [Lit: It is third hour of daytime.]
  • Se aloa jwob bi moj**..... It is ten o'clock P.M.  [Lit: It is tenth hour of nighttime.]
* bi maj (a.m.) can be abbreviated as bma
** bi moj (p.m.) can be abbreviated as bmo
  • Se ua jwob (gab) alo..... It is four ten.....  [Lit: It is fourth hour (plus) ten.]
  • Se iloa jwob gob ali..... It is thirteen minutes til three.  [Lit: It is thirteenth hour minus thirteen.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gab uyn..... It is quarter after five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour plus a quarter.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gob uyn..... It is quarter past five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour minus a quarter.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab eyn..... It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus a half.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab ilo..... It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob eyn..... It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob ilo..... It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus a half.]
  • Se vyavay yea jwob gab alo bi moj..... It is exactly 7:10 P.M..  [Lit: It is exactly seventh hour plus ten of nighttime.]
  • Et sa alo jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes.  [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
  • Has ijo jub 5:30 (= yaa jwob gab ilo) bmo (= bi moj).....It will begin around 5:30 (= five thirty [Lit: five hours plus thirty]) p.m.
  • Puu him loga jwoa ev 3 (= ia) j. (= jwob)....Get here no later than 3 (= three) o'clock.
  • Ha yautpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
  • Ha jwobar izeade 2:30 (= ea jwob gab ilo).....The clock says [Lit: indicates] 2:30.
  • Yit pua be 3a j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
Mirad normally uses a 12-hour system with distinction between a.m. and p.m., but military 24-hour time can also be used in particular situations, in which case the a.m./p.m. distinction is not needed.
  • Yanpu at be iloa jwob gab alyo..... Meet me at 13:15. (= 1:15 p.m.)
The word jwab (hour, o'clock) can be abbreviated as j., as in the following:
  • Yanpu at be 13a j..... Meet me at 13:00 (hours) [Lit: at (the) 13th h.]
The word gab (plus) can be omitted, as in:
  • At teato et be yoa j. alyo..... I'll see you at five fifteen / quarter past five.
Note the following clock time idioms:
MIRAD ENGLISH
jwa early
jwe on time
jwo late
Se vyavay eloa jwob. It is exactly two o'clock.
jub eymaj around noon
ub eymoj toward midnight
yeb jwebi within seconds
alo jwabi jahij ten minutes ago
loga jwo ev / lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock.
jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour
Hia pop dire / yixe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: requires / uses) 2 1/2 hours.
ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now
ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock.
je ha jana 12 jwabi for the last 12 minutes
ja 10a j. before / by 10 o'clock (= the tenth hour)
ja 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours.
jo 10a j. 'after 10 o'clock.
jo 10 jwobi. after 10 hours / 10 hours later / 10 hours ago

Expressing Age[edit]

Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
The typical question is:
  • Et se hojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
A typical answer is:
  • At se eli jaga....I am twenty-three years old.
The following chart shows other age expressions, many of which are agglutinations of the deictic morphemes beginning with h. If a cell has two Mirad forms, the second one is a shorter alternative version:
AGE
hojaga?.... how old?
hajaga.... of the age
hejaga.... of some age
hijaga.... this old
hujaga.... that old
huyjaga.... so old
jaga....old
joga....young
gle jaga.... rather old, oldish
gla jaga.... very old
gra jaga.... too old, super-aged
gro jaga.... under-aged, minor
ge jaga.... as old, of the same age
awa jab jaga.... one year old
awa jaga
awa jab
ewa jabi jaga.... two years old
ewa jaga
ewa jabi
alo jabi jaga.... ten years old
alo jaga
alo jabi
ga jaga vyel et.... older than you
ga joga vyel at.... younger than me
ge joga vyel iyt.... as young as her
ha gwa jagat bi ata tedetyan....the youngest of my siblings
grojagat....a minor
alojagat....a ten-year-old
aloyjagat....a teenager
jogat....a boy, a youth
joygat...a girl
grejat....an adult, someone of age
jagseat....an adolescent
jagsat....grownup
yiloyjagat...an octogenarian
asoyjagat....a centenarian
Some other examples of usage:
  • Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
  • At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
  • His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
  • Yegaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
  • At se ga jaga vyel ha mebi.....I am as old as the hills.
  • Teaxu ata gwa joga tobot.....Look at my youngest child.
  • Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
  • Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.

Money Expressions[edit]

This section is currency-dependent and remains under construction.

Deictic Determiners[edit]

Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words. They include the following:
  • demonstratives like this, that, those
  • indefinite specifiers like any, some, all, the, etc.
  • Derived animate and inanimate pronouns like this one, those things, something, everyone, etc.
  • Derived adverbs of time like when, now
  • Derived adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere
  • Derived adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow
  • Derived adverbs of kind so, age this year old, direction that way, reason why?, and so forth.

Deictic Determiner Prefixes[edit]

There are ten deictic base morphemes used as prefixes to form many determiners, including adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs.
CATEGORY BASE MORPHEME (PREFIX)
INTERROGATIVE ho-...?
what?
DEFINITE ha-
the
INDEFINITE1 he-
some, a certain
PROXIMAL hi-
this, these
DISTAL hu-
that, those, such, so
NEGATIVE hyo-
no, not any
DISTRIBUTIVE2 hya-
every, all, each
INDETERMINATE3 hye-
any, whatever
IDIODEICTIC4 hyi-
the same, the very
ALLODEICTIC5 hyu-
the other, another, else
1 Sometimes referred to as assertive existential.
2 Sometimes referred to as universal.
3 Sometimes referred to as elective existential
4 Idiodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "same-specifying" and refers to words that point reflexively to the same entities, such as at the same time, in the same way, the same person, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as negative alternative.
5 Allodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "other-specifying" and refers to words that point outwardly to other entities, such as somebody else, some other time, in other ways, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as positive alternative.

Deictic Determiners as Adjectives[edit]

Here is a table showing the deictic determiner prefixes attached to elements ending in -a to form various adjectival deictic determiners:
  ADJECTIVE OF SELECTION ADJECTIVE OF KIND ADJECTIVE OF POSSESSION
INTERROGATIVE hoa?
which?
hoyena?
what kind of?
hota?
whose?
DEFINITE ha   (short for haa)
the
hayena
the kind of
hata
the one's
INDEFINITE hea
some, a certain
heyena
some kind of, a certain kind of
heta
someone's
PROXIMAL hia
this, these
hiyena
this kind of, such (a), like this, like these
hita
this one's
DISTAL hua
that, those
huyena
that kind of, such (a), like that, like those
huta
that one's
NEGATIVE hyoa
not, not a, not any
hyoyena
no kind of, no such
hyota
nobody's
DISTRIBUTIVE hya    (short for hyaa)
every, all, each
hyayena
every kind of, all kinds of
hyata
everybody's
INDETERMINATE hyea
any, whatever
hyeyena
any kind of, whatever kind of
hyeta
anybody's
IDIODEICTIC hyia
the same
hyiyena
the same kind of
hyita
the same one's
ALLODEICTIC hyua
the other
hyuyena
some other kind of
hyuta
someone else's
Note: The definite deictic determiner adjective ha (actually, short for haa) is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the. As mentioned before, if the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun.
This is called zero determination. For example:
  • Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil. We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil. We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the second glasses of wine.

Examples of the Usage of Adjectival Determiners[edit]

  • Hoa tam se etas? Which house is yours?
  • Hoyena dyezuni ifxe et? What kind of movies do you like?
  • Hota tef okwa? Whose hat was lost?
  • Ha tob ta yata dyuni. The man knew our names.
  • Hayena dini at ife, et ufe. The kind of stories I love, you hate.
  • Hea mepi eejdyunwo. Certain streets will be renamed.
  • Heyena fukyes uxaye parnyan. Some kind of accident has cause a traffic jam.
  • Heta abtaf akwa be ha zatem. Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
  • Hia dyes se ata gafias. This book is my favorite.
  • Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo. This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Hita tim so yovoza. This guy's room will be blue.
  • Hua mas efwa eejvozilbwer. That wall needs to be repainted.
  • Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at. Such words should not be used in front of me.
  • Huta tam magseye. That guy's house is on fire.
  • Hyoa din se ga gesaya. No story is more important.
  • Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe. No such meaning can be inferred.
  • Hyota jatexdren sa ga fia. Nobody's plan is better.
  • Hya mepi izpe Roma. All roads lead to Rome.
  • Hya tob yefe xer ita gon. Every man must do his part.
  • Hyayena telami ese be hia mep. All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
  • Hyata tej se uka bi yabi ay yobi. Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
  • Hya ewa domi agxaye. Both cities have grown.
  • Hyea voz so fia. Any color will be fine.
  • Hyeyena til se beuwa. Any kind of drink is available.
  • Hyeta ved se ge ifa vyel atas. Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
  • Hyea tim et fe et yafe bayser. Whatever room you want, you can have.
  • Hyia fukyesi kyese glajodi. The same accidents occur frequently.
  • Hyiena dyezuni teaxuwa zajub. The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
  • Hyita dyun yixwa gajod. The same person's name was used again.
  • Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea. The other movie was more entertaining.
  • Hyuena mos teasu ga fia. Another kind of furniture would look better.
  • Hyuta texyen se ga fyia. Someone else's opinion is equally valid.

Deictic Determiners as Pronouns[edit]

The following chart shows deictic determiners used as pronouns. Note that the suffix -s (short for sun) is used pronouns referring to things, while -t (short for tob) is used for those referring to persons. The suffix -i pluralized either of these. The distinction between a form like what? and a selective form like which? is made by using the full adjectival form (with -a-) in the selective forms. So, for example, hot? is who?, but hoat? is which one? (referring to a person).
PRONOUNS THING THINGS SELECTIVE
THING
SELECTIVE
THINGS
SELECTIVE
PERSON
SELECTIVE
PERSONS
PERSON PERSONS PERSON
POSSESSED THING
PERSON
POSSESSED THINGS
INTERROGATIVE hos?
what?
hosi?
what (things)?
hoas?
which one?
hoasi?
which ones?
hoat?
who(m)?
hoati?
who? (pl.)
hot?
who, whom?
hoti?
who (pl.)?
hotas?
whose (thing)?
hotasi?
whose (things)?
DEFINITE has
it, the thing
hasi
they, them, the things
haas
the one
haasi
the ones
hat
the one
haasi
the ones
hat
the person, he, him
hati
the persons, they, them
hatas
whose? (thing)
hatasi
whose? (things)
INDEFINITE hes
something
hesi
some (things)
heas
a certain one
heasi
certain ones
heat
a certain one
heati
certain ones
het
someone
heti
some (people)
hetas
someone's
hetasi
some people's
PROXIMAL hit
this
hiti
these
hias
this one
hiasi
these
hiat
this one
hiati
those
hit
this person, he, him
hiti
these people, they, them
hitas
this person's, his
hitasi
this person's (things), theirs
DISTAL hus
that
husi
those
huas
that one
huasi
those
huat
that one
huati
those people, they
hut
that person, he, him
huti
those people, they, them
hutas
that person's, his
hutasi
that person's (things), his
NEGATIVE hyos
nothing
hyosi
none
hyoas
not a one
hyoasi
none
hyodat
not a one
hyoati
none
hyot
nobody
hyoti
no people
hyotas
nobody's
hyotasi
nobody's (things)
DISTRIBUTIVE hyas
everything, all
hyasi
all things
hyaas
each one
hyaasi
all of them
hyaat
each one
hyaati
all of them
hyat
everyone
hyati
all (people)
hyatas
everyone's
hyatasi
everyone's (things)
INDETERMINATE hyes
anything, whatever
hyesi
any
hyeas
whatever one
hyeasi
any of them
hyeat
whichever one
hyeati
whichever ones
hyet
anyone
hyeti
whoever
hyetas
whoever's
hyetasi
anybody's (things)
IDIODEICTIC hyis
the same thing
hyisi
the same things
hyis
the same one
hyiasi
the same ones
hyiat
the same one
hyiati
the same one
hyit
the same person
hyiti
the same people
hyitas
the same person's
hyitasi
the same person's (things)
ALLODEICTIC hyus
something else
hyusi
other things
hyuas
the other one
hyuasi
the other ones
hyuat
the other one
hyuati
the others
hyut
someone else
hyuti
others
hyutas
someone else's
hyutasi
someone else's (things)
Other pronominal deictic determiners can be derived from adjectival determiners of kind and numeric determiners:
  KIND OF THING KIND OF THINGS KIND OF PERSON KIND OF PEOPLE
INTERROGATIVE hoyenas?
what kind of thing?
hoyenasi?
what kind of things?
hoyenat?
what kind of person?
hoyenati?
what kind of people?
DEFINITE hayenas
the kind of thing
hayenasi
the kind of things
hayenat
the kind of person
hayenati
the kind of people
INDEFINITE heyenas
some kind of thing
heyenasi
some kind of things
heyenat
some kind of person
heyenati
some kind of people
PROXIMAL hiyenas
this kind of thing
hiyenasi
these kinds of things
hiyenat
this kind of person
hiyenati
these kinds of people
DISTAL huyenas
such a thing
huyenasi
such things
huyenat
such a person
huyenati
such people
NEGATIVE hyoyenas
no such thing
hyoyenasi
no such things
hyoyenat
no such person
hyoyenati
no such people
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayenas
every kind of thing
hyayenasi
all kinds of things
hyayenat
every kind of person
hyayenati
all kinds of people
INDETERMINATE hyeyenas
any kind of thing
hyeyenasi
any kinds of things
hyeyenat
any kind of person
hyeyenati
any kinds of people
IDIODEICTIC hyiyenas
the same kind of thing
hyiyenasi
the same kinds of things
hyiyenat
the same kind of person
hyiyenati
the same kinds of people
ALLODEICTIC hyuyenas
some other kind of thing
hyuyenasi
other kinds of things
hyuyenat
some other kind of person
hyuyenati
other kinds of people

Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms[edit]

The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner hot? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart hoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
  • Hot aka zajuba ek?.... Who won yesterday's game?
  • Hoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?.... Which one of the winners was the best?
  • Hota tam se hus?.... Whose house is that?
  • Hotas se hus?.... Whose is that?
  • Hotia deuzi et gaife?.... Whose songs do you prefer?
  • Hotias et gaife?.... Whose do you prefer?
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hosi se eta gaifuni?.... What are your preferences?
  • Hoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which songs are your best?
  • Hoasi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which ones are your best?
  • Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?.... Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
  • Hoati se gwa fia?'.... Which ones are best?
  • Hoti et teexe gwa jodi?.... Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
  • Huat hu at teexe gwa jodi draye ejna deuz..... The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
  • Ejna deuz? At voy teste haas hu et tede..... New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
  • Hias. This one.
  • Vo. Huasi se ga fia..... No. Those are better.
  • His se jub av ivxelen..... This is a day for celebration.
  • Va. Hia jub. At tesde hijub..... Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
  • Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat! Those were the days, my friend!
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hot aka ha igpek?.... Who won the race?
  • Hyas uja fi..... Everything ended well.
  • Hyasi uje..... All things come to an end.
  • Hyayenasi vey kyesu..... All sorts of things might happen.
  • Hyos yoka at..... Nothing surprised me.
  • Hyot ta odut ako..... Nobody knew who would win.
  • Huati fu pier yefe..... Those who would like to leave may.
  • Hyet yefe eker hia ifek..... Anyone can play this game.
  • Huyenasi voy afwo..... Such things will not be permitted.
  • Hua tob voy taxe hia tob..... That man does not remember this man.
  • Huti yanyexe fi..... Those guys work well together.
  • At jay teataye hiyenasi..... I've seen such things before.
  • Huyenat voy vabiwu..... A person like that would not be accepted.
Person pronouns in -t and -ti can be feminized by inserting the glide y before the t:
  • Huyenayti ufwe himi..... Women like that are hated in these parts.
  • Hoayti yantexe at?.... Who among the women agree with me?
  • Hyeyti hu yontexe yefe iper..... Any girls who disagree must leave.

Placement of Deictic Determiners[edit]

In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, as in English. For example:
  • Hota ewa oga nyefi se hisi?.... Whose two small bags are these?
In interrogative sentences, the interrogative word often starts out the sentence, as in English.
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hot et teata aay hijub?.... Who(m) did you see first today?
Interrogative deictic determiners (question words can also go at the end of sentence:
  • Eta dyun se hos?.... What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?

Distributive Deictic Determiners Incorporating Numerical Information[edit]

Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN
hawa* the only hawas the only thing
hawasi the only things
hawat the only one (person)
hawati the only ones
hyawa* each hyawas each one hyawat each person
hyaewa both hyaewasi both (things) hyaewati both (people)
hyeiwa all three hyeiwasi all three (things) hyeiwati all three (people)
ohyawa not every ohyawas not everything ohyawat not everyone
hyoawa not a single hyoawas not a single thing hyoawat not a single person
hyeawa either hyeawas either one hyeawat either one (person)
hyeewa any two hyeewasi any two things hyeewati any two people
hyeowa neither hyeowas neither one hyeowat neither person
hyuawa another hyuawas another one hyuawat another
hyuowa no other hyuowas nothing else hyuowat nobody else
*Hawa and hyawa are short for haawa and hyaawa.
  • Ohyawat se iva bay eta ebtexden..... Not everyone is happy with your decision.
  • Hyaewasi yafwe uxer yata efi..... Both (things) can serve our needs.
  • Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at..... Either room will satisfy me.
  • Hyeowas oivlaxo at..... Neither one will dissatisfy me.
Note: Hyua means the other, while hyuawa means another.
Similarly, hya means every, all, while hyawa means each.
Also, ha means the, while hawa means the only.
The person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Hyawata tej se ge glatesa ev hyutas..... Each one's life is as important as another's.
  • Hyeowata dyun se vyama..... Neither person's name is real.
  • Hyaiwatia teji se kyebukuwa..... The lives of all three are in danger.
The above possessive adjectives can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
  • Hyawatas se glatesa..... Each one's is important.
  • Hyeowatas se vyama..... Neither's is real.
  • Hyaiwatias se kyebukuwa..... All three of theirs' are in danger.
Correlative Distributive Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
  • Hyeawa A ey B.... either A or B
  • Hyeowa A oy B.... neither A nor B
  • Hyaewa A ay B.... both A and B
  • Hawa A, voy B.... only A, not B

Pro-Adverbs Formed from Agglutinated Deictic Determiners[edit]

This tables shows a correlated set of pro-adverbs built through the agglutination of basic deictic determiners. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed pro-verbs relating to age, frequency, and so forth.
ADVERBS MANNER PLACE TIME DEGREE REASON
-yen
short for byen (manner)
-m
short for em (place)
-j
short for job (time)
-gla
very
av
(for)
INTERROGATIVE hoyen?
how?, in what way?
hom?
where?
hoj?
when?
hogla?
how?, to what degree?
avhos?
why?
DEFINITE hayen
the way, how
ham
the place, where
haj
the time, when
hagla
as, to the degree
avhas
because
INDEFINITE heyen
somehow, in some way
hem
somewhere
hej
sometime
hegla
somewhat
avhes
for some reason
PROXIMAL hiyen
this way, so
him
here
hij
now
higla
so, this, to this extent
avhis
for this reason, hence
DISTAL huyen
that way, thus
hum
there
huj
then
hugla
so, that, to that extent
avhus
for that reason, therefore, so
NEGATIVE hyoyen
in nowise
hyom
nowhere
hyoj
never
hyogla
not at all
avhyos
for no reason
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayen
totally, in every way
hyam
everywhere
hyaj
always
hyagla
totally
avhyas
for every reason
INDETERMINATE hyeyen
anyway
hyem
anywhere, wherever
hyej
whenever
hyegla
however, to any degree
avhyes
for whatever reason
IDIODEICTIC hyiyen
likewise
hyim
at the same place
hyij
at the same time
hyigla
as, to the same extent
avhyis
for the same reason
ALLODEICTIC hyuyen
otherwise
hyum
elsewhere
hyuj
some other time
hyugla
not as
avhyus
for some other reason
Many of these pro-adverbs are agglutinated abbreviations for longer, full forms:
  • hom....where   <   ho   +   nem   =   what place
  • hoj....when   <   ho   +   job   =   what time
  • hoyen....how   <   ho   +   byen   =   what manner
  • hot....who   <   ho   +   tob   =   what human being
  • hos....what   <   ho   +   sun   =   what thing
The longer, expanded forms of pro-adverbs can be used at any time. For example:
  • At yegteato et hejob.....I will see you again sometime.
  • Hosun se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Et yeyfe axer hubyen.....You shouldn't act that way.
It should be noted that all of these deictic pro-adverbs, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe him. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tameya hum., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tameya be hum., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at is meant. For example, from where? is expressed as bi hom? Similarly, until then would be expressed as ju huj.


Here are some examples of how deictic pro-adverbs are used:
  • Hom et tame?.... Where do you live?   <   Et tame be HOa neM? You live at what place.)
  • At tame hum..... I live there.
  • Et tame hum hu ha mep uje..... You live where the road ends.
  • Hom yet peye?.... Where are you guys going?
  • Et yafe per hyem hu et fu..... You can go anywhere.
  • Bi hom et se?.... Where are you from?
  • Hoj et taja?.... When were you born?
  • At voy tajaya huj..... I had not been born then.
  • Et pia avhes..... He left for some reason.
  • Hoyen et iyfe hia vafil?.... How do like this wine?
  • Voy se fia axer hiyen..... It is not good to act this way.
  • Avhos et tadsa hugla jwa?.... Why did you marry so late?
  • Ha tob pia avhyos..... The man left for no reason.


The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
  • Hoyen it xa hus?.... How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be hoa byen...? In what way...?) (MANNER)
  • Hoyen et xeye?.... How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (MANNER)
  • Hoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
  • Hogla aga it se?.... How big is he?.... (DEGREE)
  • Hogla iyfla et se!.... How nice you are!.... (DEGREE, but used here as an EXCLAMATORY EXPRESSION)
* Bu hom (to where, whither) is not required here, since the verb per go (to) has the to direction built in.

Quantitative Deictic Determiners[edit]

The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
ADVERBIAL / ADJECTIVAL
DETERMINER
INANIMATE SINGULAR
PRONOUN
INANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
ANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
INTERROGATIVE hogla? how?/how much?/how many? hoglas? how much? hoglasi? how many hoglati? how many (people)?
DEFINITE hagla how/as much/as many haglas as much haglasi as many haglati as many (people)
INDEFINITE hegla somewhat/some/some heglas some heglasi some heglati some (people)
PROXIMAL higla this/this much/this many higlas this much higlasi this many higlati this many (people)
DISTAL hugla that/that much/that many
huygla so, so much, so many
huglas that much
huyglas so much
huglasi that many
huyglasi so many
huglati that many
huyglati so many (people)
NEGATIVE hyogla not at all/no/no hyoglas none of it hyoglasi none of them hyoglati none
DISTRIBUTIVE hyagla totally/all/all hyaglas all of it hyaglasi all of them hyaglati all
INDETERMINATE hyegla however/any/any hyeglas any of it hyeglasi any of them hyeglati any number of them
IDIODEICTIC hyigla as/as much/as many, equally hyiglas the same amount hyiglasi the same number hyiglati as many (people)
ALLODEICTIC hyugla not as much/not as much/not as many hyuglas a different amount hyuglasi a different number of things hyuglati a different number of people
Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
  • Et deuze huygla fi..... You sing so well.
  • At se hegla booka..... I am somewhat tired.
  • Hogla pati et teata hijub?.... How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay hugla tami..... I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe hyiglas vyel et..... She wants the same amount as you.
  • Hoglati yantexe yet?.... How many (people) agree with you?
  • Hyoglati yantexe..... None agree.
  • Yit fu heglasi..... They would like some (of them).
  • Et yafe bier hyeglasi et fe..... You can take however many you want.
NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
  • hegla = gle (somewhat)
  • hyigla = ge (as, equally)

Pronominal Determiners[edit]

For a discussion of pronominal determiners ( = possessive adjectives) like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Possessive Adjectives under Pronouns.

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
In Mirad, pronouns can be:
  • personal or deictic
  • ordinary or reflexive
  • animate or inanimate
  • specific or generic
  • ungendered or feminine

Basic Personal Animate Pronouns[edit]

Basic personal animal pronouns in Mirad have three person-levels (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and two genders (gender-neutral, female), and two specificities (specific and generic). Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here is two charts showing the basic personal animate pronouns, split into gender-neutral and female.
SINGULAR
GENDER-NEUTRAL
PLURAL
GENDER-NEUTRAL
FIRST PERSON at....I, me yat....we, us
SECOND PERSON et....you yet....you, you all
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC it....he, him yit....they, them
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them
THIRD PERSON REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself yut....selves, oneselves
SINGULAR
FEMALE
PLURAL
FEMALE
FIRST PERSON ayt....I, me yayt....we, us
SECOND PERSON eyt....you yeyt....you, you all
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iyt....she, her yiyt....they, them
The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are of common gender and are used as English one and they, people (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ha yakwas..... One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de hav et vyode hoj..... They/People say you never lie.
The person specific ungendered pronouns refer by default to males, but can serve as gender-neutral pronouns referring back to either males or females. If the vowel stem is iotated with a y, the pronoun then refers specifically to a female.
The first person plural pronoun ya(y)t can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others."
There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
  • Xu at fibun..... Do me a favor.
  • At so eta dat..... I will be your friend.
  • Hov tojbu it..... Don't kill him/her.
  • At ta hav iyt upo..... I knew she would come.
  • Fyadilu av yayt..... Pray for us (women).
Note: The English pronoun it is inanimate (refers to a thing or abstraction) and is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is explained later.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit]

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed postfixing the reflexive pronoun ut or yut depending on whether the pronoun is singular or plural. The gender of the pronoun is reflected in the first personal pronoun morpheme, not the ut morpheme. The generic pronoun ot cannot be feminized.
REFLEXIVE SINGULAR
GENDER-NEUTRAL
SINGULAR
FEMININE
PLURAL
GENDER-NEUTRAL
PLURAL
FEMININE
FIRST PERSON atut.... myself aytut.... myself yatyut.... ourselves yaytyut.... ourselves
SECOND PERSON etut.... yourself eytut.... yourself yetyut.... yourselves yeytyut.... yourselves
THIRD P. SPECIFIC itut.... himself iytut.... herself yityut.... themselves yiytyut.... themselves
THIRD P. GENERIC otut.... oneself -- yotyut.... people themselves --
Examples of usage:
  • At yafe teater atut be ha sinzyef.....I can see myself in the mirror.
  • Iyt yubteaxa iytut.....She examined herself.
  • Tyeu etut!....Know thyself.
  • It tojbu itut.....He would kill himself.
  • Ot yefe ifer otut.....One must love oneself.
  • Yot glajodi voy ife yotyut.....People often don't love themselves.
The reflexive pronoun ut self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
  • tojber.... kill uttojber.... commit suicide
  • vyixer.... clean utvyixer.... wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
  • exer.... function utexer.... function automatically, self-run
  • izber.... pilot utizber.... auto-pilot, self-drive
  • exut.... operator utexut.... automaton
  • deber.... rule utdebea.... autocratic, self-ruling
  • tejdin.... biography uttejdin.... autobiography
  • fider.... praise utfider.... boast   (= self-praise)

Emphatic Personal Pronouns[edit]

Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the reflexive deictic pronoun hyit or hyiti, depending on whether the personal pronoun is singular or plural. The feminine is marked only on the personal pronoun.
EMPHATIC PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL
FIRST PERSON at hyit I myself, me myself yat hyiti we ourselves, us ourselves
SECOND PERSON et hyit you yourself yet hyiti you yourselves
THIRD PERSON it hyit he himself
iyt hyit she herself
yit hyiti they themselves
Examples:
  • At hyit voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
  • At jateate yeyt hyiti be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you gals yourselves on that stage.
  • Iyt hyit voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.

Reciprocal Personal Pronouns[edit]

The reciprocal pronoun one another, each other is translated with ot hyut:
  • Yat yefe ifer ot hyut..... We must love one another. (hyut here means another, other person.)
This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a possessive adjective by suffixing a, as in ot hyuta....one another's:
  • Yat yefe fiyzaxer ot hyuta fwasi. We must respect one another's wishes.
Note the following:
  • othyutif....Mutual love = love for one another
  • hyutin....altruism

Possessive Adjectives[edit]

Possessive adjectives, which can also be referred to as pronominal determiners, are derived from basic and reflexive personal pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the basic or reflexive personal pronoun, as follows:
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES SINGULAR BASIC PLURAL BASIC SINGULAR REFLEXIVE PLURAL REFLEXIVE
FIRST PERSON ata my yata our atuta my own yatyuta our own
SECOND PERSON eta your yeta your etuta your own yetyuta your own
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC ita his
iyta her
yita their
iyta their (f.)
ituta his own
iytuta her own
yityuta their own
yiytyuta their own (f.)
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's yota people's otuta one's own yotyuta people's own
The above possessive adjectives an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s thing possessed, or si things possessed, as follows:
SUBSTANTIVIZED
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES
BASIC POSSESSED THING BASIC POSSESSED THINGS REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THING REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THINGS
FIRST SINGULAR POSSESSOR atas mine, my thing atasi mine, my things atutas my own, my own thing atutasi my own, my own things
SECOND SINGULAR POSSESSOR etas yours etasi yours, your (things) etutas your own etutasi your own, your own things
THIRD SINGULAR SPECIFIC POSSESSOR itas his
iytas hers
itasi his (things)
iytasi her (things)
itutas his own (thing)
iytutas her own (thing)
itutati their own (things)
iytutasi their (f.) own (things)
THIRD SINGULAR GENERIC POSSESSOR otas one's otasi one's , one's things otutas one's own otutasi one's own (things)
FIRST PLURAL POSSESSOR yatas ours yatasi ours, our things yatyutas our own yatyutasi our own (things)
SECOND PLURAL POSSESSOR yetas yours yetasi yours, your things yetyutas your own yetyutasi your own (things)
THIRD PLURAL POSSESSOR yitas theirs yitasi theirs, their things yityutas their own yitutasi their own (things)
Examples:
  • Yat yefe valbeler yatyutasi.....We must protect our own.
  • Etasi naze ga vyel atasi....Yours are worth more than mine.

The Concrete vs. Abstract Inanimate Pronoun it[edit]

The pronoun it is a special case in Mirad. When it refers back to a previously-specified inanimate object or non-human subject such as book or dog, the definite deictic determiner has is used, for example:
  • At eke bay ha epet avhas at iyfe has..... I play with the dog because I like it.
The possessive forms of has is hasa its, for example:
  • At iyfe ha epet ay at ife hasa dyun..... I like the dog and I love it's name.
If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it, then the pronoun hasi.
  • Ha epeti se via ay at ife hasi..... The dogs are beautiful and I love them.
The possessive form of hasi they/them is hasia their, for example:
  • Ha epeti se via oy hasia dyuni se otwa..... The dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
  • Mamilo..... It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia hav et upa..... It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et..... It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se yuka yarper hia meb..... It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

Referring to Third Persons with Deictic Determiners[edit]

The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
  Thing Things Person Persons
DEFINITE has it, the thing
hasa its
hasi they/them, the things
hasia their
hat he/him, the person
hata his
hayta she/her
hati they/them, them, the persons
hatia their
haytia their, the girls'
PROXIMAL his it, this
hisa its, this thing'
hisi they/them, these things
hisia their
hit he/him, this person
hita his
hiyta her
hiti they/them, these people
hitia their
hiytia their, these girl's
DISTAL hus it, that
husa it's, that thing'
husi they, them, those things
husia their
hut he/him,that person
huta his
huyta her
huti they/them, those people
hutia their, those people's
huytia their, those womens'
By changing -t to -yt (post-iotating), the above person pronouns can be made feminine. For example, hiyt she, her. These pronouns can also be converted to possessive adjectives by suffixing the adjective ending a, for example, hiyta her. Furthermore, the possessive adjectives can be substantivized by suffixing s (s.) or si' (pl.) , for example, hiytias theirs, these women's or hiytiasi theirs, these women's (things).
Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
  • Huyt voy se tadsa..... She (that woman) is not married.
  • At hoj teataye hiti..... I have never seen them (these people).
  • Hutiasi se ga aga ev atasi..... Theirs are bigger than mine.
  • Hom et koxa has?.... Where did you hide it (the thing)?
  • Hoyen et ijtya hat?....How did you meet him (the person)?
  • At tyaye huyt yagjob..... I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
The above pronouns answer the questions hos? what?, hosi? what things?, hot? who(m)?, or hoti? what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat? which one?, hoayti? which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas? which one/thing?, and hoasi? which ones/things?:
SELECTIVES THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS
DEFINITE haas the one haasi the ones haat the one haati the ones
PROXIMAL hias this one hiasi these hiat this one hiati these
DISTAL huas that one huasi those huat that one huati those
Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
  • Duhev et fu hias ey huas?.... Would you like this one or that one?
  • Huayt se haat..... She (that female person) is the one.
  • At iyfe hiasi ga ev huasi..... I like these more than those.
Compare the following two examples:
  • Hoas et fu? Hias..... Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
  • Hos et fu? His..... What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)

Relative Pronouns[edit]

Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Verbs, under the section "Free Relative Clauses".

Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as bayser to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, and the stem is the infinitive minus the wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
This shows how the STEM is derived:
PRESENT INFINITIVE STEM
bayser to have bays-
xer to do x-
poser to stop pos-
xwer to happen (PASSIVE) x-

Verb Categories[edit]

Conjugated forms of verbs can be described with the following morphological categories:
  • STATES: finite, non-finite
  • TENSES: present, past, future
  • ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional
  • VOICES: active, passive (reflexive and reciprocal are lexical, not morphological)
  • MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
  • PERSONS: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural
In effect, the PERSONS category does not affect the morphology of the verb form itself, because the verb form stays the same for all PERSONS.
In addition, lexically, verbs can be described as stative, transitive, intransitive, reflexive, inchoative, causative, dynamic, autonomous, directional, of motion, gestural, and various combinations of these, etc.. For example:
CATEGORY VERB
STATIVE ser be
TRANSITIVE xer do
INTRANSITIVE tojer die
REFLEXIVE utvyixer wash up
INCHOATIVE tujaser fall asleep
CAUSATIVE tujaxer put to sleep
GESTURAL baseger shake
OF MOTION oper get off
DIRECTIONAL iper go away
DYNAMIC yijber (perform an action to make something) open
AUTONOMOUS yijer open (by itself)
RECIPROCAL tujer hyit-hyut kill one another

Non-finite Forms[edit]

Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • INFINITIVES: the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
  • GERUNDS: verbal nouns, ending in en
  • PARTICIPLES: verbal adjectives, ending in a

Infinitives[edit]

Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
STEM ENDING INFINITIVE
agas er agaser to grow
agax er agaxer to magnify
p er per to go
x wer xwer to happen, be done
The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:


INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE
PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified
PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified

Gerunds[edit]

The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND
agaxer...to magnify agax- agaxen... magnifying, magnification agaxwen being magnified
per... to go p- pen... going (no passive voice)
saxer... to create, make, form sax- saxen... forming, creation saxwen being created
Some examples:
  • Ha saxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi..... The formation of this star took millions of years.
  • Iyta deuzen sa gla via..... Her singing was very beautiful.
  • Popen se yika yex..... Traveling is hard work.
  • Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti..... Being heard well is important for actors.

Participles[edit]

Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles can be present, past, future, or hypothetical. They can also be active or passive. Here is a table of participles:
TENSE-VOICE INFINITIVE STEM ENDING PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE
PRESENT ACTIVE deuzer to sing deuz- -ea deuzea singing ha deuzea pat the singing bird
PRESENT PASSIVE ebdaler to discuss ebdal- -ewa ebdalewa being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen the book being discussed
PAST ACTIVE pier to depart pi- -aa piaa departed ha piaa topi the departed souls
PAST PASSIVE azyujber to lock azyujb- -(a)wa azyujbawa locked ha azyujbawa (or: azyubwa) mes the locked door
FUTURE ACTIVE tajber to give birth tajb- -oa tajboa about to give birth ha tajboa toyb the woman about to give birth
FUTURE PASSIVE osexer to destroy osex- -owa osexowa about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed
HYPOTHETICAL ACTIVE tojber to kill tojb- -ua tojbua apt to kill tojbua til a lethal potion
HYPOTHETICAL PASSIVE tiler to drink til- -uwa tiluwa drinkable tiluwa mil potable water
Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
  • Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay. She entered the room singing.
  • Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia. The speech having been finished, he left.
Also, the above participles can be nominalized by suffixing n. Examples:
  • tiluwa drinkable tiluwan potability
  • tojbua lethal tojbuan lethality
  • piaa departed ita piaan his having departed...
Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for peoples. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
  • xwa known xwas what is known, a fact
  • xwa known xwasi facts, information
  • oxwa unknown oxwas what is not known, a mystery
  • osexea destroying osexeas a destroyer
  • tojbua lethal tojbuas something lethal, a lethal thing
  • tojboa moribund someone about to die, a fatal case
  • tejea living tejeat a living person
  • tejea living tejeasi living things
There is a special nominalized animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer), which refer to person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
  • sexut.... builder
  • nuut.... supplier
  • tojbut.... killer
  • ifut.... lover
  • akuti.... winners
Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut the winner.

Finite Forms[edit]

In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • two MOODS (indicative and hypothetical)
  • three TENSES (present, past, future)
  • five ASPECTS (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional)
  • two VOICES (active, passive)
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person suject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he is, etc.

Moods[edit]

There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
  • Indicative Mood
The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, and future indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.
  • Hypothetical Mood
Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an imagined if-condition, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (If I were a rich man...)
  • an imagined then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (I would be happy.)

Aspects[edit]

There are four aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
  • the CONDITIONAL aspect, i.e. an action supposed to happen.
  • The Simple Aspect (default)
Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, and non-conditional.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (saxer to create and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 saxer VERB #2 ser
INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxe. I create At se. I am
INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxa. I created At sa. I was
INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxo. I will create At so. I will be
HYPOTHETICAL ATEMPORAL SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxu. I would create [CONDITIONAL]
Vas yat saxu! Let's create! [HORTATIVE]
Saxu has! Create it! [IMPERATIVE]
Vas hyat saxu! May everyone create! [JUSSIVE]
At su. I would be
Vas has su. Let it be.
Su fia! Be good!
Vas hyat su iva! May everyone be happy!
  • The Simple Indicative Present Tense
The simple indicative present tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
  • The Simple Indicative Past Tense
The simple past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time.
  • The Simple Indicative Future Tense
The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
  • The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal
A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
Generally, if a verb form ending in u begins a sentence, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!. If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers vas, ves, or vos, than it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per. I would like to go.. If the subject of the verb is preceded by ves if, then it is a SUBJUNCTIVE (unreal conditional) clause as in Ves at su nasikat... If I were a rich man.. If the subject is preceded by Vas that/let/may or vos don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Vas et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Vas yat fadilu. Let us pray. or a prohibition like Vos tilu his! Don't drink this!.

Voices[edit]

Mirad has two voices, ACTIVE and PASSIVE (although REFLEXIVES and RECIPROCALS can be produced lexically.).
  • Active Voice
The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
  • Passive Voice
A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE PASSIVE EXAMPLE
INFINITIVE xer to do xwer to be done Ese hyos xwer. There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPAL sexea constructing sexewa being constructed His se sexewa. This is under construction.
PRESENT xe does xwe is done Huyenasi hoj xwe. Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPAL xaa having done x(a)wa done Hyas se xawa. Everything is done.
PAST tojba killed tojbwa was killed Hoj it tojbwa? When was he killed?
HYPOTHETICAL bakxu heal bakxwu be healed Hav it bakxwu. May he be healed.
Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobob tajbwa zajub. The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobob taja zajub. The child was born yesterday.)
  • Reflexive Voice
A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
  • tojber to kill uttojber to kill oneself
  • milber to wash utmilber to wash up
  • teater to see utteater to see oneself
  • yalber to lift utyalber to lift oneselfUtyalbu! Lift yourself up!
  • ter to know utter to know oneselfUttu! Know thyself!
  • Reciprocal Voice
A verb is made reciprocal by using hyit-hyut one another as the object, for example:
  • tojber to kill tojber hyit-hyut to kill one another
  • vyixer to wash vyixer hyit-hyut to wash one another
  • teater to see teater hyit-hyut to see one another

Aspects Revisited[edit]

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple conditional refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
SIMPLE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE PRESENT at xe.... I do Has xwe.... it is done
SIMPLE PAST at xa.... I did Has xwa.... it was done
SIMPLE FUTURE at xo.... I will do Has xwo.... it will be done
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL at xu.... I would do Has xwu.... it would be done

The Progressive Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PROGRESSIVE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE at xeye.... I am doing Has xewe.... it is being done
PAST PROGRESSIVE at xeya.... I was doing Has xewa.... it was being done
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE at xeyo.... I am going to be doing Has xewo.... it will be happening
CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE at xeyu.... I would be doing Has xewu.... it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PERFECT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PERFECT at xaye.... I have done Has xawe.... it has been done
PAST PERFECT at xaya.... I had done Has xawa.... it had been done
FUTURE PERFECT at xayo.... I will have done Has xawo.... it will have been done
CONDITIONAL PERFECT at xayu.... I would have done Has xawu.... it would have been done

The Imminent Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
IMMINENT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT IMMINENT at xoye.... I am going to do Has xowe.... it is going to be done
PAST IMMINENT at xoya.... I was going to do Has xowa.... it was going to be done
FUTURE IMMINENT at xoyo... I will be about to do Has xowo.... it will be about to be done
CONDITIONAL IMMINENT (not used) (not used)

The Potential Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
POTENTIAL ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT POTENTIAL at xuye I am to do Has xuwe it is to be done, it is doable
PAST POTENTIAL at xuya I was to do Has xuwa it was to be done, it was doable
FUTURE PERFECT (not used) (not used)
CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)

Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit]

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
STATE MOOD ASPECT TENSE VOICE CONJUGATED FORM
INFINITIVE SIMPLE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xer to do
xwer to be done, to happen
INFINITIVE PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaer to have done
xwaer to have been done, to have happend
PARTICIPLE PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xea doing
xwea being done, happening
PARTICIPLE PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaa having done
xwaa xwa done, happened
PARTICIPLE IMMINENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoa about to do
xwoa about to happen
PARTICIPLE POTENTIAL ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xua bound to do
xwua doable
GERUND ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xen doing, deed
xwen being done, happening, event
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xe does
xwe is done, happens
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xa did
xwa was done, happened
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xo will do
xwo will be done, will happen
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL / IMPERATIVE)
SIMPLE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xu would do, do!
xwu would be done, would happen, be done!
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeye is doing
xewe is being done, is happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeya was doing
xewa was doing, was happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeyo will be doing
xewo will be happening
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL)
PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeyu would be doing
xewu would be happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaye has done
xawe has been done, has happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaya had done
xawa had been done, had happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xayo will have done
xawo will have been done, will have happened
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL)
PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xayu would have done
xawu would have been done, would have happened
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoye is about to do
xowe is about to be done, is about to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoya was to be done
xowa was to be done, was to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xuye is supposed to do
xuwe is supposed to be done, is supposed to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xuya was supposed to do
xuwa was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen

Predicate Types[edit]

Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to whether the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed as a question (INTERROGATIVE), a declaration (DECLARATIVE), a negation (NEGATIVE), affirmation (AFFIRMATIVE), or combinations of these.

Making Predicates Interrogative[edit]

To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duves Tell me whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos? What?, Hot? Who(m)?, or Hom? where?. Note that the Du in Duves means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duves...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word ves without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duves is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos? What? and Hom? Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Et se tadsa..... You are married. Duves et se tadsa?.... Are you married?
Ha mari se maya..... The stars are bright. Duves ha mari se maya?.... Are the stars bright?
Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?.... Who won?
Iyt aka glas.....He won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?.... How much did she win?
It paye..... He has gone. Hom it paye?.... Where has he gone?
Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
  • Et tame ha yubem?.... You live in the neighborhood?
Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duves usually are answered with va yes, ve maybe, or vo no or their equivalents.
YES-NO QUESTION ANSWER
Duves eta dyun se John?.... Is your name John? Vo, se Bill..... No, it's Bill.
Duves eta apet aka?.... Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka....Yes. Mine won indeed.
Duves et texe vas ha malyen gafiso hijub?.... Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve..... Maybe.
Fe per bay at?... Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.... Maybe tomorrow.

Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit]

The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
  INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION
AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe.... Yes, I indeed/do/really agree.
DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po..... Maybe. I may/possibly will go.
NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva..... No. I would not be happy.

Mixing Them Up[edit]

The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
  • Duves et voy se tadsa?.... Aren't you married?
  • Avhos iyt se voy tadsa?.... Why isn't she married?
  • Vey voy mamilo..... It may not rain.
  • At vay voy tadso iyt..... I will certainly not marry her.
  • Et peyo, vya?.... You will go, right?
  • Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa..... No. That may indeed be wrong.
  • Et te ha dud, vya?.... You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
  • At voy te. .... I don't know.
  • At te voy. .... I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]

Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit]

An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the hypothetical without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
  • Ipu!.... Go away!
  • Tiju!.... Wake up!
  • Su fiat!.... Be a good person!
Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer vas that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive' mood.
  • Vas yat fadilu..... Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
  • Vas et aku hia ifek..... May you win this game.
  • Vas ha edeb yagteju..... Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
  • Vos dalu at huyen..... Don't (you) speak to me that way.
  • Vos yit oku..... May they not lose.
  • Vos yat toxu it..... Let's not forget him.

Complementizers[edit]

Hav, hev, and hov are part of a whole system of complementizers:
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZERS MEANING MIRAD
EXAMPLE
ENGLISH
EQUIVALENT
INTERROGATIVE duhev...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duhev eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John?
CONDITIONAL hev if, whether Hev et te, du has.
At utdide hev it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless Oves et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win.
POSITIVE/HORTATIVE hav that, so that, let, may At ta hav it upo.
Hav yat dilo.
Hav et su iva.
At xa has hav et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let's pray.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE Hov Don't, let...not, lest Hov teaxu at.
Hov yat su uva.
At pio hov et futepyensu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.

Subjunctive Clauses[edit]

The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer hav that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
  • Ha ideb dila hav at tyoibu za it..... The king asked that I kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa hav et upu gwa ig..... It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
  • Dirwa hav hyat dolu..... It was ordered that everyone be silent.
A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest.
  • Su bikaya hov et pyosu..... Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
The conditional complementizer hev if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
  • At sexu tam hev at su nasika....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
  • Hos et xu hev et baysu ga nas?...What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
  • Ha ideb dila at tyoiber za it..... The king asked me to kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig..... It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
  • Hyat dirwa doler..... Everyone was ordered to be silent.
  • Su bikaya voy pyoser..... Be careful not to fall.

If-Then Conditional Clauses[edit]

A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer hev if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
IF-CLAUSE THEN-CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Hev ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
ot akxe.
one succeeds.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
Hev et ta,
If you knew,
et dola.
you kept quiet.
FUTURE INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
Hev et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
Hev at su nasika,
If I were rich,

Hev et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nusbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.

et testu.
you would understand.
PAST HYPOTHETICAL PAST HYPOTHETICAL
Hev at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."

If/Whether Subordinate Clauses[edit]

Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer hev whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
At utdide
I wonder
hev it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
At voy te
I don't know
hev yit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
At voy te
I don't know
hev et ujako.
if / whether you will succeed.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
At utdide
I wonder
hev et yantexu.
if / whether you would agree.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it se tadsa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
At dida
I asked
hev iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
PAST INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
At dida
I asked
hev it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST HYPOTHETICAL
At dida
I asked
hev it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
The negative conditional complementizer ohev unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Ot voy ujake
One does not succeed
ohev ot yexe jestay.
unless one works hard.
FUTURE INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Et voy teato at
You won't see me
ohev et upo.
unless you come (= will come).

Relative Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses are of two types:
  • Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
  • Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.

Bound Relative Clauses[edit]

The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
  • Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jabi, bayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
  • Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
  • Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
  • Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
  • Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
  • Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya ob it je gla jabi....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha toybi hu at deuza av iyti fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/iyta/yita/yiyta (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
  • Ata yubati, hu yita tam sa jay ga aga vyel yatas, agaxa yita param gajod....Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
  • Ha dyeni hu at dyedi (hasi) zamaj sa hya fiasi....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good (ones).

Free Relative Clauses[edit]

Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS MIRAD...ENGLISH EXAMPLE
THING(S) has hu...what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu...what/those which/the things that
hyes hu...whatever/anything that
hyesi hu...whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu...everything that/all that
hyasi hu...all (things) that
hyos hu...nothing (that)
hyosi hu...none of the things (that)
haas hu...which one
haasi hu...which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futepyenua at....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu...who//the person (who)
hati hu...those who/the ones who
hyet hu...whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu...whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu...everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu...all (people) who
hyot hu...nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu...no people (that/who)
huta hu...whose
haat hu...which one
haati hu...which ones
Hat hu et teata pia....The person you saw left.
Hsti hu at tye yantexe....The people I know agree.
At teapo hyet wa at fe....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtya sa fiyena....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hati hu ifpot his se....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe....I know which ones (people) I like least.
RELATIVE ADVERBS MIRAD ADVERB...ENGLISH ADVERB EXAMPLE
PLACE ham hu...where
hyem hu...wherever
hyam hu...everywhere
hu...bi ham...from where, whence
hu...bu ham...to where, whither
Yat teje ham hu ha malyem se ema....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu...when
hyej hu...whenever
hyaj hu...everywhere
Du at haj hu et puo....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu...how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu...however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu...how, to what extent
hyigla hu...just as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se....You'll never know how happy I am.
At popo hugla hu yib at yafe....
I will travel as far as I can.
QUANTITY hagla hu...how much, how many
hyegla hu...however much, however many
hyigla hu...as much/many as
Duhev et te hagla hu nas it bayse?...Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla hu tami yat sexa....You guys asked us however many houses did we build.
Et niso hyigla hu nas at xe....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON avhas hu...why, for what reason
avhyes hu...why ever, for whatever reason
Duhev et te avhas hu it xa hus....Do you know why he did that?
Yat voy teste avhyes hu et xu hus....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
  • RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu yata mer zyupe has dyunie ha amar. The star that our planet goes around (Lit: it) is called the sun.
  • NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha amar, hu yata mer zyupe has, se vay ahay mar. The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a star.

Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit]

As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.

Indirect Discourse[edit]

Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer hav (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad hav complementizer can never be omitted.
  • At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would (= will) come.
  • Ata ted da hav it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut..... My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
  • Se vyaa hav at gra tele..... It is true that I eat too much.
  • At jada hav et puo jwa..... I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
The conditional complementizer hev if, whether and the negative complementizer hov lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.

Direct Discourse[edit]

Direct discourse works exactly as in English. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
  • Iyt da, "At voy fe per." She said, "I don't want to go."
  • At dida it, "Hot sa eta ted?". I asked him, "Who was your father?"

Transitivity[edit]

Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit]

Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE
xer do ser be
agxer grow (something) agser grow (up)
amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up
puxer throw puser jump
per go ber put
aber put on aper get on
yaber raise yaper rise
poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop
yuber bring yuper approach
yeber insert yeper enter
  • At agxe vobi..... I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ha vobi agseye ig..... The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ha par!.... Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ha par posa..... The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ha mis..... I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ha amar yapaye..... The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].

Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity[edit]

Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer to sleep vs. tujper to fall asleep.
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
Ha mes yija....The door opened.
Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open.
At yijba ha mes....I opened the door.
Ha mes yuja.....The door closed.
Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned.
At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door.
Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started.
Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately.
At ijba ata tul.....I started my meal.
Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended.
Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end.
A ujba ha dyen.....I finished the book.
Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening.
Ha tob tojpa.....
The man dropped dead.
Hot tojba ha tob?....Who killed the man?
Teju.....Live!.
Tejpu!.....Come alive!.
Yat efe tejber ha tob.....We need to revive the man.
Ha tobob taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Iyt tajba awa tobob zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday.
At tija jwe.....I woke up on time.
It voy tijpa.....
He did not come to..
At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early.
At tujeya.....I was sleeping.
At tujpeya.....
I was falling sleep.
At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep..
The transitive voice of verbs like those in the above chart can be made passive with w:
  • Ha tob tojbwa zomoj.....The man was killed last evening.
  • Ha tobob tajbwo bey ha bekut.....The baby will be delivered by the nurse.
  • Ha bukwat voy yafe tejbwer.....The injured person cannot be saved.
  • Ha mis yijbwa je ha moj.....The window was opened during the night.

Reflexive Verbs[edit]

Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye atut..... I am going to kill myself.
  • Tu etut!.... Know thyself!
  • It gorba itut bay gorbar..... He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer otut..... One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber.... commit suicide
  • utboler.... support oneself
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyimiler etut..... You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
  • Et efe utvyimiler.....You need to wash up.

Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit]

Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE
per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home., It pa Paris. He went to Paris.
der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name., Du at has. Tell it to me.
peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me.
buer give (to) Buu at hua dyes. Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu has bu at. Give it to me.

Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs[edit]

Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE
-xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaxer
to magnify
agxer
to grow
ana
one
anaxer
to unify
anxer
to unite
yona
apart
yonaxer
to separate
yonxer
to cut
yaga
long
yagaxer
to lengthen
yagxer
to stretch
yuga
slow
yugaxer
to retard
yugxer
to brake
sana
formal
sanaxer
to formalize
sanxer
to form
gea
equal
geaxer
to equalize
gexer
to copy, equate
jaa
prior
jaaxer
to prioritize
jaxer
to prepare
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE
-ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaser
to get bigger
agser
to grow
ana
one
anaser
to unify
anser
to unite, become united
yona
apart
yonaser
to become separate
yonser
to break


Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
  • Ansu ey yet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Hisi agaxo has hu et teate. These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
  • Hia tobot agseye ig. This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom. My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]

Derived from Nouns[edit]

Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE
mog ash mogxer
to incinerate
mogser
to become ashes
yan collection yanxer
to collect
yanser
to get together
tad spouse tadxer
to marry
tadser
to get married
yom ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
yomser
to freeze/become ice
mag fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
magser
to burn, get burned
uk void ukxer
to empty
ukser
become empty, empty out

Derived from Verbs[edit]

Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
  • At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj..... I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at..... You cannot make me go.
  • It tojbuxa yit..... He had them killed.
  • At efe vyilxuxer ata par..... I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa him avhes..... You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et..... I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at..... You cannot make me sing.
  • At ivteuduxwa..... I was tickled (= made to laugh).
  • Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat..... Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Hav het ivasuxu et..... May someone get you to be happy.

Directional Verbs[edit]

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED
bier to take buer to give
nier to consume nuer to supply
nyier to order nyuer to deliver
nunier to buy nunuer to sell
nazunier win a prize nazunuer award a prize
noysier pay off noysuer charge
ojbier borrow ojbuer lend
tadier get married taduer marry off
papier take flight papuer send off flying
pipier set sail pipuer dock
simbier take a seat simbuer offer a seat
tampier leave home tampuer arrive home
tamier settle in tamuer shelter
nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell
telier to eat teluer to feed
gonbier to participate gonbuer to share
tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink
teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out
teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show
taxier to memorize taxuer to remind
alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire
ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak
ifier to enjoy ifuer to please
dier to ask duer to suggest
tier to learn tuer to inform
pier to depart puer to arrive
kebier to choose kebuer to distribute
tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep
tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill
byier to originate byuer to target
mempier to take off mempuer to land
sinier visualize sinuer display
xier to result xuer to cause

Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
ab on aber apply aper get on, mount
ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount
eb between eber block eper intervene
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yob down yober take down yoper descend
yub near yuber bring near yuper approach
yib far yiber take away yiper go far away
yeb in yeber insert yeper enter
yeb in yepuxer throw in yepuser jump in
oyeb out oyeber expose oyeper exit
oyeb out oyepuxer eject oyepuser jump out
zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper revolve
zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour
av for avdaler plead avper pursue
ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene
yan together yanber compose yanper meet
yon apart yonber separate yonper separate
iz direct izber lead izper head
uz curved uzber divert uzper diverge
yuz around yuzbexer surround yuzper circulate
yiz beyond yizber transfer yizper surpass
Note:
The prefix eej- anew, again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember to positioneejember to reposition, replace
  • der to sayeejder to repeat
  • sanxer to shape, formeejsanxer to reshape, reform
The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer to build, constructlosaxer to destroy, deconstruct
  • yonxer to uniteloyonxer to disunite
  • xer to doloxer to undo
The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
  • nadxer to alignvyonadxer to misalign
  • der to sayvyoder to misstate, lie
  • utbier to appropriatevyoutbier to misappropriate
The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer to operateyanexer to cooperate
  • tamer to dwellyantamer to cohabit
  • napber to put in orderyannapber to coordinate
The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
  • teaper to visitzoyteaper to revisit
  • uper to comezoyuper to return, come back
  • buxer to pushzoybuxer to repel, push back
  • puxer to throwzoypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison
The prefix az- (from aza strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
  • yujber to closeazyujber to lock
  • der to sayazder to emphasize
  • duer to suggestazduer to urge
  • dizeuder to laughazdizeuder to guffaw
By contrast, the prefix oz- (from oza weak) is used as a softener, eg.:
  • der to utterozder to whisper
  • duer to suggestozduer to hint
  • dizeuder to laughozdizeuder to chuckle
  • uvteuder to moanozuvteuder to whimper
The prefix ja- before is used as the English prefix pre-, fore-, or ante-, eg.:
  • der to telljader to foretell, predict
  • teater to seejateater to foresee, preview
  • ter to knowjater to presage, have foreknowledge of
  • yever to judgejayever to prejudge
  • juder to datejajuder to antedate
By contrast, jo- after is used as the English prefix post-, eg.:
  • juder to datejojuder to postdate
  • texer to thinkjotexer to reflect on, review
  • der to sayjoder to mourn, regret
  • ibler to obtainjoibler to inherit
The prefix gra- too much is used for actions that are excessive, eg.:
  • telier to eatgratelier to overeat
  • fer to wantgrafer to cover
  • der to saygrader to exaggerate
  • daler to talkgradaler to yammer

By contrast, the prefix gro- to little is used for actions that are underdone, eg.:

  • fyinder to valuegrofyinder to underestimate
  • mageler to cookgromageler to undercook

Modal Verbs[edit]

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.

Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
POSITIVE   NEGATIVE
afer may
ayfer might
efer need ofer may not
oyfer might not
ifer love
iyfer like
fer want ufer hate
uyfer dislike
yafer can, be able
yayfer might, could
yefer must, have to
yeyfer ought, should
yofer cannot
yoyfer could not, might not
yifer dare   yufer be afraid
yiver have a right, be free   yuver be bound
If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
  • At fe per..... I want to go.
  • At fu per..... I would like to go.
  • Et yafe aker..... You can win.
  • Et yafu aker..... You could win.
  • Yet yefe iper..... You must leave.
  • Yet yefu iper..... You ought to leave.
Post-iotating the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
  • At ife et. ....I love you.
  • At iyfe et. ....I like you.
  • Et yefe iper..... You must leave.
  • Et yeyfe iper..... You should leave.
  • Iyt yafe aker..... She can win.
  • Iyt yayfe aker..... She might win.
  • At ufa uda tuz..... I hated that art.
  • At uyfa uda tuz..... I disliked that art.
By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
  • Hua toyb yufxa at..... That woman scared me.
  • Hua toyb yulfxa at..... That woman intimidated me.
  • Hua toyb yurfxa at..... That woman terrorized me.
  • Hia yex efwo..... This work will be necessary.
  • Hia yex elfwo..... This work will be critical.
  • Hia yex erfwo..... This work will be indispensable.
  • Su yifa..... Be brave.
  • Su yilfa..... Be bold.
  • Su yirfa..... Be heroic.
  • Et yuve buer nas..... You are supposed to give money.
  • Et yulve buer nas..... You are bound to give money.
  • Et yurve buer nas..... You are absolutely compelled to give money.
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe oyeper ay ifeker..... You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer..... We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier him..... One is prohibited to smoke here.
  • Mavier him ofwe..... Smoking here is prohibited.
  • At ife dyeer..... I love to read.
  • He et fe yebuper?.... Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et edjub..... I would like to visit you some day.
  • It ufaye hyaj teaxwer..... He has always hated being looked at.
  • Duhev et iyfe per tilami?.... Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa..... I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu..... You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas..... You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay..... You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi..... I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der hyea fuas..... I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Hov yufu der has hu et tesde..... Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut..... You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuve kyoejer..... We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit]

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented", eg:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED VERB SUBJECT-ORIENTED ADJECTIVE PATIENT-ORIENTED VERB PATIENT-ORIENTED ADJECTIVE
afer may afa allowed afwer be permitted afwa permissable
efer need efa needful efwer be necessary efwa necessary, required
ofer be unallowed ofa prohibited ofwer be prohibited ofwa banned
yafer be able yafa able yafwer be possible yafwa possible
yefer must yefa obliged yefwer be obligatory yefwa obligatory
yofer be unable yofa unable yofwer be impossible yefwa impossible
fer want fa willing fwer be desirable fwa desirable, wanted
yifer dare yofa daring, brave yifwer be safe yifwa safe
yufer be afraid yifa afraid yufwer be a danger yufwa frightning
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him. It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him. It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) hav yet dolu. It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser him gajob. It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder. It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe hav et piu ig. It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi? Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo. More help will be needed.
*Ofawa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.

Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit]

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
afxer allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer permit (something to be done)
efxer require efwaxer necessitate
ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit
yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible
yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory
yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable
yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe
yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening
ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant

Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit]

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yafa able to X, -able -yofa unable to X, un-X-able
PATIENT-ORIENTED -yafwa possible to X -yofwa impossible to X
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -ifa fond of Xing, Xophile -ufa averse to Xing, Xophobic
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yika hard of Xing yuka comfortable Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED -yikwa hard to X yukwa easy to X
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -efa in need of Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED -efwa necessary to X
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyafer be able to see teatyofa blind teatyofer be blind
PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa visible teatyafwer be visible teatyofwa invisible teatyofwer be invisible
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyafer be able to hear teetyofa deaf teatyofer be deaf
PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa audible teetyafwer be audible teeyofwa inaudible teeyofwer be inaudiable
SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa able to speak dalyafer be able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb dalyofer be mute, dumb
SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa patriotic doabifer be patriotic doabufa rebellious doabufer rebel
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa sensitive tosyafer be able to feel tosyofa insensitive tosyofer be numbed
PATIENT-ORIENTED tayotyafwa palpable tayotyafwer be palpable tayotyofwa numb tayotyofwer be impalbable, numb
PATIENT-ORIENTED tidyukwa easy to understand tidyukwaxer make easily understood tidyikwa hard to understand tidyikwaxer make hard to understand
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa thirsty tilefer be thirsty
SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa hungry telefer be hungry
PATIENT-ORIENTED tejefwa vital tejefwer be vital

Sensing Verbs[edit]

Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern:
VISUAL AUDIAL OLFACTORY GUSTATORY TACTILE
teab eye teeb ear teib nose teub mouth tayob skin
RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE teater see teeter hear teiter smell teuter taste tayoter feel
RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE teatwer be seen teetwer be heard teitwer be smelled teutwer be tasted tayotwer be felt
STATIVE teaser seem teeser sound teiser smell teuser taste tayoser feel
(or) toser
DYNAMIC/ACTIVE teaxer look at teexer listen teixer sniff teuxer taste tayoxer touch
(or) toxer
DYNAMIC/PASSIVE teaxwer be looked at teexwer be listened to teixwer be sniffed teuxwer be tasted tayoxwer be touched
(or) toxwer
CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE teatuer show teetuer make hear teixuer make smell teuxuer offer a taste tayoxuer make feel
(or) toxuer
CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE teatuwer be shown teetuwer be made to hear teituwer be made to smell teutuwer be given a taste tayotuwer be made to feel
(or) toxuwer
INCHOATIVE/ACTIVE teatier perceive,
catch sight of
teetier catch the
sound of
teitier get a whiff of teutuer get a taste of tayotier get the sensation of
INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE teatiwer be perceived teetiwer be heard teitiwer be whiffed teutiwer be tasted tayotiwer be felt
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/
STATIVE
teatyofer be blind teetyofer be deaf teityofer be unable to smell teityofer be unable to taste tayotyofer be insensitive
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/
STATIVE
teatyofwer be invisible teetyofwer be inaudible teityofwer be undetectable
odorwise
teityofwer be insipid tayotyofwer be undetectable
by touch
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofxer blind teetyofxer deafen teityofxer desensitize
to smell
teutyofxer desensitize to
taste
tayotyofxer desensitize
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofwaxer make invisible teetyofwaxer make inaudible teityofwaxer make odorless teutyofwaxer render tasteless tayotyofwaxer numb
Examples of usage:
  • At teatyofxwa bey ha mani. I was blinded by the lights.
  • Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea. The noise was deafening.
  • Hia tit se gla teatiyea. This pupil is very perceptive.
  • Hua bekil se teityofwa. That medecine is odorless (impossible to smell).
  • Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni. Make the spots invisible.
  • Ha magmeb yonpyerx tayotyafwa zya ha mir. The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.

Prepositions[edit]

Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.

Single-word Prepositions[edit]

Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
SPATIAL
ab on, upon eb between ob off, off of
ayb over, above eyb among, amid oyb under, below
bu to be at bi from, of
byu as far as, up to   byi since, starting with
bay with bey by boy without
ub toward   ib away from
yub near (to) yeb in
oyeb out of
yib far (from)
yaz flush with yez along yoz perpendicular to
yuz around   yiz beyond
za in front of ze at the middle of
zey across
zo behind, in back of
zu (to the) left (of)   zi (to the) right (of)
zya throughout zye through  
TEMPORAL
ja before je during, while jo after
ju until   ji since
RELATIONAL
av for vyel than, as, compared to, about ov against
ay and ey or oy but, except
MATHEMATICAL
gab plus, +   gob, - minus
gal times, x gel like
ogel unlike
gol, ÷ divided by
gar to the power of gor to the root of
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ha dyen se ab ha sem..... The book is on the table.
  • Hov et pyosu ob ha abtamas!.... Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ha pati papa ayb ata tam..... The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ha yagsim..... He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb hut ay at..... Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati..... We live among good people.
  • Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?.... What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • His se ifek bi kyen..... This is a game of luck.
  • Duvas et sa be hua duzun zomoj?.... Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil..... We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis..... She walked up to the door.
  • Ha tob tojbwa bey gobar..... The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at ev boy at..... You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ha amar..... Look away from the sun.
  • Hov teaxu iz ub ja man..... Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Et efe tyoyaper yuz ha ovon..... You need to walk around the obstacle.
  • Yat yofe per yiz hia nod..... We are prohibited from going beyond this point.
  • Iyt simpa za at. .... She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb..... You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu has zu ha mis..... Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simpo zi et..... I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ha pat poosa ze ha tim..... The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Diwe hav et poosu yeb ha tam..... Please stay in the house.
  • At so oyebdom av yoga joob..... I will be out of town for a short while.
  • Ha mimpar mimpa yaz ha mip..... The boat sailed along the river.
  • His xwa zya ha doob..... This happened throughout the nation.
  • Mil upeye zye ha mes..... Water is coming through the door.
  • His xwo ja zajub. .... This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ha moj..... There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj..... Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub..... I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe xu hes av at..... Please do something for me.
  • Hia dyen se din av ewa fiuti..... This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia vyel nas. Friendship is better than money.
  • Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat..... They were working against us.
  • Et ay at yeyfe ser dati..... You and I should be friends.
  • Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
  • Hyat oy hut ta ha dud..... Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at..... You are not like me.
  • Et se hyagla ogel at..... You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u..... Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e..... Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u..... Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a..... Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya..... Four squared equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Alya gor e gese u..... The square root of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the root of two...)

Directional Adverbs[edit]

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions:
yub near yib far
yab up yob down
zay forward, ahead zoy back
iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout
The next section lists some phrasal prepositions using the above directional adverbs.

Phrasal Prepositions[edit]

Phrasal prepositions contain one or more prepositions in some combination with either a noun or an adverb. This chart shows some examples:
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bu near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et..... I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer..... The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam..... He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi up from Su yab bi ha sim..... Get up from the bed.
yab bey up (along) Yat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab..... We will walk up the hill.
yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos..... Run down to the cellar.
yob bi down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam..... The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey down from Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab..... She ran down the hill.
yob ab down on top of Has kawa yob ab eta oybmos..... It was found down on your floor.
zay bu on to, forth to Ha elyanaadpar popa zay bu zona doym..... The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat..... She sat across from us.
zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ha yexim..... I am back from the office.
iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim..... He came right back from the office.

Idiomatic Prepositional Phrases[edit]

The following chart shows other prepositional phrases that are considered idiomatic, because they are somewhat abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun in these phrases:
OTHER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of
be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of
be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between
be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above
be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below
be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of yez eybem bi in the midst of
be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of
be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of
be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of
be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of
be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of
be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with
be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with
be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route
bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of
be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of
be nod bi at the point of be yezem bi at the interior of, inside be yozem bi at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay in line with yez kunad bi alongside be tes bi in the sense of
be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with
be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of

Conjunctions[edit]

Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. They are divided into coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Also some conjunctions consist of a combination of words.

Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

This chart shows the coordinating conjunctions used in Mirad:
ay and
ey or
oy but
oey nor
Usage examples:
  • At oveko ay at ako. I will compete and I will win.
  • Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et. Be still or I will spank you.
  • It yeka oy it oka. He tried but he lost.
  • At voy tilo oey at telo. I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.

Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

The above coordinating conjunctions can be associated in correlative pairs, as follows:
hyaewa...ay both...and
hyeawa...ey either...or
hyoawa...oey neither...nor
voy hyawa...oy (gay) not only...but (also)
Examples:
  • At hyaewa dyede ay dre Mirad..... I both read and write Mirad.
  • Et yafe hyeawa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun..... You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
  • Yat hyoawa move oey tile..... We neither smoke nor drink.
  • At voy hyawa deuze oy gay at daze.....I not only sing but also I dance.

Complementizers[edit]

There are five complementizers (= subordinating conjunctions) that either connect clauses, where the second clause is subordinate to the main clause, or introduce a certain kind of statement.
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZER CLAUSE LINKER SENTENCE INTRODUCER
POSITIVE / HORTATIVE hav that, so that May (something happen), Let (something happen)
CONDITIONAL hev if, whether --
NEGATIVE / PROHIBITIVE hov lest, that...not Don't
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless --
INTERROGATIVE Duhev...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)?
Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
  • At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would come.
  • At xa has hav et testu..... I did it so that you would understand.
  • At voy ta hev et upo..... I did not know whether you would come.
  • Hev et te ha dud, du has..... If you know the answer, say it.
  • At yufa hov et upu..... I feared lest you come.
  • At voy upo ohev et upo gay..... I will not come unless you come, too.
Example of these conjunctions introducing a sentence:
  • Hav yat fadilu..... Let us pray. (HORTATIVE)
  • Hav yit teliu avol!.... Let them eat bread.
  • Hav ad edeb yagteju..... May the king live long.
  • Duhev et te ad dud?.... Do you know the answer?
  • Duhev et se tadsa..... Say whether you are married.
  • Hov (et) yufu..... Don't (you) be afraid.
  • Hov ud xwu..... Let that not happen.
  • Hev et te, du has..... If you know, say so.
  • Hev hus se vyaa otwe..... Whether that's true is unknown.
  • Hev et upo ey voy, at voy tebike..... Whether you come or not, I don't care.
The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duhev (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether....
  • Duhev et se tadokayt?.... Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).

Composite Conjunctions[edit]

Other conjunctions are formed with two or more words, which, because of their frequency, are usually written together as one word:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES
jahu.... before Du hay jahu1 et pio..... Say hi before you leave.
jehu.... while Jehu at so him, at xo gle yex av et..... While I'm here, I'll do some work for you.
johu.... after At buo et has johu et nuso..... I will give it to you after you pay.
juhu.... until Yat voy ijo juhu et puo him..... We won't start until you get here.
jihu.... since At voy teataya huyenas jihu et sa hum..... I had not seen such a thing since you were there.
hajhu.... when Hajhu et pua, ha iv ija..... When you arrived, the fun began.
johus.... then Yat deuza johus hyat daza..... We sang, then everyone danced.
jehus.... meanwhile Jehus, at ujba hyas..... Meanwhile, I finished everything.
hamhu.... where At voy te hamhu it pa..... I don't know where he went.
avhashu.... why Duhev et te avhashu it xa his?.... Do you know why he did it?
avhashu.... because It xa has avhashu it fa teatuer yat hes..... He did it because he wanted to show us something.
geyhu.... even if Geyhu et yontexe, at bolo et..... Even if you disagree, I'll support you.
hayenhu.... as if Yat yeyfe axer hayenhu yat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing.
gelhu.... as if Yat yeyfe axer gelhu yat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing.
gey ovhu.... even though Gey ovhu ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.....Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it.
ovhu.... (al)though At po ovhu at voy fe..... I'll go, although I don't want to.
avhus.... so, therefore It vuda at, avhus at pia..... He insulted me, so I left.
1. Before as a preposition followed by a noun or pronoun is just ja, but as a conjunction, the element hu is attached because a verbal clause follows: At upo ja et. I will come after you. vs. At upo jahu et upo. I will come after you come. All conjunctions, since they are followed by a verbal clause, end in -hu. Those that end in -hus that are really connective adverbs. The connective adverb so is translated by avhus, which really means for that.

Interjections[edit]

Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
va yes
ve maybe, perhaps
vo* no
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, it voy se tadsa. He is not married.

Examples:
  • Va. At se otadsa..... Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadsa..... Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay..... Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa..... Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo?.... Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay..... Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et..... No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe hov xu has..... No! Don't do it.
  • Et se Amerikama, va vo?.... You're American, yes or no?
  • Hev va, xu has..... If so, do it.
  • Hev vo, wo xu has..... If not, don't do it.
Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
INITIAL GREETING hay! Hello!, Hi!
VOCATIVE GREETING hey! Hey!, O!, Oh!
TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is...
DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is...
POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hway!* Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!,Hurrah!, Thanks!
SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hwey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!, You're welcome!
NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hwoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!, Sorry!
  • hw is pronounced like the wh in English words.
Examples:
  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Hoyena et se?....Hey, John, how are you?
  • Hey, Fyaat! O, God!
  • Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ha dyen et dila..... Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tobyan..... Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundraf..... Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xawa..... Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy hos at yaka..... There's what I expected.
  • Hway et!.... Good for you!
  • Hway! Et utnaze his...... Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hwey via maj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hwey At ta voy hav et upo..... Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hwoy at..... Woe is me.
  • Hwoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay..... Pity!. Better luck next time.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.

Syntax[edit]

[This page under construction]

Mirad is an SVO language like English, that is, the subject (S) comes first, then the verb (V) predicate, then the object (O). Determiners (D) and adjectives (A) generally precede the noun (N) they modify. Adverbs (AD) can float more freely, as long as no ambiguity results.

Following are some example sentences showing this word order:

  • Yat (S) iyfe (V) pit (O)....We (S) like (V) fish (O).
  • Yat (S) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O) gla(AD)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O) very much (AD).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) hia (D)yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O) gla(AD)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) this (D) fried (A) fish (N O) very much (AD).
  • Yat (S) gle (AD)) iyfe (V) hia (D)yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) rather (AD) like (V) this (D) fried (A) fish (N O).


Greetings and Other Polite Expressions[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
Hay! Hello!
Hey! Hey!
Hoy! Bye!
Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici
Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voila
Hway!* Great! / Good for you! / Thanks! / Congratulations!
Hwey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well! / Your're welcome!
Hwoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!'
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fimoj! Good evening!
Hoyen et xeye? How are you? (Lit. How are you doing?)
Fi. Ay et? Fine. And you?
Iftaxwo.
Hway.
Thank-you. (Lit. (It) will be fondly remembered.)
Toxu.
Hwey.
You're welcome. (Lit. Forget (it).)
Diwe. Please. (Lit. It is asked.)
Yovobu (at).
Hwoy.
Excuse (me).
Fipop! Bon voyage!
Su valta! Be safe!
Igbaksu! Get well soon!
Yanivtos!
Hway!
Congratulations! (Lit: together-happy-feeling)
Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday!
Yanuvtos!
Hwoy!
My condolences! (Lit: together-sad-feeling)
  • hw is pronounced in Mirad like a wh in English words.

Word Formation[edit]

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings have been attached to consonants and various values have been ascribed to vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of core words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Word Formation[edit]

The vocabulary is built on root morphemes, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from root morphemes in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules.

Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. These root morphemes are divided into two groups:
  • 1st Group:  consisting of nouns
  • 2nd Group:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs.
Root Morphemes of the 1st Group (nouns) are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel1 called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
f a b tree
1. A vowel in this case includes pre-yodified vowels like ya, ye, etc.
Root Morphemes of the 2nd Group (Adjectives, Verbs,and anything but nouns)

are composed of a consonant+vowel or vowel+consonant, such as the following:

ab....on ob....off
bu....to bi....from
if-....love uf-....hate
fi-....good fu-....bad
va....yes vo....no
vya-....true vyo-...false
In a few cases, a 2nd group root morpheme consists of just a single consonant or just a single vowel:
b-....put p-....go
s-....be x-....do
t-....know d-....say
f-....want w-....[passive marker]
i....[plural marker] o....un-
a....[adjective marker] -t...person

Consonants and Their Meanings[edit]

The classifier and generic letters in 1st group root morphemes are consonants and 2nd group root morphemes almost always have one consonant, so one needs to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
CONSONANT 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 2nd Group Root Morphemes Numeric Value
  CLASSIFIER GENERIC CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS
b organ, illness, body, etc. organism gesture, manner, movement
p animal, vehicle movement
s thing, furniture form, thing hundred
x do, action do, action
d society person, thing reading, writing
t person person intelligence, knowing
f vegetation clothing volition
v plant, color linen veracity
g measurement quantity
k condition, risk change, chance
j time time time
z jewel, precious, art spatial
l element, liquid ten
m nature place, building, furniture, metal ml = million
n mechandise abstraction
r tool, machine thousand, mr = billion
The letters l and r are used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word. The letter y, if used before a stem vowel intensifies the semantics of the word, but mitigates the semantics if it follows the stem vowel.
The letter h is used only in certain interjections, conjunctions, and determiners and has no semantic identity.
The letter w has no semantic identity of its own, but is used only to form the passive of verbs and to form a counter morpheme used in numbers, and sometimes to substitute for y when the latter letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo late, instead of jyo).

1st Group Root Morphemes[edit]

The ordinal vowels of noun morphemes have certain values:
  • Numeric Values:
The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-iotated vowels.
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu alo ala ale
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve
A vowel with a numeric value is sometimes prefixed to nouns to form a hierarchy of nouns:
MIRAD
deb
ENGLISH
ruler
MIRAD
dab
ENGLISH
rule
adeb emperor adab empire
edeb king edab kingdom
ideb prince idab principality
udeb duke udab duchy
yodeb marquis, margrave yodab marquisate
yadeb earl, count yadab county, earldom
yedeb lord, vassal yedab dominion
yideb viscount yidab viscountcy
yudeb baron yudab barony
alodeb tribal chief alodab tribe
Sometimes the numeric vowel falls inside the word after the ordinal vowel. This happens with days of the week, as shown here:
MIRAD
jub
ENGLISH
day
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
  • Positional Values:
The positional value of vowels is shown below (Rule nr. 10):
  a.... up, superior, north, ahead, on  
u.... left, west, near e.... center, middle i.... right, east, away
  o.... down, inferior, south, back, off  
  za.... front, ahead  
zu.... left ze.... middle zi.... right
  zo.... back  
  zamir.... north  
zumir.... west zemir.... equator zimir.... east
  zomir.... south  
  ab.... on  
ib.... away eb.... between ub.... toward
  ob.... off  
  yab.... up  
yib.... far yeb.... in yub.... near
  yob.... down  
  ja.... before  
ji.... since je.... during ju.... until
  jo.... after  
  • Geophysical Values:
o outer space, nature
a air, gas, sky
e land, soil, earth
i liquid, water, juice
u underground, minerals
Some examples:
mol nature mom outer space poper travel pot animal mop orbit dop military
mal air mam sky paper fly pat bird map wind dap air force
mel soil mem land peper ride pet land animal mep road dep army
mil water mim sea piper sail pit fish mip river dip marines
mul mineral mum underground puper burrow put bug mup tunnel dup submarine force
Morpheme Chart[edit]
The meaning of the 1st Group root morphemes comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the generic consonant, as show in the chart below. Most often, the root morphemes have a zeroth element in which the ordinal vowel is o. Related, usually hierchically subordinate, words are created by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel.
ROOT MORPHEME CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT
tob man t = human, animal b = organism
tod family t = human, animal d = society
tof clothes t = human, animal f = tissue
tov lingerie t = human, animal v = linen
tol food t = human, animal l = fluid, substance
vob plant v = plant b = organism
tom building t = human, animal m = place
dob state d = social b = organism
dom city d = social m = place
dop military d = social p = movement
som furniture s = thing m = place
pot animal p = movement t = human, animal
Chart of 1st Group root morphemes:
bok....illness bak....health bek....treatment bik....care buk....injury
byok....pain byek....cure
dob....state
doab....fatherland
doeb....federal state
dab....government
adab...empire
edab....kingdom
idab....principality
udab....duchy
yadab....earldom
yedab....dominion
yidab....viscountcy
yudab....barony
alodab....tribe
deb....leader
adeb...emperor
edeb....king
ideb....prince
udeb....duke
yadeb....earl
yedeb....lord
yideb....count
yudeb....baron
alodeb....tribal leader
dib....administrationdub....ministry
dom....city<small
doam....township
doem....village
doim....hamlet
doum....estate
dam....air fielddem....parkdim....fountain
dop....military dap....air forcedep....army
diep....marine force
dip....navydup....submarine forces
dot....society
doyt...club
dat....friend
daat....buddy
det....matedit....citizendut....sir
duut....sire
duyt....madam
duyut....lady
job....time
joob....eon
joab....era
joeb....period
joib....epoch
joub....age
joyob....chron
joyab....term
jod....occasion
jab....yearjeb....season
jeab....spring
jeeb....summer
jeib....autumn
jeub....winter
jej....course
jib....month
jiab....January
jieb....February
jiib....March
jiub....April
jiyob.... May
jiyab....June
jiyeb....July
jiyib....August
jiyub....September
jilob.... October
jilab....November
jileb....December
jub....day
juab....Monday
jueb....Tuesday
jueb....Wednesday
juub....Thursday
juyob....Friday
juyab....Saturday
juab....Sunday
jud....date
jwob....hourjwab....minute jweb....second
mor....universe mar....star
amar...sun
mer....planet
Amer....Mercury
Emer....Venus
Imer....Earth
Umer....Mars
Yomer....Jupiter
Yamer....Saturn
Yemer...Uranus
Yimer....Pluto
mir....worldmur....satellite
amur....moon
mol....nature mal....air
maal...atmosphere
mael...troposphere
mail...stratosphere
maul...ionosphere
mayol...exosphere
mel....soil
meel....terrain
meil....mud
mil....water
mial....steam
miil....dew
mul....matter
mom....cosmos mam....skymem....land
meam...region
meem....territory
meim....countryside
meum....zone
myem....yard
mim....sea<small
miam....lake
miem....lagoon
miim....pond
mium....pool
miyom....puddle
mum....underground
mog....ash
mon....darkness
moz....black
moj....night
mag....fire
man....light
mak....electricity
maz....white
maj....daytime
meg....stone
meag....marble
meeg....slate
meig....granite
meug....clay
meyog....china
meyag....chalk
meyeg....limestone
meyig....alabaster
meyug....gypsum
melog...argil
melag....adobe
meleg....terra cotta
melig....marl
melug....kaolin
melyog....pegmatite
melyag...feldspar
melyig....silica
melyug....flint
mealog....sandstone

mek....dust
miek....sand
myek....powder
myeik....paste
mug....metal
muk....mineral
mop....orbit map....wind
maap....puff
maep....breeze
maip....gust
maup....gale
mayop....typhoon
mep....road
meap....avenue
meep....boulevard
meip....lane
meup....trail
mip....river
miap....stream
miep....brook
miip....rivulet
miup....tributary
mup....tunnel
mof....galaxy
mov....smoke
maf....cloud
maaf....stratus
maef....nimbostratus
maif....cumulus
mauf....cumulonimbus
mayof....stratocumulus
mayaf....allocumulus
mayef....allostratus
mayif....cirrocumulus
mayuf....cirrostratus

mav....flame
mef....brick
mev....porcelaine
mez....crystal
amez....diamond
emez...topaz
imez...ruby
yomez....sapphire
yamez....amethyst
vamez....emerald
muf....rod

muv
mob....chasm
moab....gulf
moeb....ravine
moib....cave
moub....ditch
moyob....depression
moyab....shaft
.... meb....mountain
meab....hill
meeb....knob
meib....mound
meub....ridge
meyob....bump
mub....promontory
muf....pole
mos....floor mas....wallmes....doormis....windowmus....stairs
som....furniture sam....chestsem....tablesim....chair
siim....bench
sum....bed
suam....cushion
nod....point nad....line
naad....rail
naed....lane
naid....stripe

nab....rank
naab....organization

nap....order
naap....system
ned....plane
nyed....grid
nid....volume nud....column
nog....degree nag....measure
sag....number
syag....count
jag....age
xag....frequency
neg....level nig....space
nox....expense
noz....jewel
nax....price
nas....money
naz....value
nam....store
nex....savingsnix....incomenux....payment
nun....merchandise
nyox....waste nyax....accumulation nyex....storage nyix....demand nyux....supply
nof....fabric
nov....linen
naf....cloth
naaf....drape
naef....canvas
naif....velvet
nauf....sail
nayof....denim
nayaf....veil
nef....knit nif....wire
niv....thread
nyof....film
nyov....ribbon
nyaf....knotnyef....sack
nyev....bag
nyem....box
nyif....cord
nyiv....lace
nyuf....button
fob....vegetation fab....tree

faab....sap
faob....wood
fayob....bark
fayeb....leaf
afab....apple tree
efab....pear tree
ifab....cherry tree
ufab....prune tree
yofab....apricot tree
yafab....peach tree
yefab....quince tree
yifab....walnut tree
yufab....hazelnut tree
alofab....blackberry bush
defab....pine tree
dyofab....cocoa plant
fefab....date palm
fifab....banana tree
fufab....coconut palm
fyofab....pomegranate tree
fyifab...fig
kafab....olive vine
lafab....orange tree
lefab....mandarin tree
lifab....lemon tree
lufab....grapefruit tree
lyofab....lime tree
rafab....acorn tree
refab....beechnut tree
rifab....chestnut tree
safab....tea plant
sefab....coffee plant
sifab....pepper plant
sufab....strawberry tree
syofab....red current tree
vafab....grape vine
vefab....ivy bush
feb....treetopfib....trunkfub....branch
fuf....pipe
fuv....nail
fyob....rootfyab ....fruit
afyab....apple
efyab....pear
ifyab....cherry
ufyab....prune
yofyab....apricot
yafyab....peach
yefyab....quince
yifyab....walnut
yufyab....hazelnut
alofyab....blackberry
defyab....pine cone
dyofyab....cocoa
fefyab....date
fifyab....banana
fufyab....coconut
fyofyab....pomegranate
fyifyab...fig
kafyab....olive
lafyab....orange
lefyab....mandarin
lifyab....lemon
lufyab....grapefruit
lyofyab....lime
rafyab....acorn
refyab....beechnut
rifyab....chestnut
safyab....tealeaf
sefyab....coffee bean
sifyab....pepper
sufyab....strawberry
syofyab....red current
vafyab....grape
vefyab....ivy
sar....instrument sir....machine sur....motor
tob....man
toyb...woman
toob....male
tooyb....female
tab....body
taab....lymph
taeb....muscle
taib....bone
taob....flesh
taub....nerve
tayob....
skin
tayab....
fat
tayeb....
hair
tayib....
cartilege
tayub....
gland
teb....head
teab....
eye
teeb....
ear
teib....
nose
teob....
cheek
teub....
mouth
teyob....
neck
tib....trunk
tiab....
chest
tiayb....
breast
tilab....
nipple
tieb....
lung
tiib....
heart
tiub....
belly
tiyob....
kidney
tiyab....
bladder
tiyeb....
testicles
tiyib....
ovary
tiyub....
penis
tiyuyb....
vagina
tikab....
esophagus
tikeb....
stomach
tikib....
liver
tikub....
pancreas
tikyob...
bowels
tikyab...
large intestines
tikyeb...
anus
tub....arm
tuab....
shoulder
tueb....
upper arm
tuib....
elbow
tuub....
forearm
tuyob....
wrist
tuyab....
hand
tuyeb....
fist
tuyib....
palm
tulob....
fingernail
tyob....leg
tyoab....hip
tyoeb....thigh
tyoib....knee
tyoub....tibia
tyoyob....ankle
tyoyab....foot
tyoyeb....heel
tyoyib....sole
tyoyub....toe
tyolob....toenail
tof....clothes taf....suit
tayf....dress
tef....hattif....waist coat
tilaf....brassiere
tuf....sleeve
tyof....pants
tyoyf....skirt
tyoyaf....shoe
tov....linen tev....scarf
teiv....handkerchief
teyof....necktie
teyov....collar
tiav....shirt
tiayv....blouse
tiuv....underwear
tiuyv....panties
tuav....shawl
tuyav....glove
tyoyav....sock
tyoyayv....stocking
tol....nutrition
taol....meat
tyal....meal
tel....food
teil....soup
til....drinktul....dish
tuil....sauce
tod....family tad....husband
tayd....wife
ted....father
teyd....mother
tid....uncle
tiyd....aunt
tud....godfather
tuyd....godmother
tyod....father-in-law
tyoyd....mother-in-law
tyad.... grandfather
tyayd....grandmother
tyed....relative tyud....tutor
top....soul tap....physiquetep....mindtip....sentimenttup....member
tom....building tam....house
taam....home
taym....pavillion
tem....hall
em....place
tyem....residence
yem ....enclosed space
tim....roomtum....compartment
toj....death taj....birthtej....lifetij....wakefulnesstuj....sleep
toz....art
toyz....craft
daz....dance
saz....sculpture
tez....culture
teyz....cult

dez....theatre
drez....poetry
dyez....cinema
teaz spectacle
teiz....perfume
tyez....magic
teuz....voice
deuz....song
seuz....tone
diz....comedy
siz...painting
tuz....skill
duz....music
vob....vegetable
avob....wheat
avob....wheat
evob....rye
ivob....barley
ovob....cereal
uvob....buckwheat
yovob....millet
yavob....hop
yevob....rapeseed
yivob....
rice
yuvob....oat
favob....cotton
fevob....flax
fivob....hemp
fuvob....jute
gavob....sunflower
gevob....corn
'
givob....tobacco
levob....beet
luvob....carrot
savob....fern
sevob....thistle
sivob....nettle
zavob....strawberry plant
zevob....basil
zivob....thyme
zuvob....rosemary
vab....grass veb....tuft vib....stem vub....twig
vyab....seed
avyab....green bean
evyab....lentil
ivyab....pea
ovyab....legume
uvyab....broad bean
yovyab....peanut
'yevyab....chickpea
yivyab....soybean
zavyab....strawberry
vol....legume
avol....bread
ovol....bran
apavol....white cabbage
'bavol....tomato
bevol....eggplant
bivol....squash
buvol....cucumber
byovol....artichoke
epavol....Brussels sprout
favol....leek
fevol....onion
fivol....shallot
fuvol....garlic
gavol....pumpkin
gevol....melon
givol....watermelon
lavol....potato
levol....beet
livol....radish
luvol....carrot
lyovol....turnip
lyavol....Jersualem artichoke
pavol....cabbage
pevol....cauliflower
upavol....kale
vavol....lettuce
vevol....spinach
vivol....sorrel
vuvol....dandelion
vyovol....chicory
vyavol....watercress
zavol....parsley
vos....flower
avos....lily
evos....narcissus
ivos....poppy
lavos....lily of the valley
levos....jonquil
livos....geranium
lovos....daisy
luvos....forget-me-not
uvos....rose
yavos....hydrangea
yevos....lilac
yivos....violet
yovos....cornflower
yuvos....carnation

voz....color
avoz....white
evoz....yellow
favoz.... beige
ivoz.... red
livoz.... lemon yellow
ovoza....blank
uvoz....pink
yavoz.... mauve
yevoz.... lilac
yivoz.... purple
yovoz....blue
vaz....green
yovaz....blue-green
pot....animal pat....bird


apat....cock, rooster
epat....duck
fapat....raven
fepat....crow
fipat....magpie
fupat....owl
gapat....ostrich
gepat....peacock
gipat....peafowl
ipat....turkey
rapat....eagle
repat....vulture
ripat....kite
rupat....buzzard
sapat....partridge
sepat....quail
sipat....woodcock
supat....lark
tapat....parrot
tepat....parakeet
upat....goose
vapat....nightingale
vepat....canary
vipat....canary
yapat....pigeon
zapat....swallow
zepat....swift"

pet....land animal


apet....horse
epet....bull
fapet....camel
fepet....dromedary
fipet....giraffe
gapet....elephant
gepet....rhinoceros
ipet....ass
kapet....squirrel
kepet....polecat
kipet....badger
kupet....otter
sapet....hedgehog
sepet....porcupine
sipet....mole
upet....ram
vapet....hart
vepet....reindeer
vipet....deer
vupet....chamois
yapet....hog
yepet....dog
yipet....cat
yopet....goat
yupet....rabbit
zapet....tortoise

pelt....insect
apelt....spider
fapelt....ant
fepelt....cockroach
kapelt....louse
kepelt....flea
kipelt....bug
kopelt....vermin

pit....fish


apit....trout
epit....perch
gapit....whale
ipit....pike
rapit....shark
repit....dolphin
ripit....sperm whale
rupit....walrus
sapit....herring
sepit....barbel
sipit....anchovy
supit....gilt-head
tepit....turbot
upit....carp
vapit....eel
yapit....gudgeon
yepit....stickleback
yipit....whiting
yopit....tench

pyot....wild animal


rapyot....lion
repyot....tiger
ripyot....leopard
rupyot....wolf
tapyot....ape
tepyot....bear
yapyot....boar
yepyot....wolf
yipyot....tiger

pyet....reptile


fepyet....slug
fipyet....leech
gapyet....crocodile
gepyet....cayman
kapyet....lizard
kepyet....gecko
lapyet....boa
lepyet....cobra
lipyet....viper
lopyet....snake
vapyet....snail

2nd Group Root Morphemes[edit]

The vowels of 2nd Group Root Morphemes also have certain values:
  • Positive-Intermediate-Negative Values:
  • POSITIVE a, ya oppose NEGATIVE o, yo
  • INTERMEDIATE e, ye
  • POSITIVE i, yi oppose NEGATIVE u, yu
Some examples:
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE
ag- big eg- normal og- small
az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak
va yes ve maybe vo no
ak- win ek- play ok- lose
yad everything yed anything yod nothing
ig- fast ug- slow
im- wet um- dry
fi- good fu- bad
kyi- heavy kyu- light
  • Directional Values:
VOWEL CONTACT DIRECTION EXAMPLE
a- free movement from above onto aber apply
-a movement with contact from above onto baer lean
ya- free movement upward yaper rise
-ya movement with contact upward pyaser jump
o- free movement from below upward ober remove
-o movement with contact from below onto boer uphold
yo- free movement downward yoper descend
-yo movement with contact fall pyoer fall
u- free movement toward the center uper come
-u movement with contact toward the center buer give
yu- free movement near yuber bring
-yu movement with contact near byuer touch
i- free movement away iper leave
-i movement with contact away bier take
yi- free movement far away yiper move far away
-yi movement with contact far away pyier originate
e- stop   eper intervene
-e pause   peser wait
ye- in   yeper enter
-ye in   byexer contain
Special Values of Certain Vowels:
  • The prefixes a-, an- have to do with one, single, singular and are opposed to:
  • The prefixes ya-, yan- meaning together, plural.
  • The prefix yan- contrasts with yon- meaning apart.
Some examples:
auta individual, private yauta communal
at I, me yat we, us
anla singular yanla plural
yanper join yonper separate
yanmel continent yonmel island
adut the one person yadut everybody
Chart with Morphemes and Meanings[edit]
The 2nd Group root morphemes, containing roots other than nouns, come from a combination of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel (which is sometimes zero). The vowel can be pre- or post-iotated and modified with the scalar enhancer consonants r, l, and w. Here is a chart showing the principle root morphemes of this group. The root morpheme itself is in boldface, sometimes followed by derived words incorporating that root.
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE OPPOSITE
ja before, pre-
jana previous
japer precede
je during
jena current
jeper continue
jo after, post-
jona next
joper follow
ji since
 
 
ju until
 
 
aj past
ajna old
ej present
ejna new
oj future
ojna next
ij beginning
ijna initial
uj end
ujna final
jwa-
jwaa early
 
jwe-
jwea punctual
 
jwo-
jwoa late
 
yij opening
yija open
yijber open
yuj closure
juja closed
yujber close
ga more
gaber add
galer multiply
gra too much
gwa most
ge equal
geber equate
gean equality
gre enough
 gwe average
go less
gober substract
goler divide
gro insufficient
gwo least
gi- point
gin point
gia sharp
 
 
gu- angle
gun angle
gua dull
 
 
gya- fat
gyaxer fatten
gyo- thin
gyoxer emaciate
gyi- solid
gyian solidity
gyu- fragile
gyuan fragility
ag- big
agaxer magnify
agla huge
eg- normal
egaxer normalize
egan normality
og- small
ogaxer miniaturize
ogla tiny
ig- fast
igay quickly
igper rush
ug- slow
ugay slowly
ugper amble
yag- long
yagaxer lengthen
yeg- re-
yegxer re-do
yog- short
yogaxer shorten
yig- hard
yigaxer harden
yug- soft
soften
ka- find
kaxer find
kader reveal
kaxwas trove
ke- seek
kexer seek
keder inquire
kexwas pursuit
ko- hide
koxer hide
koder cover up
koxwas stash
ki-
kia diagonal
kim slope
 
ku-
kua lateral
kun edge
kum side
 
ak- win
akun gain
ek- play
ekun risk
ok- lose
okun loss
ik- full
ikber fill up
uk- empty
ukber empty out
kya- variable
kyaser change
kye- random
kyeser happen
kyo- fixed
kyoser stand still
kyi- heavy
kyiaxer weigh down
kyu- light
kyuaxer lighten
yak- expect
yakwa expected
yek- try
yekwa attempted
yok- be surprised
yokwa unexpected
yik- difficult
yikan difficulty
yuk- easy
yukan ease
va- yes
vader affirm
ve- maybe
veder equivocate
vo- no
voder deny
vi- beautiful
vila gorgeous
vu- ugly
vula hideous
av- for
avon favor
ev- than
evon condition
ov- against
ovon hindrance
iv- happy
ivan happiness
uv- sad
uvan sadness
vya- true
vyan truth
vye- relative
vyen relation
vyo- false
vyon error
vyi- clean
vyisa pure
vyu- dirty
vyusa foul
yav- innocent
yavder acquit
yev- fair
yevder judge
yov- guilty
yovder accuse
yiv- free
yivxer release
yuv- captive
yuvxer capture
f- want
fer want
fi- good
fider praise
fu- bad
fuder malign
fya- holy
fyader bless
fyo- profane
fyoder curse
fyi- useful
fyin worth
fyu- damaging
fyun harm
af- allow
afwa allowed
ef- need
efwa necessary
of- ban
ofwa prohibited
if- love
ifwa beloved
uf- hate
ufwa despised
yaf- able
yafer can
yef- obliged
yefer must
yof- unable
yofer cannot
yif- brave
yifer dare
yuf- afraid
fear
ba-
baer lean on
baler press
barer crush
baxer shake
→abaxer stroke
→abalxer rub
b-
ber put
be at
beser stay
bexer hold
beler keep
bo-
boxer carry
boler support
→oboler drop
 
 
bi from
bier take
bixer pull
bilxer yank
birxer uproot
 
bu to
buer give
buxer push
bulxer shove
burxer kick
 
bay with bey by boy without
ab on
aber put on
abem top
eb between
eber block
ebem gap
ob off
ober take off
obem bottom
ib away
iber receive
ilber obtain
ub toward
uber send
ulber deliver
yab up
yaber raise
yalber lift
yaper rise
yeb in
yeber introduce
yelber insert
yeper enter
yob down
yober lower
yolber down
yoper descend
yib far
yiber remove
yilber banish
yiper flee
yub near
yuber bring near
yolber abduct
yuper come
bya-
byaxer erect
bye-
byeer behave
byen manner
byo-
byoxer hang
byi since
byiser spring from
byu up to
byuser reach
pa- motion
paser move
paxer move (tr.)
 
p-
per go
peser wait
pexer trap
po- rest
poyser pause
poser stop
poxer stop (tr.)
pi- motion away
pier leave
piser withdraw
pixer catch
pu- motion toward
puer arrive
puser jump
puxer throw
pya- strong upward motion
pyaser jump up
pyaxer launch
pye- strong inward motion
pyeser bump into
pyexer strike
pyo- strong downward motion
pyoser plunge
pyoxer knock down
pyi- strong motion away
pyiser spring
pyixer snatch
pyu- strong motion toward
pyuser pounce
pyuxer ram
za in front of
zaper precede
ze in the middle of
zeber balance
zo behind
zoper succeed
zi- right
zituyaba right-handed
zu- left
zutuyaba left-handed
zay forward
zayper advance
zey across
transit
zoy back
zoyper recede
az- strong
aza strong
ez- medium
eza medium
oz- weak
oza weak
iz- straight
izper go straight
uz- curved
uzper turn
zya- wide
zyaber spread
zye through
zyeteatuwa transparent
zyo- narrow
zyober restrict
zyi- flat
zyixer flatten
zyu- round
zyuper rotate
yaz- vertical
yazber stand upright
yez- horizontal
yezber lay flat
yoz- perpendicular
yoza perpendicular
yiz- beyond
yizper surpass
yuz- around
yuzper surround
da-
daler talk
 
 
 
 
d-
der say
drer write
dryer print
de-
deler declare
do-
doler be silent
 
 
 
 
di-
dier ask
dider question
diler request
direr demand
din story
du-
duer suggest
duder answer
duler insist
durer prod
dun word
dye-
dyeder read
dyen book
dyi-
dyier phone
dyu-
dyuer call
dyun name
ta-
taxer remember
tajer be born
 
 
 
 
t- know
ter know
te-
texer think
teser mean
tejer live
to-
toxer forget
tojer die
 
 
 
 
ti- learn
tier learn
tider understand
tixer study
tin doctrine, -ism
titam school
tijer wake
tu- teach
tuer teach
tuder explain
tuxer instruct
tun science, -ology
tutam institute
tujer sleep
tya-
tyan race
 
 
tye-
tyen craft, occupation
tyeer be familiar with
tryen industry
tyi-
tyier get acquainted
 
 
tyu-
tyuer acquaint
 
 
sa-
san form
saxer make
saun kind
 
 
s-
ser be
son thing (abstract)
sat being
se-
sexer build
so-
soer undergo
 
 
 
 
si-
sin image
siun sign
 
 
 
su- thing
sun thing
 
 
 
 
sya-
syan type
sye-
syen style
syi-
syin subject
syu-
syun object
as-
aser become
es-
eser exist
os-
oser vanish
is-
iser be the result
us-
user be the cause
xa-
xaer execute
xaler accomplish
x-
xer do
xe-
xen action
xeler conduct
xi-
xier result
xu-
xuer bring about
xuler provoke
xye-
xyen practice
xyel exercise
xyi-
xyier wear out
xyu-
xyuer proceed
ax-
axer act
alxer operate
ex-
exer function
 
ox-
oxer be idle
 
ix-
ixen effect
ux-
uxer cause
 
yex-
yexer work
yelx labor
yelx drudgery
yix-
yixer use
yilxer hire
yirxer exploit
yux-
yuxer help
yulxer serve
yurxer slave
na-
nax cost
nas money
naz value
nam shop
ne-
nex thrift
nes savings
no-
nox spending
nos expense
noz jewel
ni-
nix earning
nizer deserve
nu-
nux payment
nuz award
nun merchandise
nunam market
nya-
nyaxer accumulate
nyan stack
nye-
nyexer store
nyem box
nyef bag
nyo-
nyoxer waste
nyos surplus
nyi-
nyixer order
nyixut client
nyu-
nyuxer deliver
nyuxut supplier
nyus package
hav so that hev whether hov lest
hay hi hey hey hoy bye hiy voici huy voila
hyay bravo hyey thanks hyoy what a shame
ha- the he- some ho- which? hi- this hu- that
hya- every hye- any hyo- no hyi- same hyu- other
Vowel Patterns[edit]

Note that that in 2nd Group core words there is a three-way contrast with the root vowels a, e, o and a two-way contrast with the root vowels i and u, as in the chart below, where the root vowels are underlined:

PATTERN TYPE POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE
3-WAY (a-e-o) aza strong eza medium oza weak
2-WAY (i-u) fia good -- fua bad
Meaning of the Classifier Consonant[edit]
Most human qualities are presented in the 2nd Group root morphemes that contain the consonants f or v.
Root morphemes relating to time all have the letter j.
The letters g and k relate mostly to physical qualities, measurements, and actions.

Parallelism in Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes exhibit both vertical and horizontal parallelism in meaning as shown in some sample charts below:
aza za va vyaa yava
strong front yes true innocent
eza ze ve vyea yeva
moderate middle maybe relative fair
oza zo vo vyoa yova
weak back no false guilty
ja jwa aja kaer aker
before early past find win
je jwe eja keer eker
during on time present seek play
jo jwo oja koer oker
after late future hide lose
fia via vyia fyia iva yiva ifer
good beautiful clean proud happy free to love
fua vua vyua fyua uva yuva ufer
bad ugly dirty ashamed sad bound to hate
tab tib tub tyob tayob tayeb tyab
body trunk arm foot skin hair ovary
fab fib fub fyob fayob fayeb fyab
tree tree trunk branch root bark leaf fruit
vab vib vub vyob vayob vayeb vyab
plant stem twig root peel leaf seed

Ordered List of Root Morphemes[edit]

O A E I U
o zero
o- un-
a one
an- mono-
ayn- whole
e two
en- bi-
eyn- half-
i three
in- tri-
iyn- terci-
u four
un- quadri-
uyn- quarti-
-o (future tense) -a (past tense)
-a (adjective)
-ay (adverb)
-e (present tense) -i (plural) -u (hypothetical mode)
ob off ab on eb between ib away ub toward
of- must not af- may ef- need to if- love uf- hate
og- small ag- big eg- normal ig- fast ug- slow
oj future
aj past
ej present
ij beginning uj end
ok- lose ak- win ek- play ik- full uk- empty
-al gas -el food
-yel oil
-il liquid
om- cold am- hot im- wet um- dry
-am house -em place -im room
-on (issue) -an (abstract quality -en (present gerund) -in (-ism) -un (thing)
op- get off ap- get on ep- stay ip- go away up- come
-ar instrument -er (infinitive) -ir device -ur machine
os- be absent as- become es- exist is- be the result us- be the cause
ot one at I et you it he ut self
-ut one who
ov against av for ev- neutral iv- happy uv- sad
ox- be idle ax- act ex- operate ix- result ux- cause
oy but ay and ey or
oz- weak az- strong ez- moderate iz- straight uz- curved
bo- support
byo- hang
boy without
ba- lean on
bya- stand
bay with
bax- gesture
b- put
be- have
be at
bel- carry
bex- hold
byex- strike
bi from
bi- take
bix- pull
byi since
bu to
bu- give
bux- push
byu as far as
bok illness
byok pain
bak health bek treatment
byek cure
bik care buk wound
bruk- mutilate
do- be silent dal- speak
-ad (language)
d- say
del- declare
dyed- read
dr- write
drye- print
deu- voice
di- ask
did question
dil- request
dir- demand
du- suggest
dud answer
dul- insist
dur- prod
dob state dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister
dom city dam airport dem park dim pool
dop military dap air force dep army dip marine
dot society dat friend det mate dit citizen dut gentleman
daz dance dez theatre
dyez cinema
drez poetry
diz comedy duz music
fi- good
fiz honor
fu- bad
fuz shame
fyo- profane fya- holy fyi- worth fyu- waste
go less
glo few
gro insufficiently
gwo least
gyo- thin
ga more
gla very
gra too
gwa most
gya- thick
ge equal
gle quite
gre enough
gwe average
gin point gun angle
gya- fat gyo thin gyi- solid gyu- delicate
ho- which
hyo- no
hov don't
hoy! bye!
hyoy! boo!
ha the
hya- every
hav that
hay! hello!
hyay! hurrah!
he some
hye- any
hev if
hey! hey!
hyey! thanks!
hi this
hyi- same
hiy... voici...
hu- that
hyu- other
huy...voila...
jo after
jwo late
joy then
ja before
jwa early
jay already
je during
jwe on time
jey still
ji since
jiy ago
ju until
juy hence
job time
jwob hour
jab year
jwab minute
jeb season
jweb second
jib month jub day
jod occasion jud date
jog- young jag- old
ko- hide ka- find ke- seek ki- slant ku- side
kyo- fixed kya- mobile kye- random kyi- heavy kyu- light
lo- (dis-)
mo-
mon dark
ma-
man light
mob cliff mab? meb mountain mub promontory
mof galaxy maf cloud mef brick muf pole
mog ash mag fire meg stone mug metal
muk mineral
moj night maj day
mok cosmic dust mak electricity mek dust muk mineral
mol nature mal air mel soil mil water mul matter
mom space mam sky mem land mim sea mum underground
mop orbit map wind mep road mip river mup tunnel
mor universe mar star mer planet mir world mur satellite
mos floor mas wall mes door mis window mus stairs
mov smoke mav flame mev porcelain muv rod
moz- black maz- white mez- crystal
no- spend
noz jewel
na- money
naz value
nya- stack
ne- save
nye- store
ni- consume
nyi- order
nu- supply
nyu- deliver
nod point nad line
nab row
nap order
ned plane nid volume nud column
nof textile
nov linen
nyov ribbon
nyof film
naf cloth nef web
nyev bag
nyef sack
nif thread
niv strand
nyiv lace
nyif rope
nuf leash
nyuf knob
nog grade
nok degree
nag measure
nak meter
sag number
syag count
jag age
xag frequency
neg level nig space
nik liter
nem place
-em place
nyem box
-yem enclosure
-im room
po- stop
pyo- fall
pa- move
pya- jump
p- go
pyex- attack
pi- leave
pix- catch
pu- arrive

pux- throw
pyux- bump
pop- travel pap- fly pep- drive pip- sail pup- burrow
pot animal
pyot wild beast
pat bird pet land animal pit fish
som furniture sam armoire sem table sim chair sum bed
son matter
syoz fantasy
san form
saz sculpture
s- be sin image
siz painting
sun thing
syun object
suz artifact
sar instrument
-ar instrument
sir machine
-ir machine
sur apparatus
-ur apparatus
tob human
tyob leg
-t person
tab body teb head
tyeb brain
tib trunk tub arm
tod family tad spouse ted parent tid uncle tud godfather
tof clothing taf suit tef hat tif vest tuf sleeve
toj death taj birth tej life tij- awake tuj sleep
tol nourishment
tyal meal
-al gas
tel food
-el food
-yel oil
til drink
-il liquid
tul dish
tom building tam house tem hall tim room tum cell
top soul tap physique tep mind tip psyche tup member
tos- feel tas- t- know
tes- mean
tye- recognize
tea- see
tee- hear
tei- smell
teu- taste
teud- shout
ti- learn tu- inform
tox- forget tax- remember tex- think tix- study tux- teach
toz- skin color taz- statue tez- culture
tyez- magic
tiz- tuz- art
vo no
voy not
va yes
vay indeed
've maybe
vey
possibly
vi- beautiful vu- ugly
vob plant
vol vegetable
voz color
vab grass
vaz- green
veb tuft vib stem vub twig
vyo- false vya- true vye- relative vyi- clean vyu- dirty
-w- (passive voice)
xo- xa- execute x- do
xey- behave
xeus- noise
xi- result xu- affect
yob down yab up yeb in yib far away yub near
yof- cannot yaf- can yef- should yif- dare yuf- fear
yog- short yag- long yig- hard yug- soft
yij- open yuj- close
yok- surprise yak- expect yek- try yik- difficult yuk- easy
yom ice yam fire
yon- apart yan- together -yen manner
yop- descend yap- ascend yep- enter yip- move away yup- approach
yot they yat we yet you yit they yut selves
yov- guilty yav- innocent yev- just yiv- free yuv- bound
yox- be idle yex- work yix- use yux- serve
yoz- concave yaz- convex yez- horizontal yiz beyond yuz around
zo behind za before ze middle zi right zu left
zoy back zay ahead zey across
zyo- narrow zya- wide zye through zyi- flat zyu- round

Rules for Deriving New Words[edit]

Derived words, that is, words that are built from root morphemes and other words, are formed following certain very simple rules of vocabulary-building:
These word-building rules govern:
  1. Combining whole words
  2. Affixation
  3. Scaling Words through numerically-ordered Vowels
  4. Combining partial words
  5. Word-building by adding ordinal vowels
  6. Swapping endings
  7. Scientific word-building
  8. Feminizing words
  9. Geophysical vowel codification
  10. Directional and positional vowel codification
  11. Mnemonic markers
  12. Creating nuances of meaning

Rule #1: Combining Whole Words[edit]

Compound words are formed by the combination of two or more words. When compounding, the determining word is placed very simply in front of the determined word.
  • mar star + tun sciencemartun astronomy
  • mag fire + meb mountainmagmeb volcano
  • tul meal + dren documenttuldren menu
  • nax cost + aga bignaxaga expensive
  • nax cost + oga smallnaxoga cheap
  • amar sun + yap ascentamaryap sunrise
  • amar sun + yop descentamaryop sunset
  • mam sky + par vehiclemampar airplane
  • map wind + yaf powermapyaf windpower
  • dom city + teas viewdomteas cityscape
  • tej life + tun sciencetejtun biology
  • man light + tam housemantam lighthouse
Such compounds sometimes consist of more than two agglutinated words, for example:
  • mam sky + par vehicle + tam househangar

Rule #2: Affixation[edit]

Affixes can be prefixed or suffixed to verbs, nouns, and other parts of speech.
Prefixes[edit]
Adverbs and prepositions can serve as prefixes, especially for forming new verbs, eg.:
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUNDED VERB
go less ber put gober subtract
yeb in ber put yeber* introduce
oyeb out ber put oyeber* oust
yuz around ber put yuzber surround
ob off ber put ober* remove
ig fast xer do igxer accelerate
ug slow xer do ugxer brake
ja before xer do jaxer prepare
je during xer do jexer continue
oj future xer do ojxer plan
ab on per go aper1 get on
yeb in per go yeper* enter
oyeb out per go oyeper* exit
zay ahead per go zayper advance
zoy back per go zayper retreat
ja before per go japer precede
jo after per go joper follow
yuz around per go yuzper circulate
va yes der say vader affirm
vo no der say voder deny
fi good der say fider praise
fu bad der say fuder malign
ja before der say jader predict
ja before dren writing jadren preface
jo after dren writing jodren postscript
*Note: If the prefix is an adverb or preposition ending in b and is being affixed to the verb per go or ber put, then the b of the prefix is dropped. See the next section for this:
Prefixes Ending in b with Verbs per and ber[edit]
Prepositional prefixes ending in b lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab up ber put yaber raise (NOT: yabber)
yab up per go yaper rise (NOT: yabper)
ab on ber put aber put on, apply
ab on per go aper get on, mount
yob down ber put yober take down
yob down per go yoper descend
ob off ber put ober take off, remove
ob on per go oper get off, dismount
yeb in bux a push yebux impulse
yeb in pyoser fall yepyoser collapse
Prefixing with Whole or Clipped Words[edit]
The two or three first letters of a root morpheme can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza weak der say ozder whisper
yaga long der say yagder ramble
aja past der say ajder evoke
yoga short der say yogder summarize
tyoyab foot per go tyoyaper walk
dreer write sar tool dresar pencil
tuyob hand dren writing tuyodren manuscript
mam sky mil water mamil rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs.
Prefixing with Prefixes Per Se[edit]
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
o un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendlyodata unfriendly
lo un-, same as o but used where o is not clear gla manylogla rare
yo un-, same as o but more intense dat friendyodat enemy
av pro- fatin religionavfatina pro-religious
ov anti-, counter- dropek warovdropeka anti-war
hyas all-, pan-, omni- tea awarehyastea omniscient, all-knowing
ja before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj birthjataja pre-natal
jo after, post- judrer to datejojudrer post-date
yiz beyond, meta- tapa physicalyiztapa metaphysical
ey(n) semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate
yeg- re-, again yeganxer reunite, yegder repeat, yegvader reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad[edit]
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yo(b)per < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye(b)bixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yebber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder
penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo yegxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
Suffixes[edit]
Mirad has semantic suffixes, grammatical suffixes, and part-of-speech-changing suffixes
  • Semantic Suffixes
Semantic suffixes are generally formed from the two last letters of a root morpheme. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIX SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS
mil water -il liquid teabil tear < teab eye
    teubil saliva < teub mouth
    tayebil sweat < tayeb skin
    mamil rain < mam sky
tam house -am house apatam chicken coop < apat chicken
    apelatam beehive < apelat bee
    melyexam farmhouse < melyex agriculture
    datibam hostel < datib guest-reception
nem place -em place vobyexem plantation, farm < vob plant + yex work
    vabem field < vab grass
    abem top, surface < ab above, upper
    obem bottom < ob below
nof cloth -of material tof clothes < t- human
    misof curtain < mis window
    faof wood < fa(b)- tree
    tayof leather < tayo(b) skin
sar tool -ar instrument par vehicle < p- motion
    zyupar rotor < zyup turn
    gorbar knife < gorb cut
    syaagar computer < syaag computation
sun thing -un thing dun word < d- utter, say
    gorfun piece, scrap < gorfer rip, shread, tear
    zyiun plaque, plate < zyia flat
    vyun spot < vyua dirty
tin doctrine -in -ism totin theism, religion < tot- god
    Kristin Christianity < Krist Christ
    vyisatin puritanism < vysiat puritan, clean person
    otofin nudism < otofa nude
fuf pipe -uf cylinder object manuf candle < man light
    tiibuf artery < tiib heart
    miluf toilet < mil water
    movuf cheminee < mov smoke
yel oil -yel oil, gel, wax, pulp kafyel olive oil < kaf olive
    apelatyel wax < apelat bee
    levyel jam, jelly, confiture < leve sugar, sweet
    bekyel salve < bek care, treatment
    megyel cement < meg stone
    yanyel paste < yan together
  • Grammatical Suffixes
Mirad has only a few grammatical or derivational (non-inflexional*) suffixes:
DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX BASE WORD → SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-er (verb infinitive) sag- cipher sager to count
nab ranknaber to rank
yex work yexer to work
-n (deverbal or deadjectival noun) yexe works yexen working
via beautiful vian beauty
yuba near yuban proximity, nearness
-a (adjective) yib- far away yiba remote
mor universe mora universal
ake wins akea winning
-y (deadjectival adverb) iga- quick igay quickly
yiba remoteyibay remotely
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
  • Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack
  • Suffixes Forming Nuanced Adjectives
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-aya full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekaya dusty
-oya empty of, -less, -free vyun spot vyunoya spotless
-ika full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekika dusty
-uka empty of, -less, -free miek dust miekuka dust-free
-ea (present active particple) doing X, -ing, -ant, -ent ilp flow ilpea flowing, fluent
-yea given to doing X, -ive vyod lie vyodyea mendacious, given to lying
-wea (present passive participle) being Xed vyixer to clean vyixwea being cleaned
-yena like, -ly, -ic tat angel tatyena angelic
-(a)wa (past passive participle) Xed oter to ignore otwa or otawa unknown
-uwa (potential passive participle) -able, liable to be Xed teater to see teatuwa visible
  • Other Suffixes
SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-an abstract quality, -ness, -hood, -ity iva happy ivan happiness
    via beautiful vian beauty
    ama hot aman heat
-at person who has the quality of yova guilty yovat guilty party
    oga little ogat little person
-ut agent, practitioner, one who does X, -er, -ant, -ent yuxer to help yuxut helper, assistant
    vyoder lie vyodut liar
-eat one who does X vyixeat cleaning person
-(a)wat one who has been Xed tujber to kill tujbwat or tujbawat murder victim
-(a)was what is/was Xed ter to know twas or tawas what is known, fact
-et a person a level down ted father tedet son
    tid uncle tidet cousin
    tad spouse tadet brother
-es item of lesser importance nas money nases change, coin
-ob child of, offspring tob man tobob infant
    apet horse apetob foal
-un < sun concrete thing viber decorate vibun ornament
-on < son abstract thing kyiser weight down kyison problem
    ifer to love ifon love
-tun science, ...ology tej life tejtun biology
    tob man tobtun anthropology
-in < tin doctrine, -ism tot god totin theism, religion
    dot society dotin socialism
-yan collection, aggregate fab tree fabyan forest
    mar star maryan constellation
-ar < sar instrument, tool, device per go par vehicle
    teab eye teabar eyeglasses
-ur < sur machine yalb lift yalbur elevator
Many of the above suffixes and prefixes can be combined as in the following example:
  • ov- against, anti- + dot society + -in ism + -at person having the quality of + -yena like, -ish ovdotinatyena anti-socialistic

Rule #3: Scaling Words through Numerically-ordered Vowels[edit]

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to root morphemes of the 1st group. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the root morpheme stem as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
  • First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m
tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant som furniture
tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree sam armoire
teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop sem table
tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk sim chair
tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum wing dub ministry fub branch sum bed
tyob leg jyob* hour fyob root
    jyab* minute
    jyeb* second
* Easier to pronounce as jwob, jwab, and jweb.
  • Second-level Ordinal Scaling
A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b
mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg
miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip
miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh
miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee
miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin
miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle
tuyab hand tyoyab foot
tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel
tuyib palm tyoyib sole
tuyub finger tyoyub toe
tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
  • Third-level Ordinal Scaling
A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
Example:
...tuyub
tuyub finger
atuyub thumb
etuyub index
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = man
FIRST-LEVEL tub arm
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub thumb
  • Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
Example:
...dob ...pet ...mer
dob state pet animal mer planet
adob empire apet horse Amer Mercury
edob kingdom epet bull Emer Venus
idob principality ipet ass Imer Earth
udob duchy upet ram Umer Mars
yodob marquisate yopet goat Yomer Jupiter'
yadob county yapet pig Yamer Saturn
yedob dominion yepet dog Yemer Pluto

Rule #4: Portmanteau Compouding[edit]

When forming a compound word, the generic consonant (the last one) of the determinant (first word) is the same as the classifier consonant (first) of the determined (2nd word), the generic consonant is suppressed so as to avoid two of the same consonants in a row. This is also called portmanteau compounding.
  • dom city + mep waydomep boulevard
  • pat bird + teub mouthpateub beak
  • pat bird + tub armpatub wing
  • teb head + bok illnesstebok headache
When forming a compound word, the principal word has one or two prefixed vowels, this vowel or these vowels come at the beginning of the compound word.

Examples:

  • tuyub fingeratuyub thumbiatuyub right thumb
Codifying the Negative and Opposite Senses[edit]
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 1st group, the negative sense or opposite sense is obtained by adding the prefixes o and yo, the latter being more intense.
  • mola naturalomola unnatural, artificial
  • tobyena humaneotobyena inhumane
  • data friendlyyodata inimical
  • poos peaceyopoos turmoil
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 2nd group, the opposite sense is obtained by prefixing lo dis-, un-, de- if followed by a consonant, or ol if followed by a vowel, eg.:
  • fwa wantedlofwa unwanted
  • yuvxer to tie uployuvxer to untie
  • axaxer to activateolaxaxer to deactivate
  • afwa allowableolafwa disallowed

Rule #5: Codification by the Addition of Ordinal Vowels[edit]

a) When you wish to form a compound word with words from a same family of vowels, if the ordinal vowel is an o, you replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING
a d o b republic
  d e b leader
a d e b president
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING
i d o b kingdom
  d e b leader
i d e b king
b) If, on the other hand, the two words are already subordinate, then the vowel of the determinant is placed between the ordinal vowel of the determined and the generic consonant.
Examples:
  • mil watermal airmial steam, vapor
  • mel soilmil watermeil mud
  • tul mealtil drinktuil soup
c) You can also form new compound words by applying the Rule # 6 above (a and b).
Examples:
  • adob republicdab governmentadab government of the republic
  • adab government of the republicdeb leaderadaeb president of the republic
  • (Applying Rule #8 on feminizing words by post-iotation) ⇒ adaeyb Madam President of the Republic

Rule #6: Swapping Endings[edit]

When the generic consonant of a core word is replaced by that of another core word, all of the vowels of this latter word undergo the transformation required by the new generic consonant.
Examples:
TOB
man
TOF
clothing
NOF
cloth


TYOYAB
foot
TYOYAV
sock
NOV
linen


BODY PART APPAREL CLOTH/LINEN
tob man tof clothes tov lingerie
tab body taf suit tav robe
teb head tef hat tev scarf
teab eye teaf blinder teav eye patch
teeb ear teef ear phone teev ear muff
teib nose teif noseguard teiv handkerchief
teub mouth teuf muzzle teuv mask
teyob neck teyof necktie teyov collar
tib trunk tif waistcoat tiv sweater
tiab chest tiaf vest tiav shirt
tyob leg tyof pants tyov underwear
tyoyab foot tyoyaf shoe tyoyav sock
tyoyib knee tyoyif knee pad tyoyiv knee sock
tyoyob ankle tyoyof ankle bracelet tyoyov ankle sock
tuyob wrist tuyof cuff tuyov wristband
tuyab hand tuyaf glove tuyav mitten

Rule #7: Scientific Vocabulary-building[edit]

Chemical Elements[edit]
The names of chemical elements are formed from a number representing the element's atomic number (number of electrons), followed by a letter combination indicating whether it is a metal or metalloid, and followed, if pertinent, by a combination of letters indicating whether it is a gas or liquid. The table that follows shows how this composition works:
ELEMENT ELECTRON COUNT METAL GENERIC = m
silver 47 = ulye ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali alim
iron 46 = elya elyam
gold 79 = yelyum yelyum
copper 29 = elyu elyum
tin 50 = yolo yolom
    METALLOID GENERIC = ms
phosophorus 15 = alyo alyoms
carbon 6 = ya yams
    GAS = al LIQUID = il
hydrogen 1 = a amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi yimsal
mercury 80 = yilo yilomsil
The words amsal, yemsal, and yimsal each carry three pieces of information.
The first letter indicates their classification by number of electrons.
The two following letters: mc indicates metalloids; The two last letters: al indicates that they are a gas.
The word yilomil also carries three pieces of information:
The three first letters: 'yi-l-o show classification by number of electrons.
The fourth letter, m, indicates that it's a metal.
The two last letters, il, indicates that it's a liquid.
Other Non-elemental Substances[edit]
Non-elemental natural and man-made substances and alloys are formed using mnemonic components.
  • steel = elyamyig < elyam iron + yig(a) hard
  • plastic = sanyel < san- shape + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • rubber = yugyel < yug- soft + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • glass = zyev < zy(e) (see) through + (m)ev porcelain
  • bronze = elyumyig < elyum copper + yig(a) hard
  • paint = vozil < voz color + -il liquid
  • ink = dril < dr(er) write + -il liquid
  • coal = yamsun < yams carbon + -un substance
  • glue = yanil < yan together + -il liquid
  • paste = yanyel < yan together + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • resin = defabyel < defab pine tree + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • wood = faof < fa(b) tree + (n)of material, tissue
  • leather = tayof < tayo(b) skin + (n)of material, tissue
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • concrete = megyelyig < meg stone + -yel viscous matter + yig hard
  • tar = movgyin < mov smoke + gyin solid
  • lava = magmebil < mag fire + meb mountain + -il liquid
  • fuel = magil < mag fire + -il liquid
  • shampoo = tayel < taye(b) hair + -(y)el oil, wax, gel, gum
  • detergent = vyunobil < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -il liquid
  • soap = vyil < vyi(a) clean + -(i)l liquid
  • cheese = bilyig < bil milk + yig(a) hard
  • butter = bilyug < bil milk + yug(a) soft
  • syrup = gyalevil < gya extremely + lev(el) sugar, sweet + -il liquid
  • gravy = taobil < taob flesh, meat + -il liquid
  • alcohol = fil < (levaf) ferment + -il liquid
  • wax = apelatyel < apelat bee + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • honey = apelatil < apelat bee + -il liquid
  • brick = mef < m(el) earthen + (no)f hard material
  • porcelain = mev < m(el) earthen + (no)v soft material
  • gem = mez < m(el) earthen + (no)z value, precious
Atomic and Subatomic Particles[edit]
From the word mul matter, substance, stuff, we get the following derivatives:
  • mul matter, substance, stuff
  • mula material, substantial, physical
  • omula immaterial, unsubstantial, non-physical
  • ovmul anti-matter
  • omul nothingness, void, nihil
  • omulxer anihilate
  • moza mul black matter
  • multun physics
  • multuna physics-related
  • multut physics scientist
  • mulog particle
  • muloga particulate
  • mulogxer crush, crumble, pulverize
  • vamulog proton
  • omulog neutron
  • vomulog electron
  • vomuloga electronic
  • vomulp electricity
  • vomulpa electric, electrical
  • vomulpaxer electrify
  • mules element
  • mulesa elemental
  • mulesyan compound
  • yanmul mix, mixture, chemical
  • yanmula chemical
  • yanmultun chemistry
  • yanmultuna chemical
  • yanmultut chemist
  • gwomul atom
  • gwomula atomic
  • obgwomula subatomic
  • zemul nucleus
  • zemula nuclear

Rule #8: The Feminization of Words[edit]

To form the feminine of a word or to indicate that an object or thing belongs to females, post-iotate (append a y) to the ordinal vowel of the word.
Examples:
MALE-RELATED FEMALE-RELATED
tob man toyb woman
tad spouse, husband tayd wife
tadet brother taydet sister
ted father teyd mother
tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt
tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
apet horse apeyt mare
epet bull epeyt cow
tiav shirt tiayv blouse
tyof pants tyoyf skirt
tulyuxut waiter tulyuxuyt waitress
Note that personal pronouns can be feminized as well. The unfeminized form is either masculine or neutral with respect to gender.
MASCULINE FEMININE
at I / me ayt we / us women
et you eyt you gals
it he / him iyt she / her
yat we / us yayt we females / us women
yet you guys yeyt you gals
yit they / them yiyt they / them (f.)
This process works for the possessive adjective derivatives of these pronouns:
  • iyta her
  • yeyta you gals'
The animate demonstrative pronouns (animate deictic determiners) can also be feminized:
  • huyt that female person, she, her
  • huyti these females, they, them


The generic pronouns ot one, yot they (generic) and (y)ut are not normally feminized.

Rule #9: Geophysical Vowel Coding[edit]

Geophysical vowel coding, as it's name indicates, occurs on vowels by giving them a particular geophysical meaning.
  • a = air, gas, skyward
  • e = soil, ground
  • i = water, liquid, juice, etc.
  • u = concrete thing, material, mineral, underground
  • o = abstract thing, initial item, outer space
This codification occurs on the ordinal vowel of 1st Group core words only.
Examples:
m...m m...p d...p p...t m...l p...p
mom outer space mop galaxy dop military pot animal mol nature pop travel
mam sky map wind dap air force pat bird mal air pap flight
mem land mep way dep army pet (land) animal mel soil pep ride
mim sea mip river dip navy pit fish mil water pip sea voyage
mum underground mup tunnel dup submarine force mul mineral pup tunneling
Vowel coding also allows for arriving at other combined-concept word categories by placing a vowel having the value ascribed to it by Rule # 9 just a before the generic consonant of the initial word. (See Rule #5)
Examples:
COMBINED-CONCEPT WORD CODIFICATION
pait aquatic bird pat bird + liquid / sea
piat flying fish pit fish + skyward / air
diap naval aviation dip navy + skyward / air
meil mud mel soil + liquid / sea

Rule #10: Directional and Positional Vowel Coding[edit]

Directional and positional vowel coding works along lines of the charts below. Those vowels preceded by a y (iotated vowels) are, for this analysis, considered to be vowels pure and simple. Those vowels that are capitalized are positional in nature and serve as prefixes to 1st group words. Those vowels that are italicized are directional as prefixes to 2nd group words. The vowels that are underlined are directional in nature and are infixed just after the classifying consonant of 2nd group words, mostly verbs.
A a a ya ya
U u u yu u E e e ye ye I i i yi yi
O o o yo yo
VOWEL FUNCTION ATTACHMENT MEANING EXAMPLE
A positional 1st group prefix above, north zamer north
a directional 2nd group prefix on, onto aber put on, ab on
a directional 2nd group infix on, onto baer lean on
ya directional 2nd group prefix up yaber lift up, yab up
ya directional 2nd group infix upward pyaser jump up
O positional 1st group prefix under, south zomer south
o directional 2nd group prefix off, under, below ober take off, ob off
o directional 2nd group infix from below, downward boer support
yo directional 2nd group prefix down yober lower, yob down
yo directional 2nd group infix down with contact pyoser fall down
U positional 1st group prefix left, west zumer west, utuyab left hand
u directional 2nd group prefix toward uper come, ub toward
u directional 2nd group infix to, toward with contact puer arrive, bu to
yu directional 2nd group prefix near yuber bring, yub near
yu directional 2nd group infix up to, as far as byuer touch, byu up to, as far as
I positional 1st group prefix right, east zimer east, ituyab right hand
i directional 2nd group prefix away iper go away, ib away from
i directional 2nd group infix away with contact pier depart, bi to
yi directional 2nd group prefix far away, far from yiper go far away, yib far
yi directional 2nd group infix since, starting from byier originate, byi since
E positional 1st group prefix center, middle equator zemer equator, eb between
e directional 2nd group prefix staying in the middle, between eper stay
e directional 2nd group infix stopped in the middle, at beer hold, be at
ye directional 2nd group prefix inside yeber contain, yeb in
ye directional 2nd group infix inside byeer keep
Examples of verbs undergoing the rules of directional coding:
With ber put (transitive):
aber put on eber hold ober take off iber receive uber send
yaber raise yeber contain yober lower yiber put away yuber bring
baer lean on beer keep boer hold up bier take buer give
byaer lift byeer conserve byoer hang byier obtain byuer reach for
With per go (intransitive):
aper get on eper stay oper get off iper go away uper come
yaper rise yeper enter yoper descend yiper put away yuper bring
paer stand peer wait poer fall pier depart puer arrive
pyaer get up pyeer stick around pyoer get down pyier originate pyuer reach

Rule #11: Codifying Mnemonic Markers[edit]

By changing the classifying or generic consonant of a derived word, a new, but related meaning can be obtained. Also, the classifying consonant can be replaced with an entire or partial word. The relationship among the altered word forms is therefore mnemonic. Here are some examples:
teub mouth teud cry     (d = communicate, utter, social)
teuz voice     (z = precious, art, etc.)
deuz song     (d = communicate, utter, social)
tayab fat fayab vegetable fat     (f = vegetable)
mayab mineral fat     (m = nature, mineral)
tub arm fub branch     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vub twig     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
dub minister     (d = communicate, utter, social)
xub department     (x = do, work)
patub wing     (pat = bird)
pitub fin     (pit = fish)
tayob skin fayob bark     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vayob peel     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
piyetayob shell     (piyet = mollusk)
pitayob scale     (pit = fish)
epeytayob cowhide     (epeyt = cow)
tayeb hair fayeb leaf     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
pitayeb scale     (pit = fish)
potayeb fur     (pot = animal)
patayeb feather     (pat = bird)
vosayeb petal     (vos = flower)
mayeb foil     (m = nature, mineral)
gorbayeb blade     (gorb = cut)
taob flesh, meat faob wood     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vaob hay     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
epeytaob beef     (epeyt = cow)
kovaob thatch     (ko = cover + v = plant)
fyaob pulp     (fy(ab) = fruit )
faof board, plank     (f = vegetable, tree, etc. )
teater see teaxer look     (x = do, teab = eye)
teaper visit     (p = go)
teaser seem     (s = be)
teader testify     (d = communicate, utter, social)
izeader indicate     (iz = direct )
izteaxer aim     (x = do)
beaxer watch     (b(eer) = keep)
abeaxer survey     (ab = over)
yoneater discern     (yon = apart, t = know )
vyaleaxer check     (vyal = accurate )
yageaxer stare     (yag = long )
Suppressing Syllables for Brevity[edit]
Sometimes, syllables of longish words can be omitted for brevity as long as no confusion of meaning results. Here are some examples:
  • vafil wine < vafyabil (vafyab grape + -il liquid)
  • bil milk < tilabil (tilab breast + -il liquid)
  • ateuder neigh < apeteuder (apet horse + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • iteuder bray < ipeteuder (ipet donkey + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • bilyig cheese < tilabilyig (tilab breast + -il liquid + yig(a) hard)

Rule #12: Creating Nuances of Meaning[edit]

Words following Rule #12 are those that relate to one another through similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances indicated by phonetic devices that activate these nuances.
These nuances are obtained by:
a) Adding a sub-ordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
Examples:
NORMAL NUANCED
valay surely vaalay assuredly
nad line naad rail
dab government daab administration
dob state doob nation
tam house taam home
vyab rule vyaab regime, system
job time joob era, time period
b) Post-iotating ordinal vowels and subordinal vowels. Often, the meaning of the word with the post-iotated vowel is a mitigated nuance of the word without the iotated vowel:
NORMAL DIMINISHED NUANCE
nad line nayd ray
vua ugly vuya plain
ifer love iyfer like
iva happy iyva content
tam house taym cottage
ab on ayb over
ob off oyb under
en- two- eyn- half-
ud that uyd such
ama hot ayma warm
c) Adding the sense-augmenting consonants l and r, the latter being the stronger.
NORMAL AUGMENTED NUANCE FURTHER-AUGMENTED NUANCE
iva happy ivla glad ivra delighted
via beautiful vila magnificent vira marvelous
yifa brave yilfa courageous yirfa heroic
fua bad fula awful fura horrendous
alo hundred aro thousand amso million
yufxer intimidate yulfxer frighten yurfxer terrorize
aga big agla huge agra tremendous
Note: Sometimes the l or r nuance-enhancing consonants come after the generic consonant.
d) Adding consonants other than l and r as generic consonants. Sometimes, more than one nuance-altering consonant is added in the same word:
vala = sure
valta = safe

fua = bad
futa = evil [t usually refers to people or animals]

vyaa = true
vyala = authentic
vyafa = precise
vyama = real [m usually refers to nature, minerals, etc.]
vyava = exact [v usually refers to veracity]
vyalva = right
vyaba = regular [b usually refers to an organization or organism]
vyada = frank [d usually refers to communicating, talking, writing, etc.]
vyata = reliable
vyasma = concrete

Forming Adjectives[edit]

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
Examples:
NOUN ADJECTIVE
taam home taama domestic
doob nation dooba national
tej life teja vital
tyoyapyaf ability to walk tyoyapyafa ambulatory
martun astronomy martuna astronomical
PRONOUN ADJECTIVE
at I, me ata my
etut yourself etuta your own
hiyen this kind hiyen this kind of
hot? who? hota? whose?
GERUND ADJECTIVE
ifeken recreation ifekena recreational
VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE)
teje (he) lives tejea living
tojo will die tojoa moribund, about to die
tojbu would kill tojbua lethal
twe is known twa known


Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
Examples:
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
voz color vozaya colorful
futax resentment futaxaya resentful
tiibil blood tiibilaya bloody
yilf courage yilfaya courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
voz color vozoya colorless, pale
tajyaf talent tajyafoya untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya)
map wind mapika windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya)
nas money nasuka broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of
tobob child tobobyena childish, infantile
tot god totyena divine, godly
pit fish pityena fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t- know twa or tawa known
dal- speak dalwa or dalawa spoken, oral
nisbu- sell nisbuwa sold
-ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot- not know otea ignorant
tej- live tejea living, alive
tuj- die tujea dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb- kill tujbyea murderous
tex- think texyea pensive, thoughtful
tox- forget toxyea forgetful
ax- act axyea active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex- operate exuwa operable
tos feel tosuwa palpable
tex- think texuwa conceivable
tel- eat teluwa edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafa sightful, able to see
dyed- read dyedyafa literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafwa visible
tax- remember taxyafwa memorable
teet- hear teetyafwa audible
tel- eat telyafwa edible
-yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofa blind
tyoyap- walk tyoyapyofa lame
teet- hear teetyofa deaf
dal- speak dalyofa dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofwa invisible
teet- hear teetyofa inaudible
tox- forget toxyofa unforgetable
dal- speak dalyofa unspeakable
-ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
pot animal potifa pet-friendly
hyitoob- same-gender hyitoobifa homophile
tobot child tobotifa pedophile
fitel food fitelifa gourmand
doob nation doobifa patriotic
-ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
tob human tobufa misanthropic
hyut- other person hyutufa xenophobic
toyb- woman toybufa misogynist

Negating Adjectives[edit]

The sense of an adjective can be negated with the prefix o or the more intensive yo.
Examples:
  • vlea probable ovlea improbable
  • vyafa perfect ovyafa imperfect
  • twa known otwa unknown
  • bosa calm yobosa worried

Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes[edit]

As in English, the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin. Here are the most common:
ENGLISH PREFIX MIRAD ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
un-, a(n)-, in-, non- o- obaka unhealthy, oyezyebeya incontinent, oyelpea non-invasive, ototina atheist
anti-, counter- ov- ovzuina anti-leftist, oviztida counter-intuitive
pseudo- kovyo- kovyotepina pseudo-intellectual
all-, pan-, omni- hyas- yadtea all-knowing, omniscient
re- yeg- yegtajbwa re-born
mis- vyo- vyoseudwa mispronounced
semi-, half- eyn- eynlevelaya semi-sweet, eyntija half-awake
ultra-, super- yiz-, gwa- gwadoobina ultra-nationalist, yizmola supernatural
under-, hypo- gro- grojaga under-aged
over-, hyper-, uber- gra- graagxwa overgrown, gratoseya hypersensitive
miso- [see suffixes]
multi-, many-, poly- gla- glakuma multilateral, glatadaya polygamous
mal-, ill- fu- futeyenxwa ill-conceived, fusanxwa malformed
well- fi- fitofabwa well-dressed
quasi- yuyb- yuybdaba quasi-governmental
pre-, (a)fore-, pro- ja- jateyenxwa pre-conceived, jaigdawa aformentioned
post- jo- jodropeka post-war

English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison[edit]

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
-ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya colorful, tuzika skillful
-ous full of -aya, -ika nazika precious, milaya aqueous
-filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoke-filled
-y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoky,
-ous of, like -a totina religious, vyosa erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena godly, toybyena womanly
-like like -yena patyena bird-like
-ish like -yena tobobyena childish
-y like -yena fyabyena fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena artistic, silyena acidic
-ic of, related to -a tuna scientific, , beka therapeutic
-ical of, related to -a zyunida spherical, iztexa logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina militarist(ic), nasyanina capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa xenophonic, tobyanufa misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobobifa pedophilic, tobifa philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena bestial
-al of, pertaining to -a teja vital, amana thermal
-less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka lifeless, toboboya childless
-free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka ice-free, vyosoya, error-free

Forming Adverbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-iotating the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Examples:
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia good fiay well
vyaa true vyaay truly
gyua easy gyuay easily
iga quick igay quickly
auta personal autay personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of deadjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig. He walks fast.
  • Yit xa ad fi. They did it well.

Special Adverbs[edit]

Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
Here are the principal such adverbs:
SPECIAL ADVERB
vay.... indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va.... yes)
vey.... possibly, may, might (cf. ve.... maybe)
voy.... not (cf. vo.... no)
ga.... more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gay.... also, moreover, further, still
ge.... as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gey.... even
go.... less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
goy.... no longer, no more
gla.... very
glay.... quite, rather, so
gle.... so
glo.... not very, not so
gra.... too
gre.... enough, sufficiently, over-
gro.... not...enough, inadequately, under-
gwa.... most, super-
gwe.... average
gwo.... least, sub-
The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa..... Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa..... Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yurxut..... I am not your slave.
The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
  • Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
  • Et peya gra ig.'.... You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
  • It gra dale.'.... He talks [=VERB] too much.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES
yab up Ad pat papa yab bu ad mam. The bird flew up to the sky.
yob down Teaxu yob bu ad mel. Look down to the ground.
yub near Pesu yub ad mas. Stay near the wall.
yib far Ad tobi igpia yib ad yovbyokam. The men fled far from the prison.
ib away Teaxu ib, diwe. Look away, please.
ub this way Tyoyapu ub. Walk toward this way.
yeb in, inward, inside Kyedu odut ogja tyoyapa yeb! Guess who just walked in!
oyeb out, outside 'It tyoyapa oyeb zye ad zama mes. He walked out through the front door.
yuz around Yit daza yuz yat. They danced around us.
yiz beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz id titam av yux. You must look beyond this school for help.

Pro-adverbs[edit]

There are also adverbial expressions that are agglutinated with deictic and quantitative morphemes to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-verbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Determiners in Deictic Pro-adverbs.

Forming Verbs[edit]

Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.

Forming Verbs from Nouns[edit]

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
NOUN VERB
syag count syager to count
tof clothes tofer to dress
tam house tamer to dwell, live, reside
dyun name dyuner to name, call
teud cry, shout teuder to cry, shout, exclaim
taj birth tajer to be born
tej life tejer to live
toj house tojer to die
ej present ejer to continue
ij beginning ijer to begin
uj end ijer to end
yuj sleep tujer to sleep

Verb Formants[edit]

Sometimes an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser to be usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefitting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefitting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • -ter to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see_
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB VERB
yav innocence der to say yavder to acquit
yov shame, guilt aber to apply, put on yovaber to shame, accuse
yov shame, guilt ober to remove, take off yovober to excuse, exculpate
tof clothes aber to apply, put on tofaber to dress, don
tof clothes ober to remove, take off tofober to undress, strip
det associate ser to be, become detser to associate
dat friend xer to do, make datxer to befriend
san form ser to be, become sanser to form (intransitive)
san form xer to do, make sanxer to form (transitive)
tel food (b)ier to take telier to eat, consume
tel food (b)uer to give teluer to feed, nourish
if pleasure (b)ier to take ifier to enjoy
if pleasure (b)uer to give ifuer to please
taj birth (b)uer to give tajuer to give birth
tej life (b)ier to take tejier to come alive
tej life (b)uer to give tejuer to bring to life
toj death (b)ier to take tojier to drop dead
toj death (b)uer to give tojuer to kill
tij wakefulness (b)ier to take tijier to wake up
tij wakefulness (b)uer to give tijuer to awaken
tuj sleep (b)ier to take tujier to fall asleep
tuj sleep (b)uer to give tujuer to put to sleep
tax memory (b)ier to take taxier to recall
tax memory (b)uer to give taxuer to remind
yev justice der to say, tell yevder to judge
vyan truth der to say, tell vyander to tell the truth
vyon falsehood der to say, tell vyonder to tell a lie
il liquid aker to gain ilaker to take on liquid
il liquid oker to lose iloker to leak, lose liquid
il liquid (b)ier to take ilier to soak up
il liquid (b)uer to give iluer to pour, water
il liquid ikser to get full ilikser to be soaked (intransitive)
il liquid ikxer to fill up ilikxer to flood, soak (transitive)
il liquid ukser to become empty ilukser to drain (intransitive)
il liquid ukxer to empty ilukxer to flush (transitive)
il liquid ser to be, become ilser to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il liquid xer to do, make ilxer to liquify, melt (transitive)
il liquid aber to apply, put on ilaber to wash (transitive)
il liquid aper to get on ilaper to float (intransitive)
il liquid per to go ilper to flow (intransitive)
il liquid zyaber to spread ilzyaber to spray, shower (transitive)
il liquid zyober to squeeze ilzyober to squirt (transitive)
il liquid pyexer to strike ilpyexer to splash (with liquid)
il liquid yujer to close ilyujer to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser[edit]

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aza strong azaxer fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser get strong
oza week ozaxer weaken ozaser grow weaker
kyia heavy kyiaxer weigh down kyiaser grow heavy
kyua light kyuaxer lighten, make lighter kyiaser get lighter
yana together yanaxer bring together yanaser get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aga big agaxer magnify agaser get big
agxer grow agxer grow up, mature
iga fast igaxer accelerate igaser speed up
igxer rush igser hurry up
baka healthy bakaxer make healthy bakaser get healthy
bakxer heal bakser heal
sana formal sanaxer formalize sanaser become formal
sanxer form, shape sanser form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per[edit]

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITON
BASE
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB
ab on aber apply, put on aper mount, get on
eb between eber block eper intervene
ob off ober remove, take off oper dismount, get off
ib away iber receive iper leave
ub toward uber send uper come
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yeb in
oyeb out
yeber insert
oyebertake out
yeper enter
oyeper exit
yob down yober lower yoper descend
yib far yiber take away yiper move away
yub near yuber bring yuper approach
zay forward zayber advance zayper advance, go forward
zey across zeyber take across, transfer zeyper cross, go over, transit
zoy back zoyber set back, return zoyper retreat, go back, return
iz straight izber guide izper aim for
uz crooked uzber divert uzper turn, diverge
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper pass by
yuz around yuzber take around yuzper go around
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
GESTURE VERB GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB MOTION VERB
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
ber put
beer have
byeer contain
beler
carry
bexer
hold
per go
baer lean on baler press
yanbaler compress
yobaler depress, suppress
yuzbaler hug
zoybaler repress
barer crush
paer ?
baser gesticulate baxer make a gesture
abaxer caress, pat
paser move paxer move
byaser stand up byaxer set up, erect pyaser jump up pyaxer shoot, launch
balser budge balxer rouse
abalxer massage
palser get excited palxer excite
apalxer sweep
barser shake balxer shake
abarxer rub
aparxer brush
beser stay bexer hold
zoybexer restrain
yobexer detain, hold down
peser wait pexer trap
byeser behave byexer hit pyeser run into, bump into pyexer strike, knock
yonpyexer break
yopyexer knock down
yanpyexer fight
apyexer attack
ovpyexer offend
kunpyexer sideswipe
tuyapyexer slap
balser adhere balxer retain pelxer pound, beat
apelxer assault
yonpelxer shatter, burst
yanperser implode
yonperser explode
perxer blast, bomb
boser calm down
boyser rest
boxer quieten, quell poser stop
poyser pause
poxer stop
byoser hang byoxer hang pyoser fall
yonpyoser decay
pyoxer drop, throw down
yopyoxer topple
biser originate bixer pull
yanbixer contract
yonbixer distract
yubixer attract
yibixer distract
oyebixer extract
yebixer push in
pixer catch
bilser spring bilxer yank pilxer snag, capture
yipilxer abduct
buser be destined buxer push, drive
zyobuxer squeeze
yebuxer expel
abuxer impose
apuser assault puxer throw, thrust
byuser bump into byuxer touch
yanbyuxer contact
pyuser run into pyuxer crash
bulser swoop bulxer shove pulser lunge, pounce pulxer thrust
zyapulxer splatter
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX VERB
baxer gesture, make a bodily motion
ab on abaxer caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz straight izbaxer point
teb head tebaxer nod
va yes vatebaxer nod yes
vo no votebaxer nod no
ve maybe vetebaxer shrug
tuyab hand tuyabaxer wave
tub arm tubaxer flail, swing
teubab tongue teubabaxer lick
teab eye teubaxer wink
patub wing patubaxer flap
tiyub tail tiyubaxer wag
baser gesticulate
ig- fast igbaser jerk
zay forward igzaybaser lurch
zoy back zoybaser recoil
yob down yobaser bow, bend down
ku- side kubaser slide
ig- fast igkubaser slip
iz straight + uz curved izuzbaser sway, swagger, swish
zi right + zu left zizubaser wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative Verbs[edit]

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by affixing the syllable eg to the verb stem. Here are some examples:
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB
paser move paseger shake, shudder
pyaser jump pyaseger bounce
paper fly papeger flutter, flit
braser shake braseger shudder, quivver, vibrate
teupixer bite teupixeger nibble
ilzyaber spray ilzyabeger sprinkle

Word Families[edit]

The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub mouth:
ceux sound
xeus noise
xeuz tune
teuz voice
deuz song
seuz tone
deus accent
Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
teb head deb leader xeb boss feb treetop
tub limb dub minister xub subsidiary fub branch vub twig patub wing petub paw pitub fin
teub mouth pateub beak peteub muzzle
tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale fayeb leaf vosayeb petal potayeb mane
tayob skin tayof leather petayob hide fayob bark vayob peel
tyob leg fyob root vyob plant root
tib trunk fib tree trunk vib stem
tulob nail petulob claw fulob thorn defulob needle mulob pin, prick
tiibuf artery fuf pipe muf stick, rod movuf cheminee fauf log manuf candle
til drink teabil tear teubil saliva dril ink mil water mamil rain tayobil sweat bil milk

The xer (Do) Family[edit]

The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this core word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).

Core Words[edit]

This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
axer act exer function oxer abstain ixer effect uxer cause
alxer activate elxer operate olxer fail ilxer react ulxer influence
arxer perform
xaer execute xeer exercise xoer undergo, submit xier result xuer affect
xeyer behave
xaler accomplish xeler practice xoler fail xiler undertake xuler achieve
yexer work yoxer be idle yixer use, hire yuxer help, serve
yerxer struggle yorxer resign yirxer exploit yurxer slave

Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes[edit]

Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
PREFIX BASE DERIVATION
ana single xer make anaxer unify
an- one- xer make anxer unite
yana together 'exer operate yanexer cooperate
yan- together yexer work yanyexer collaborate
yon- apart xer make yonxer split
ge- equal xer make gexer copy
ja before xer make jaxer prepare
je while xer do jexer continue
ig- fast xer do igxer rush
ug- slow xer do ugxer delay
oj future xer do ojxer plan
yeg- re- xer do yegxer redo
sa(n) shape xer make saxer create
se(n) being xer make sexer build
lo- un- sexer build losexer destroy
mel soil yexer work melyexer plough
tea(b) eye xer do teaxer look
o- un- yirxer hire oyirxer fire
mag fire xer cause magxer burn
yuf fear xer cause yufxer frighten
dofun crime xer do dofunxer commit a crime
gra too much xer do graxer exaggerate
yeg- re- axer act yegaxer react
fu- bad xeyer behave fuxeyer misbehave

Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

Hundreds of verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
ADJECTIVE VERB
aga big agaxer magnify
goa lesser goaxer diminish
fia good fiaxer improve
jwoa late jwoaxer retard
uva sad uvaxer sadden
via beautiful viaxer beautify
ebdooba international ebdoobaxer internationalize
Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
The passive of xer, xwer to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
  • Hoj hus xwa? When did that happen?
  • At uvaxwa ham wa at teata ad tobob. I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.

Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms[edit]

The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
  • xer deuz to perform a song
  • xer ifpop to take a cruise
  • xer ebdid to conduct an interview

The ser (Be) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
Summary:
aser become eser exist, there to be oser cease to be iser start out user end up

Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
ADJECTIVE STATIVE VERB
aga big agaser get big
aga big agser grow
uza curved uzaser curve, bend, bow
kyaa mobile kyaser change, vary
mayna clear maynaser clear up
iga fast igaser become fast, accelerate
iga fast igser rush, hurry
Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
  • It agxe vafyabi. He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Vafyabi voy agse fi him. Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
  • His kyaxa yata teji. This changed our lives.
  • Yata teji kyasa hujub. Our lives changed on that day.
  • Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi. The winds bent the trees.
  • Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag. The trees bowed during the storm.
  • Wo igxu at. Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Igsu! Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)

Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns[edit]

The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
NOUN STATIVE VERB
meg stone megser petrify, become rock
abnod peak abnodser peak, climax
mus scale, stair musser escalate
yom ice yomser freeze
maf cloud mafser cloud over
il liquid ilser liquefy, melt

Creating Dynamic Verbs from Inherently Stative Verbs[edit]

Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic/transitive counterparts end in -ber. Here are some examples:
STATIVE VERB DYNAMIC VERB
tojer die tojber kill
tajer be born tajber give birth (to), bear
tejer live tejber bring to life
tijer be awake tijber awaken
tujer sleep tujber put to sleep
ijer begin ijber begin (something)
ujer end ijber finish, put an end to
yijer open up yijber open up (something)
yujer close yujber close, bring to a close

The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families[edit]

The core words ber to put and per to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.

Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels[edit]

PREFIX GESTURE MOTION PREFIX GESTURE MOTION
ab on aber put on aper get on baer lean paer stand
yab up yaber raise yaper rise byaer lift pyaer jump
ob off ober remove oper dismount boer hold up poer hang
yob down yober lower yoper descend byoer hang pyoer fall
ub toward uber send uper come bu to buer give puer arrive
ib away iber receive iper go away bi from bier take pier leave
yub near yuber bring yuper approach byu up to byuer touch pyuer reach
yib far yiber take away yiper move far away byi since byier emanate pyier originate
eb between eber block eper intervene yeb in
oyeb out'
yeber inject
oyeber eject
yeper enter
oyeper exit
za front zaber advance zaper advance zay forward zayber promote zayper proceed
zo behind zober put behind zoper follow zoy back zoyber put back zayper return
ze middle zeber balance zeper mediate zey across zeyber transfer zeyper cross
zu left zuber put to the left zuper go left uz crooked zuber turn zuper detour
zi right ziber put to the right ziper go right iz straight ziber guide izper head
zya all over zyaber spread zyaper tour zye through zyeber interject zyeper permeate
zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper roll yuz around yuzber turn yuzper circulate
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper surpass zyag stretched out zyagber stretch zyagper stretch out
ja before jaber prepare japer precede aj past ajber pass ajper pass
jo after jober delay joper follow oj future ojber postpone ojper wait?
je during jeber continue jeper continue ej present ejber present ejper present oneself
yan together yanber assemble yanper join bay with bayber impart bayper accompany
yon apart yonber take apart yonper separate boy without boyber deprive boyper go without
ki oblique kiber bend kiper slant
ku side kuber set aside kuper avoid

The der (Say) Family[edit]

Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
daler speak der say
deler
announce
doler be silent dier ask
diler request
direr demand
duer suggest
duler urge
durer instigate
drer write
dryener print
droer erase
dyeder read
dyes book
dider ask duder answer
deser pronounce
drez verse
din story dun word
dyun name
drun phrase
draf card
dref paper
dryef notebook
drof cardboard dyuf sheet
dyuv page
Many words are created by prefixing elements to der to say, tell, eg:
va yes vader affirm
vo no voder deny
ve maybe veder guess
vyaa true vyader swear
vyoa false vyoder lie
fyaa holy fyader bless
fyoa profane fyoder curse
oza weak ozder hint
yeg re- yegder repeat
ve maybe, yova guilty veyovder indict
va yes, yova guility vayovder convict
ja before jader predict
Animal noise verbs are created by replacing the final -t of an animal name with der:
yepet dog yepeder bark
yipet cat yipeder mew
epeyt cow epeyder moo
epat duck epader quack
ipat turkey ipader gobble
Names of languages can be formed by replacing the final -m of the country name with -d. Then, the verb meaning to say in x language or speak in x language can be formed by adding -der or -daler, eg:
Anglam England Anglad English Anglader say in English Angladaler speak in English
Fransam France Fransad French (language) Fransader say in French Fransadaler speak French
The name of the language discussed in this book is Mirad, which comes from mira, meaning global, world. Thus, say in Mirad is Mirader and speak Mirad is Miradaler. A speaker of Mirad is a Miradut or Miradalut. Duhev et Mirade? Do you speak Mirad?. Hey Miraduti, ansu! Hey, speakers of Mirad, unite!
Words for various communicational art forms begin d- and end in -z, eg:
daz
vidaz
dance
ballet
dez theater
diz comedy
drez poetry
duz music
dyez cinema
deuz song

The ter (Know) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental states and activities like knowing, thinking, feeling, etc.:
Summary:
tep mind, intellect
teptija conscious
teptuja unconscious
tepaza smart
tepoza stupid
tepiga witty
tepsin imagination
top soul
toptun psychology
tip sentiment
tipaga generous
tigoga stingy
tipifa kind
tipufa mean
tipyija tolerant
tipyiva liberal
tipyiga stern
tipyuga lenient
taxer remember
taxier memorize
taxuer remind
texer think
vatexer believe
vatexuer persuade
vetexer suspect
votexer doubt
votexuer dissuade
vyatex reason

ter know
oter ignore
ten knowledge
twas datum

tyer1 recognize
tyier get acquainted
tyuer acquaint

tez culture
tyez magic
ten knowledge
tyen technique
tyenyan technology
tyenier train (oneself)
tyenuer train

teyen idea
teyentun philosophy
teyenyan ideology
teyenier conceptualize
toxer forget tixer study tuxer teach
tayoter feelteser mean
tesier infer
tesuer imply
tester understand
tesder explain
testier realize
testun semantics
toser feel tier learn
tin doctrine
iztis intuition
vyatis wisdom
tuer inform
tun science
tuin theory
tuz art


1. Note that tyer recognize, know, be familiar with is used instead of ter know when referring to a person, much like Fr. connaître be familiar with (a person) vs. savoir know (a fact, how to), eg. It voy te hav at tye it. He doesn't know that I know him.
Suffixing -tun science to words forms many -ology terms. An -ologist is rendered with -tut, eg:
tep mind teptun psychology teptut psychologist
tieb lung tiebtun pneumology tiebtut pneumologist
toj death tejtun thanatology tejtut thanatologist
pat bird pattun ornithology pattut ornithologist
pit fish pittun ichthyology pittut ichthyologist
pot animal pottun zoology pottut zoologist
mul matter multun chemistry ("materiology?") multut chemist
ko- hidden, dren writing kodrentun cryptology kodrentut cryptologist
Some -ology words in English refer to theories or pseudo-science and are translated into Mirad with the ending -tuin:
mar star martuin astrology (cf. martun astronomy) martuit astrologist
sag number sagtuin numerology (cf. sagtun mathematics) sagtuit numerologist
nif string niftuin string theory niftuit string theoretician
Words in English referring to doctrines, dogmas, or -isms are translated into Mirad with the ending -tin, eg:
dot society dotin socialism
Buda Buddha Budatin Bhuddism
gwa most, fis good thing gwafistin optimism
vyaa true vyatin orthodoxy, truism
an- one, fyaat god anfyaatin monotheism
The general word for school is titam (house of learning). The various levels of schools are translated with this word scalarized numerically.
atitam primary school
etitam secondary school, high school, lycee
ititam college
utitam university
The word pre-school, kindergarten is represented with jatitam (lit. pre-school), while post-graduate school is rendered with joutitam (lit. pre-university).
Some other, related terms:
  • enjab ititam two-year college
  • dovyap titam law school
  • yexyen titam trade school, vocational school
  • zetitam middle school
  • tutam academy
  • tiut pupil
  • tixut student
  • tixutyan student body
  • tuxut teacher
  • tuut educator
  • tuen education
  • tut professor, scholar
  • tit disciple, learner
  • titameb principal
  • ititameb dean
  • tuxutyan faculty
  • tuxim lecture hall, classroom
  • tixim study hall
  • tityan class
  • tiun lesson
  • tiundyes lesson book
  • aa tinag first grade
  • ea tinag second grade

The job (Time) Family[edit]

Here are the most important words derived from job time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to a point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning frequency, translated by jod in Mirad.

Calendar Time Units[edit]

TIME SEASONS MONTHS DAYS OF THE WEEK
job time jeab spring jiab January juab Monday
jab year jeeb summer jieb February jueb Tuesday
jeb season jeib autumn jiib March juib Wednesday
jib month jeub winter jiub April juub Thursday
jub day jiyob May juyob Friday
jwob* hour jiyab June yuyab Saturday
jwab* minute jiyeb July juyeb Sunday
jweb* minute jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
OTHER
yejab week asojab century amlojab millennium
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.

Times of Day[edit]

TIMES OF DAY
maj daytime
ijmaj dawn
imaj morning
eymaj noon
joeymaj afternoon
ujmaj dusk
umaj evening
moj night
eymoj midnight

General Time Words[edit]

GENERAL TIME WORDS
job time
jod time, instance, occasion
xag frequency
jud date
jag age

Scalar Time Periods[edit]

SCALAR TIME PERIODS
joob eon
joab era
joeb period
joib epoch
joub age
joyob chron
joyab term

Some Parallel Time Terms[edit]

taj birth aj past ja before jana previous ajna former, old jaga old jwa early jwana pre-mature
tej life ej present je during jena current ejna new jwe on time jwana mature, ripe
toj death oj future jo after jona next ojna future joga young jwo late jwona stale
tij wakefulness ij beginning ji since ijna initial jiga fresh, vibrant
tuj sleep uj end ju until ujna final juga tired, jaded

Time Questions and Answers[edit]

WHEN HOW OFTEN HOW OLD
hoj? when? hoxag how often? hojaga? how old?
haj hu when haxag hu as often as hajaga hu as old as
hej sometime hexag sometimes hejaga of a certain age
hij now hixag this often hijaga this old
huj then huxag that often hujaga that old
huyj at such a time huyxag so often huyjaga so old
hyoj never hyoxag not once glejaga rather old
hyaj always hyaxag at all times grajaga too old
hyej anytime hyexag however often grojaga underaged
hyij (vyel) at the same time (as) gexag (vyel) as often (as) gejaga (vyel) of the same age (as)
hyuj (vyel) some other time (then) ogexag (vyel) not as often (as) ogejaga (vyel) not as old (as)
be jobi at times awa jod once awa (jab) jaga one year old
be hujobi in those times ewa jodi twice ewa (jabi) jaga two years old
byu jobuj forever gla jodi many time alo (jabi) jaga ten years old
byi huj since then aloni bi jodi hundreds of times gajaga (vyel) older (than)
How old are you? is expressed as Hojaga se et?. A typical response is At se ali (jabi) jaga. I am thirteen (years old). If the quantity of time is months, than the answer would be like the following: Iyt sa ewa jibi (jaga). She was two months (old).
Persons of Various Ages:
awajagat one-year-old
alojagat ten-year-old
aloyjagat teenager
grojagat minor
grejagseat adolescent
grejagat adult
gajagat older person, elder, superior
grajagat over-aged person
jaygat youngish individual
yiloyjagat octogenarian
yuloyjagat nonagenarian
asoyjagat centenarian
jogat youngster, youth, boy
joyayt young girl
gojagat younger person, cadet
jagat oldster, veteran, old person, old man, elder
jagayt old lady
jaygat oldish person
zejagat middle-aged person
gwajogat a person as young as possible, youngest person
gwajagat the oldest person, eldest

The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families[edit]

The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.
Summary:
...AG WORDS N..[DBP] WORDS
ag size nod point
sag number nad line
syag count ned plane
syaag calculation nid volume
nog degree nab rank
nag measure nap order
neg level naab organization
nig space naap system
jag age nyap rule
xag frequency nyed grid
yag length

Shapes[edit]

Summary:
zyus circle
zyuys oval
zyunid sphere
unizgun rectangle
ungekun square
ungun quadrangle
unoizgun rhombus
ingun triangle
yoongun pentagon
ginid cone
yagunid cube
inguginid pyramid
fufnid cylinder
amezsan diamond
tosan cross
uznad arc
ilpsan wave
gunsan wedge
amarsan star

The tom (Building), em (Place) Families[edit]

The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.
Summary:
FULL WORDS ENDINGS
tom building -em general place
tam house -am indoor place
tem hall -yem enclosed space
tim room -im room
tum cell -yeb container

The a (One) yan (Together) Families[edit]

The stems in this family are based on a one, and yan together and their opposites, o zero and yon apart.
Summary:
SINGLE NULL
a- one o- zero, un-
awa one owa zero
an- uni-, mono- on- non-
yan- together, con- yon- apart, dis-
hya- all hyo- none
-aya -ful -oya -less
ay and oy but

Collective Nouns[edit]

The suffix -yan is used to form collective nouns. Here are some examples:
SINGLETON COLLECTION
fab tree fabyan forest
vyap rule vyapyan regimen, system
vos flower vosyan bouquet
uzun ring uzunyan chain
ut person utyan group
toom apartment toomyan apartment complex
teyen idea teyenyan ideology
tyen technique tyenyan technology
tixut student tixutyan student body
tit pupil tityan class
telar eating utensil telaryan cutlery
sir machine siryan machinery
pat bird patyan flock
An extension of yan is nyan, meaning stack, pile, accumulation, crowd, and so is a bit more intensive:
SINGLETON COLLECTION
pet land animal petnyan herd
ut person utnyan crowd
dit citizen ditnyan populace
taib bone taibnyan skeleton
yaut public persona yautnyan commune
dun word dunnyan list
vaob hay vaobnyan haystack
The following confusing terms should be kept distinct:
NOUN VERB
aut individual, person auta personal
anut private individual anuta private
utyan group utyana collective
autyan people autyana popular
autyanin populism autyanina populist
autyandab republic, democracy autyandaba republican, democratic
yaut constituent, commoner yauta common, collective, public
yautyan community, constituency, public yautyana communitarian
yautnyan commune, collective yautnyana communal, collective
yautin communism yautina communist
dot society dota societal
dotin socialism dotina socialist
dit citizen dita civilian, civic
dityan citizenry, population dityana of the citizenry, populational
ditnyan populace ditnyana popular
ditnyanin populism ditnyanina populist
yanav party (political) yanava partisan
yaniv party (fun) yaniva festive
yanut associate yanuta general, public
yanutyan association yanutyana associational

The tob (Man) Family[edit]

The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism, body, or organ or p, having to do with the non-corporeal aspects of man, such as mind and emotion.
Summary
-B -P
tob human, man top soul, psyche
tab body tap physique
teb head tep mind
tib trunk tip sentiment, emotion
tub arm tup member
tyob leg


All the names of the parts of the body are derived from these core words in a hiearchical fashion using stem vowel scalarization, as can be seen from the sample chart below of the body parts relating to arm and leg (not the parallelism):
tub
arm
tuab
shoulder
tueb
upper arm
tuib
elbow
tuub
forearm
tuyob
wrist
tuyab
hand
tuyeb
fist
tuyib
palm
tuyub
finger
tulob
fingernail
tyob
leg
tyoab
hip
tyoeb
thigh
tyoib
knee
tyoub
tibia
tyoyob
ankle
tyoyab
foot
tyoyeb
heel
tyoyib
sole
tyoyub
toe
tyolob
toenail

Bodily Functions and Gestures[edit]

The following chart shows how gestural and bodily movements and functions are derived from bodily parts:
ORGANISMGESTURES, MOVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS
tob human
tobij embryo
tobijier conceive, tobijuer impregnate, tobijer ovulate, tobijbeler gestate, tobtojber murder, tobaxer humanize
tab body tabazaxer work out', tabmelukxer entomb, tabteaxer autopsy
tayeb hair tayebarer comb, tayeboker go bald, tayefarer brush, tayeborber shave, tayelber shampoo, tayevarer mop
tayob skin tayobiler sweat, tayobober flay tayoboser itch, tayoser feel like, tayoter feel, tayoxer palpate, tayobdriler tattoo, tayotyofxer numb
teb head
tebabun scalp
tebzan face
tebabunober scalp, tebbaxer nod, tebober decapitate, tebzaner face
teab eye
teababun eyelid
teabyeb eyelash
teabil tear
teaser seem, teater see, teatyofxer blind, teaxer look, teaxuer show, teazuer amaze, teabizer aim, teaper visit, teabyujiger blink
teababuner blink
teababyexer bat an eyelash
teabiler tear up
teeb ear teeter hear, teeser sound like, teeper attend, teeder rumor, teeyofxer deafen, teexer listen
teib nose teiter smell, teiser smell like, teitier take a whiff of, teituer reek, teixer smell, teseuxer snore, teizber perfume, teipulxer sneeze, teibalier sniff, teibalegier sniffle, teibiler run at the nose, teibukxer blow the nose
teub mouth
teubil saliva
teubsin expression
deuz song
seux sound
seuz tone
teuz voice
toleuz taste
teuv mask
teuf muzzle
teubier swallow, yijteuber yawn, teuser taste like, teuter taste, teutier sample, teutuer offer a taste, teuxer taste, teuder shout, ivteuder laugh, uvteuder groan, ivteuber smile, uvteuber frown,vyoivteuder mock, ufteuber scowl, uvseuxer grumble
teubiler salivate, teubiloker drool, teubilokeger dribble, teubiloyeber expectorate, teubilpuxer spew, teubiluer spit, teubilier slurp
teubsiner grimace
deuzer sing, yandeuzer harmonize, yagdeuzer chant
seuxer ring seuxder pronounce, voyseuxder mispronounce
zoyteuzer echo, uvseuzer sigh
teuzuer vote, teuzier poll, teuzibarer telephone
toleuser taste like, toleuter taste, toleuxer savor, fitoleuser taste good, futoleuser taste bad
teuvuer mask
teufuer muzzle
teubab tongue teubaxer wag the tongue, teubabaxer lick
teubib gum teubixer chew, teubixeger ruminate
teupib tooth teupixer bite, teupixeger nibble, yebteupixer crunch
teubob lip teuboxer kiss, teuboxeger smooch, teubobaxer smack the lips
teyob neck teyobabaxer neck, teyopixer collar teyovyixer cough, teyozyober choke teyopyoxer hang
tib trunk tibuzer bow
tibuj tail
tibuf train
tibujbarxer wag
tibufer trail
tieb lung
tiebal breath
tiebbok cold
tiexer breath, tiebyujber suffocate teibukxer cough
tiebalier inhale, tiebaluer exhale, tiebaloker belch
tiebbokier catch a cold
tiib heart
tiibil blood

tiibiler bleed tiibiloker bleed out, tiibilglalser clot, tiibilier suck blood, tiibiluer let blood
tikeb stomach
tikebil chyme
tikebier digest, tikebukxer vomit
tikyeb anus
tikyebal flatulence
tikyebil feces

tikyebaler fart
tikyebiler defecate
tikyob bowels tikyobier ingest, tikyobober disembowel
tub arm yantubier embrace, tubbaxer wave
tuyab hand tuyaxer handle, tuyaber handle, tuyabalxer shake hand, tuyabexer manipulate, tuyabier grab, tuyabirer wrestle, tuyasiuner wave, tuyabuer hand out, tuyadrer write out longhand, tuyapixer clasp tuyapyexer clap
tuyeb fist tuyepeker fistfight, tuyebalxer shake one's fist, tuyepyelxuer pound, tuyepyexer box
tuyib palm tuyibabaxer pat, tuyibaber palm, tuyibuer palm off, tuyipyexer slap
tuyob wrist tuyoxer wave
tuyub finger tuyubarxer wag one's finger, tuyubifeker fiddle, tuyubizder point out, tuyuibeaxer indicate, tuyugiber poke, tuyupyexer tap, tuyuxer palpate
tulob fingernail
paltulob claw
tuloxer scratch, tuloxefer itch
patuloxer claw, patulober grip
tyoib knee tyoixer kneel, tyoiper crawl
tyoyab foot tyoyabarer stomp, tyoyakyeper hobble, tyoyapyexer kick, tyoyapyexuer kick
tyoyeb heel tyoyeber spurn
tyoyib sole tyoyiber supplant
tyoyub toe tyoyubaxeger wiggle one's toe, tyoyuzyuper pirouette

The bak (Health) Family[edit]

Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:
Summary:
bak health
bek treatment byek cure
bok illness
book fatigue
byok pain
byork torture
bik care
buk injury
bruk mutilation

bak health

baka healthy, sound
bakay healthily, soundly
bakan healthiness, soundness, well-being
bakat well person, healthy person
obaka unwell, ill, unsound
obakan illness
Bak! Gesundheit!
bakam health clinic
bakamut health clinician
bakxer heal, make well
bakxen healing
bakxut healer, doctor
bakxwa healed
bakser get well, heal
baksea healing
bakxwat patient
bakser get well, heal
egbakser recover
egbaksen recovery
egbaksea recovering, in recovery
egbaksa recovered
egbakim recovery room
baktun health science, medecine, hygiene
baktuna health science-related, medicinal, hygienic
baktut health scientist, medical scientist, hygienist
bakxetyen practice of medecine, medecine, health practice
bakxetyenut health practioner
baktyentun health technology
fibak well-being
fibaka well, salubrious, in good health
fibakan wellness, salubriety
fibakxer make well, heal, bring back to health
fibakxen healing
fibakxwa recovered, healed
fibakser heal, get well
Fibaksu ig! Get well soon!, Have a speedy recovery!
Fibak bu et! To your health!
fibakden salutation, greeting
fibakder salute, greet, say hello
fubak ill health, sickness
fubaka ill, sick, in poor health, unwell
fubakan illness, sickness, poor health
fubakxer make ill, make sick, sicken
fubakxea sickening
fubakxwa sickened
fubakser get ill, get sick
baktel health food
baktea health conscious
bakdub health ministry, health department, health administration
tepbak mental health
fitepbaka sane, in good mental health
fitepbak sanity, mental health
futepbak insanity, mental illness
futepbaka insane, mentally ill
futepbakat insane person, mentally ill person
futepbakser go insane
futepbakam insane asylum
tapbak physical health
topbak spiritual health, salvation
teabaktun opthamology
teabbaktuna opthamological
teabbaktut opthamologist
teubak oral hygiene
teubaktun oral hygienics
teubaktuna oral hygienic
teubaktut oral hygienist
baak sanitation
baaka sanitary
baakxer sanitize
baakxwa sanitized
baakxen sanitization
baakxil sanitizer
baakan sanitariness
obaaka unsanitary
obaakan unsanitariness

bek treatment, therapy, remedy

beker treat, nurse, remedy
beken treatment, nursing
bekun remedy
bekam sanatorium
bekwa treated, nursed
beka therapeutic, clinical, remedial
bekut nurse
bekuyt female nurse
bektun medecine, medical science
bektuna medical
bektut doctor, physician, medical scientist
abektun surgery
abektuna surgical
abektut surgeon
bekam clinic, hospice, treatment center
bekwat patient
bekil medicine, remedy, drug
bekila medicinal, pharmaceutical
bekiluer medicate, drug
bekiluen medication, drugging
bekilnam pharmacy, drugstore
bekilnamut pharmacist, druggist
bekiltun pharmacology
bekiltuna pharmacological
bekiltut pharmacologist
bekildren prescription, drug prescription
fubeker mistreat
fubeken mistreatment
fubekwa mistreated
fibeker treat well, pamper
fibeken good treatment, pampering
fibekwa well-treated, pampered
bekuwa treatable, remediable, curable
bekuwan treatability, remediability, curability
obekuwa untreatable, unremediable, uncurable
obekuwan untreatability, unremediability, uncurability
tepbek psychiatry, psychiatric care
tepbekut psychiatrist
tepbeka psychiatric
tepbekwat psychiatric patient
tuyabek manicure
tyoyabek pedicure
byek cure
byeka therapeutic
byeker cure
byekwa cured
byekeya curative
byekuwa curable
obyekuwa uncurable
byekam sanatorium

bik care, custody, vigilence, caution

biker care, care for, watch over, monitor
bikam clinic
bikames dispensary
yanbikam polyclinic
bikuer provide care, care for, give care
bikuut caregiver
bikier take care, watch out, be cautious
Bikiu! Watch out!, Take care!
biken custody, caretaking
bikut custodian, caretaker, nurse
bikam care facility
bikeya careful, watchful, vigilent, cautious
bikeyan carefulness, watchfulness, vigilence
bikeyay carefully
obikeya unvigilent, unwatchful, careless
bikoya careless, uncautious
bikoyan carelessness, uncautiousness
bikoyay carelessly
bikwa cared for
bikwat patient under care
obik danger, threat, peril
obikaya dangerous, perilous
obikuer endanger, threaten, emperil
obikueya dangerous, perilous
azla bik intensive care
azla bikim intensive care unit, ICU
azla bikimut ICU nurse

bok illness, sickness, bad health

boka ill, sick, infirm
bokam hospital, infirmery
bokamber hospitalize
bokamben hospitalization
bokambwa hospitalized
bokxer make ill, sicken
bokxeya sickening
bokxwa sickened
bokser get sick, get ill, grow ill, grow infirm
bokat sick person, ill person, patient
bokatam hospital, infirmery
boktun pathology
boktuna pathological
boktut pathologist
boktunay pathologically
tayobbok skin disease
tepbok mental illness, insanity
tepbokat mentally ill person
bokil poison, venin
bokila poisonous, venimous
bokiluer poison
bokiluen poisoning
bokiluwa poisoned
bokilier take poison, poison oneself, ingest poison
ovbokil antidote
ambok inflammation
amboka inflammatory
amatan fever
amata feverish
amatser come down with a fever
vyusbok infection
vyusbokxer infect
vyusbokxen infection
vyusbokxwa infected
vyusbokser get infected
tiebok pneumonia
tiebokier catch pneumonia
tieboyk cold
tieboykier catch a cold
ombok flu
ombokier catch the flu:
tiyobok kidney disease, renitis
tikebok liver disease, hepatitis
tiibok heart disease
tikabok gastritis
tayobok dermatitis
teibok rhinitis
tikubok enteritis
booka tired, fatigued, worn out
book fatigue
bookan tireness
bookxer tire, fatigue, wear out
bookxwa tired, fatigued, worn out
bookser get tired, grow fatigued

byok pain

byoker hurt, ache
byokea aching, painful, hurting
byokaya painful
byokoya painless, pain-free
byokoyan painlessness, analgesia
byokoyxer relieve pain, analgesize
byokoyxil analgesic, pain reliever
byokuer punish, hurt, inflict pain, induce pain
byokueya punishing, pain-inducing
byokuen punishment, penalty, pain-inducement
tikabyok stomach ache
tebyok headache
teebyok ear ache
byook suffering, misery
byooker suffer
byookea suffering, miserable
byookut sufferer
byookuer make suffer, inflict
byork torture, agony
byorker writhe in torture, agonize
byorkuer torture, antagonize
byorkueya tortuous, agonizing
byorkuut torturer
byorkuwat torture victim
byorkuwa tortured:

buk injury, harm, trauma, wound

buker injure, harm, wound, traumatize
bukwa injured, harmed, wounded
bukwat injured person, casualty, wounded
buken injury, harming, wounding
bukeya injurious, harmful, traumatic, traumatizing
bukuwa vulnerable
bukuwan vulnerability
obukuwa invulnerable
obukuwan invulnerability
obuk safety
bukun injury, wound, trauma
kyebuk danger, risk, peril, threat, potential harm
kyebukaya dangerous, risky, perilous, theatening
kyebukuer endanger, put at risk, imperil, threaten
kyebukuen endangerment
kyebukuwa endangered
bukes scratch, minor injury
bukesuer scratch
bukesuwa scratched up
bukesier get a scratch
buyk sore
sumbuyk bedsore
tayobuyk skinsore
jobuk scar
jobukxer scar
jobukxen scarring
jobukxwa scarred
jobukser get scarred, scar
bruker mutilate, mangle
bruken mutilation, mangling
brukwa mutilated, mangled

tiibtun cardiology

tiibtuna cardiological
tiibtut cardiologist

tiebtun pneumology

tiebtuna pneumonology
tiebtut pneumonologist

tiyobtun renology

tiyobtuna renological
tiyobtut renologist

tikebtun hepatology

tikebtuna hepatological
tikebtut hepatologist

taptun physiology

taptuna physiological
taptut physiologist

The tod (Family) Family[edit]

Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.
Summary:
tod = family
tad husband tayd wife tadet brother taydet sister
jatad fiance jatayd fiancee taodet brother-in-law taydet sister-in-law
ted father teyd mother tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
tud brother-in-law tuydet sister-in-law tudet nephew tuydet niece
tyod father-in-law tyoyd mother-in-law tyodet son-in-law tyoydet daughter-in-law
tyad grandfather tyayd grandmother tyadet grandson tyaydet granddaughter
tyed relative tyeyd female relative
tyid godfather tyiyd godmother tyidet godson tyiydet goddaughter
tyud tutor tyuyd nanny tyudet pupil tyuydet female pupil

tod family

toda familial
toyd home
todama domestic, household
todamuyt housewife
todana familiar

tad spouse, husband

tayd wife
tada marital, spousal
tadser get married, wed
tadsen marriage, wedding
tadsa married, wedded
otadsa unmarried, unwed
tadsenxel wedding
tadxer marry
otadsat unmarried person, bachelor
otadsayt spinster
tadokat widower
tadokayt widow
tadokatan widowhood
tadoker be widowed
tadet brother
tadeta fraternal
tadetan brotherhood, fraternity
taydet sister
taydeta sisterly
taydetan sorority, sisterhood
taodet brother-in-law
tayodet sister-in-law

ted father

teyd mother
teda paternal, parental
teyda maternal
tedan paternity, parentage
teydan maternity
tedif papa
teydif mama
tedet son
teydet daughter
tedeta filial
teodet son-in-law
teyodet daughter-in-law

tid uncle

tida avuncular
tiyd aunt
tidet cousin
tiydet cousin

tud brother-in-law

tuyd sister-in-law
tudet nephew
tuydet niece

tyod father-in-law

tyoyd mother-in-law
tudet son-in-law
tuydet daughter-in-law

tyad grandfather

tyayd grandmother, grandchild
tyadyena grandfatherly
tyaydyena grandmotherly
tyadet grandson
tyaydet granddaughter
tyadyan grandparents
tyedetyan grandchildren

tyed relative

tyeyd female relative
tyedyan kin, kindred, kinfolk, kith
tyeda related, kindred, kin
tyedan relateness, kinship
tyedser become related

tud godfather

tuyd godmother
tudet godson, godchild
tuydet goddaughter
tuder serve as godfather
tuyder serve as godmother

tyud tutor

tyuyd female tutor
tyudet pupil
tyuydet female pupil
aytyuder adopt

oyted orphan

oyteyd female orphan
oytedser become orphaned
oytedsa orphaned
oytedam orphanage

oytad widower

oytayd widow
oytadser become widowed
oytadsa widowed
oytadsen becoming widowed

otad celibate person, bachelor

otayd unmarried female
otadan celibacy

yontad divorce'

yontayd divorcee
yontader divorce
yontadsen get divorced
yontadxer divorce
yontadsa divorced
yontadxen divorce

jatad fiance

jatayd fiancee
jatadser become engaged, become entrothed
jatadsa engaged, betrothed
jatadsen engagement, betrothal

ajted ancester

ajteda ancestral
ajtedan ancestry
ajtedyan ancesters

jaut ascendant

jautan ascendance

jout descendant

joutan descendence

tobot child, boy

toybot female child, girl
tobotan childhood, boyhood
toybotan girlhood
tajat baby, baby boy, infant, infant boy
tayjat baby girl, infant girl
tajatan infancy, babyhood
tajatyena infantile, babyish
tobog young man, little fellow
toybog young woman, little lady
joga young
jogat young person, young man, youth, boy, juvenile
jogatan youth, boyhood, juvenility
joygat young lady, girl, female juvenile
joygatan young ladyhood, girlhood
grojoga minor
grojogat minor
grojoygat female minor
jaga old, aged, elderly
jagat old person, old man, elder, senior
jagatan old age, elderliness, seniority
jaygat old woman, female elder, old lady
lojaga teenage, teenaged
lojagat teenager, teenaged boy, teen
lojaygat teenaged girl
lojag teens, teenhood
gyejaga old enough, mature, adult
gyejagaser reach adulthood, become an adult
gyejagat adult
gyejagatan adulthood
zejaga middle-aged
zejagat middle-aged person::
jagser grow
jagsen growth
jagsa grown
jagsat grown-up
jagaser grow old, get old, age
jagasen aging, getting old
jagasea getting old, aging
grajaga too old, over-aged
grajagan advanced age

The dot (Society) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.
Summary:
dot society
dat friend
det comrade, mate
dit citizen
dut gentleman, sir
dout bourgeois
auta personal
yauta public

Societal Vocabulary[edit]

dot society

dota social, societal, public
dotser socialize
dotxer socialize
dotxen socialization
dotxwa socialized
dotay socially
doteya sociable
doteyan sociability
dotyena social, civil
odotyena unsocial, uncivil
odotyen uncivility
dotsyen civilization
dotsyenser civilize
dotsyenxer civilize
dotsyenxwa civilized
odotsyenxwa uncivilized
yodota savage, wild, barbarous
yodatan savagery, wildness, barbarity
yodotat savage, barbarian
dotin socialism
dotina socialistic
dotinat socialist
doyt association, club
doyta associational, associate
doytaser associate
doytaxer associate
doytaxen association
dotyux public service
dotyuxut public servant
dotyuxutyan bureaucracy
dotvalan social security

dat friend, ally

data friendly, allied
datan friendship, alliance
datyena friendly, amicable
datyenan friendliness
dayt female friend, girlfriend
daat buddy
daatan buddyship
daayt girl buddy, girlfriend
odata unfriendly
odatan unfriendliness
datser befriend
yodat enemy
yodata inimical
yondatan enmity
ovdata hostile
ovdatan hostility

det comrade, mate, fellow

detan comradeship, fellowship
aydet companion, mate, fellow
aydetan companionship, company
popdet travel mate, traveling companion, fellow traveler
pepdet fellow passenger
teldet dining companion
titamdet school mate
timdet roommate
sumdet bedmate
memdet fellow countryman
tildet drinking companion
jobdet contemporary
tejdet life mate
tapdet sex mate
tapdetser copulate, have sex, share sex, mate:

dit citizen

ditan citizenship
dityan citizenry
dita civilian, civil
dita yux civil service
dita yuxut civil servant
dityena civil
dityenan civility
dityenaxer civilize
dityenaxwa civilized
odityenaxwa uncivilized
ditbyen civility
doita civic
doitan civicism
ditser become a citizen
ditsen becoming a citizen
mirdit world citizen, cosmopolitan
mirdita cosmopolitan

dut sir, mister, master, senor

abdut master
abduter master
abduten mastery
duyt madam, ma'am, lady
duytyan mesdames, ladies
duut sire, lord, don, gentleman, milord
abduut overlord, don
abduuter lord over, dominate
abduuten domination
dutyan sirs, messieurs, ladies and gentlemen
duyut lady, dame, mylady, gentle lady
duyutyan ladies, mesdames
duyuytet young lady, demoiselle, damsel
duyuytetyan mesdemoiselles
dutet young man, squire, esquire

dout bourgeois, member of the middle class, burgess

douyt bourgeoise
doutan bourgeoisie
doutyan bourgeoisie

ibdat host

ibdayt hostess
ibdata hospitable
ibdatan hospitality
datiber host, welcome, greet, receive a guest
datibut host
datibam hostel, inn, hotel, guesthouse
datuper visit, be a guest
Datupu! Welcome!

aut person

auta personal
autay personally
autyan public
autyana public
anuta particular, individual
anutay particularly
anutan individuality
yanuta public, communal
yanutan communality, community
yanutyan public, community, commune
yanutaxer publicize
yanutaxen publication
yanutaxwa published, publicized
yanutaxut publisher
yanutaxam publishing firm
yonuta private
yonutay privately
yonutan privacy
yonut private person, individual
agaut personnage, vip
utyan group
utyanser group
utyanxer group
utyanxen grouping
utyanxwa grouped
grautyan crowd
grautyanxer crowd
grautyanser get crowded
grautyanxwa crowded::
utnyan people, population
utnyana popular
utnyanan popularity
utnyanaxer popularize
utnyanaxen popularization
utnyanber populate
utnyanben population
outnyanbwa unpopulated
utnyanika populous
utnyanuka unpopulous, deserted
yauta common, collective
yautan commonality, collectivity
yautana communitarian
yautxer collectivize
yautxen collectivization
yautin communism
yautina communist, communistic
yautinat communist
utbyen personal manner, behavior
utbyenyan mores
ajutbyen tradition
ajutbyena traditional
oajutbyena untraditional
utyanbyen custom
utyanbyena customary
utyanbyenay customarily
utyanbyenxer customize
utyanbyenxen customization
utyanbyenxwa customized
jubyen habit
jubyena habitual, usual
jubyenay habitually, usually
jubyenser habituate, get used to, accustomize oneself
jubyenxer habituate, accustomize, train
jubyenxwa habituated, accustomed, used to
ojubyenxwa unaccustomed

The tof (Clothes) Family[edit]

The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof cloth and nov lingerie. The words have to do with clothing.
Summary:
BODY PART CLOTHING ITEM
tob man tof clothing
tab body taf suit, tayf dress
teb head tef hat
teyob neck teyof necktie
tuab shoulder tuaf shawl
tib trunk tif vest
zetib waist zetif belt
tiab chest tiav shirt, tiayv blouse
tilab breast tilav bra
tuyab hand tuyaf glove
tyob leg tyof pants, tyoyf skirt

tof clothing, apparel, garment, item of clothing

tofyan clothes, clothing, gear
tofer wear
otofer go naked, go nude
otofen going naked, going nude
otofea naked, nude, going naked, going nude
otofin nudism
otofina nudist
otofinat nudist
tofut wearer
tofsam clothes closet
oytofa nude, naked
oytofan nudity, nakedness
oytofat nude, nude person, naked person
oytofayt female nude
tofaber put on, don, clothe, dress
tofabim dressing room
tofabwa dressed
egtofaber put clothes back on, redress
egtofabwa redressed
tofober undress, disrobe, take off, strip
tofobwa undressed, disrobed, naked, nude, stripped
tofoben undressing, disrobing, getting naked, stripping
abtof outerwear
obtof underwear, undergear
tofvyixar laundry machine, clothes washer
tofvyixen laundry
tofvyixer launder, do the laundry, wash clothese
tofvyixim laundry room
tofvyixam laundromat
tofnyeb laundry basket, clothes hamper
tofsam cubbord, armoire
tofimes clothes closet
taf suit, outfit
tayf dress, robe, outfit
abtaf coat
abtaaf overcoat
abtaayf cardigan
pontav pijamas
abtayv work blouse
abtaves overalls, apron, smock
tafut tailor
tayfut dressmaker
tayfuyt couturiere
ozyemilaf raincoat:::
tef hat, headgear
atef cap, baseball cap
etef beret
itef bonnet
utef top hat
yotef derby hat
yatef shapka
zyakuntef wide-brimmed hat
yiktef hardhat, helmet
tebuz crown
eytebuz diadem
tebuzaber crown
tebuzaben coronation
tev scarf
teyov collar
aybtev scarf, headdress, veil
yabtev headband
teaf eye patch
teabkof blindfold
teef earmuffs
teebuz earring:
teif muffler
teibuz nose ring
teiv handkerchief
teyof tie, necktie
abteyof scarf
aybteyof head scarf
teyofes bowtie
teyobuz necklace
teyof belar tie rack
teyof nivar tie tack
tuaf shawl
eytuaf sash
aybtuaf shoulder strap, shoulder pad
eybtuabuz epaulette
tif jacket, suit coat, waist coat, blazer
tifes vest
fotif bulletproof jacket
zetif belt
zetif fyafar belt buckle (fyaf < fom+nyaf = metal fastener/clasp)
zetiv sash
tiav shirt, long-sleeved shirt
tiavog short-sleeved shirt
tiayv blouse, long-sleeved blouse
tiayvog short-sleeved blouse
nefiaf pullover, sweater
tiabuz broche
eytiav tank top
tilav brassiere, bra
tilabuz tit ring
tiuf corset, bodice
tiuv underwear, underpants
atiuv boxers
etiuv briefs
itiuv jockstrap
utiuv g-string
yotiuv longjohns
yatiuv loincloth
tiuyv panties, underwear, knickers
utiuv g-string
zetiubuz belly button ring
tuf sleeve
otufa sleeveless
tuyaf glove
eytuyaf mitten, mit
tuyafyem pocket
tuyafyember pocket
tapyentuyaf boxing glove
fotuyaf gauntlet
tuyafyag fireman's glove
tuyubuz ring
tuyof cuff
tuyobuz bracelet
tuyubuz ring
tyof pants, trousers
yovoztyof bluejeans
abtyof overalls, trousers
vityof slacks, dress slacks
tyofyog shorts, bermudas, cutoffs
tyofyag long pants
tyoyf skirt
tyoyfes petticoat
obtyoyf slip
tyofober depants
tyoif kneepad
tyoiv kneesock
tyouf puttee
tyoyaf shoe
tyoyayf high-heels
abtyoyaf boot
yebtyoyaf slipper
faotyoyaf wooden shoe
atyoyaf patent leather shoe
etyoyaf tennis shoe
ityoyaf sandal
utyoyaf:
tyoyav sock
tyoyayv stockings
tyoyafut shoemaker, cobbler
tyoyafaber shoe
apetyoyaf horse shoe
apetyoyafut blacksmith
apetyoyafam blacksmith shop
apetyoyafaber shoe a horse
tyoyafnyiv shoe lace::
tyoyafeyub shoe horn (teyub = horn):
tyoyafobwa barefoot
otyoyafa barefoot, shoeless
otyoyafan shoelessness, barefootedness
tyoyef talon, spur
tyoyev ankle sock
tyoyif sole, shoe sole
tyoyuf heel
yabtyoyuf highheel
tiyuf train, dragnet, tail, tassle
tiyabuz cock ring

The tom (Building) and em (Place) Family[edit]

The stems of words in this family begin with t for human and end in m for place. The words have to do with buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and places:
Summary:
WORD ENDING
tom building -m place
tam house -am enclosed place
tem hall -em location, place
tim room -yem enclosure, box
tum cell -yeb container
-yef bag

tom building, habitation, habitat, residence, apartment building

toma habitational, residential
tomer inhabit, live, reside
tomut inhabitant, resident
toym residence, dwelling
toymer reside, dwell
toem domicile
tomof tent
toom lodging
toomer lodge
ogtom abode
toomes lodge
tomes apartment
tomtun architecture
tomtuna architectural
tomtut architect
tombuer rent out
tombier rent
tombiut renter
tombiwas rental unit
utomut owner, proprietor
utomutan owernship, proprietorship
tomnas rent
tombelut concierge
zyutom tower
tomxer build, construct
tomxut builder, construction engineer
tomxen building, construction
tomxwas edifice, construction
otomxer demolish, tear down, destroy
otomxen destruction, demolition
egtomxer rebuild
egtomxwa rebuilt, reconstructed
egtomxen rebuilding, reconstruction
tomxem construction site
tomsan structure
tomsana structural::

tyem residence

tyemut resident
tyemer reside
tyema residential

tam house

agtam mansion
ivagtam palace
ivagtama palatial
potam hotel
ogtam cottage
ogtames cabin:
taam home, household, domain, dominion
taama domestic, tame
taamaxer domesticate, tame
taamaxen domestication, taming
taamaxwa domesticated, tame
taym pavillion
tamper go home
tamuper come home
tamupen home-coming
tamber settle, set up home
tambut settler
tamben settling
tambun settlement
tameb head of household, master
tameber dominate
tamebeya dominant
tambeyan dominance
tameyb mistress
tamab dominion, domain
yebeytam courtyard, inner courtyard
zatam facade
param garage
tamzam front yard
tamzom back yard
tamkum side yard
tamyan block of houses
tamuer house, shelter
tamuen housing
tamier take up residence, move in, settle, settle in
tamien taking up residence, moving in, settlement
tamiut settler

tem hall

telem cafeteria, refectory, mess hall
tujem dormitory
abtem gallery
yuzyujem court, courtyard
obtem cave, cellar
yagtem gallery
dyedem lecture hall
dezyem performance hall
dazyem dance hall
duzyem music hall
kutem side hall
zatem lobby, foyer
zetem central hall, main hall

tim room, chamber

telim dining room
tujim bedroom
datim salon, living room, parlour
zyotim hallway, hall
zyotiym corridor
zatim antechamber, frontroom, lobby
zotim backroom
yextim bureau, office, den
yexim laboratory, lab
ifekim playroom
miltim bathroom
milim water closet
tofmilbim laundry room
telxim kitchen
abtim attic
obtim basement
yebtim inner room, inner chamber, chamber
tiym nook
kutim side room
tilim bar
tutim classroom
uzkumim bay
yebmilim bath, bathroom
yontim compartment, apartment
movim smoking den
mimpartim ship cabin
milabim shower room, shower
milpunsim shower room
fatim sacristry
bekim hospital room, treatment room
datuputim guestroom
dyedim lecture room
magelim kitchen
tapektim exercise room
fadiim chapel
teasibarim den, t.v. room
novim linen closet, closet
pestim waiting room
ebtim room in between:

tum cell, compartment

tuma cellular, compartmental
tumaxer compartmentalize
tumaxen compartmentalization

The mos (Floor) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
Summary:
MASONRY
mos floor
mas wall
mes door
mis window
mus stairs

mos floor

omos ground floor
amos first floor
emos second floor
abmos top floor, attic
obmos basement
ebmos mezzanine
ebmospar elevator, lift

mas wall

mays partition, bulkhead
abtammas roof
abmas roof
aybmas ceiling
obmas foundation
oybmas floor
oybmasaof parquet
agmas great wall
massin mural
uzabmas vault
abzamas balcony
abkumas ledge, cornice
obzamas porch, portico
masyan masonry
mastyen masonry
mastyena masonic
mastyenut mason
yebmas inner wall
yebmasber wall in
yebmasbwa walled-in
oyebmas outer wall
eybmasa intramural
domyuzmas city walls
zamas front wall
zomas back wall
ebmas partition
ebmasber partition
ebmasbwe partitioned
yonmasber wall off, partition
yonmasben walling off, partitioning
yonmasbwe walled off, partitioned

mes door, portal

meys gate
zames threshold, front door, entryway
zamesag porte-cochere
zomes back door
eymes half-door
mesmep doorway, entrance, gateway
mesnyuf door knob
mestuyar door handle
mesazyujar door lock
mesyuznad door frame
zyup mes revolving door
zoyzap mes swing door

mis window

mises ticket window
misag dormer window
abmis fanlight
misof curtain
eymis shutter, flap
vozzyefmis stained glass window
cinmis picture window
miszyef window pane
zamisabun awning

mus stairway, stairs, staircase

muys ladder, scale, step ladder
muysa scalar
muysaxer escalate
muysaxen escalation
omuysaxer de-escalate
musyaper go up the stairs, climb, scale
musyaput climber
musyapen climbing
musnog step, stair rung
pasmus escalator
musim stairwell
musmep stairway
magmus fire escape
igirpmus fire escape
musabnod climax
musabnoda climactic

The som (Furniture) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
Summary:
FURNITURE
som furniture
sam armoire, chest
sem table
sim chair
sum bed

som furniture, furnishing

somber furnish
somben furnishing
sombwa furnished
osombwa unfurnished
somyan real estate, furnishings, furniture
somxer make furniture
somxut carpenter
somxen carpentry
comiper move
milsom sink

sam armoire, chest

telarsam china cabinet
telsam cupboard
tofsam closet
dyensam library
masam cubboard
tovsam chest of drawers

sem table

semes board, chart, blackboard, tablet
semof table cloth
dresem desk
dalsem pulpit
cemnyem drawer
bemer sit down to the table
tilsem bar, counter
yagsem counter
agsem banquet table
yuzsem round table
yuzsem ebdal round table discussion
yopissem chart, blackboard, whiteboard, pull-down chart
jaber la sem set the table

sim chair

siym seat
agsim armchair
panetsim rocking chair
zaypzoypsim rocking chair
yagsim couch, divan, sofa
eysim stool
tilsem eysim bar stool
parsim car seat, coach seat
yagyuksim bench
siim bench
bimer sit, sit down
bimea seated, sitting
tobobsim high chair
zyupsim swivvel chair
debsim throne
mimkumsim beach chair
amulpsim electric chair

sum bed

suam cushion, bed cushion
suaym pillow
suem mattress
malsuem air mattress
yezsuem futon
suav pillow case, pillow slip
suev sheet
absuef bedspread, bed cover
suef blanket, cover
obsuev liner
suim box spring, spring
sumnyan bedding
bumer go to bed, recline, lie down
bumea in bed, reclining, lying down, recumbent
summuf bed post
jaber la sum make the bed
eonsum twin bed
eysum day bed
igsum day bed, temporary bed, cot
suym couch
iksum full-size bed, queen-size bed
agsum king-size bed
ogsum cot
nyanxwa sum bunk bed, stacked bad
kusum side bed, bunk, cot
milsum waterbed
pyowa sum hammock
tabsum sleeping bag
tomofsum sleeping bag
summanar bed lamp

The sar (Machine) and par (Vehicle) Family[edit]

Stems having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile.
Summary:
MACHINES/TOOLS
sar instrument, tool, implement
sir machine
sur apparatus
syir motor, engine
syur device
Note that the part of the above words minus the initial s are used as endings for many tools, machines, and devices.

Vehicles[edit]

Vehicle words all end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument.
VEHICLES
par vehicle, car
mampar airplane
mempar automobile
mimpar boat, ship
mumpar subway
mompar spaceship
kyipar truck
naadpar train
yautpar bus
enzyuspar bicycle
enzyuspur motocycle
yuglapur sled

par vehicle, car

para vehicular
parizber drive, steer
parizbut driver
parizbar steering wheel
parposem parking lot, car park
parposember park
parposam garage, carport
pep ride
peper ride
pepier ride off
aypeper run over, ride over
zeypeper ride across
ifpep pleasure ride
peput rider, passenger
mempar automobile, car, land vehicle
autpar car, automobile, private vehicle
yautpar bus, public vehicle, omnibus
nusyixpar taxi, taxicab, cab
jobyixpar rental car
parog cart, carriage, buggy
apetparog horse and buggy
elyanad rail
elyanadpar train
elyanadpares train car
elyanadpar posem train station, railroad station, railway station
iga elyanadpar high-speed train
igmep elyanadpar express train
ema elyanadpar local train
elyamep iron road, railroad
obniufpar cable car
abniufpar tram
ebdompar intercity bus, coach
parilp traffic
parilp siunman traffic light. traffic signal
parilp yanbar traffic jam, traffic congestion
paper fly
papier fly away, take flight
papuer alight
aypaper fly over, overfly
oypaper fly under
zyepaper fly through
yepaper fly into
oyepaper fly out
mampar airplane, plane
mamparizber pilot a plane
mamparizut pilot
mampareb pilot
mamparem airport
mamparyem hangar
mampartam hangar
mempier take off
mempien takeoff
mempuer land
mempuen landing
mempuen mani landing lights
mempuem landing strip, runway
mampop flight, air travel
mamyuxut flight attendant
mamper fly
mampier fly away
mampiem departure zone
mampuem arrival zone
mimpar ship
mimpayr boat
mimparizber pilot a ship, navigate, sail
mimparibut ship's captain
mimpareb ship's captain
mimparyexut crew member, airline attendant
mimparyexutyan ship's crew
mimpop sea voyage, cruise
mimpoper cruise, sail
mimpier set sail
mimpuer dock
mimpuem dock, harbor
mimper sail, cruise, navigate
piper cruise, sail
piput sailer, seafarer
pip cruise, sea voyage
mimof sail
mimofpar sailing ship
mimofper sail
kyimimpar cargo ship
dropekpar warship
dopekpar battleship
mamparbelea mimpar aircraft carrier
anzyuspar unicycle
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
enzyuspur motorcycle
kyipar truck
kyipares wagon, cart
zyuskyipares wheelbarrow
nyemkyipar van
bixpar tractor
pop travel, trip, voyage
poper travel
zyapoper travel around, travel widely
poput traveler,, voyager
ifpop vacation travel, leisure trip
ifpoput tourist, vacationer
ifpopen tourism, pleasure-tripping, vacationing
popizbut travel guide
popyuxam travel agency, travel bureau
popyuxut travel agent
podet travel mate, traveling companion, fellow-traveler
potam hotel
potaym inn, hostel
parpotam motel
igpotam motel
potamdat hotel guest
potamdatibut hotel receptionist, hotel host
datibam hostel, guesthouse, inn
pomep itinerary
pomepdaf travel map
podaf travel map
podryen travel brochure
ponyem suitcase, luggage

Tools, machines, and devices[edit]

sar instument, tool, device, utility

sara instrumental
saryan instrumentation, toolset
sarser be instrumental, help, be a tool
sarxer utilize, make use of
sarnyem toolbox
sartim toolshed

-ar instrument

anteabar monocle
anzyuspar unicycle
yanifar stitching needle
yanivar needle
yanar link, joint, juncture, nexus, yoke
yonofar ripping device, scissors
yonrar knife, cutter
obmimpar submarine
igefpar ambulance
ograsteaxar microscope
yagpar train
tejvalxar life-saver
mavxar incinerator, cremator
ekar toy
ifekar toy, plaything
nasekar casino machine
amulp nyeubar battery
azyujar lock
azlaxar intensifier
yezaxar flattener, iron
zyupar wheel, rotor
zyubar wheel, rotor
zyabar spreader
izbar steering wheel
yuzpar circulator, bus, shuttle
zayzoypar shuttle bus
yanbar connector, link
gonbar divider
gabar adding machine, abacus
ukbar drain
ijbar starter
yijbar opener, key
yujbar lock
zyulbar spinner
ababar lid, cover, top
ovababar protective device, shield
ebar holder
ibar receiver
ubar transmitter
yuzpar bus, omnibus, circulator
yanbarar squeezer
ibabarxar eraser
braxegar vibrator
zayzyoybraxar rocker:
pyapar hovercraft
pyaxar launcher, shooter
pyaxunogar pistol
kupasar skate
zyuskupasar roller skate
tapasar exercise machine
zayzoypasar swingset
apaxar wiper
apalxar broom, sweeper
aparxar brush
bexar holder, railing
tuyabexar handle
kyimempar truck
kyimimpar cargo ship
kyimampar cargo plane
belar cart, carriage, carrier, wagon, barrow
mamparbelar aircraft carrier
tolbelar grocery cart
tuyabelar hand cart
tobotbelar baby carriage
anzyusbelar wheel barrow
zeybelar transporter, ferry
milzeybelar ferryboat
pexar trap, catcher
klepet pexar mouse trap
byexar drum
obyexar protective device, guard
olovpyexar shield, fence, fender
yonpyerxar bomb
yonpyerxuar bomber
ovpyexar barrier, barricade
booxar tranquilizer
poxar stopper
parpox nagar parking meter
zaybux mampar jet plane
mansinpuxar projector
ilpuxar fountain
zyalpuxar spray nozzle
pulxar shooter
bixar pulley
zobixar tractor
yobixar ripcord
obyexar protector, shield
pyexeguar whip
byexar container
byeelar preservative
pyorar plunger
ilbiar absorber
bixar tractor, pulley
bubixar piston
yubixar magnet
zobixar tug
iftayobyuxar tickler
par vehicle, car, automobile, craft
mampar airplane, aircraft, plane
mempar land vehicle, car, automobile
mimpar ship, vessel, boat
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
kyipar truck, cargo vehicle
yagpar train
elyanadpar train, locomotive, rail vehicle
ifpop mimpar cuise ship
yuzpar obiter
zyupar wheel, rotator
zyulpar helicopter
tyoyapar walker
mampar airplane, aircraft, plane
malapar flotational device
milapar float
mimpar ship, boat, watercraft
kyimimpar cargo vessel
ifpop mimpar cruise ship
malof mimpar sailboat
yagmimpar long boat
mipar riverboat
mialpar steamboat, steamship:::
zoyzaypar shuttlebus
zoyzaybar swing
mipar riverboat
yuzpar circulator, circulator bus, tour vehicle
yuzbar girdle, belt, cincture
anzyuspar monocycle
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
unzyuspar four-wheeled vehicle
zyuxar rotator
zyufufar roller, rolling pin
zyumepar circulator bus, tour vehicle
mopar orbiter
uzdopar bow
uzyupatub mampar helicopter
yabexar supporter
vyadesar dictation device, dictaphone
izeadar indicator
dryeynxar editor
sardrar typewriter
bardrar printing press, press
geldrar copier::
dryenar printing press
dryenesar ticket machine
judar calendar
dyufbuar sheetfeeder
drar pencil
yilemdrar lead pencil, pencil
drilar ink pen, pen
lodrar eraser
drear feather pen
vozdrar crayon
meyagdrar chalk, stick of chalk
domep manar street lamp
mompar subway train, metro, underground
parzyep siunar traffic signal
dopar weapon, armament
dopyonar sword
doparyonar bayonette
adopar gun
tuyab adopar handgun, pistol
zyup adopar revolver
edopar rifle
idopar shotgun
udopar musket
dapar fighter jet
depar tank
diepar aircraft carrier
dipar battleship
obdipar submarine
fuseuxar noise-maker
fyuseuxar noise-maker
faogorbar axe, hatchet, chopper, adz
gedrar copier
gorbar knife
faogorbar axe
taogorbar cleaver
tayegorbar shaver
degorbar paper cutter
taogorbar dagger
gorfar scissors
zyigiar sword
gixar sharpener
gibar poker
igxar accelerator
ugxar brake
yugxar mill
yuglaxar polisher
ijbar starter, ignition switch
ijar starter
tobijovar contraceptive
yijbar opener
yijar key
melyijbar shovel, hoe
manyijbar light switch
ilyijbar spout, decanter, sluice
yujbar stopper, plug, stopgap
misyujbar shutter
kyayujbar shutter
azyujar lock, bolt, latch
yujar lock
manyujbar off switch
igyujar blinker
manigyujar blinker, light blinker
milyujar spigot, faucet, peg, cock, plug, cork
ilyujar stopper, plug, cork
tujbar sleep inducer
melukxar shovel
ilukxar drain
yuvar chain
izbar steering mechanism, guidance
yizogateaxar ultramicroscope
momyuzmepar obiter
jwobar watch
tuyojwobar wrist watch
jwodar hour hand
jwadar second hand
judar calendar
keteaxar scanner
kyapar sled, sleigh
kyabar motor
kyenekar gaming machine
kyoxar stick, rod, peg, anchor, lock
kyinar scale
kyinzebar scale, weights
kyiunmimpar cargo vessel, cargo ship
kyiunmampar cargo plane
kyiunmempar truck
kyiunpar truck
maluar air pump, inflater
melukxar hoe, digger, ditch digger
mialpar steamship
mamilovar umbrella
milapar flotation device
mimpar boat, ship
mimpopar cruise ship
malofpar sailboat
ilapar flotation device
ilukar drain
iluar spout
iliar straw, sipper
ilzyabar spray
ilbar squirt:::::
drilar ink pen
amul ogunteaxar electron microscope
amulpa manar electric lamp
amula syagar electronic computer
amulp ijujar electric switch
amulpa kyabar electric motor, electric engine
yanmulxar mixer
mompar subway
mumpar orbiter
mampar airplane, aircraft
mempar land vehicle, vehicle, car, auto, automobile
mimagpar ocean-going vessel, oceanliner
mimpar ship, boat
mipar riverboat
miampar boat, lake craft
mompar subway, metro
mumpar spaceship
manar light, lamp
mimmanar lighthouse
sommanar lamp
tuyamanar flash light
mansar lantern
manyijar light switch
zoymanar reflector
kumanar reflector
manigar flasher
manigesar sparkler:
moynxar umbrella
magxar burner
magijar lighter
abmagxar grill
yebmagxar oven, stove, kiln, furnace
magelar cooker
ummagelar oven
magyelar frying pan, fryer
magilar boiler
mogxar incinerator
amanar thermometer
amxar heater
aymar warmer
oymxar cooler
oyoymxar defroster
iymxar humidifier
umxar drier
yamxar burner
yamijar lighter
abyamxar grill
yebyamxar oven, stove, kiln, furnace
yamelar cooker
umyamelar oven
yelyamelar frying pan, frier
yamilar boiler
mekobar dust mop, dust remover
mekxar grinder, mill
mekesxar grater, granulater
mekilxar crusher, grinder, mill
ebmospar elevator, lift
mestuyar door handle
mesazyujar door lock
elyanadpar train, locomotive
elyanaadpar train, locomotive
nasgoun sagar coin counter
nofxar spinning wheel
nofyonar shears, scissors
favofar cotton gin
nyafar fastener
fyafar metal fasterner, clasp, buckle
gofar scissors
nefar knitting needle
nifar needle
nivar pin
niifduzar string instrument
niyofibar plug
fuyufar fork
zyufuvar screwdriver
fuvabar hammer
apyenar hammer, pound
defgorbar shredder, paper shredder
mimofpar sailboat
syagar counter
syaagar computer, calculator
meksyaagar electronic computer
syagar counting machine
judar calendar
gar to the power of, exponentiated by
apet pyexeguar horsewhip
klapet pexar rat trap
upelat pyexar flyswatter
zyupatupar helicopter
pitpix mimpar fishing boat
gar exponentiated by
kyasanxar transformer
mansinar camera, still camera
passinar movie camera
zoysinar reflector
siunar signal
axar activator, on switch
loaxar deactivator, off switch
yilxpar taxi, taxicab, cab
gexar copier
passinmar movie star
summanar bed lamp
teabar eyeglasses, glasses
teetar hearing aid
teetyuxar hearing aid
teexar earphone, headphone, earpiece
teuzibar telephone, phone
duzar musical instrument
seuxpaandrar oscilloscope
seuxibar radio, radio receiver
seuxubar radio transmitter:::
seuxdrar recorder
xeusar noise-maker
biliar milking machine
tuyabar handle
tyoyapar walker
tofvyixar laundry machine, clothes washer
teyof belar tie rack
teyof nivar tie tack
zetif fyafar belt buckle (fyaf < fom+nyaf = metal fastener/clasp)
tolar eating utensil
telar fork
teilar spoon, soup spoon
tilar spoon
bilyig mekxar grater
bilyug telar butter knife
mekxar mill, grinder
tilyeb yijbar bottle opener
zyufuv yijbar cork screw
yujunobar cork screw, bottle opener
vafil oymxar wine cooler
ilyujar tap, spigot, faucet
bi ilyujar on tap
yavil bi ilyujar beer on tap
mil bi ilyujar tap water
tular dish, piece of china, eating utensil
tularvyixar dishwasher
tuilar saucer
tulyuxar platter
taolgorbar meat cleaver, cleaver, butcher knife
taolmekxar meat grinder
motozaxar toaster, browner
volyanmul telar salad fork
mimolbar salt shaker
sifyolbar pepper shaker
lavol fayobobar potato peeler
magilar boiler
magelar cooker
ummagelar oven
motozaxar toaster
yijmagelar broiler, grill, gridiron
izummagelar roaster
mamegmagelar barbecue grill, charcoal grill
yomxar freezer
fyefmagelar grill
ummagelar oven
yobmagyelar deep fryer
mialbar steamer
barmagelar pressure cooker
utmagelar samovar
motozaxar toaster
yagmagelar slow cooker
nyefavol amxar waffle iron
mamegmagelar barbecue, brazier
yigtayebabar brush
zyabar spatula
mulyonxar sieve, sift, filter
yifyab yonbyexar nutcracker
ama zyibolar hot plate
abimxar baster
bilyug gorbar butter knife
gorbar bolar knife holder
tilar bolar spoon rest
vafyal oymxar wine cooler
amxar heater
umxar dryer
magxar burner
fayobobar peeler
gorbar knife, cutter
zyogorbar slicer
kyigorbar axe, hatchet, chopper
glalgorbar grater
bilyig glalgorbar cheese grater
sangorbar carving knife
vyigorbar trimmer
kugorbar trimmer, edger
yubgorbar shaver
zyegarbar stabbing knife
gorfar scissors, shears
kyegorbar machete
gyigorbar dagger
zayzoygorbar saw
yebgorbar incisor
yonrar cut, split, partition, divide
faogorbar axe, hatchet, chopper, hacksaw, adz, adze
vabgorbar mower, scythe
topvabgorbar machete
fomgorbar hacksaw
yonar knife
dopyonar sword, saber
dopargorbar bayonet
mimdopyonar cutlass
puxgorbar spear
megyonar tomahawk
zyadopyonar battle-ax
potekgorbar hunting knife
tuyagorbar stiletto
pitgorbar fish cutter
gyogar slice, thin section, cutlet
mulyonxar sieve
mulyonxar filter
mulyonxar colander
tejvalxar life-saver
vyapxar regulator
vyanagar ruler
vyiar broom, sweeper
vyisar brush
teubvyisar toothbrush
tayebvyisar hairbrush, brush
vyusukar shovel, hoe
vabgorbar scythe
vabiblar harvester, reaper
vyabogxar miller, grater, granulator, crusher
vozil aparxar paint brush
avozaxar whitener
zeybar conveyance, vehicle, ferry
zeybelar truck, conveyance
zeyubar transmitter
zebar balance, scales
zyateaxar scanner
ilzyabar spray gun
ilzyabegar sprinkler
zyesbar drill
melzyesbar hoe, shovel
zyoxar tightener
zyimgorbar planer
nofzyixar iron
zyitulbar platter
zyimnagar level
zyifar planer
zyufuvar screwdriver
zyupar rotor, cycle
zebzyupar gyroscope
zyubar mill
milzyubar water mill
mapzyubar windmill
igzyupar spin top
zyurbar twister
yuzyubar roller
zyufobar wrinkle remover






|}

The tol (Food) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
Summary:
WORD ENDING
tol food -yal juice
tel- eat -el food
til- drink -il liquid, drink
tul dish -yel gel, oil
tyal meal -eil soup

tol food

tola food, alimentary
tolyan groceries, foodstuffs, provisions
tolamut grocer
tolyanam grocery store
toltun dietetics, food science
toltuna dietary
toltuna vyaab dietary regime, diet
toltut dietitian
tolvyaab diet
tolsam food buffet
toluer feed
toluen feeding, alimentation
tolier feed oneself
tolien feeding oneself
tolkeer forage, forage for food, scrounge for food, seek food
tolkeut forager
tolanyan food chain
toyl nutrition
toyla nutritional
toyles nutrient
toyluer nourish
toylueya nourishing
gretoyluwa adequately-nourished
grotoyluwa malnourished, undernourished
grotoyluwan malnutrition
toylier nourish oneself
toylien nourishing
toloyser go without food, starve, be deprived of food
toloys starvation, hunger, food deprivation
toloysag famine
toloysea starving
toloyxer starve, deprive of food
toloyxwa starved
tolgran food surplus
tolgron food deficit
tolgronag major food deficit, famine
tolnien food consumption, demand for food
tolnuen food supply
tolnuut food supplier
tolneun food reserve
tolniam food storehouse
toleus taste
toleuser taste
toleusoya insipid, tasteless
toleusoyan tastelessness
toleusaya tasty
toleusayan tastiness
toleuxer taste
toleusgab relish
yotoleus disgust
yotoleuser disgust
yotoleusea disgusting
tolar eating utensil
tolaryan place setting

tel cooked food, prepared food, food, edible

telier eat, ingest, consume
teliuwa edible
oteliuwa inedible
teliut eater
telien eating
telam restaurant, eatery, eating establishment
telamut restauranteur
teleus flavor, taste
teleuser savor, taste
teleusaya flavorful, savory, tasty
teleusayan flavorfulness, savoriness, tastiness
teleusoya flavorless, unsavory, tasteless
teleusoyan flavorlessness, unsavoriness, tastelessness
fiteusa delicious, good-tasting
futeusa disgusting, bad-tasting
igtel fast food
igtelam fast food outlet
telar fork
telarpib prong
telyeb plate
uktelyeb bowl
teil soup
teilar spoon, soup spoon
teilarag ladle, soup ladle
teilyeb bowl, soup bowl
taolteil stew, meat stew
yagteil stew
yagteilxer stew
yagteilxwa stewed:
gyoteil broth
sifyabteil chili
aybilteil bisque
vobteil vegetable soup
evyabteil lentil soup
yivobteil rice roup
ivyabteil pea soup
luvolteil carrot soup
levolteil beet soup, borsht
fevolteil onion soup
bavolteil tomato soup
avyabteil bean soup
teilyena soupy
telef hunger
telefa hungry
telefer hunger, be hungry
telefxer make hungry, famish
telefxwa famished
teleftojer die of hunger
telefag famine
telif love of food, gourmandise
telifut gourmet, foodie, food-lover
vitelin epicureanism
vitelina epicurean, epicureanist
vitelinut epicure, lover of good food, gourmet
vitel fine food
teluf foodophobia
grateler eat too much, overeat, gorge
gratelen eating too much, overeating, gourmandise, gluttony
gratelut overeater, glutton, gourmand, gorger
gretelier eat up, eat to satisfaction, get filled up
greteluer satiate
greteliawa full, sated
groteliawa unsatiated, underfed
ogreteliuwa insatiable
ogreteliuwan insatiability
groteler eat too little, undereat
teltun gastronomy, food science
teltuna gastronomic
teltut gastronomist
oteliawa uneaten
oteliawas leftover
oteliawas nyem doggy bag, take-away box

til drink, beverage, potion

tilier drink, imbibe
tilien drinking, imbibing
tiliut drinker, imbiber
tiluer give to drink, water, irrigate
tiluen watering, irrigation
tilsem bar, drink counter
tilsemut bartender
tilam bar, saloon, drinking establishment, tavern
tilsom refreshment stand
tilaym bistrot
tilef thirst
tilefa thirsty
tilefer thirst, be thirsty
telefober quench thirst
telefobeya thirst-quenching
tilefag drought
tiloys water shortage
tiloysag drought
tilgron water shortage, water deficit
tilgronag major water shortage, droubt
tilar spoon
tilarog teaspoon
tilarag soupspoon, ladle
gratila inebriated, drunk
gratilan drunkenness
gratilat drunk, inebriated person
gratiler drink too much, overdrink
gratilut drunkard
gretiler drink moderately
gretilut drink moderately
otilut teetotaler
mil water
mila aquatic
mamegaya mil carbonated water
mamegoya mil still water
tilyeb mil bottled water
fufyuj mil tap water
mipa mil river water
mipij mil spring water
alamil soda water
levalamil soda pop, soda beverage, soft drink, pop
gyalevil syrup
gyalevilaya syrupy
dyofyel gyalevil chocolate syrup
bil milk
tilabil breast milk
tilabiluer breast feed, nurse
tilabiluen breastfeeding, nursing
tilabilier suckle
tilabilien suckling
toybil breast milk, human milk, mother's milk
epeybil cow's milk
yopeybil goat's milk
yivyabil soy milk
aona bil whole milk
yanglal bil yoghurt, curdled milk
eynbil half-and-half
abobwa bil skim milk
abobwa bilgab buttermilk
eya soyon bil two percent milk
bilyena milky, murky
bilyenan milkiness, murkiness
bilyenser get murky, cloud up
bilier milk, draw milk
biliur milking machine
biluer give milk, lactate, nurse
biluen lactation, nursing
yanbilxer amulsify
yanbilxen amulsification
yanbilxwa amulsified
yanbil amulsion
yanbilyena amulsoid
bilun milk product, dairy product
bilunxam dairy, dairy farm
bilunxen dairy production
bilunxut dairyman
bilunxuyt diarymaid
bilyig cheese
bilyigaya cheesy
bilyigika cheese-filled
yanglal bilyig cottage cheese
helveta bilyig swiss cheese
kamamber bilyig camembert
cedar bilyig cheddar cheese
amerika bilyig American cheese
yovoza bilyig blue cheese
gyagor bi bilyig hunk of cheese
gyogor bi bilyig slice of cheese
mekxwa bilyig grated cheese, parmesan cheese
bilyig mekxar grater
bilyig favol cheese souffle
yopeyt bilyig feta, goat cheese
bilyug butter
bilyugaya buttery
bilyugika butter-filled
bilyugaber butter, apply butter
bilyugabwa buttered
evozbilyug margarine
muf bi bilyug stick of butter
bilyug telar butter knife
aybil cream
yomaybil ice cream
igza aybil sour cream
apyexwa aybil whipped cream
gyalevabil pudding
agyalevabil tapioca
egyalevabil mousse
igyalevabil custard
ugyalevabil junket
yogyalevabil yoghurt
fufyab gyalevabil fig pudding
dyofyel gyalevabil chocolate pudding
favol froth, foam, fluff
patobij favol meringue
favolabun icing, frosting
dyofyal cocoa, cocoa drink
dyofyabil chocolate milk
dyofyel chocolate
dyofyel ababwa chocolate-covered
dyofyel umleavol chocolate cookie
dyofyel gyalevabil chocolate mousse
dyofyel gyalevabil chocolate pudding
dyofyel yomaybil chocolate ice cream
dyofyel jotul chocolate dessert
gradyofyelut chocoholic
dryofyelika chocolate-filled, chocolaty
mekil meal, porridge, gruel, mush, grits, grout, pottage
mekxer grind, mill
mekxwa ground, milled
mekxar mill, grinder
mekxwa eopet ground beef
biil juice
biilaya juicy, succulent
biilayan juiciness, succulence
taobiil gravy
tuil sauce
tuilyeb saucer
omtil refreshment, soda, pop
fyab fruit
fyal fruit juice
fyabaya fruity
afyab apple
afyal apple juice, cider
ofilxwa afyal sweet cider
filxwa afyal hard cider
efyab pear
efyal pear juice
ifyab cherry
ifyal cherry juice
ifyab prune
ufyal prune juice
yofyab apricot
yofal apricot juice
yafab peach
yafal peach juice
yefab quince
yefal quince juice
lufab grapefruit
lufal grapefruit juice
fufyab coconut
fufyal coconut juice
vafyab grape
vafyal grape juice
vafyal fayob grape skin
lafyab orange
lafyal orange juice
levelafyal orangeade
lafyalamil orange soda, orange pop
lifyab lemon
lifyal lemon juice
levelifyal lemonade
fifyab banana
fifyal banana juice
fifyab fayob banana peel
zavyab strawberry
zavyal strawberry juice
levob beet
levyal beet juice
luvob carrot
luvol biil carrot juice
bavol tomato
bavol biil tomato juice
bavol teil tomato soup
safayel tea
safayeb tea leaf
safeyelam teahouse
safayelyeb tea urn
safayelsyeb teacup
tilsyeb safyel cup of tea
safayel bay level sweetened tea
safayel boy level unsweetened tea
safayel bay lifyab tea with lemon
sefyal coffee
sefyalam cafe
sefyalyeb coffee urn
sefyalsyeb coffee cup
tilsyeb sefyal cup of coffee
sefyab coffee bean
sefyal bay level coffee with sugar
sefyal bay bilyug coffee with creme
sefyal bay bil cafe au lait
sefyal boy bilyug black coffee
sefmul caffeine
sefmulxwa caffeinated
losefmulxwa decaffeinated, decaf
fil alcohol, alcoholic drink, fermented drink
grafiliut alchoholic
ofiliut teetotaler, non-drinker
filoya alchohol-free
ofila non-alcoholic
filxer ferment
filxwa fermented
ofilxwa unfermented
filxen fermentation
fileynsag proof
60 proof: 60-fileynsaga
filvyunober distill
filvyunobam distillery
filovyunobwa distilled::
levafil liquor, alcoholic drink
levafilyeb liquor bottle
levafilnam liquor store
yugglal mash, pulp, malt, pulpy mass, crushed malt, batter
yugglalxer mash, crush, mill, pulp, beat
vafil wine
vafil ilyeb wine bottle
vafil tilyeb wine glass
ilyeb bi vafil bottle of wine
tilyeb bi vafil glass of wine
tilyeb yijbar bottle opener
yujun cork, plug
zyufuv yijbar cork screw
yujunobar cork screw, bottle opener
vafil oymxar wine cooler
vafilnam wine store
vafilam wine bar
vafilxam winery
vafilxem vineyard
vafilxut wine-grower, wine-maker
vafilxen viticulture, wine-making
vafilxena viticultural
vafiltun oenology
vafiltuna oenological
vafiltut oenologist
vafil faosyeb wine barrel
yigvafil vinegar
yigvafilaya vinegary
gravafiliut wino
vafiltyeut wine connaisseur
vafyab grape
vafyabyan bunch of grapes
umvafyab raisin
umvafyab ovol raisin bran
wa ikxwa vafayeb stuffed grape leaves
vafayb vine
vafaybem vineyard
vafil teuxen wine tasting
ivoza vafil red wine
avoza vafil white wine
uvoza vafil rose' wine
yanbixmul tannin
yanbixmulaya astringent, pungent
yigza sour
levelaya sweet, sugary
fyabika fruity
yavil beer, lager
yavil ilyeb beer bottle
yavil tilyeb beer glass
yavil yolsyeb beer can
yavil faosyeb beer barrel
yavil faosyeyb beer keg
yavil kyitilsyeb beer mug
ilyeb bi yavil bottle of beer
tilyeb bi yavil glass of beer
yolsyeb bi yavil can of beer
yavilam beer bar, tavern, pub, bar
yavilxam brewery
myoza yavil ale, dark beer
Hinda atooza yavil IPA, India pale ale
etoza yavil blond beer, lager
ilyujar tap, spigot, faucet
bi ilyujar on tap
yavil bi ilyujar beer on tap
mil bi ilyujar tap water
yavabil head, beer foam
faosyeb barrel
faosyeyb keg
kyitilsyeb mug
fomsyeb can, tin can
yavobika hoppy::
lavil vodka
lavil yeb lifyal vodka sour
levil rum
level yeb koka rum and coke
alofil gin
alyamsil tonic, sulphur water
alofil yeb alyamsil gin and tonic
gevofil whiskey
burbona gevofil bourbon
irlanda gevofil irish whiskey
boy yom neat, straight up, no ice
bay yom on the rocks, with ice
gevofil yeb lifyal whiskey sour
portugala ivyozvafil port
manigegea vafil sparkling wine
sampanya fil champagne
magxwavafil brandy
konyaka magxwavafil cognac
yanmulxwa til cocktail, mixed drink
ofila til non-alcoholic drink
glofila lite, low-alcohol
glafila high octane, strong
?: tequila (Mexican agave drink)
margarita maragarita

tul cuisine, prepared food, dish

jatul hors d'oeuvres, appetizer
jotul dessert
kutul side dish
agtul main course dish
agtulyan main course
ogtul tapa, small dish
ogtulyan selection of tapas
igtul snack
ebtul snack
tulyan course, spread, selection of dishes
atulyan first course
etulyan second course
itulyan third course
kusem tulyan buffet
utyux tulyan buffer, self-serve spread
tular dish, piece of china, eating utensil
tularsom china cabinet, buffet
tularyan dishes, china
vyixer la tularyan wash the dishes
tularvyixar dishwasher
tularvyixut dishwasher
tularvyixen dishwashing:
tulam restaurant
tulamut restauranteur
tuler dine
tulen dining
tulut diner
tuldet dinner companion
yantulen symposium
dotuler dine in public, dine out
tamtuler dine at home
tulim dining room
agtulim banquet hall
tuluer dish out
tulxer cook, prepare food
tulxut cook
tulxeb chef
tulxim kitchen
tulxen cooking
tulxwa cooked
tamtulxwa home-cooked
jatulxwa pre-cooked
egtulxwa warmed over
gratulxwa over-cooked
grotulxwa under-cooked
otulxwa uncooked, raw
tulur stove, cooker, range
tultun cuisine, culinary science, culinary arts
tultuna culinary
tultut culinary scientist
vitul fine cuisine
vitula gastronomic
vitulay gastronomically
vitultun gastronomics
vitultuna gastronomical
vitultun gastronomist::
tuldras menu
jatuldras appetizer menu
jotuldras dessert menu
agtuldras main course menu
ogtuldras tapas menu
tildras drink menu
tuil sauce
tuilber add sauce, add gravy
tuilar saucer
ama tuil hot sauce
tuilyeb sauce pan
tulyuxut server, waiter
tulyuxuyt waitress
tulyuxutyan server staff
tulyuxar platter
tulnaxdras bill
naxdras bill
diler la naxdras ask for the bill
iber la naxdras receive the bill
nuser la naxdras pay the bill, settle the bill
gorer la naxdras split the bill
yuxnas tip, service fee
yuxnasbuer tip, put down a tip, give a tip
yuxnasbuen tipping
groyuxnasbuer undertip
agyuxnasbuut big tipper
ogyuxnasbuut stingy tipper
yuxnasyeb tip jar

tyal meal, repast

tyalier have a meal, dine
tyaliut diner
tyalim dining room
tyalam diner, restaurant, eatery
tyalim dining room
tyalsem dining table
oyebtyalier eat out, eat outdoors
oyebtyalam outdoor restaurant, cafe
oyebtyalier eat in
atyal breakfast
atyalier have breakfast
etyal lunch
etyalier have lunch
ityal dinner
ityalier have dinner
utyal supper
utyalier have supper
tyalog snack
tyalogier have a snack, snack
tyalogun snack
tyalogunam snack bar
tyalogunur snack machine
zemoj tyalog midnight snack
tyalag banquet
tyalagam banquet hall
tyalagsem banquet table
yomxwa tyal tv dinner, frozen meal
tamibwa tyal home delivery meal
oyebiwa tyal take-out meal
tamtyal in-home meal
tulamtyal restaurant meal
tyalobelun leftovers
obelunyem doggy bag, take-away box
kyasa tyal meal on-the-run
ebtyal in-between meal
igtyal fast-food meal, quick-fix meal
agtyal main meal
yagtyal extended meal
ifpoptyal picnic, excursion meal
oyebemtyal picnic, outdoor meal
vabemtyal picnic, a meal in the field
gonbiwa tyal potluck, potluck meal, shared meal
kyetyal potluck meal

taol meat

taolaya meaty
taolika meat-filled
taoloya meatless
taolgor cut of meat, chop, cutlet
aakebiwa taolgor choice cut of meat, prime choice cut
taolgorbar meat cleaver, cleaver, butcher knife
taolgorbut butcher
taolgorbam butcher shop, chop shop
taolgorber butcher, cut meat, chop meat, chop
taolgorbwa butchered
taolgorben butchery, meat-cutting
taolgorben faof chopping block, cutting board, butcher block
taolmekxar meat grinder
taolgyagor steak, chop,
taolgyogor cutlet
taolzyogor strip, meat strip
taolfuyf sausage
yapet taolfuyf pork sausage
taolfuyfes sausage link:

avol bread

avolaber bread
avolabwa breaded
avolaben breading
avolsom pantry
eymuravol croissant
uzavol twist
zyuavol roll
yazavol bun
yuzavol wrap, gyro, taco
zyiavol pita, flatbread, pide, pizza
gyozyiavol crepe
gyazyiavol pancake
nyefavol waffle
ebavol sandwich
agebavol hero
gevobavol cornbread
umvafyab avol raisinbread
avolek flour
avolekaya floury
avolab crust
motozaxwa avol toast, brown
motozaxer toast, brown
motozaxwa toasted, browned
motozaxar toaster, browner
leavol pasta, dough
leavoler knead, roll out pasta
leavolyan pastry
fuyf leavol maraconi
niif leavol spaghetti
nyov leavol noodle
yagzyi leavol fettucini
leavolut pastry-maker, kneader
umleavol cookie, biscuit
zyiumleavol cracker, biscuit
leyavol cake
fyab leyavol fruitcake
dyofabyel leyavol chocolate cake
leyavol yugglal cake batter
ableyavol pie
fyab ableyavol fruit pie
aybil ableyavol creme pie
afyab ableyavol apple pie
alofyab ableyavol blackberry pie
ifyab ableyavol cherry pie
volyanmul salad, mixed salad, salad greens, greens
volyanmul abyel salad dressing
volyanmul telar salad fork
volyanmulyeb salad bowl
tolmek spice
tolmekaya spicy
tolmekber add spice
tolmekbwa spiced
tolmek somos spice rack
zivol thyme
zevol basil
fuvol garlic
fuvolaya garlicky
fevol onion
fayobober fevol peel an onion
fevol fayob onion peel
zavol parsley
??:nutmeg
mimol salt
mimolber salt
mimolbwa salted
mimolaya salty
mimolbar salt shaker
sifyol pepper
sifyolber pepper
sifyolbwa peppered
sifyolbaya peppery, hot
sifyolbar pepper shaker
tolabwas food topping
tolgabun food additive
mekil meal, grub, porridge
ovob cereal
ovol bran
avob wheat
avomek flour
mozavob buckwheat
gyiavob durum wheat, hard wheat
Hindavob maize, Indian corn, corn
avol bread
evob rye
ivob barley
uvob buckwheat
yovob millet
yavob hop
yavobaya hoppy
yevob rapeseed
yivob rice
yivob zyiglal rice cake
yivob zyuglal rice ball
bilyivob rice pudding
yagvyab yivob long grain rice
kreolama yivob Creole rice
motoza yivob brown rice
yuvob oat
yuvob mekil oatmeal
alovob sorghum, sorgo:::::
gavob sunflower
gevob corn, maize
gevob ab la veb corn on the cob
gevob avol cornbread
gevob mekil cornmeal
givob tobacco
fevob flax
fivob hemp
fuvob jute
ovyab legume
avyab bean, green bean
evoza avyab yellow French bean
avoza avyab haricot bean
ivoza avyab kidney bean
vaza avyab green bean
umxwa avyab dried bean
evyab lentil
evyab teil lentil soup
ivyab pea
ivyab teil pea soup
uvyab bean, broad been
evoza uvyab wax bean
vaza uvyab green bean, French bean
wa uvyab bay yel baked beans
yovyab peanut
yovyabyel peanut oil
mekxwa yovyab peanut butter
mekxwa yovyab ebavol peanut butter sandwich
yevyab chickpea
mekxwa yevyab hummus, chickpea paste
yivyab soy, soybeen
yivyel soy paste
lavol potato
wa yugglalxwa lavol mashed potatoes
wa yaggor lavol French fries
fayobober lavol peel a potato
lavol fayobobar potato peeler
lavol fayob potato peel
lavol volyanmul potato salad
levol beet
levol biil beet juice
livol radish
luvol carrot
lyovol turnip
lyavol artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke
savob mushroom
favol leek
fevol onion
fevol teil onion soup
fevol fayob onion peel
fivol shallot
fuvol garlic
fuvolaya garlicky
pavol cabbage
apavol white cabbage
epavol brussel sprout
ipavol red cabbage
upavol kale
yopavol rutabaga
gorbwa pavol slaw
pevol cauliflower
bavol tomato
bavolog cherry tomato
green bavol green tomato
gyogorber bavol slice a tomato
bevol eggplant, aubergine
bivol gourd, squash
bivoyl zucchini, summer squash
buvol cucumber
silbuvol pickle
buvolbyel tzatziki
byovol gherkin
byvol artichoke
vavol lettuce
vevol spinach
vivol sorrel
vuvol dandelion
vyavol watercress
vyovol chicory, endive
gavol pumpkin
gevol melon
givol watermelon
zavol parsley
zevob basil
zivob thyme
zuvob? rosemary
zavob strawberry plant
zavyab fraisse?
savob fern
sevob thistle
sivob nettle:::
evyab lentil
ivyab pea
uvyab bean

umxwa dried

umxwa fyab dried fruit

yomxwa frozen

apelatil honey yel oil

yelaya oily
yelaber add oil
tulyel cooking oil
gavyel sunflower oil
gevyel corn oil
kafyel olive oil
fuvolyel aioli, garlic and oil
yigvafilyel vinegar and oil
amsalxwa yel hydrogenated oil
oyanilikxwa yel unsaturated oil

toleusgabuil dressing

bavuil ketchup
?: mustard
mayona yigvafuil mayonnaise

toleusgabol condiment leveyel jam, confiture leveyeyl jelly yiglevyel candy

yiglevyelam candy store
yiglevyelxer candy
yiglevyelxwa candied

NUTS

yifyab nut, walnut ayifyab cashew eyifyab almond yufyab hazelnut

EDIBLE FISH AND SHELLFISH

pit fish

pituil fish sauce
apit trout
epit perch
ipit pike
upit carp
yopit tench
yapit stud
yepit stickleback
yipit whiting
tepit turbot
ryapit swordfish
ryepit tuna
ryipit sturgeon
ryupit cod
lipit salmon

l:upit sole

sapit herring
sepit barbel
syopit sardine
sipit anchovy
vapit eel

EDIBLE FISH PARTS

pitaib fishbone
piteob jowl
piteb fish head
piteab fish eye

EDIBLE SHELLFISH AND MOLLUSKS

piit shellfish

apiit lobster
malzyunwa apiit boiled lobster
epiit rock lobster
ipiit scampi
upiit crayfish, crawfish
yopiit prawn
yapiit shrimp
lapiit crab
lapiit ebavol crab sandwich

pyeit mollusk

apyeit oyster
apyeituil oyster sauce
apyeit yagteil oyster stew
epyeit mussel
ipyeit clam
ipyeituil clam sauce


malzyun bubble

malzyunika bubbly, carbonated
malzyunea effervescent
malzyunuka still, uncarbonated, unbubbly
malzyuner bubble

magiler boil

magilwa boiled
magilar boiler
magilen boiling

magilmul yeast, leaven, foam, spume

magilmuler ferment
magilmulwa fermented
magilmulen fermentation

vyaab malt, germinated grain fil alcohol

fila alcoholic
ofila non-alcoholic
filika alcoholic
grafilut alcoholic

yolam antimony, Sb yanglal curd

yanglalxer curdle, coagulate
ganglalxa curdled, coagulated

magilmulwa fermented apelatyel molasses alovobyel sorghum, sorgho, sorgo

CONTAINERS

nyeb container

nunyeb crate, package, case
milnyeb bucket, pail
ibyeb receptacle
ilyeb bottle
tilyeb glass, drinking glass
telyeb plate, dinner plate
telyeyb saucer
tulyeb platter, food platter
nunyeb case, package, crate
yomyeb ice chest
nazunyeb safe, safety deposit box
ilneyeb tank, reservoir
vosyeb flower pot, vase
maagilyeb fuel can
mogyeb ashtray
amulpyeb battery
nozyeb jewelry box
obelunyeb trash can, garbage pail
drilyeb ink well

syeb container, bin, vessel

tilsyeb cup, drinking cup
kyitilsyeb mug, stein
elsyeb pot, pan
magyelsyeb frying pan, skillet
tolsyeb casserole, pan
zyitolsyeb skillet
yolsyeb can, tin, tin can
teilsyeb bowl, soup bowl
milsyeb tank, cistern, reservoir
magilsyeb kettle
magilsyebag cauldron, boiler
ilsyeb carafe, beaker, flask, jug
faosyeb barrel
faosyeyb keg
meksyeb urn

fyeb tin can, can

fyebag tub, canister
milfyeb canteen
milfyebag tub
telfyeb can, food tin, tin can, can of food

zyeb glass container

manzyeb lightbulb
elzyeb jar
ilzyeb bottle, glass bottle
tilzyeb drinking glass, glass
bekilzyeb vial

nyef sack, bag, basket

nyefyan baggage
popnyef suitcase, travel bag
popnyefyan luggage, baggage
yignyef basket
zotib nyef backpack, rucksack
tolnyef grocery bag, grocery sack
defnyef paper sack, paper bag
myelnyef plastic bag
obelunyef garbage bag, trash bag, garbage sack
tafnyef portmanteau
nasyef wallet
nasyeyf purse
nasesyef coin purse
safyalnyef teabag
malnyef airbag, airsack
vyabnyef grain sack

nyem box, case

dofnyem cardboard box, carton
fomnyem metal box, metal case
popnyemag trunk, coffer
tuyabyem pocket
tibyeym pouch, poke
tojatnyem coffin, casket
belnyem briefcase

nyus package, shipment

nyusag crate, bin

fuf pipe

fuyf tube
tilfuyf straw
milfuf water pipe
movuf tobacco pipe, pipe, smoking pipe
miluf toilet, commode
ukxen fuf drainage pipe

nidyuz envelope bakilyuz capsule tim room, chamber

yixuntim utility closest
timog cell, pod
times booth, roomette, compartment
miltimes W.C., water closet, lavabo, washroom
dalibartimes phone booth, telephone booth

milim water closet, bathroom, bath milufim toilet, W.C., bathroom, restroom novim linen closet parim car, wagon, train car tofim clothes closet, closet avolim pantry sam armoire, chest

tofsam chest of drawers
dyensam bookcase



COOKING METHODS

tulxer cook

tulxut cook
tulxam kitchen
tulxen cooking
tulxwa cooked
otulxwa raw

mageler cook

magelut cook
magelim kitchen
magelwa cooked
omagelwa raw
magelar cooker
mageltun gastronomy
mageltuna gastronomic
mageltut gastronomist
gramageler overcook
gramagelwa overcooked
gromageler undercook
gromagelwa undercooked

magyeler fry

magyelwa fried

yobmagyeler deep-fry

yelmageylwa deep-fried

belgamagyeler french-fry

belgamagyelwa french-fried

ummageler bake

ummagelwa baked
ummagelun baked good
ummagelar oven

igmagyeler sautee

igmagyelwa sauteed

motozaxer toast, brown

motozaxwa toasted, browned
motozaxar toaster

mageier boil, poach

magilwa boiled, poached
magilea boiling
yigmagilwa hard-boiled
yugmagilwa soft-boiled

yijmageler broil, grill

yijmagelwa broiled, grilled
yijmagelar broiler, grill, gridiron

izummageler roast

izummagelwa roasted
izummagelar roaster

mamegmageler barbecue, charcoal gril

mamegmagelwa barbecued, charcoal grilled
mamegmagelar barbecue grill, charcoal grill

yagilamxer simmer, braise

yagilamxwa simmered, braised

levelimaber glaze

levelimabwa glazed

imaber baste

imabwa basted

moveler smoke

movelwa smoked

oyomxer thaw

oyomxwa thawed

yomxer freeze

yomxwa frozen
yomxar freezer

ilxer melt, liquefy

ilxwa melted, liquefied

mimolber salt

mimolbwa salted

sifyolber pepper

sifyolbwa peppered
sifyolaya peppery, hot, spicy

tolmekber spice

tolmekbwa spiced
tolmekaya spicy, hot

gorbunogxer mince

gorbunogxwa minced
gorbunogxwa taol minced meat

uglaxer tenderize

uglaxwa tenderized

favofyenxwa fluffed, souffleed

HUMAN ACTIONS WITH FOOD

telier eat, ingest

ogtelier nibble, snack, peck at
iktelier devour, gorge, cram, stuff, wolf, inhale, polish off
igtelier scarf, cram, gobble up
ugtelier graze, munch
iftelier feast, feast on
gratelier overeat, gormandize, eat too much, gluttonize, pig out, binge

teluer feed tilier drink, imbibe

ogtilier sip, nip
iktilier guzzle, gulp, swig, drain
gratilier overdrink, tipple, booze, drink to excess
igtilier slurp, down
iftilier quaff, indulge, enjoy drinking
gratilier drink too much, overdrink, overindulge
tiltojer drink to death, drown oneself
glatilier quaff

tiluer water, give water to teluzbier taste, take a taste teuxer taste teubabaxer lick teubil saliva, spit, sputum teubilxer salivate teubilpuxer spit, expectorate, spew teubiluer spit teubiloyeber spit out, expectorate teubiloker drool, slaver teubilokeger dribble teubixer chew, masticate

teubixeger ruminate, graze

tilabilier suck, suckle tilabiluer suckle, nurse, lactate teubobyeber suck teubyeber swallow

igteubyeber gulp

teubikxer cram into the mouth tikabukxer vomit, throw up, regurgitate tikubier ingest tikubxer digest

tibubxen digestion

teiter smell, detect an odor teitier sniff, smell, take a whiff, savor teixer smell telefer hunger, be hungry, have an appetite

glatelefer crave, be famished

teleftojer starve, starve to death telukser go hungry telikser get full, be sated tilefer thirst, be thirsty tileftojer die of thirst

FOOD DESCRIPTIONS

fiteluza delicious, savory teluzoya tasteless, insipid fiteisa delicious, savory futeluza disgusting, nasty futeisa bad-tasting, disgusting ama hot

amxwa heated
egamxwa re-heated

ayma warm

aymxwa warmed
egaymxwa re-warmed

oma cold

omxwa refrigerated

oyma cool

oymxwa cooled

yomxwa frozen

oyomxwa thawed

yomaya icy yombwa iced ima wet

imxwa glazed, basted

uma dry

umxwa dried

ilxwa melted, liquefied mimolaya salty mimolbwa salted

omimolbwa unsalted

yigza sour yugza bitter levelbwa sweet, sugared tulxwa cooked

otulxwa raw, uncooked

ejsa fresh ajsa stale, flat ojwosa green, unripe jwosa ripe yiga hard yuga soft yigla tough yugla tender

yuglaxwa tenderized
oyuglaxwa untenderized

yoynruwa brittle malzyunika bubbly, effervescent, carbonated malzyunuka still, uncarbonated tolmekaya spicy tomekbwa spiced

otomekbwa unspiced

sifyolyena hot, spicy, peppery, piquant sifyolbwa peppered

osifyolbwa unpeppered

bay lifyal with lemon bay level with sugar boy level without sugar, unsweetened bay biel with cream boy biel without cream, black bielyena creamy, smooth yifyabika nutty, nut-filled gyula plain aza strong oza week eza medium ivoza red avoza white uvoza rose' yanbixmulaya tannic, astringent, pungent yigza sharp, pungent, acrid, biting, caustic magxwa burnt gramagelwa overcooked gromagelwa undercooked magelwa cooked magilwa boiled ummagelwa baked magyelwa fried yobmagyelwa deep-fried yijmagelwa barbecued avolabwa breaded tayobobwa skinned magelwa be zyitolyeb yagilamxwa braised taibobwa boned imabwa basted, glazed uglaxwa tenderized izmagelwa seared barmagelwa broasted motozaxwa browned yiglevyelxwa candied levyelmotozaxwa caramelized fyefmagelwa charbroiled, grilled gromagilwa coddled bielxwa creamed yanmulxwa curdled yagbelwa cured, preserved umxwa dried yagugmagelwa Dutch-oven-cooked magilmulxwa fermented mimolbekwa pickled, brined yugglalxwa pureed, mashed, pulped, beaten kyeyanmulwa scrambled izummagelwa roasted igyelmagelwa sauteed igmagyelwa simmered ikmovxwa smothered moxwwa smoked ikimxwa steeped yagteilxwa stewed braxmagyelwa stir-fried ikxwa stuffed gyaxwa thickened ableveylbwa glazed abimbwa basted, coated mialbwa steamed mulyonxwa sifted mulyonxwa filtered ilogukxarwa strained glamagelwa well-done ezmagelwa medium-well glomagelwa rare gramagelwa over-done gromagelwa under-done gremagelwa done just right, done favofyenxwa souffleed fayobobwa peeled amsalxwa hydrogenated yanilikxwa saturated oyanilikxwa unsaturated bosa organic leveloya sugar-free amonoya calorie-free, zero-cal amonaya caloric gloamona low-calory, low-cal tolvyaaba diet braxwa shaken yuzbraxwa stirred gorbiilmagyelwa fricassee gorbunogxwa minced yebilkxwa soaked pasteuraxwa pasteurized vyisaxwa purified sefmulxwa caffeinated losefmulxwa decaffeinated


COOKWARE

kina magelyeb wok yijmagelur rotisserie fyefmagelar grill ummagelar oven ogilpas ummagelur microwave oven yobmagyelar deep fryer mialbar steamer magilsyeb kettle safayal magilsyeb teakettle magelarabun stovetop barmagelar pressure cooker utmagelar samovar motozaxar toaster yagmagelar slow cooker nyefavol amxar waffle iron sefyal mulyonxur percolator gyamagelsyeb dutch oven mamegmagelar barbecue, brazier gimuf spit, skewer, stick, pick tilfuf straw yigtayebabar brush zyabar spatula mulyonxar sieve, sift, filter ilogukxyeb colander, strainer yifyab yonbyexar nutcracker ama zyibolar hot plate enbirtub tongs abimxar baster zyubea muf rolling pin teabip gimuf toothpick tulnov napkin semov tablecloth tilsyeb leyavol cupcake bilyug gorbar butter knife gorbar bolar knife holder tilar bolar spoon rest avolmuf breadstick uzglal loaf tultaf apron tulimeb tef chef's hat gorben zyifaof cutting board, chop block vafyal oymxar wine cooler

ama hot

aman heat
amxer heat, heat up
amxwa heated
amxar heater
jaamxer pre-heat
jaamxwa pre-heated
egamxer re-heat
egamxwa re-heated
amansag temperature
amon calorie

uma dry

uman dryness
umxer dry, dry out
umxwa dried
umxar dryer
umaman dry heat

mag fire

mageler cook
magelwa cooked
omagelwa uncooked, raw
magxer burn
magxwa burned, burnt
magxea burning
magxar burner
yija mag open fire

fayobober peel

fayobobwa peeled
fayobobar peeler
fayob peel
fifyal fayob banana peel

CUTTING IMPLEMENTS

gorber cut

gorbar knife, cutter
gorbaryan cutlery
gorbun cut

zyogorber slice, cut narrowly

zyogorbun slice, slot
zyogorbar slicer

kyigorber chop, cut heavily, hack, axe

kyigorbar axe, hatchet, chopper

eyngorber dissect, cut in two, halve, cut in halve glalgorber grate, dice, cut into a pile

glalgorbar grater
bilyig glalgorbar cheese grater
glalgorbwa grated

sangorber carve, cut to a form, sculpt

sangorbar carving knife
sangorbut sculptor, carver
sangorbun sculpture, carving

vyigorber trim, cut cleanly

vyigorbar trimmer

kugorber trim, cut along the edge

kugorbar trimmer, edger

yubgorber shave, cut close

yubgorbar shaver

iggorber snip, cut quickly

iggorbun snippet

taogorber cleave, chop, hack, butcher, cut meat

taogorber clever, chopper, butcher knife, meat cleaver
taogorbut butcher
taogorbam butcher shop
taogorbsem butcher block

kyugorber graze, cut lightly bukgorber lacerate, cut to wound, stab

bukgorbun laceration, stab wound

oggorber nick, cut a small bit

oggorbwa nicked
oggorbun nick

gingorber notch, cut at an angle

gingorbwa notched
gingorbun notch

zyegorber pierce, cut through, stab

zyegorbea piercing
zyegarbar stabbing knife

gorfer rip, tear, cut cloth

gorfun scrap, rag, shred
gorfar scissors, shears

yongorfer rip apart, rip asunder, tear apart, tear asunder, tear up, rip up kyegorber slash, cut haphazardly

kyegorbar machete

yaggorber slit, cut long

yaggorbun slit

gyigorber stab, cut sharp

gyigorbar dagger

gorbober shear, cut and remove zayzoygorber saw, cut back and forth

zayzoygorbar saw

teupixer bite, do something hard with the teeth

teupixun bite

teupixeger nibble, do something repeatedly with the teeth teugorber bite, teeth-cut

teugorbun bite

teubixer chew, do something mildly with the teeth brukgorber mangle, cut with mutilation

brukgorbwa mangled

gonxer partition, divide, cut, part

gonx partition, division

oyegorber excise, cut out

oyegorbun excision

yebgorber incise, cut into

yebgorbun incision
yebgorbar incisor

gorfuner shred, cut to shreds, tear up, rip to pieces yonrar cut, split, partition, divide yonber detach, separate, take apart

yonbun detachment

eynyonrer split in two, dichotomize

eynyonren dichotomy

obgorber lop off, cut off, amputate tupober dismember, amputate, remove a limb

tupobwa dismembered, amputated

tebober decapitate, remove a head

teboben decapitation

nadgorber score, cut a line zaygorber cut across, bisect yongorber sever, cut apart uyngorber quarter, cut into four pieces gorbuner segment, make a section

gorbun segment, section

tayegorber tonsure, cut hair, shave

tayegorb haircut
tayegorbam hair cutlery
tayegorbut hair cutter

yongorfer abscind, rip apart zyagorbuer share gorbarer stab, knife faogorber chop

faogorbar axe, hatchet, chopper, hacksaw, adz, adze

vabgorber mow

vabgorbar mower, scythe
topvabgorbar machete

fomgorbar hacksaw yonar knife

dopyonar sword, saber
dopargorbar bayonet
mimdopyonar cutlass

puxgorbar spear megyonar tomahawk zyadopyonar battle-ax potekgorbar hunting knife gorbayeb blade tuyagorbar stiletto pitgorbar fish cutter tayogorber scar

tayogorbun scar
tayogorbwa scarred


eopet beef

eopet gyagorbun beefsteak, steak
mekxwa eopet ground beef
mekxwa eopet ebavol hamburger
hamburgas hamburger
eopet yagteil beef stew
eopet yaggorbun strip steak

uopet mutton

uopet taogorbun mutton chop

yapet pork

yapet taogorbun pork chop
magyelwa yapetzokun bacon
yapetyob ham
yapetyob ebavol ham sandwich
ummagelwa yapetyob baked ham

yupet rabbit

yupet yagteil rabbit stew

vapyet escargot epyeit tyob frog leg epetob veal

epetob gorbunog veal cutlet

ipat turkey

ipat ebavol turkey sandwich

patijob egg

wa kyeyanmulwa patijob scrambled eggs
patijob avoz egg white
patijob zamul egg yolk
patijob evoz egg yolk, yellow part of the egg
patijobayob egg shell
patijob zyiun omelet
magyelwa patijob fried egg
magilwa patijob boiled egg, poached egg
yigmagilwa patijob hard-boiled egg
yugmagilwa patijob soft-boiled egg
yapet ay patijob bacon and eggs

apaytot chicken

wa apaytot patub chicken wings
apaytot teil chicken soup
yelmagelwa patub fried chicken
ummagelwa patub baked chicken
apaytot gyagorbun chicken steak

taol be muf kabob, skewered meat

ADD-ON SUBSTANCES

abgabun topping, coating

abgabuner top off, coat

yebun ingredient gabun additive, garnish

gabuner garnish

toleusgabun condiment, relish tolmek spice, seasoning

tolmekber spice, season

levelabun icing, frosting, glaze

levelabuner ice, frost, glaze

abun coating, topping, coat

abuner coat, top

tuil sauce biil juice taobil gravy zyaygoseger sprinkle

zyaygosegun sprinkle

zyaybun spread favolun froth, foam, fluff, meringue, frost


QUANTITIES AND SHAPES

gon part, portion

gones particle
gonog small part, small portion
goyn:
gonbun share
ujgon butt, end part

goun piece gos piece, morsel, crumb, tidbit, bit, bite

gosog speck, particle

gorf shred, rag

yaggorf strip

gorb cut

uyngorb quarter
eyngorb half
ayngorb whole cut

gorp hunk, chunk

gorpes chip, flake:

gor section

gyagor slab, steak, thick section
gyogar slice, thin section, cutlet

gol division glal mass, bunch, cluster

yanglal curd, lump, clot, glob
glalab stack, pile, heap
zyiglal patty
yugglal mush, mash, soft mass

fuyf tube

fuyfes link
tilfuyf straw

zyun ball, sphere

malzyun bubble
zyunog pellet, bullet, bead
milzyun drop of water
milzyunog water bead
ilzyun drop, drop of liquid
ilzyunog bead of liquid
mekzyun dust bowl

kun side, flank

zakun front end, face
zokun back end, rear
kunad edge, frontier

mul matter, material, substance

zamul kernel, core
yigmul hard substance
yugmul soft substance
yunmul cluster

muf pole, stick, rod

gimuf sharp stick, skewer, spit

faof board, plank nyaun pile, mass, heap, stack

nyaunxer pile up, stack

nyan pile, stack, heap byeb pile, stack vyayb seed zoniub butt ujun end, butt ujgin tip kuned flank abem top abned top, surface, upper plane obem bottom obned bottom, lower plane zaned front, face, frontal plane zoned back, back plane ijun head ounce pound pint gallon ton inch foot yard millimeter centimeter meter avolgos crumb zyigos flake, chip, crisp

lavol zyigos potato chip, potato crisp

gos piece, morsel

goses little piece, bit, tiny morsel

gwos atom, tiniest thing gwo- nano-

gwojweb nanosecond

gones particle vzevyab kernel, nucleus

zevyaba nuclear

vyab grain

vyabes speck
vyabesaya speckled
vyabyena grainy

mekes grain vyayb seed

vyaybes seedlet
vyaybyem pod, seed vessel

vabij seed

vabijoya seedless
vabijyem pod

zyogorf strip gyogorf slice, slit gorfun piece, shred, scrap yaggorf strip, long strip gyagorf slab. hunk fomgyagorf ingot fomgorf bar mulukumnid block, block of matter mulzyun ball of stuff, wad, lump, roll, plug milzyunes water bead, drop gorbun chop, cut, segment, section, slice gyagorbun steak, thick slice gorbunog cutlet, thin slice tayegorbun shaving taolzyun meatball nuad stripe taolzyogorf steak niiv strand glal mass, pile, lump, mob

yugglal soft mass, mash, mush, gob
yugglalxer mash, smash, crush
yanglal curd, clot, lump, conglomeration, coagulation, concretion
yanglalxer clot, curdle, lump together, conglomerate, coagulate
glalgorber grate
glala massive
glalika lumpy

mek powder, dust

mekil mash, mush, crush

fef grate fefyan grating fef grid fef grill fef grille fefyan grillwork nef web nef weave zyezeyer crisscross misnef lattice faibyan framework nefxen reticulation nef net nefyan netting nefyan network ebnyivyan fretwork nefmis screen nefyem basket checkerboard nefsunyen mesh konef maze mufnefyan wattle ebnefea interweaving ebgorbwas intersection zeygorbwas cross-section ebnyiver interlace kofvaob thatch nyef bag nyef sack fyeb tin can, can mulyonxar sieve mulyonxar filter mulyonxar colander

The mor (universe) and mom (outer space) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc.
Summary:
mor....universe mom....cosmos mol....nature mop....orbit moj....evening
mon....
darkness
mof....nebula
mov....smoke
mok....dark matter
mog....ash
mob....abyss
mar....star
amar....sun
mam....sky mal....air map....wind maj....day
man...light
maf....cloud
mav....flame
mak....electricty
mag....fire
mer....planet
imer....earth
mem....land mel....soil mep....road mef....brick
mev....porcelain
mek....dust
meg....rock
mez...gem
meb....mountain
mir....world mim....sea mil....water mip....river
mur....satellite
amur....moon
mum...underground mul....matter mup....tunnel muk....mineral
mug....metal
mub....cave, pit
A few important derivations:
  • amar....sun  ("number one star")
  • amarnaap....solar system  (the "sun system")
  • amaryap....sunrise  ("sun rise")
  • amaryop....sunset  ("sun descent")
  • amarnad....sunbeam  ("sun line")
  • amarmap....solar wind  ("sun wind")
  • amarman....sunlight  ("sun light")
  • amur....moon   ("number one satellite)
  • amurned....lunar surface   ("moon surface")
  • amurmoyb....lunar crater   ("moon depression")
  • Imer....Earth   ("third planet from the sun"
  • imertun....geology   ("earthscience"
  • imerzyunad....earth's axis   ("earth turn line"
  • imermop....earth's orbit   ("earth's orbit"
  • marmaf....galaxy   ("star cloud")
  • Amarmaf....Milky Way   ("number one galaxy")
  • maryan....constellation   ("collection of stars")
  • marmeg....comet   ("star rock")
  • mommeg....meteor   ("space rock")
  • mammeg....meteorite   ("sky rock")
The following are vehicles and derivatives that are specific to one of the above physical spheres:
mompar....spaceship momper.... travel through space momput....cosmonaut, astronaut
mampar....airplane mamper....fly mamput....flyer, pilot
mempar....automobile memper....ride, drive memput....rider, driver
mimpar....ship
obmimpar....submarine
mimper sail, navigate mimput sailor, navigator
obmimput....submariner
mumpar....subway mumper.... tunnel, go by metro mumput....metro rider

Names of the Planets[edit]

Here are the names of the planets in our solar system. Notice that Earth is the fourth "rock" from the sun.
mer....planet
Amer.... Mercury
Emer.... Venus
Imer.... Earth
Umer.... Mars
Yomer.... Jupiter
Yamer.... Saturn
Yemer.... Uranus
Yimer.... Pluto

Polar Directions[edit]

DIRECTIONS mer....planet
za....front zamer.... north
zo....behind zomer....south
zi....right zimer....east
zu....left zumer....west
Related terms:
  • zamernod....north pole (nod = point)
  • zomernod....south pole
  • zaomernad....longitude (zao = north-south, nad = line)
  • zuimernad....latitude (zui = east-west)
  • zemernad....equator (ze = middle)
  • merzyun....globe, sphere (planet-ball)
  • eymerzyun....hemisphere (half-planet-ball)

Types of Clouds[edit]

maf....cloud
maaf.... stratus
maef.... nimbostratus
maif.... cumulus
mauf.... cumulonimbus
mayof.... stratocumulus
mayaf.... allocumulus
mayef.... allostratus
mayif.... cirrocumulus
mayuf.... cirrostratus
malof.... cirrus

Types of Roads and Paths[edit]

mep.... way, road, route
    zeymep.... bridge, crossing
    aybmep.... overpass, bridge
    oybmep.... underpass
    zyemep.... tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
    kumep.... side path
    zomep.... back way
    ebmep.... aisle
    tyoyamep.... sidewalk, walkway
    omep....impasse
    gunmep....dogleg
    dinmep....plot
    pomep....itinerary
    eynmep....half-way
    homep?'....which way?
    yilpmep....escape route
    yexmep....career
    yuzmep....circuit
    tyenmep....career
    puxmep....trajectory
    vyamep....right way
    vyomep....wrong way
    musmep....stairway
    izmep.... direct route, straight path, vector
    yebmep.... entryway, entrance
    oyebmep.... exit, way out
    mummep.... subway
    mammep.... air route
    elyamep.... railroad, railway
    mimmep.... sealane
domep.... street
    agdomep.... highway
    aagdomep.... main street
    zyadomep.... broadway
    igdomep.... expressway
    uzmep.... byway, detour
    yuzdomep.... beltway, loop
    zyudomep.... roundabout, circle, rotary
    ebdomep....
alley
    anizona domep....
one-way street
meap.... avenue
meep.... boulevard
meip.... lane
    zimeip....right lane
    zumeip....left lane
    zemeip....median, middle lane
    anmeip.... single lane
    enmeip....double lane
meup.... trail
    mebmeup....mountain trail
meyp.... path
    tyoyameyp.... footpath

Types of Stones, Gems, etc.[edit]

STONE GEM OTHER EARTH SUBSTANCES
meg .... stone mez .... gem mek .... dust
meag .... marble amez .... diamond miek .... sand
meeg ....slate emez .... topaz myek .... powder
meig ....gramote imez .... ruby mel .... soil
meug ....clay vamez .... emerald meil .... mud
meyag ....chalk yamez .... amethyst megil .... cement
meyeg ....limestone yomez .... sapphire myel .... plastic
meyig ....alabaster mil .... water
meyog .... china mial .... vapor
meyug .... gypsum miil .... dew
melag .... adobe mimol .... salt
meleg .... terra cotta mamil .... rain
melig .... marl mal .... air
melug .... kaolin mayl .... gas
melyag .... feldspar magil .... petroleum
melyeg .... petunse mug .... metal
melyig .... silica muk .... mineral
melyog .... pegmatite mul .... matter
melyug .... flint mag .... fire
mieg .... coral mog .... ash
mav .... flame
mov .... smoke

Thermal Conditions[edit]

ama .... hot ayma .... warm
oma .... cold oyma .... cool
ima .... wet iyma .... humid
uma .... dry uyma .... arid
yoma .... frozen yoyma .... chilly
yama .... burning

Weather Phenomena[edit]

mamyen .... weather
mamil .... rain
mamyom .... sleet
mamyoym .... snow
yoym .... frost
yom .... ice
mial .... steam
miil .... dew
maf .... cloud
miaf .... fog
mapil .... storm, windstorm
xeusmapil .... thunderstorm
mapilag .... tempest
mimmapil .... hurricane
map .... wind
maap .... puff
maep .... breeze
maip .... gust
maup .... gale
mayop .... typhoon
mapulz .... tornado, twister, cyclone
mammanig .... lightning
mamxeus .... thunder
mamiluz .... rainbow
jibim .... monsoon
graim .... flood, deluge

Atmospheric Layers[edit]

mal .... air
maal .... atmosphere
mael .... troposphere
mail .... stratosphere
maul .... ionosphere
mayol .... exosphere

Rivers and Streams[edit]

mip .... river
miap .... stream
miep .... brook
miip .... rivulet
miup .... tributary
miyop .... creek
miyap .... rill
mipuj .... estuary
mipkum .... river bank

Bodies of Water[edit]

mim .... sea
mimag .... ocean
miam .... lake
miem .... lagoon
miim .... pond
mium .... pool, basin
miumog .... puddle
immem .... swamp
ebmim .... strait
zyomip .... canal

Land Features[edit]

mem .... land
meam .... region
meem .... territory
meim .... countryside
meum .... zone, district
meyom .... tract, parcel, acre
meb .... mountain
meyb .... mount
meab .... hill
meeb .... knob
meib .... mound
meub .... ridge
meyob .... bump
mimeib ... cape
yabmimeib .... promontory, headland, bluff
zyimeb .... plateau
magmeb .... volcano
mub .... chasm, precipice, cliff
muab .... gulf, gulch
mueb .... ravine, valley, dale
muib .... cave
muyob .... ditch
mimuib .... cove
mimkum .... beach, seaside, coast
uzmimkum .... bay
zyimem .... plain
ummem .... desert
immem .... wetland, swamp
zomem .... hinterland
zyamem ....prairie
memsin .... landscape
yonmel .... island
eynyonmel .... peninsula
yanmel .... continent
zyoebmel .... isthmus
yijmem .... field, meadow

Different Worlds[edit]

mir .... world, realm, domain
jomir.... here-after, after-world, metasphere
fyajomir....heaven, paradise
ebjomir....limbo
zejomir....purgatory
fyojomir....hell
yizmir....world beyond, spirit world
yizmirat....spirit, sprite
fyamir.... sacred world, paradise
fyamirat....angel
fyomir....wicked world, hell
fyomirat....demon
obmir....nether world
komir....secret realms
mor .... universe
moreb....god
moreyb....goddess






mor universe

mora universal
moran universality
moraxer universalize
moraxen universalization
moraxwa universalized
moreb God
moreba divine
moreban divinity

mar star

mara stellar
maryan constellation
marika starry
marikan starriness
marmaf galaxy
amarmaf Milky Way
marmafa galactic
amar sun
amara solar
amaryap sunrise
amaryop sunset
amarman sunlight
amarmas sunshine
amarnad sunray, sunbeam
amarzena heliocentric
amara vyaab solar system

mer planet

mera planetary
mear Mercury
meer Venus
meir Earth
meira earthly, terrestrial
meirat earthling, terrestrial
omeira extraterrestrial
omeirat extraterrestrial
meur Mars
meurat Martian
meyor Jupiter
meyar Saturn
meyer Uranus
meyir Pluto

mir world

mira global
miran globality
Mirad world language, Mirad
mirdit cosmopolitan, world citizen
mirdita cosmopolitan
miraxer globalize
miraxen globalization
miraxwa globalized
famir heaven
famira celestial, heavenly
famirat angel
famirata angelic
zyamira world-wide, worldwide
zyamira nef worldwide web, www
la aona mir the whole world
lyamira worldwide, global
amir north
amira northern, nordic
amirat northerner
amiray northward, northerly
amirnod north pole
emir equator
emira equatorial
emirnad equator
omir south
omira southern
omirat southerner
omiray southward, southerly
omiyra meridional
omirnod south pole
imir east, orient
imira eastern
imirat easterner
imiray eastward
imiray eastward
imiyra oriental
imirytat oriental
umir west, occident
umira western
umirat westerner
umiray westward
umiyrat occidental
aomira north-south, vertical, longitudinal
aormiray vertically, longitudinally
aormirnad longitude
iumira east-west, horizontal, latitudinal
iumiray horizontally, latitudinally
iumirnad latitude

mur moon, satellite

mura lunar
amur earth's moon, moon
muar comet
muartiyub comet tail
muer meteor
muerog meteorite

mol nature

mola natural
omola unnatural, artificial
omolan artificiality
omolas something artificial
yizmol supernatural
yizmola supernatural
molaxer naturalize
molaxen naturalization
molaxwa naturalized
ijmol origin
ijmola original

mal air

maal atmosphere
maala atmospheric
mael troposphere
maela tropospheric
mail stratosphere
maila stratospheric
maul ionosphere
mayol exosphere
mayl gas
mayla gaseous
maylxer gaseify
maylxen gaseification
maylxwa gaseified
maluer aerate, blow up, pump air into, inflate
maluen aeration, blowing up, inflation
maluar air pump, inflater
maluuwa inflated, pumped up, aerated
omaluer deflate
omaluen deflation
omaluuwa deflated
malyen weather
malyentun meteorology
malyentuna meteorological, weather-related
malyentut meteorologist, weatherman, weatherperson
jebmalyen climate
jebmalyena climatic

mel land, soil, ground, dirt

mela terrestrial, land, ground
yanmel continent
yanmela continental
yonmel island
yonmela insular
yonmelat islander
melpuer land
melpuen landing
melpuem landing strip
meluk hole in the ground, hole, ditch
melukxer dig
melukxar hoe, digger, ditch digger
tojmeluk grave
tojmelukxut gravedigger
milmeluk well
milmelukxut welldigger
yagmeluk ditch
yagmelukxut ditchdigger
melyex farming, agriculture, land work
melyexa agricultural
melyexut farmer
melyexem farm
melyexam farmhouse
melyexer farm
melyextun agriculture
melyextuna agricultural
abmel topsoil
abmela above-ground
obmel subsoil
obmela underground, subterranean
meel terrain
yebmelber bury
yebmelben burial
yebmelbwa buried
yebmelbem grave

mil water

mila aquatic
milaya aqueous, watery
miles drop, drop of water, water drop
milesog droplet, bead
mial vapor, steam
mialaya steamy, vaporous
mialayaser get steamed up
mialxer vaporize
mialxen vaporization
mialpar steamship
miil dew
miilika dewy
miilaya dewy
miiles dew drop
mamil rain
mamiler rain
mamilaya rainy
mamiles raindrop
mamilovar umbrella
mamilag rainstorm
milper swim
milpen swimming
milpam swimming center, natatory
milpyem swimming pool
milput swimmer
milaper float
milapen flotation
milapea floating
milapar flotation device
miloper sink
milopen sinking
milopuer sunken
milyobirwer drown, get dragged underwater, sink
milyobiren drowning
milyepyoner dive
milyepyonen diving
milyepyonut diver
mimper sail
mimpea sea-going
mimpar boat, ship
mimpareb ship captain
mimparer navigate
mimparen navigation
mimparut navigator
mimpen sailing, navigation
mimpop cruise
mimpopar cruise ship
mimpoper cruise
malofpar sailboat
malofpareb skipper
malofparer sail, go sailing
meil mud
meilaya muddy
meilayan muddiness
meilxer muddy
meilxwa muddied
meilxen muddying
imil liquid, fluid, wet stuff
imila liquid, fluid
imilan liquidity, fluidity
imilaxer liquefy
imilaxen liquefication
imilaxwa liquefied
ilper flow
ilp flux, flow, wave
zayilp reflex, retroflux
ilpen flowing
ilpea flowing, fluent, in flux
zyeilper permeate, flow through, seep, soak
ozyeilpuwa impermeable
yagzyeilper seep, seep through
oyebilper flow out
oyebilpen effluence
oyebilpea effluent
iluper surge
iliper ebb
yebilper flow in
yebilpen influx, influence
grailper overflow, flood
grailp flood, overflow
grailpwa flooded
grailpea overflowing, flooding
ilaper float
ilapea floating
ilapar flotation device
ilapen flotation
ilapun flotsam
ilyoper sink
ilyopea sinking
ilyopen sinking
ilyopa sunken
ilyober dunk, dip
iloker leak
ilok leak
iloken leaking
ilokea leaking
ilokeya leaky
iluker drain
ilukar drain
iluken drainage
ilukuf drainpipe, spout
iliker flood
ilik flood
ilikwa flooded
iliken flooding
iluer pour
iluen pouring
iluar spout
ilier absorb, swallow, soak, suck
ilien absorption
ilieya absorbent
iliar straw, sipper
ilber irrigate
ilben irrigation
ilzyaber spray
ilzyaben spraying
ilzyabar spray
ilaber shower
ilab shower
ilabwer take a shower
ilabim shower room
ilpyener splash
ilpyen splash
ilyonpyener splatter
ilbarer squirt
ilbar squirt:::::
ilpan wave
ilpaner fluctuate
ilpanen fluctuation
ilpanog ripple
ilpanaya wavy
ipanayan waviness
jubilp tide
jubilpa tidal
jubilup tidal surge, incoming tide
jubilip ebb tide, outgoing tide, wane
jubilupip ebb and flow
ilgaser surge
ilgas surge
ilgoser wane, recede, shrink
ilgos waning, ebb
ilzyunog bubble
ilzyunoger bubble
izyunogaya bubbly, effervescent
izyunogayan bubbliness, effervescence
abilov foam
abilover foam
abilovaya foamy
magmebil lava
magmebilp lava flow
yanil glue, goo
yanila glutinous, sticky, viscous, gooey
yanilan viscosity, stickiness, gooiness
yanilmeg concrete
yanilmel cement
yoymil dew
yoymilaya dewy::
dril ink
drilika inky
drilikan inkiness
drilyeb inkwell
drilar ink pen
vozil paint
vozilber paint
vozilbut painter
vozilbun painting
vozilbwa painted
magil petroleum, oil
megil cement
maegil gasoline, gas
maegilam gas station
maagil fuel
maagilier fuel up, refuel
maigil kerosene
sil acid
silyena acidic, sour
bokil poison
bokilyena poisonous
bokiluer poison
bokiluen poisoning
bokilier take poison
bokilien poisoning
bokiluwa poisoned
bekil medicine
bekila medicinal
bekiluer medicate
bekiluen medication
bekilam pharmacy
bekilama pharmaceutical
bekilamut pharmacist
bekilamtun pharmacology
bekilamtuna pharmacological
bekilamtut pharmacologist
byokobil painkiller
fabil sap
vyunobil detergent, disinfectant, soap, cleaning fluid
peltojbil insecticide, bug spray
ovyoomil antifreeze
fyabil fruit juice
fyablevil compote
lafyabil orange juice
levafil liqueur
levil syrup
levolil beet juice
til drink, beverage
tiler drink
tilam bar, tavern
tilsem bar, counter
tilen drinking
gratila drunk
gratilan drunkenness
gratilat drunk
gratiler get drunk
tilyeb bottle
tilef thirst
tilefea thirsty
ovobil porridge
tabil humor
taobil gravy, jus
taolil stew
tayobil sweat, perspiration
tayobiler sweat, perspire
teabil tear
teabiler tear up
teibil mucus, snot
telil soup
teubil saliva, spit
teubiler spit
tiebil sputum, phlegm
tiibil blood
tiibiler bleed
tiibiluf blood vessel
tikebil bile
tikubil feces, shit, dung
tikubiler defecate, shit
tiyobil urine, pee, piss
tiyobiler urinate, pee, piss
tobijil semen
tobijilyeber inseminate
tobijilyeben insemination

mul matter, material, stuff, substance

mula material, substantial
mulan materiality, substantiality
mulser materialize
mulsen materialization
omula immaterial
omulan immateriality
omulaser disappear, vanish
omulasen disappearance
omulaxer anihilate
omulaxen anihilation
omulaxwa anihilated
omul non-entity, nil, nihil, nothingness
ovmul antimatter
mona mul dark matter
multun physics
multuna physics-related
multut physics engineer
mulun particle, speck
muluna particulate
gyomul atom
gyomula atomic
gyomulyan molecule
gyomulyana molecular
gyomulxer atomize
gyomulxen atomization
gyomulxwa atomized
amul electron:
amul ogunteaxar electron microscope
amulp electricity, electric current, current
kyoilp d.c., direct current
kyailp a.c., alternating current
amulpa electric, electrical
amulptun electronics, electronic engineering
amulptuna electronic
amulptut electronics engineer
amulput electrician
amulpxer electrify
amulpxen electrification
amulpxwa electrified
amulpa aztan electric energy
amulpa yaf electric power
amulpa manzyun electric light bulb
amulpa manar electric lamp
amulpa nyeunar" electric battery
amula syagar electronic computer
amulpa niuf electric wire, electric cable
amulpa maszyij electric wall socket
amulpa niufyuj electric plug
amulpijer turn on the electricity
amulpija on, turned on
amulpujer turn off the electricity
amulpuja off, turned off
amulp ijujar electric switch
amulpa kyabar electric motor, electric engine
amulpa manig electric spark
amulpyulx electric shock
amulpyulxer shock, electrocute
amulpyulxen shocking, electrocution
amulpyulxwa shocked, electrocuted
amulpsim electric chair::
emul proton
imul neutron
umul quark
zemul kernel, core, nucleus
zemula nuclear
zemulyaf nuclear power
zemulyafxam nuclear power plant
yanmul mix, melange, mixture
yanmulxer mix, mingle
yanmulxen mixing, migling
yanmulxwa mixed
yanmulxar mixer
oyanmulxwa unmixed, pure
mulvyia pure
mulvyian purity
mulvyixer purify
mulvyixen purification
mulvyixwa purified
omilvyuxwa unpurified
omulvyia impure
omulvyian impurity
omulvyin stain

map wind

mapika windy
maap puff
maaper puff
maep breeze, gale
maeper waft
maip gust
maiper gust
maper blow
mapag cyclone
mapages tornado
mapaz strong wind
mapil storm, rainstorm
mapilyena stormy
mapilag tempest
mapilagyena tempestuous
xeusmapil thunderstorm
mekmapil dust storm
mapateb weathervane

mep way, road, route

domep street
agdomep highway
igdomep expressway
zeymep bridge, overpass, crossing
abzeymep overpass
obzeymep underpass
zyemep tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
kumep side path
meyp path
zomep back way
ebmep alley
meap avenue
meep boulevard
meip lane
meup trail
tyoyamep sidewalk, walkway, footpath
izmep direct route, straight path, vector
uzmep curved road, byway
yuzmep beltway, circuit
zyumep roundabout, circle, rotary
yebmep entrance
mummep subway
mammep air route
oyebmep exit

mip river

mipa riparian
mipkum river bank, bank, riverside
miap stream
miaper stream
miep brook
mieper babble
miip rivulet
miiper trickle
igmip torrent
igmiper gush
bamip spring
mipij spring?
bamil fountain
bamiler spray, splash
milij fountain?
ebmip canal
ebmiup channel:
mipovmas dam
mipovmaser dam
mipovmaswa dammed
milmaka mipovmas hydroelectric dam

mop tunnel

mopar subway
muzmop mine
muzmoput miner
muzmopxen mining
muzmopxer mine
mopxer tunnel

mup orbit

mupa orbital
muper orbit
mupen orbiting
mupar orbiter
mupea orbiting

maf cloud

mafika cloudy
mafikan cloudiness
mafuka cloudless
mafaya cloudy
mafayan cloudiness
mafikser cloud over
mafiksen clouding over
yobmaf nimbus
maaf stratus
maef nimbostratus
maif cumulus
mauf cumulonimbus
mayof stratocumulus
mayaf allocumulus
mayef allostratus
mayif cirrocumulus
mayuf cirrostratus
malof cirrus
mayf puff
mayfyena puffy
mayfyenan puffiness

mam sky

mama celestial
maym firmament
mamnad horizon, skyline
mamnada horizontal
mameyzyun rainbow
mamxeus thunder
manxeuser thunder
mammanig lightning
mampar airplane, aircraft
mampareb aircraft pilot, pilot
mamparebim cockpit
mamparam hangar
mamparem airport
mamparmep runway
mampar yuxnad airline
mamyuxut air attendant
mamyuxutyan air crew
mempuer land
mempuen landing
mempuem landing strip
mempier take off
mempien takeoff::
mamper fly
mamp flight
mamput flier
mamputyan flight crew
mamman skylight

mem country, land

memut countryman
gememut fellow-countryman
lyumema foreign
lyumemat foreigner
lyumemuf xenophobia
lyumemufa xenophobic
lyumemufat xenophobe
oyebmem foreign country
oyebmema foreign
oyebmemat foreigner
lyimema native
lyimemat native countryman
lyimemin nativism
lyimemina nativist
lyimeminat nativist
tajmem homeland, native country, birthland, fatherland
tajmema native
tajmemyuva patriotic
tajmemyuvan patriotism
memsin countryside, landscape
zomem back country
zomema rural
zomemat rural area dweller, backcountryman
meam region
meama regional
meem zone, district
meim country, rural area
meimyena countrified, rural
zemem heartland
yezmem plain
yezabmem plateau
yezmeb plateau
vabem meadow
fabyanem woods, forest
ukmem desert
eynukmem steppe
ukmemvaz oasis
zyomem valley
yabmem uplands, highlands, hill country
mempar land vehicle, vehicle, car, auto, automobile
mempara vehicular
memparer drive
memparut driver
memparam garage
memparem parking lot
parpoxer park
parpoxem parking lot
parpoxam garage::
ebmem isthmus

mim sea

mima marine
mimag ocean
mimaga oceanic
mimagyek oceanography
mimagyeka oceanographic
mimagyekut oceanographer
mimagpea ocean-going
mimagpar ocean-going vessel, oceanliner
Amimag Artic Ocean
Amimaga Artic
Imimag Pacific Ocean
Imimaga Pacific
Umimag Atlantic Ocean
Umimaga Atlantic
Omimag Southern Ocean, Antartic Ocean
Omimaga Antartic
Emimag Indian Ocean:::
mimsin seascape
mimkum seaside, seacoast, seashore, coast
mimkuma coastal
mimpar ship, boat
mimper sail, go by sea
mimput seafarer, sailor
mimpop sea voyage
mimpareb sea captain
mimparog boat, dingy
mippar riverboat
mippareb riverboat captain
mimbok seasickness, nausea
mimboka sea-sick
miam lake
miamkum lake shore
miama lake
miampar boat, lake craft
miem swamp, lagoon
miemaya swampy
miim pond
mium pool
miyom puddle
ebmim strait

mom underground

moma subterranean
mop tunnel
mopar subway, metro
moparnad subway rail
moparam subway station
momil well water
momiluk well:

mum outer space, space, cosmos

muma spatial, space, cosmic
mumpar spaceship
mumparut cosmonaut
mumpareb spaceship pilot
muf galaxy?
mufa galatial?
amuf Milky Way?

man light

mana light, bright
manaxer brighten
manaxen brightening
manay brightly
manan brightness
manaxwa brightened
manar light, lamp
mimmanar lighthouse
sommanar lamp
tuyamanar flash light
manuf candle
manufyan candelabra
manufyeb candlestick
manun light bulb
mansar lantern
manzyuv light stick:
mannad light beam, ray of light
manyijer illuminate, turn on, turn on the light, light
manyijen illumination
manyija lit, on, turned on
omanyiga unlit
manyijar light switch
manyujer extinguish, turn off, turn off the light, put out
manyuja off, turned off
mayna clear, light
maynay clearly, lightly
maynan clarity, lightness
maynaxer clarify, clear, lighten
maynaxen clarification, clearing, lightening
maynaxwa clarified, cleared, lightened
maynaser clear up, lighten up
mameser glimmer, glisten, gleam, shimmer
mamesen glimmering, glistening, gleaming, shimmering
mamesea glimmering, glistening, gleaming, shimmering
maser shine
masen shining
masea shining, brilliant
masean brilliance
maseay brilliantly
zoymaner reflect
zoymanen reflection
zoymanea reflective
zoymanar reflector
kumaner reflect
kumanen reflection
kumanwa reflected
kumanar reflector
maniger flash
manig flash
manigea flashing
manigar flasher
azmaniger flare up
azmanig flare
manigeser flicker, sparkle
maniges flicker, sparkle
manigesea flickering, sparkling
manigesar sparkler:
mon darkness, obscurity, dark
mona dark, obscure
monay darkly, obscurely
monan darkness, obscurity
eymona opaque, partially obscure
eymonan opacity
monxer darken, obscure
monxen darkening
monxwa darkened, obscured
eymonxwa partially obscured, opaque
monser get dark, darken
moyn shade, dim light
moyna dim
moynay dimly
moynan dimness
moynaxer dim
moynaxen dimming
moynaxwa dimmed
moynika shady
moynaya shady
moynayan shadiness
moynxer shade
moynxar umbrella
moynxwa shaded
monsan shadow, dark shape
monsanaya shadowy
eymon penumbra, half-light, shadow
mag fire
magser burn
magsea burning
magsa burnt
magsun burn
magxer burn
magxwa burned
magxen burning
magxar burner
magijer light a fire, catch fire, start a fire
magijar lighter
magujer put out a fire, extinguish
magujut fireman, firefighter
abmagxar grill
abmagxer grill
abmagxwa grilled
yebmagxar oven, stove, kiln, furnace
yebmagxer bake, cook
yebmagxwa baked, cooked
osexmag fire
magyel fuel
magyeluer fuel
magyeluen fueling
magyeluwa fueled
magel cooked food
magelar cooker
magelur frying pan
magelim kitchen
magelut cook
mageler cook
magelen cooking
magelwa cooked
omagelwa uncooked, raw
ummageler bake
ummagelen baking
ummagelut baker
ummagelwa baked
ummagelun baked good
ummagelar oven
magyeler fry
magyelen frying
magyelwa fried
magyelar frying pan, frier
magiler boil
magilen boiling
magilwa boiled
magilar boiler
mav flame
maver flame
mavea flaming
mavwa flamed
mavxer inflame
mavxen inflammation
mavxeya inflammatory
mov smoke
movaya smoky
movika smoke-filled
movier smoke
movien smoking
moviut smoker
movuer smoke, apply smoke
movuwa smoked
movuen smoking
movuf cheminee
mog ash
mogxer incinerate
mogxen incineration
mogxwa incinerated
mogxar incinerator
mogyeb ashtray
mogvoza ashen, ash-colored
ama hot
amay hotly
aman heat, temperature
amanar thermometer
amxer heat
amxen heating
amxwa heated
egamxer reheat
egamxwa reheated
egamxen reheating
amxar heater
amser heat up, get hot, become hot, get hotter
eyama tepid, lukewarm
ayama ardent
ayamay ardently
ayaman ardor
amatan fever
ayma warm
ayman warmth
aymay warmly
aymxer warm up
aymxen warming
aymxwa warmed up
egaymxer rewarm
egaymxwa rewarmed
aymar warmer
oma cold
oman cold, coldness
omay coldly
omxer refrigerate
omxen refrigeration
omxwa refrigerated
oyma cool
oyman coolness
oymxer cool off
oymxen cooling off
oymxwa cooled
oymxar cooler
yom ice
yomika icy
yomikan iciness
yomaya icy
yomayan iciness
yomxer freeze
yomxen freezing
yomxwa frozen
oyomxer de-ice
oyomxen de-icing
oyomxwa de-iced
yomser ice up, freeze
ovyomil antifreeze
malyom sleet
malyomer sleet
yoym frost, gel
yoymika frosty
yoymaya frosty
yoymayan frostiness
yoymxwa frosted
oyoymxer defrost
oyoymxar defroster
oyoymxwa defrosted
malyoym snow
malyoymer snow
malyoymika snowy
ima wet
iman wetness
imxer wet
imser get wet
iyma humid
iyman humidity
iymxer humidify
iymxar humidifier
iymxen humidification
graim flood
imof washcloth
uma dry
uman dryness
umxer dry
umxar drier
umxwa dried, dessicated, dried up
umser get dry, dry out
graum drought
umof towel
yam fire
yamser burn
yamsea burning
yamsa burnt
yamsun burn
yamxer burn
yamxwa burned
yamxen burning
yamxar burner
yamijer light a fire, catch fire, start a fire
yamijar lighter
yamujer put out a fire, extinguish
yamujut fireman, firefighter
abyamxar grill
abyamxer grill
abyamxwa grilled
yebyamxar oven, stove, kiln, furnace
yebyamxer bake, cook
yebyamxwa baked, cooked
osexyam fire
yamyel fuel
yamyeluer fuel
yamyeluen fueling
yamyeluwa fueled
yamel cooked food
yamelar cooker
yamelur frying pan
yamelim kitchen
yamelut cook
yameler cook
yamelen cooking
yamelwa cooked
oyamelwa uncooked, raw
umyameler bake
umyamelen baking
umyamelut baker
umyamelwa baked
umyamelun baked good
umyamelar oven
yelyameler fry
yelyamelen frying
yelyamelwa fried
yelyamelar frying pan, frier
yamiler boil
yamilen boiling
yamilwa boiled
yamilar boiler
mav flame
maver flame
mavea flaming
mavwa flamed
mavxer inflame
mavxen inflammation
mavxeya inflammatory
mak electricity
maka electric
maknif electric cable, electric wire
makyafam electric power plant
makaxer electrify
makaxen electrification
makaxwa electrified

meb mountain

mebaya mountainous
mebika mountainous
mebabem mountaintop
mebnad mountain chain
mebyan mountain chain
mebnod mountain peak
yezmeb plateau
miekmeb dune
magmeb volcano
magmeba volcanic
magmebyes crater
magmebil lava
meyb mount
meab hill
meabika hilly
meabaya hilly
meabayan hilliness
meabog hillock
meeb knob
meib mound, protrustion, swell
meiber swell
meibwa swollen
meub bump
meubaya bumpy
meubayan bumpiness
meuber bump
mebpen mountaineering
mebput mountaineer

mob precipice, cliff, drop

moyb abyss
moab gulf
moeb ravine
moib cavern, cave
moub ditch

med park, grounds

medes garden, yard
vosmedes flower garden
vabmedes vegetable garden
zamedes front yard
zomedes back yard
potmed zoo, animal park
ifekmed playground

meg stone, rock

mega stone, of stone
megaya stony, rocky
megog pebble
meges gravel
megag boulder
mepmeg cobblestone
megmelukxer quarry
megmelukxem quarry, rock quarry

mek dust, powder, grit

mekaya dusty, powdery, gritty
mekoben dusting, dust removal
mekobar dust mop, dust remover
mekmapil dust storm
mekxer grind, mill
mekxen grinding, milling
mekxar grinder, mill
mekxut miller
mekes grain, speck, bit, granule, grit
mekesyena granular, grainy, gritty
mekesxer grate, granulate
mekesxen grating
mekesxar grater, granulater
mekesxwa ground, granulated, grated
mekil meal, grub, porridge, mash, mush, crush, gruel
mekilxer mash, smash, crush, mush, mill, grind up
mekilxen mashing, smashing, crushing, milling, grinding
mekilxar crusher, grinder, mill
mekilxwa mashed, smashed, crushed, milled, ground, grated
miek sand
miekaya sandy
miekum beach
mieknyem sandbox
miekmapil sandstorm
miekaztam sandcastle
igmiek quicksand

mez crystal

mezyena crystalline
mezser crystallize
mezsen crystallization
mezsa crystallized
mezsan crystal shape

mef brick

mefaber lay brick
mefabut bricklayer
mefabwa bricked
mefyan brickwork

mev porcelain

meva porcelain, of porcelain:

The pot (Animal) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with the letter p, denoting movement, and end in the letter t, denoting a living creature. Thus, the words have to do with animals.
Summary:
pot animal pyot wild animal
IN THE AIR pat bird pelt insect
ON LAND pet land animal pyet reptile
IN WATER pit fish plit crustacean
ON LAND AND IN WATER pyeit amphibian
UNDERGROUND put worm
Note that the vowels in the word stem indicates geo-spatial properties like a for in the air, e for on land, i for in the sea, u for underground, and ei for on land and sea (amphibian). Pre-iotation of the stem vowel creates a set of less domestic animals, while the letter l preceding or following the stem vowels is used similarly to divide animals into new groups. The initial ordinal vowels create a taxonomy, while initial consonants increase the taxonomic levels.

Principal Domestic Land Animals[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
pet (land) animal
apet horse
epet ox
ipet ass
upet ram
yopet goat
yapet pig
yepet dog
yipet cat
yupet rabbit

Principal Wild Land Animals[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
pyot wild animal, beast
rapyot lion
repyot tiger
ripyot leopard
rupyot wolf
ryapyot hyena
tepyot bear
tapyot orang-utan
yapyot boar

Principal Birds[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
pat bird
apat cock
epat duck
ipat turkey
upat goose
yopat guinea fowl
yapat pigeon
rapat eagle
repat vulture
fapat crow

Principal Marine Animals[edit]

  • -it water only
  • -iet water and land
MIRAD ENGLISH
pit fish
apit trout
epit lobster
ipit prawn
upit crawfish
lipit salmon
ryepit tuna
rapit shark
repit dolphin
fapit whale
apiet seal
epiet sea lion

Principal Reptiles[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
pyet reptile
gapyet crocodile
gepyet alligator
kapyet lizard
lopyet snake
lapyet boa
lepyet cobra
fapyet grass snake
fepyet slug
fipyet leech
vapyet snail

Principal Insects[edit]

  • -elt non-flying insects
  • -elat flying insects
MIRAD ENGLISH
pelt insect
apelt spider
kapelt louse
kopelt vermin
kepelt flea
kipelt bug
lepelt cobra
apelat bee
epelat wasp
ipelat horsefly
upelat fly
yopelat mosquito
lapelat cockchafer
lepelat beetle
tapelat cicada
gapelat butterfly
fapelt ant
fepelt cockroach
fapelt ant

Principal Ambphibians and Worms[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
apyeit toad
epyeit frog
apyeat bat
put worm
aput silkworm

Animal Sounds[edit]

The animal noise verbs are formed by replacing the final t of the animal's name to der (communicate, utter), as in the following chart:
ANIMAL SOUND VERB
apet horse apeder neigh, whinny
epet bull epeder bellow
eopetob veal eopetoder bleat
eopet ox eopeder low, moo, bellow
epeyt cow epeyder moo
ipet ass ipeder bray, hehaw
ilapet llama ilapeder growl
upet sheep upeder bleat
yopet goat yopeder bray
yapet hog yapeder grunt, snort, oink
yepet dog yepeder bark
yepyot wolf yepyoder howl
yeypyot vixen yeypyoder yelp
yipet cat yipeder mew, purr, meow
yipyot tiger yipyoder growl
yupet rabbit yupeder drum
kapet squirrel kapeder squeak
kyipet raccoon kyipeder chitter
klepet mouse klepeder squeak
eplet koala epleder wail
rapyot lion rapyoder roar
ryapyot hyena ryapyoder laugh
ryaapyot jackal ryaapyoder howl
tapyot ape tapyoder gibber
tepyot bear tepyoder growl
gapet elephant gapeder trumpet
vepet reindeer vepeder bellow
vyipet moose vyipeder bellow
fapet camel fapeder grunt
fipet giraffe fipeder bleat
kepyet gecko kepyeder go to-key, make a gecko noise
lepyet cobra lepyeder hiss
apyeat bat apyeader screech
epyeit frog epyeider rivet, make a frog noise
apelat bee apelader buzz
lepelat beetle lepelader drone
tepelat cricket tepelader chirp
pat bird pader chirp, tweet, coo, sing
apat rooster apader crow, cockadoodle-doo
apayt hen apayder cluck
apatog chicken apatoder cheep
epat duck epader quack
ipat turkey ipader gobble
yapat pigeon yapader coo
rapat eagle rapader squawk
repat vulture repader scream
fapat raven fapader croak
fepat crow fepader craw
fipat chatter fipader chatter
fupat hoot fupader hoot
fyipat jay fyipader chatter
gapat ostrich gapader bleep
dapat swan dapader cry
zapat swallow zapader squeal
tapat parrot tapader parrot
vapat nightingale vapader pipe
fepat warbler fepader warble
gapait penguin gapaider honk
ipiet platypus ipieder chitter
rupit walrus rupider groan
ryopit porpoise ryopider whistle

Animal Habitats[edit]

By suffixing the final t of the animal name with tam house, you get corresponding animal's living quarters:
ANIMAL LIVING SPACE
apet horse apetam stable
epet ox epetam cowshed
yapet pig yapetam pigpen, pigsty
yepet dog yepetam doghouse
rapyot lion rapyotam den, lion's den
fapelt ant fapeltam anthill
apelat bee apelatam beehive
pat bird patam nest, bird's nest
apat hen apatam henhouse, chicken coop
rupyot bear rupyotam lair
pyot wild animal pyotam cage

Animal Meats[edit]

By changing the final letter of the animal's name to an l, you get the meat eaten from that animal:
ANIMAL MEAT
eopet ox eopel beef
vipet deer vipel venison
yapet hog yapel pork
yapetyoab hog's thigh yapetyoal ham
uopet sheep uopel mutton
eopetob calf eopetol veal
vapyet snail vapyel escargot

Animal Groupings[edit]

By adding yan aggregate or nyan crowd to the name of an animal, you get the animal grouping:
ANIMAL GROUPING
pat bird patyan flock
eopet ox eopetyan cattle
pit fish pityan school
pelt insect peltyan swarm
pit fish pityan school
apat hen apatyan poultry
pot animal potnyan herd
yopet goat yopetyan goatherd

Animals' Babies[edit]

The baby of an animal ends in ob offspring:
ANIMAL BABY
pat bird patob chick
apet horse apetob foal
eopet ox eopetob calf
yepet dog yepetob pup
yipet cat yipetob kitten
apat hen apatob chick
rapat eagle rapatob eaglet
upat goose upatob gosling
upet ram upetob lamb
yopet goat yopetob kid

Animals' Hair[edit]

The hair of an animal ends in tayeb hair:
ANIMAL HAIR
pat bird patayeb feather
apet horse apetayeb horsehair, mane
yipet cat yipetayeb fur
fapet camel fapetayeb camelhair
pit fish pitayeb scale
upat goose upatayeb down
tepyot bear tepyotayeb fuzz
uopet sheep uopetayeb wool, fleece

Female Counterparts of Animals[edit]

The word for the female counterpart of an animal is created by post-iotated (i.e. adding a y to) the last vowel of the male animal's name:
ANIMAL FEMALE
epet bull epeyt cow
apet horse apeyt mare
ipet ass ipeyt she-ass
yopet goat yopeyt nanny goat
yapet hog yapeyt sow
yepet dog yepeyt bitch
yepyot wolf yepyoyt wolverine
yeypyot fox yeypyoyt vixen
gapet elephant gapeyt cow elephant
vipet buck vipeyt deer
apat rooster apayt hen

Interesting Parallels in Animal Vocabulary[edit]

teub mouth pateub beak poteub mug mimeub bay
teib nose poteib snout gapeteib elephant trunk meib promontory
tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale petayeb fur fayeb leaf vosayeb petal uopetayeb wool, fleece
tulob nail patulob claw apelatulob stinger fulob prick vulob thorn
tyoyab foot apetyoyab hoof potyoyab paw meboyab foothills fyoyab stump vyoyab stub
tayob skin potayob hide piyetayob shell mayob crust fayob bark vayob peel patijayob eggshell

Animal Vocabulary[edit]

pot animal, beast

pota bestial, animal
potan animality
potyan animalia
potnyan herd
potnyaner herd
potnyanut herder
potnyanen herding
potyena animal-like, animalistic, bestial
pottun zoology
pottuna zoological
pottut zoologist
potmyem zoo, zoological park
potkel hunt
potkeler hunt, prey
potkelen hunting, preying
potkelut hunter
potkelwa hunted
potkelwat prey, hunted prey
poder roar, bellow, shriek, howl, yell
pod roar, bellow, shrief, howl, yell
poden roaring, bellowing, shrieking, howling, yelling
poteixer sniff
tiyub tail
teyub horn
anteyubpet unicorn
teyubsana horn-shaped