Mirad Version 2

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Glojo, ha mir gonbeo yansauna gabyuxea dalyen. (Soon, the world will share a common auxiliary language.)

Mirad ( formerly known as Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, and is pronounced mee-RAHD, is categorized by constructed language experts as philosophical because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the word stock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.

The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.

Mirad is constructed on the following principles:

  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, or semantic value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
  • Word opposites (such as "big" vs. "little") differ only in the stem vowel.

This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:

  • The letter w was added, mainly to indicate the passive voice of verbs.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun.
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show.
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair.
  • The letter h was added, mainly to create a systematic set of determiners like this, that, every.
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • A definite article was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The writing system now consists only of letters of the Roman alphabet, with no diacritics.

Sounds and Writing System[edit]

There is a direct, one-to-one correlation between the Mirad sounds (phonology) and the way these sounds are written (orthography).


Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English (see Orthography). Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z
NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
* Not used in "native" Mirad words.
Spelling a word means uttering the names in succession of the letters in the word. For example:
  • Miradmi i ro a da
  • anxwaa ni xu wu a
The letters w and h have only limited, functional (non-semantic) values in Mirad.
The letters c (pronounced as ch in English chair) and q (pronounced variably, depending on the context) are used only to represent foreign words and names. For example, Ce is used to represent Che in Che Guevara.
The Mirad phonological system consists of 20 consonant phonemes (minimal significant sounds) and 5 vowel phonemes.


There are 20 consonant phonemes.


The following IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) chart shows the articulation of the consonant phonemes:
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m
Plosive voiced b ɡ
unvoiced p k
Affricate voiced
unvoiced (t͡ʃ)*
Fricative voiced v z ʒ
unvoiced f s ʃ h
Approximate j w
Flap ɽ


The consonant graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above consonant phonemes are as follows:

PHONEME b (t͡ʃ)* d f g h ʒ k l m n p ɽ s t v w ʃ j z
GRAPHEME b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w x y z
  • Note that the grapheme c is used only in foreign words, but represents the unvoiced affricate sound t͡ʃ.


The consonants in Mirad are pronounced not altogether differently from their English counterparts, except for x, which is sounds like English sh in ship and j which resembles the zh sound in Zhivago or mirage. However, the so-called stops p, t, and k sound more closely like their European equivalents in that they are not aspirated, i.e. their is no puff of breath following them as in English.
The consonants q and c are not native to Mirad and are used only to represent foreign names and expressions. In that case, c is used for the English ch sound in China. For example, Cinader, meaning to speak Chinese, is pronounced as in English chee-nah-DEHR.
The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and certain numerical expressions and is pronounced as English w or the ou in French oui. The letter h is used in determiners and is pronounced like English h in house. It is also sometimes used to simulate foreign sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach.
The letters l, r, w, and y are approximants and are classified as glide consonants.
Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
b b unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy
c tʃ * unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words)
d d unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog
f f unvoiced bilabial fricative English fog
g g unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i)
h h glottal fricative English house (or a glottal stop or other similar sounds like German Bach
j ʒ * voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage
k k unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English kite (without aspiration) or French comment
l l voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell.
m m voiced bilabial nasal English mother
n n voiced alveolar nasal English nobody
p p unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English pan (without aspiration)
q - - (Only used in foreign words, where it has various guttural pronunciations)
r r alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma
s s unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose)
t t unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English top (without aspiration)
v v voiced bilabial fricative English very
w w voiced labio-velar approximant English water, French oui
x ʃ * unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher
y j voiced palatal approximant English yard (except when post-iotating a vowel to create a vowel diphthong like oy)
z z voiced alveolar fricative English zone

Note: If you see a blank here instead of an IPA symbol, it probably means that the font you are using to display characters in your browser does not support these characters.


There are 5 vowel phonemes, each of which can be followed by a y-sound, producing post-iotated vowels or diphthongs.


This IPA chart shows the articulation of Mirad vowel phonemes:
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a


The vowel graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above vowel phonemes (sounds) are as follows:

PHONEME a e i o u
GRAPHEME a e i o u


  • Simple Vowels
The vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some examples.

a a mano la ah!
e e hecho é day (without the y-glide)
i i si oui see (without the y-glide)
o o no eau so (without the w-glide)
u u tu vous too (without the w-glide)
* IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Iotated Vowels (Diphthongs)
Vowels in Mirad can be post-iotated with the consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a word or before a syllable beginning with a consonant. For example, igAY and EYna contain post-iotated vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-RA-ya) does not.
ay aj my hay ( Sp. there is)
ey ej day (with y-glide) rey ( Sp. king)
iy ij see (with y-glide) abeille (Fr. bee)
oy oj boy Spanish hoy (Sp. today)
uy uj gooey Spanish muy (Sp. very)
Syllables starting with a y (ya, ye, etc.) form a set of what are known as pre-iotated vowels. Vowels, pre-iotated vowels, post-iotated vowels, and circum-iotated vowels (that is, those beginning and ending with a vowel like yay, yoy, etc.) are sometimes treated as a class of vowels in the grammar of Mirad.


Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-iotate or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the glides r, l, and w, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide or non-y consonants, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
1 ama hot a-ma
2 ayma warm ay-ma
3 aymsea warming up aym-se-a
4 pyerxwa exploded pyer-xwa
5 upayo will have come u-pa-yo
6 vyaa true vya-a
7 vyaay truly vya-ay
8 vyay (not a word) vyay
9 tambwa settled tam-bwa


Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
V[y] o, ay
C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre
V[y]C iyt, ad, ant, aynt
C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, toyb, xwer
V[lrn]C alx, arx, yalp, yarp, yank
Two non-glide consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.


Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel. In this case, final y is treated like a consonant, and so a word ending in ay is stressed on that syllable (since the a is non-final). The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
teja vital te-ja
igay quickly i-gay
Mirad Mirad Mi-rad
booka tired bo-o-ka
bookan fatigue bo-o-kan
tejea alive te-je-a
boyse lacks boy-se


Orthography has to do with the way words are spelled.


Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
  • The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
  • Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
  • All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English
Amerikam America
Amerikama American
Amerikat an American
Amerikad American English
Ivan Ivan
Dropek ay Poos War and Peace
At Mirade. I speak Mirad.
Hyat be ha mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon.
Yat tameya Boston. We were living in Boston.
His se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine.
Ha Anxwa Doobi gey dyunwe ha AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.


Punctuation and the rules governing it are the same as in English. The most common punctuation marks are:
. period
, comma
; semi-colon
: colon
' single quote
" double quote
( left parens
) right parens
-- dash
! exclamation point
? question mark
* asterisk


Types of Nouns[edit]

Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in these various ways:
  • common vs. proper
tam...house Meer...Venus
yagsim...bench Fransam...France
dyes...book Notre Dame...Notre Dame
tej...life Tot...God
  • concrete vs. abstract
tab...body ifon...love
mil...water oyman...coolness
deuz...song deuzen...singing
  • countable vs. mass
pat...bird pattel...bird food
patayeb...feather patayebyan...plumage
meg...rock mil...water
  • gender-neutral / male-oriented vs. female-oriented
tob...human being, man toyb...woman
taf...suit, outfit tayf...dress
apet...horse apeyt...mare
  • singular or plural
dom...city domi...cities
gon...part goni...parts
jub...day jubi...days
  • inanimate (things) or animate (humans and animals)
mam...sky pot...animal
tom...building aut...person
job...time tobot...child
Nouns also include gerunds, i.e. abstract nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen singing < deuzer to sing or osexen destruction < osexer to destroy.
In Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a CONSONANT. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat birdpati birds).
The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.

Pluralization of Common Nouns[edit]

A singular countable common noun always ends in a consonant and is made plural by suffixing the plural marker vowel i. So, the plural of pur car is puri cars. In noun phrases, for example, where a noun is modified by an article and adjective, only the noun is pluralized, that is, there is no agreement across word boundaries as in many European languages (la belle fleur les belles fleurs).
tam...house tami...houses
toyb...woman toybi...women
tej...life teji...lives
ha via dom...the beautiful city ha via domi...the beautiful cities


In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ha the; There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Latin. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
tam a house indefinite, no article
ha tam the house definite
ha tami the houses definite, plural
tej life general, no article
fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article
ha tej (...at bayse) the life (...I have) specific
Fransad French general, no article
Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article
Ha yivani hu yat ifie. The freedoms we enjoy. abstraction specified
Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."

Proper Nouns[edit]

Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take a definite article only in a few cases like ha Anxwa Doebi the United States, which is really composed of common nouns. Otherwise, a country name like Fransam does not take a definite article, just as it does not in English.

Modifiers: Placement and Agreement[edit]

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Mirad English
ha ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifa taxi many pleasant memories
hya fia tob every good man
ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja teji My past lives

Noun Linkage[edit]

Nouns can be
  1. linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
  2. juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
  3. compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
  4. hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and)
ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or)
hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but)
dunnyan boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without)
tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi of
ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of)
job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
dyen ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about)
dropek jaxeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jaxeni (preparations)
dom yautpur....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yautpur (bus)
tojvaf....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun vaf (wish)
jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league)
maj-moj...a day-and-night two or more equal nouns hyphenated
The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person, eg. ha tam bi Sam (Sam's house = the house of Sam). The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Prepositions or Conjunctions.
Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Word Formation.

Noun Derivational Suffixes[edit]

Nouns can be divided into:
  • simple nouns such as pur vehicle
  • compound nouns such as naadpur train < naad rail + par vehicle
  • derived nouns such as fabyan forest < fab tree + -yan, a suffix meaning collection
Derived nouns are formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
-yan collection, grouping, -ary noun tob mantobyan mankind
mar starmaryan constellation
fab treefabyan forest
dyen bookdyenyan library
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant verb stem beker treatbekuyt nurse
poper travelpoput traveler
aker winakut winner
-en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifier enjoyifien enjoyment
deuzer singdeuzen singing
axer actaxen action, acting
-ob, -oyb (f.) offspring, baby of noun tob human beingtoboyb baby girl
apet horseapetob foal
yopet goatyopetob kid
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem via beautifulvia beauty
yeva fairyevan fairness, equity
toba humantoban humanity, humanness, manhood
-(s)(u)n object, thing various stems vyua dirtyvyun spot
tamber settletambun settlement
gorfer shredgorfun scrap, shred
yod not a singleyodsun not a single thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems ifer to loveifon love
ov againstovon obstacle
aza strong → azon force
yika difficultyikson problem
-in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot godtotin religion, theism
otofa nudeotofin nudism
yulf terroryulfin terrorism
-tun science of, -ology noun tot godtottun theology
tob mantobtun anthropology
vob plantvobtun botany
-es small item, part noun tom buildingtomes apartment
saun kindsaunes sample
dreuz poemdeuzes stanza
mek dust, powdermekes speck, gain
-et sub-level version of (persons only) noun tad fathertadet son
tuyd aunttuydet niece
tyud tutor → tyudet pupil
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas first one, first thing
otwa unknownotwas mystery
tejea livingtejeas living thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat second one, second person
faa holyfaat holy one, saint
ujna lastujat last one, last person
Amerika AmericanAmerikat an American
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla EnglishAnglad English (language)
Mira of the worldMirad Mirad (world speech)
apet horseaped neigh, whinny
-(e)m place various stems ho-? what-? → hom? where?
yex workyexem worksite
ab on, aboveabem top, surface
kua lateralkum side
-(a)m place, house, building various stems nun merchanise → nunam store
til drink → tilam bar, tavern
fyadiler to prayfyadilam church
-im room, chamber various stems fadiler to prayfadilim chapel
mageler to cookmagelim kitchen
tofer to dresstofim dressing room
-[aou]r instrument, device, machine usu. verb stem per to gopar car
drer to writedrar pencil
gorber to cutgorbar knife
yalber to liftyalbur elevator, lift
dop militarydopur machine gun
-ag big noun tam house → tamag mansion
tyal mealtyalag banquet
tilar spoontilarag ladle
-ayg big and cute noun tam housetamayg cozy mansion
epet dogepetayg wolfie
-yag big and ugly noun tud uncletudyag dirty old uncle
toyb womantoybyag hag
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet horseapetog pony
tyal mealtyalog snack
gorbun cutgorbunog cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam housetamoyg cottage
apayt chickenapaytoyg chickadee
mimpar boatmirparoyg dingy
-yog little and ugly noun tam housetamyog shack
epat duckepatyog ugly duckling
kod secretkodyog little dirty secret
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man lightmanig flash
pyex strokepyexig swat
yopaper dive, fly downyopapig swoop
-if love of, -philia noun tel foodtelif gourmandise
doab homelanddoabif patriotism
dyes bookdyesif bibliophilia, love of books
-ef need of noun tel foodtelef hunger
iga fastigef emergency
til drinktilef thirst
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf hydrophobia
totin religiontotinuf hatred of religion
toyb womantoybuf misogyny
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet snakelopyetyuf fear of snakes
mil watermilyuf hyrophobia
-yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teater to seeteatyaf ability to see
texer to thinktexyaf cognition
tester to understandtestyaf comprehension
noser to spendnosyaf spending power
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teater to seeteatyof blindness
teeter to hearteetyof deafness
paser to movepasyof paralysis
tujer to sleeptujyof insomnia
-yef compulsion to, mania verb stem vyoder to lievyodyef compulsion to lie
kobier to stealkobiyef kleptomania, compulsion to steal


Adjectives can be of the following types:
  • descriptive
  • qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
  • denominal (noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
  • deverbal (verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
  • preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
  • determinative
  • deictic, like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
  • numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
  • quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (to much)
  • pronominal, like heta (whose), ata (my), hyeta (anyone's)
Only descriptive and preposition-derived adjectives are discussed here in the section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participals, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal adjectives (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.
All descriptive and preposition-derived adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
  • fi- root qualitative morpheme ⇒ fia good
  • par noun vehiclepara vehicular
  • dalw- passive stem of the verb speakdalwa spoken
  • ab preposition onaba superior
Such djectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
  • aga tam....a big house
  • ha fia toyb....the good woman
  • ata boka ted....my sick father
  • fia telsyeb bi vafil.....a good bottle of wine
  • Yata dooba doof....our national flag
  • Ata tejea tyedi.....my living relatives
doba xeut state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
pata bok avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.

Comparison of Adjectives by Degree[edit]

As in English, descriptive (and most preposition-derived) adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
ga more ga fia better
ge as, equally ge fia as good
go less go fia less good
gla very gla fia very good
glay so glay fia so good
gle rather/quite gle fia rather/quite good
glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good
gra too gra fia too good
gre enough gre fia good enough
gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good/not good enough
gwa most gwa fia best
gwe average gwe fia good on average
gwo least gwo fia least good
The relative conjunction vyel is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison or than in a non-equalitative comparison. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga vyel etas. My house is bigger than yours.
  • Hia tam voy se ge aga vyel atas. This house is not as big as mine.
  • His se ha gwa aga tam bi yata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative and often other adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
fia good fian goodness
yeva just yevan justice
uja final ujan finality
joga young jogan youth
teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity
dooba nation dooban nationality
tojbuwa lethal tojbuwan lethality

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives[edit]

Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing the vowel o. This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
Here are some examples:
ega normal oega abnormal
twa known otwa unknown
geyla similar ogeyla dissimilar
iva happy oiva unhappy
data friendly odata unfriendly
yodata inimical, enemy-like

Adjectival Derivational Endings[edit]

All qualitative adjectives end in at least the suffix a. Many adjectives are derived from other parts of speech, using one of more of the following derivational endings.
relating to, of
fyaat god
tob man
dom city
fyaata divine
toba human
doma urban
-aya \ -ika
full of, -ful, -ous
mil water
meb mountain
tes meaning
milaya watery, aquaous
mebika mountainous
tesaya meaningful
-oya \ -uka
empty of, -less, -free
teb head
level sugar
tes meaning
teboya headless
leveluka sugar-free
tesoya meaningless
like, -ish, -y
fyaat god
tob man
dom city
fyaatyena godly, godlike
tobyena manly, virile
domyena urbane
-ing, -ent, -ant
ags- grow
tej- live
kyas- change
agsea growing, crescent
tejea living, alive
kyasea changing, variant
-ive, tending to
dal- talk
tox- forget
vad- affirm
dalyea talkative
toxyea forgetful
vadyea affirmative
dal- talk
tox- forget
vad- affirm
dalwa spoken
toxwa forgotten
vadwa affirmed
-about to, apt to
toj- die
kyes- happen
tajb- give birth
tojoa moribund
kyesoa imminent
tajboa about to deliver
-able, potentially V
tojb- kill
bukx- harm
akuj- succeed
tojbua lethal
bukxua dangerous
akua potentially successful

Pronominalization of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be pronominalized (or: substantivized) by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
fia.... good fias.... a good thing
fiasi.... good things
fiat.... a good person
fiati.... good persons
aga.... big agas.... something big
agasi.... big ones
agat.... a big person
agati.... big persons
joga.... young, new jogas.... something new, novelty
jogasi.... new ones
yogat.... young person, youth
yogati.... youngsters
jaga.... old jagas.... antique
jagasi.... old ones
jagat.... elderly person
jagati.... oldsters
awa.... one
awas.... one (of them)
ewasi.... two (of them)
awat.... one (of them)
ewati.... two of them
hia.... this hias.... this one
hiasi.... these (things)
hiat.... this one
hiati.... these
gla.... much, many glas.... a lot (of stuff)
glasi.... many (things)

glati.... many (people)
  • Hia tyoyaf se ogre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
  • Yat fu daler bay ha gwa jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
  • At fe teaxer ha jogas, voy ha jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
  • Ha ujnati so ha ijnati. The last shall be the first.


Adverbs can be derived from adjectives by replacing the adjective ending a with ay.
fia good fiay well
yeva fair yevay fairly
uja final ujay finally
joga new jogay newly
teyda maternal teyday maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi. She sings well.
  • At upo ig. I'll come quickly.

Inherent Adverbs[edit]

There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives. Here are a few examples:
  • yab up
  • yeb in
  • yob down
  • oyeb out
  • vay indeed, certainly
  • vey perhaps
  • voy not
  • yub near
  • yib far
  • ub toward
  • ib away
  • zay ahead
  • zey across
  • zoy back
The above words are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab. I looked up.
  • Duhev et hyej upo zoy? Will you ever come back.
  • Et po yib be tej. You will go far in life.
Some of them can double as prepositions. See Prepositions.
Many of them can be prefixed to verbs to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
  • oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (take out)  [NOT: oyebbier]
  • zey (across) + per (go) = zayper (transit, cross)
  • yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (approach)  [NOT: yubper]
  • yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (telephone)

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze viay. He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer gwa ig. You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et hyoj ako firxa ivan. You will never gain perfect happiness.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit]

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of quantitative determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
fiay well ga fiay vyel better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
igay quickly ge igay vyel as quickly as (Lit: equally quick-ly as)
ugay slowly gwa ugay as quickly as possible (Lit: most quick-ly)
yikay easily go yikay less easily


Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context. Determiners can be categorized in Mirad as the following types:
Quantitative more, less, very
Numerical one, half, first
Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when
Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
Furthermore, as for part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.

Quantitative Determiners[edit]

Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
  • specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
  • specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
  • specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
  • Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
  • Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
The following table presents most of these word forms:
DEGREE: How...(big / quickly)?
AMOUNT: How much...(money)?
NUMBER: How many...(books)?
AMOUNT: How much...(+ STUFF)? NUMBER: How many...(+ THINGS)? NUMBER: How many...(+ PEOPLE)?
ga more gas more (stuff) gasi many (things) gati many (people)
ge as, as much, as many ges as much (stuff) gesi as many (things) geti as many people
go less, fewer gos less (stuff) gosi fewer (things) goti fewer (people)
gla very, much, many
glay so, so much, so many
glas much (stuff)
glays so much stuff)
glasi many (things)
glaysi so many (things)
glati many (people)
glayti so many (people)
gle rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles quite a lot (of stuff) glesi quite a lot (of things) qleti quite a few (people)
glo slightly, a little, few glos a little bit glosi a few (things) gloti few (people)
gra too, too much, too many gras too much (stuff) grasi too many (things) grati too many (people)
gre enough gres enough (stuff) gresi enough (things) greti enough (people)
gro insufficiently, too little, too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people)
gwa most gwas the most (stuff) gwasi the most (things) gwati most people
gwe so, so much, so many gwes so much (stuff) gwesi so many (things) gweti so many (people)
gwo least gwos the least (stuff) gwosi the least (number of) gwoti the least number (of people)
Examples Using Quantitative Determiners
Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
  • At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
  • Et sa gro uga.....You were too slow.
Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
  • Tobi dale ge igay vyel toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
  • Yat yexe ga igay vyel yet.....We work faster (= more fast) than you.
Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
  • Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
  • Gra nas noswa....Too much money was spent.
Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun:
  • At ayse gro sari....I've got too few tools.
  • It yeyfe at gle nas.....He owes me quite a bit of money.
  • Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something:
  • Gas ilokeye.....More is leaking.
  • Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much.
  • Yat keo gwas.....We will seek as much as possible.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
  • Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
  • At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but not enough.
Pronouns referrring to a countable number of people:
  • Grati xaye vyoci be hi yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this worksite.
  • Glati dyunwe oy gloti kebiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.text

Numerical Determiners[edit]

Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:

Cardinal Numbers[edit]

The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
  • The units are formed from the plain and pre-iotated vowels:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
The numerals 5-9 are pre-iotated versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
  • The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91
ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
  • By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
  • asa 101
  • asale 112
  • usyulyu 199
  • The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
  • aro 1,000
  • aro a 1,001
  • ero isi 2,300
  • yoro yasula 5,641
  • The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
  • emlo 2,000,000
  • umlo 4,000,000
  • The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
  • yamro 6 billion
The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
iro asyulyo 3,195
yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922

Cardinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Cardinal numerical determiners are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical determiner goes first. Cardinal numerical determiners are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added to monosyllabic numbers simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numerical determiner is 2 or more, then the noun is pluralized.
Mirad English
owa tam singular! no houses, zero houses
awa tam singular! one house, a house
ewa tami plural two houses
iwa tami three houses
uwa tami four houses
yowa tami five houses
yawa tami six houses
yewa tami seven houses
yiwa tami eight houses
yuwa tami nine houses
alo tami ten houses
ase tami a hundred two houses
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses
Cardinal numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun thing or suni things. The t ending is short for aut person or auti persons. For example:
  • Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas (= awa sun). You have one house. I have one too.
  • At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay alosi (= alo suni). I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti (= aso auti) yeb ha duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi huti. We must choose twenty-four females from those people.

Ordinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Determiner
o.... zero oa.... zeroth
a.... one aa.... first
e.... two ea.... second
i.... three ia.... third
alo.... ten aloa.... tenth
asu.... 104 asua.... 104th
The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
  • anapa.... first, first in order, primary*
  • enapa.... second, second in order, secondary
  • inapa.... third, third in order, tertiary
  • alanapa.... eleventh, eleventh in order
There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
  • ijna.... initial, first, original
  • ujna.... last, final
  • ajna.... past, ex-, former
  • ojna.... future
  • ejna.... present, current
  • jana.... previous, last
  • jona.... next, following
Ordinal numerical determiners and adjectives can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Adjective Adverb
aa.... first aay.... firstly
anapa.... first anapay.... primarily
ea.... second eay.... secondly
ujna.... last ujnay.... finally
Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
  • ha aas.... the first thing
  • ha aat.... the first person
  • ha aati.... the first people
  • hua aayt.... that first female
  • ha eas.... the second thing
  • eat.... another / a second person
  • ha ujnati so ha ijnati.... the last shall be first
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • hua uwa aga tami.... those four big houses
  • ha aa alo oga tami.... the first ten little houses
  • ata anapa ewa oga tobobi.... my first two little children

Fractional Numerical Determiners[edit]

Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -y(n) for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
o.... zero oyn.... a void, vacuum oyna.... non-existant -- oy(n)-.... devoid of oynaxer.... annihilate
a.... one ayn.... whole
ha ayn.... the whole
ayna.... entire, whole aynay.... entirely ay(n)-.... holo-, whole-, all- aynaxer.... integrate
e.... two eyn.... a half eyna.... half eynay.... halfway ey(n)-.... half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynaxer.... halve
i.... three iyn.... a third iyna.... third iynay.... by a third iy(n)-.... terci- iynaxer.... cut in third
u.... four uyn.... a quarter uyna.... quarter uynay.... quarterly uy(n)-.... quadri- uynaxer.... quarter
alo.... ten aloyn.... a tenth aloyna.... tenth aloynay.... by a tenth aloy(n)-.... deci- aloynaxer.... decimate
aso.... hundred asoyn.... hundredth, percent asoyna.... hundredth asoynay.... by a hundredth asoy(n)-.... centi- asoynaxer.... cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • His uxo ha oynaxen bi yata mir..... This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ha ayna mir te ayv et..... The whole world knows about you.
  • Has se gas ev ha ayn bi hasa goni..... It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Fransad se ayn-druna dalyen..... France is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn..... You can take half.
  • Yat yefo eynaxer eta yexnix..... We will have to halve your salary.
  • Hus sa eyn-vyan..... That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eyn-zyunida dropek..... There is going to be a hemispheric war.
  • Duhev his se eyn-exea dopar?.... Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynaxu hua ableyavol..... Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay iynaxwer..... He should be drawn and (be) quartered.
  • Hia nas se aloyn bi has yat baysa zojab..... This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ha dep aloynaxwu..... The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan bakasa..... Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Hia tom se anay asoyngel aga vyel hua tom..... This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi..... You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka..... She almost (=halfway) threw up.

Multiplicative Numerical Determiners[edit]

Multiplicative numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal number if the number is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
o.... zero oon.... null oona.... nil on-.... zero- onaxer.... cancel, zero out
a.... one aon.... single aona.... single aonay.... singly an-.... uni-/mono- anaxer unify
e.... two eon.... twosome, double eona.... double eonay.... doubly en-.... di-/bi- enaxer double
i.... three ion.... threesome, triplet iona.... triple ionay.... triply in-.... tri-- inaxer.... triple
u.... four uon.... quartet uona.... quadruple uonay.... quadruply un-.... quadri-/tetra- unaxer.... quadruple
yo.... five yoon.... quintet yoona.... quintuple yoonay.... quintuply yoon-.... quinti-/penta- yoonaxer.... quintuple
alo.... ten alon.... decade alona.... decadic alonay.... by a multiple of ten alon-.... deca- alonaxer.... multiply by ten
aso.... hundred ason.... hundredfold asona.... hundredfold asonay.... by a hundredfold ason-.... hecato- asonaxer.... multiply by a hundred
The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa..... Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
  • aonat.... solo, single
  • aonatser.... become single
  • eonat.... duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eonatser.... couple up, copulate
  • ionat.... trio, threesome, trinity
  • Ionatin.... Trinitarianism
  • uonat.... quartet, foursome
  • yoonat.... quintet, group of five people
  • yoonati.... quintets

By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun.... unit
  • auna.... unitary, individual
  • aunser.... unite
  • aunyan.... series
  • aunyana.... serial
  • eun.... pair
  • euna.... even, paired, binary
  • oeuna.... odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oeunat.... odd man out
  • eunaxer.... even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat vyaptyoyapa be eonati yez ha mep..... We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu is ovdal..... Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Hia ivxel xwe enyabay..... This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untubokat..... She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ha auni..... Please count the units.
  • Et gafisa aronay!.... You have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se entyoyaba sat..... Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • anzyus.... monocycle
  • enzyus.... bicycle
  • ingun.... triangle
  • ungun.... quadrangle
Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon apart and yan together.
  • yoongona.... quintipartite  BUT: yonper.... separate, go apart
  • yaongun.... hexagon  BUT: yanuper.... meet, come together

Frequentative Determiners[edit]

There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
  • Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
  • Using xag meaning frequency
Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
hogla jodi? hoxag? how often?, how many times?
hagla jodi haxag as many times, as often
hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions
higla jodi hixag this often, this many times
hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times
huygla jodi huyxag so often, so many times
hyogla jodi hyoxag never, on no occasion
hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times
hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often
hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times
hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi gaxag more often
ge jodi gexag as many times
go jodi goxag less often
gla jodi glaxag many times, often
gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom
gra jodi graxag too often
gre jodi grexag often enough
gro jodi groxag too seldom
gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times
gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times
gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible
owa jod -- never, at no time, zero times
awa jod -- once, one time
ewa jodi -- twice, two times
iwa jodi -- thrice, three times
alo jodi -- ten times
ge jodi ev et fu gexag vyel et fu as often as you would like

Arithmetical Expressions[edit]

The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
gaber.... add gab.... addition gabwas.... addend gabeas.... adder gab.... plus, + gabsin.... plus sign gabix.... sum
galer.... multiply gal.... multiplication galwas.... multiplicand galeas.... multiplier gal.... times, x galsin.... times sign galix.... product
garer.... exponentiate, raise gar.... power galwas.... number being raised gareas.... exponent gar.... raised to the power of galsin.... exponent galix.... raising result
gober.... subtract gob.... subtraction gobwas.... subtrahend gobeas.... subtractor gob.... minus, - gobsin.... minus sign gobix.... difference
goler.... divide gol.... division, fraction golwas.... dividend goleas.... divisor gol.... divided by, ÷ golsin.... division sign golix.... quotient
gorer.... cut, uproot gor.... cut, root gorwas.... radicand goreas.... radical gor.... lower to the power of, √ gorsin.... radical gorix.... root lowering result
geler.... equal gel.... equation gelwas.... thing being equated geleas.... equator gel.... equal to, as, like gelsin.... equal sign gelix.... equation results
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gele u..... Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gele ya..... Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gele yu..... Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gele o..... Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gele i..... Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gele i..... Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gele alo..... One hundred squared equals ten.

Calendar Expressions[edit]

The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:

Basic Calendar Units[edit]

Time is divided using the following basic terms:
job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jwob hour
jwab minute
jweb second
Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical morphemes to some of the time units above:
arojab millenium year x 1,000
asojab century year x 100
alojab decade year x 10
eynjab half year year x 1/2
uynjab quarter year x 1/4
yejub week day x 7
eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
hia yejub
this week
this year
ha jana yejub
last week
last year
ha jona yejub
next week
next year
hua yejub
that day
that week
that year
ja ewa yejubi
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jo ewa yejubi
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next

Seasons of the Year[edit]

Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, Fall
jeub winter
Examples of usage:
  • be jeab.... in spring
  • ja jeeb.... before summer
  • ju jeib.... until autumn
  • ji jeub.... since winter
  • je ha jeb.... during the season
  • ub ha uj bi jeeb.... toward the end of summer
  • eb jeab ay jeeb.... between spring and summer
  • jeeba gemoj.... vernal equinox
  • jeiba fayebi.... autumn leaves
  • jeba til.... seasonal drink
  • jeubyena jebmalyen.... wintry climate
  • jeabyena malyen.... spring-like weather
  • jeuben.... hibernation

Months of the Year[edit]

Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
Some expressions using the months:
  • be jilob.... in October
  • ja jiyab.... before June
  • ja zajiyeb.... by next July
  • hijib.... this month
  • zojib.... last month
  • zajib.... next month
  • bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis... month-to-month rent
  • jibay... monthly
  • jibi joy... months later
  • jiba sindryen.... monthly magazine
  • hujiba jobnis.... that month's rent
  • hya ionjib.... every trimester
  • jiber.... menstruate

Days of the Week[edit]

Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
hojub? which day
hajub hu... the day that...
hejub someday
hijub today
hujub that day
hyijub (on) the same day
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
zajub yesterday
zojub tomorrow
ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
jazojub the day before yesterday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
hya ea jub every other/second day
hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
Examples of Usage:
  • be juyob....on Friday
  • ju juib....until Wednesday
  • ji zojub.... since yesterday
  • lojo jubuj.... by [Lit: not after] day's end
  • jo zajub.... after tomorrow
  • je ha jub.... during the day
  • bi juab bu juub... from Monday to Friday

Parts of the Day[edit]

Here are the principal parts of a day:
maj....daytime, day moj....nighttime, night
bi maj....A.M. bi moj....P.M.
jaijmaj....pre-dawn jaijmoj....pre-dusk
ijmaj....daybreak, dawn ijmoj....dusk
amaryap....sunrise, sunup amaryop....sunset, sundown
zaimaj....tomorrow morning
hiimaj....this morning
zoimaj.... yesterday morning
huimaj....that morning
hyaimaj....every morning
zaimoj....tomorrow evening
hiimoj....this evening
zoimoj.... yesterday evening
huimoj....that evening
hyaimoj....every evening
jwaimaj....early morning jwaimoj....early evening
jwoimaj....late morning jwoimoj....late evening
eymaj....noon eymoj....midnight
joeymaj....afternoon joeymoj....after midnight
ujmaj....dusk, day's end gwomoj...late night
  • Examples of Usage:
  • At tijia ja ijmaj.....I woke up before dawn.
  • At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa joeymaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
  • It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
  • Be gwa umaji, at teaxe teasibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.

Expressing Dates[edit]

The following is a how a date is normally expressed:
  • be juab, 11 jieb 2018 JaK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
The day in the above expression is pronounced ali.
The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
The acronym for A.D. is JaK, short for Ja Krist (before Christ).
The acronym for B.C. is JoK, short for Jo Krist (after Christ).
Other date expressions follow:
  • be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
  • ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
  • eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (elo awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
  • zya hua alojab....throughout that decade
  • At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
  • Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
  • Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.

Telling Time[edit]

Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
The usual time-of-day question is Se hojwob? What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
The typical answer is in the format Se aa/ea... jwob gab/gob alo/ali... bi maj/moj. (Lit: (It) is (the) first/second... hour plus/minus ten/eleven...of day/night.
Here are some typical answers:
  • Se aa jwob..... It is one o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) first hour.] [NOTE: The article "the" is left unexpressed.]
  • Se ea jwob..... It is two o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) second hour.]
  • Se alea jwob..... It is twelve o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) twelfth hour.]

  • Se ia jwob bi maj*..... It is three o'clock A.M.  [Lit: It is third hour of daytime.]
  • Se aloa jwob bi moj**..... It is ten o'clock P.M.  [Lit: It is tenth hour of nighttime.]
* bi maj (a.m.) can be abbreviated as bma
** bi moj (p.m.) can be abbreviated as bmo
  • Se ua jwob (gab) alo..... It is four ten.....  [Lit: It is fourth hour (plus) ten.]
  • Se iloa jwob gob ali..... It is thirteen minutes til three.  [Lit: It is thirteenth hour minus thirteen.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gab uyn..... It is quarter after five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour plus a quarter.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gob uyn..... It is quarter past five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour minus a quarter.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab eyn..... It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus a half.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab ilo..... It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob eyn..... It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob ilo..... It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus a half.]
  • Se vyavay yea jwob gab alo bi moj..... It is exactly 7:10 P.M..  [Lit: It is exactly seventh hour plus ten of nighttime.]
  • Et sa alo jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes.  [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
  • Has ijo jub 5:30 (= yaa jwob gab ilo) bmo (= bi moj).....It will begin around 5:30 (= five thirty [Lit: five hours plus thirty]) p.m.
  • Puu him loga jwoa ev 3 (= ia) j. (= jwob)....Get here no later than 3 (= three) o'clock.
  • Ha yautpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
  • Ha jwobar izeade 2:30 (= ea jwob gab ilo).....The clock says [Lit: indicates] 2:30.
  • Yit pua be 3a j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
Mirad normally uses a 12-hour system with distinction between a.m. and p.m., but military 24-hour time can also be used in particular situations, in which case the a.m./p.m. distinction is not needed.
  • Yanpu at be iloa jwob gab alyo..... Meet me at 13:15. (= 1:15 p.m.)
The word jwab (hour, o'clock) can be abbreviated as j., as in the following:
  • Yanpu at be 13a j..... Meet me at 13:00 (hours) [Lit: at (the) 13th h.]
The word gab (plus) can be omitted, as in:
  • At teato et be yoa j. alyo..... I'll see you at five fifteen / quarter past five.
Note the following clock time idioms:
jwa early
jwe on time
jwo late
Se vyavay eloa jwob. It is exactly two o'clock.
jub eymaj around noon
ub eymoj toward midnight
yeb jwebi within seconds
alo jwabi jahij ten minutes ago
loga jwo ev / lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock.
jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour
Hia pop dire / yixe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: requires / uses) 2 1/2 hours.
ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now
ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock.
je ha jana 12 jwabi for the last 12 minutes
ja 10a j. before / by 10 o'clock (= the tenth hour)
ja 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours.
jo 10a j. 'after 10 o'clock.
jo 10 jwobi. after 10 hours / 10 hours later / 10 hours ago

Expressing Age[edit]

Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
The typical question is:
  • Et se hojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
A typical answer is:
  • At se eli jaga....I am twenty-three years old.
The following chart shows other age expressions, many of which are agglutinations of the deictic morphemes beginning with h. If a cell has two Mirad forms, the second one is a shorter alternative version:
hojaga?.... how old?
hajaga.... of the age
hejaga.... of some age
hijaga.... this old
hujaga.... that old
huyjaga.... so old
gle jaga.... rather old, oldish
gla jaga.... very old
gra jaga.... too old, super-aged
gro jaga.... under-aged, minor
ge jaga.... as old, of the same age
awa jab jaga.... one year old
awa jaga
awa jab
ewa jabi jaga.... two years old
ewa jaga
ewa jabi
alo jabi jaga.... ten years old
alo jaga
alo jabi
ga jaga vyel et.... older than you
ga joga vyel at.... younger than me
ge joga vyel iyt.... as young as her
ha gwa jagat bi ata tedetyan....the youngest of my siblings
grojagat....a minor
alojagat....a ten-year-old
aloyjagat....a teenager
jogat....a boy, a youth
joygat...a girl
grejat....an adult, someone of age
jagseat....an adolescent
yiloyjagat...an octogenarian
asoyjagat....a centenarian
Some other examples of usage:
  • Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
  • At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
  • His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
  • Yegaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
  • At se ga jaga vyel ha mebi.....I am as old as the hills.
  • Teaxu ata gwa joga tobot.....Look at my youngest child.
  • Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
  • Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.

Money Expressions[edit]

This section is currency-dependent and remains under construction.

Deictic Determiners[edit]

Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words. They include the following:
  • demonstratives like this, that, those
  • indefinite specifiers like any, some, all, the, etc.
  • Derived animate and inanimate pronouns like this one, those things, something, everyone, etc.
  • Derived adverbs of time like when, now
  • Derived adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere
  • Derived adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow
  • Derived adverbs of kind so, age this year old, direction that way, reason why?, and so forth.

Deictic Determiner Base Morphemes[edit]

There are eleven deictic determiner base morphemes. These are used as prefixes joined to other elements to derive adjectival, pronominal, and adverbial determiners.
some, a certain
this, these
that, those
such, so
no, not any
every, all, each
any, whatever
the same, the very
the other, another, else
1 Sometimes referred to as assertive existential.
2 Sometimes referred to as universal.
3 Sometimes referred to as elective existential
4 Idiodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "same-specifying" and refers to words that point reflexively to the same entities, such as at the same time, in the same way, the same person, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as negative alternative.
5 Allodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "other-specifying" and refers to words that point outwardly to other entities, such as somebody else, some other time, in other ways, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as positive alternative.

Adjectival Determiners[edit]

Here is a table showing the deictic determiner prefixes attached to elements ending in -a to form various adjectival deictic determiners:
INTERROGATIVE hoa?....which? hoyena?....what kind of? hota?....whose?
hotia?....whose? (pl.)
DEFINITE ha   (short for haa)....the hayena....the kind of hata....the one's
INDEFINITE hea....some, a certain heyena....some kind of, a certain kind of heta....someone's
hetia....some people's
PROXIMAL hia....this, these hiyena....this kind of, such (a), like this, like these hita....this one's
hitias....these people's
DISTAL hua....that, those huyena....that kind of, like that, like those huta....that one's
hutia....those people's
EMPHATIC huua....such a, such huuyena....such a kind of, such kinds of, like that, like those huuta....such a person's
huutia....such people's
NEGATIVE hyoa....not, not a, not any hyoyena....no kind of, no such hyota....nobody's
DISTRIBUTIVE hya    (short for hyaa)....every, all, each hyayena....every kind of, all kinds of hyata....everybody's
INDETERMINATE hyea....any, whatever hyeyena....any kind of, whatever kind of hyeta....anybody's
IDIODEICTIC hyia....the same hyiyena....the same kind of hyita....the same one's
ALLODEICTIC hyua....the other hyuyena....some other kind of hyuta....someone else's
hyutia....other people's
Note: The definite deictic determiner adjective ha (actually, short for haa) is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the. As mentioned before, if the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun.
This is called zero determination. For example:
  • Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil. We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil. We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the second glasses of wine.
Usage Examples
  • Hoa tam se etas? Which house is yours?
  • Hoyena dyezuni ifxe et? What kind of movies do you like?
  • Hota tef okwa? Whose hat was lost?
  • Ha tob ta yata dyuni. The man knew our names.
  • Hayena dini at ife, et ufe. The kind of stories I love, you hate.
  • Hea mepi eejdyunwo. Certain streets will be renamed.
  • Heyena fukyes uxaye parnyan. Some kind of accident has cause a traffic jam.
  • Heta abtaf akwa be ha zatem. Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
  • Hia dyes se ata gafias. This book is my favorite.
  • Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo. This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Hita tim so yovoza. This guy's room will be blue.
  • Hua mas efwa eejvozilbwer. That wall needs to be repainted.
  • Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at. Such words should not be used in front of me.
  • Huta tam magseye. That guy's house is on fire.
  • Hyoa din se ga gesaya. No story is more important.
  • Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe. No such meaning can be inferred.
  • Hyota jatexdren sa ga fia. Nobody's plan is better.
  • Hya mepi izpe Roma. All roads lead to Rome.
  • Hya tob yefe xer ita gon. Every man must do his part.
  • Hyayena telami ese be hia mep. All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
  • Hyata tej se uka bi yabi ay yobi. Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
  • Hya ewa domi agxaye. Both cities have grown.
  • Hyea voz so fia. Any color will be fine.
  • Hyeyena til se beuwa. Any kind of drink is available.
  • Hyeta ved se ge ifa vyel atas. Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
  • Hyea tim et fe et yafe bayser. Whatever room you want, you can have.
  • Hyia fukyesi kyese glajodi. The same accidents occur frequently.
  • Hyiena dyezuni teaxuwa zajub. The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
  • Hyita dyun yixwa gajod. The same person's name was used again.
  • Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea. The other movie was more entertaining.
  • Hyuena mos teasu ga fia. Another kind of furniture would look better.
  • Hyuta texyen se ga fyia. Someone else's opinion is equally valid.

Pronominal Deictic Determiners[edit]

The following chart shows deictic determiners used as pronouns. Note that the suffix -s (short for sun) is used pronouns referring to things, while -t (short for tob) is used for those referring to persons. The suffix -i pluralized either of these. The distinction between a form like what? and a selective form like which? is made by using the full adjectival form (with -a-) in the selective forms. So, for example, hot? is who?, but hoat? is which one? (referring to a person).

INTERROGATIVE hos?....what?
hosi?....what (things)?
hoas?....which one?
hoasi?....which ones?
hoati?....who? (pl.)
hot?....who, whom?
hoti?....who (pl.)?
hotas?....whose (thing)?
hotasi?....whose (things)?
DEFINITE has....it, the thing
hasi....they, them, the things
haas....the one
haasi...the ones
hat....the one
haasi....the ones
hat....the person, he, him
hati....the persons, they, them
hatas....whose? (thing)
hatasi....whose? (things)
INDEFINITE hes....something
hesi....some (things)
heas....a certain one
heasi....certain ones
heat....a certain one
heati....certain ones
heti....some (people)
hetasi....some people's
PROXIMAL his....this
hias....this one
hiay....this one
hit....this person, he, him
hiti....these people, they, them
hitas....this person's, his
hitasi....this person's (things), theirs
DISTAL hus....that
huas....that one
huat....that one
huati....those people, they
hut....that person, he, him
huti....those people, they, them
hutas....that person's, his
hutasi....that person's (things), his
EMPHATIC huus....such, such a thing
huusi....such things
huuas....such a one
huuasi....such ones
huuat....such a person
huuati....such people
huut....such a person
huuti....such people
huutas....such a person's
huutasi....such people's (things)
NEGATIVE hyos....nothing
hyoas....not a one
hyodat....not a one
hyoti....no people
hyotasi....nobody's (things)
DISTRIBUTIVE hyas....everything, all
hyasi....all things

hyaasi....all of them
hyaat....each one
hyaati....all of them
hyati....all (people)
hyatasi....everyone's (things)
INDETERMINATE hyes....anything, whatever
hyeas....whatever one
hyeasi....any of them
hyeat....whichever one
hyeati....whichever ones
hyetasi....anybody's (things)
IDIODEICTIC hyis....the same thing
hyisi....the same things
hyis....the same one
hyiasi....the same ones
hyiat....the same one
hyiati....the same one
hyit....the same person
hyiti....the same people
hyitas....the same person's
hyitasi....the same person's (things)
ALLODEICTIC hyus....something else
hyusi....other things
hyuas....the other one
hyuasi....the other ones
hyuat....the other one
hyuati....the others
hyut....someone else
hyutas....someone else's
hyutasi....someone else's (things)

Here is a chart of pronominal deictic determiners of kind formed from the corresponding adjectival determiners of kind (eg. hoyena?....what kind of...?):
INTERROGATIVE hoyenas?....what kind of thing?
hoyenasi?....what kind of things?
hoyenat?....what kind of person?
hoyenati?....what kind of people?
DEFINITE hayenas....the kind of thing
hayenasi....the kind of things
hayenat....the kind of person
hayenati....the kind of people
INDEFINITE heyenas....some kind of thing
heyenasi....some kind of things
heyenat....some kind of person
heyenati ....some kind of people
PROXIMAL hiyenas....this kind of thing
hiyenasi....these kinds of things
hiyenat....this kind of person
hiyenati....these kinds of people
DISTAL huyenas....that kind of thing
huyenasi....such things
huyenat....that kind of person
huyenati....such people
NEGATIVE hyoyenas....no such thing
hyoyenasi....no such things
hyoyenat....no such person
hyoyenati....no such people
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayenas....every kind of thing
hyayenasi....all kinds of things
hyayenat....every kind of person
hyayenati....all kinds of people
INDETERMINATE hyeyenas....any kind of thing
hyeyenasi....any kinds of things
hyeyenat....any kind of person
hyeyenati....any kinds of people
IDIODEICTIC hyiyenas....the same kind of thing
hyiyenasi....the same kinds of things
hyiyenat....the same kind of person
hyiyenati....the same kinds of people
ALLODEICTIC hyuyenas....some other kind of thing
hyuyenasi....other kinds of things
hyuyenat....some other kind of person
hyuyenati....other kinds of people

Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms[edit]

The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner hot? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart hoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
  • Hot aka zajuba ek?.... Who won yesterday's game?
  • Hoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?.... Which one of the winners was the best?
  • Hota tam se hus?.... Whose house is that?
  • Hotas se hus?.... Whose is that?
  • Hotia deuzi et gaife?.... Whose songs do you prefer?
  • Hotias et gaife?.... Whose do you prefer?
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hosi se eta gaifuni?.... What are your preferences?
  • Hoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which songs are your best?
  • Hoasi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which ones are your best?
  • Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?.... Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
  • Hoati se gwa fia?'.... Which ones are best?
  • Hoti et teexe gwa jodi?.... Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
  • Huat hu at teexe gwa jodi draye ejna deuz..... The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
  • Ejna deuz? At voy teste haas hu et tede..... New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
  • Hias. This one.
  • Vo. Huasi se ga fia..... No. Those are better.
  • His se jub av ivxelen..... This is a day for celebration.
  • Va. Hia jub. At tesde hijub..... Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
  • Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat! Those were the days, my friend!
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hot aka ha igpek?.... Who won the race?
  • Hyas uja fi..... Everything ended well.
  • Hyasi uje..... All things come to an end.
  • Hyayenasi vey kyesu..... All sorts of things might happen.
  • Hyos yoka at..... Nothing surprised me.
  • Hyot ta odut ako..... Nobody knew who would win.
  • Huati fu pier yefe..... Those who would like to leave may.
  • Hyet yefe eker hia ifek..... Anyone can play this game.
  • Huyenasi voy afwo..... Such things will not be permitted.
  • Hua tob voy taxe hia tob..... That man does not remember this man.
  • Huti yanyexe fi..... Those guys work well together.
  • At jay teataye hiyenasi..... I've seen such things before.
  • Huyenat voy vabiwu..... A person like that would not be accepted.
  • Hoyenasi et iyfe xer je ha maj..... What kinds of things do you like to do during the day?
Pronominal determiners in -t and -ti can be feminized by inserting the glide y before the t:
  • Huyenayti ufwe himi..... Women like that are hated in these parts.
  • Hoayti yantexe at?.... Who among the women agree with me?
  • Hyeyti hu yontexe yefe iper..... Any girls who disagree must leave.
  • Hyayti xe hiyen.....Così fan tutte. ( = All (women) do like this., the Mozart Opera title.)

Placement of Deictic Determiners[edit]

In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, as in English. For example:
  • Hota ewa oga nyefi se hisi?.... Whose two small bags are these?
In interrogative sentences, the interrogative word often starts out the sentence, as in English.
  • Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
  • Hot et teata aay hijub?.... Who(m) did you see first today?
Interrogative deictic determiners (question words can also go at the end of sentence:
  • Eta dyun se hos?.... What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?

Distributive Deictic Determiners Incorporating Numerical Information[edit]

Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
hawa* the only hawas the only thing
hawasi the only things
hawat the only one (person)
hawati the only ones
hawata the only person's hawatas the only one's
hawatasi the only one's (things)
hyawa* each hyawas each one hyawat each person hawata each person's hawatas each one's
hawatasi each one's (things)
hyaewa both hyaewasi both (things) hyaewati both (people) hyaewatia both person's hyaewatias both person's
hyaewatiasi both persone's (things)
hyaiwa all three hyaiwasi all three (things) hyaiwati all three (people) hyaiwata all three person's hyaiwatias all three person's
hyaiwatiasi all three person's (things)
ohyawa not every ohyawas not everything ohyawat not everyone ohyawata not every person's ohyawatas not everyone's
ohyawatasi not everyone's (things)
hyoawa not a single hyoawas not a single thing hyoawat not a single person hawata the only person's hawatas the only one's
hawatasi the only one's (things)
hyeawa either hyeawas either one hyeawat either one (person) hyeawata either one's hyeawatas either one's
hyeawatasi either one's (things)
hyeewa any two hyeewasi any two things hyeewati any two people hyeewatia any two person's hyeewatias any two persons'
hyeewatiasi any two persons' (things)
hyeowa neither hyeowas neither one hyeowat neither person hyeawata neither person's hyeowatas neither one's
hyeowatasi neither one's (things)
hyuawa another hyuawas another one hyuawat another hyuawata another's hyuawatas another's
hyuawatasi another's (things)
hyuowa no other hyuowas nothing else hyuowat nobody else hyuowata no other's hyuowatas no other's
hyuowatasi no other's (things)
*Hawa and hyawa are short for haawa and hyaawa.
  • Ohyawat se iva bay eta ebtexden..... Not everyone is happy with your decision.
  • Hyaewasi yafwe uxer yata efi..... Both (things) can serve our needs.
  • Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at..... Either room will satisfy me.
  • Hyeowas oivlaxo at..... Neither one will dissatisfy me.
Note: Hyua means the other, while hyuawa means another.
Similarly, hya means every, all, while hyawa means each.
Also, ha means the, while hawa means the only.
The person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Hyawata tej se ge glatesa vyel hyutas..... Each one's life is as important as another's.
  • Hyeowata dyun se vyama..... Neither person's name is real.
  • Hyaiwatia teji se kyebukuwa..... The lives of all three are in danger.
The above possessive adjectives can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
  • Hyawatas se glatesa..... Each one's is important.
  • Hyeowatas se vyama..... Neither's is real.
  • Hyaiwatias se kyebukuwa..... All three of theirs' are in danger.
Correlative Distributive Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
  • Hyeawa A ey B.... either A or B
  • Hyeowa A oy B.... neither A nor B
  • Hyaewa A ay B.... both A and B
  • Hawa A, voy B.... only A, not B

Adverbial Deictic Determiners[edit]

This tables shows a correlated set of pro-adverbs built through the agglutination of basic deictic determiners. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed pro-verbs relating to age, frequency, and so forth.

short for byen (manner)
short for em (place)
short for job (time)
how?, in what way?
how?, to what degree?
how often?
the way, how
the place, where
the time, when
as, to the degree
as often (...as)
somehow, in some way
for some reason
with some frequency
this way, so
so, this, to this extent
for this reason, hence
this often
DISTAL huyen
that way, thus
so, that, to that extent
for that reason, therefore, so
that often
in such a way, so, thus
at such a place
at such a time
so, to such an extend
for such a reason
so often
in nowise
not at all
for no reason
totally, in every way
for every reason
anywhere, wherever
however, to any degree
for whatever reason
with whatever frequency
at the same place
at the same time
as, to the same extent
for the same reason
as often
some other time
not as
for some other reason
not as often

Many of these adverbial determiners are agglutinated abbreviations for longer, full forms:
  • hom....where   <   ho   +   nem   =   what place
  • hoj....when   <   ho   +   job   =   what time
  • hoyen....how   <   ho   +   byen   =   what manner
  • hot....who   <   ho   +   tob   =   what human being
  • hos....what   <   ho   +   sun   =   what thing
The longer, expanded forms of pro-adverbs can be used at any time. For example:
  • At eejteato et hejob.....I will see you again sometime.
  • Hosun se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Et yeyfe axer hubyen.....You shouldn't act that way.
It should be noted that all of these adverbial determiners, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe him. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tameya hum., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tameya be hum., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at is meant. For example, from where? is expressed as bi hom? Similarly, until then would be expressed as ju huj.

Here are some examples of how adverbial determiners are used:
  • Hom et tame?.... Where do you live?   <   Et tame be HOa neM? You live at what place.)
  • At tame hum..... I live there.
  • Et tame hum hu ha mep uje..... You live where the road ends.
  • Hom yet peye?.... Where are you guys going?
  • Et yafe per hyem hu et fu..... You can go anywhere.
  • Bi hom et se?.... Where are you from?
  • Hoj et taja?.... When were you born?
  • At voy tajaya huj..... I had not been born then.
  • Et pia hesav..... He left for some reason.
  • Hoyen et iyfe hia vafil?.... How do like this wine?
  • Voy se fia axer hiyen..... It is not good to act this way.
  • Hosav et tadsa huunog jwa?.... Why did you marry so late?
  • Ha tob pia hyosav..... The man left for no reason.
  • He tob pia hasav hu it efa per hyum.....The man left because([for] the reason that) he needed to go elsewhere.

The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
  • Hoyen it xa hus?.... How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be hoa byen...? In what way...?) (MANNER)
  • Hoyen et xeye?.... How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (MANNER)
  • Hoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
  • Honog (= Hogla) aga it se?.... How big is he?.... (DEGREE)
  • Honog (= Hogla) iyfla et se!.... How nice you are!.... (DEGREE, but used here as an EXCLAMATORY EXPRESSION)
* Bu hom (to where, whither) is not required here, since the verb per go (to) has the to direction built in.
Many of the adverbial determiners in the above chart can be relativized by adding the relative marker hu after the base form, eg:
  • At teaso et haj hu et puo him.....I will see you when you get here.
  • It xa has hasav hu tosa yef.....He did it because (for the reason that) he felt compelled.
  • Hyem hu et po, et so ga iva.'....Wherever you go, you'll be happier.
See more about this in the section on relative clauses under Verbs.

Quantitative Deictic Determiners[edit]

The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
INTERROGATIVE hogla? how?/how much?/how many? hoglas? how much? hoglasi? how many hoglati? how many (people)?
DEFINITE hagla how/as much/as many haglas as much haglasi as many haglati as many (people)
INDEFINITE hegla somewhat/some/some heglas some heglasi some heglati some (people)
PROXIMAL higla this/this much/this many higlas this much higlasi this many higlati this many (people)
DISTAL hugla that/that much/that many huglas that much huglasi that many
huyglasi so many
huglati that many (people)
EMPHATIC huugla so very, so much, so many huuglas so much huuglasi so many huuglati so many (people)
NEGATIVE hyogla not at all/no/no hyoglas none of it hyoglasi none of them hyoglati none
DISTRIBUTIVE hyagla totally/all/all hyaglas all of it hyaglasi all of them hyaglati all
INDETERMINATE hyegla however/any/any hyeglas any of it hyeglasi any of them hyeglati any number of them
IDIODEICTIC hyigla as/as much/as many, equally hyiglas the same amount hyiglasi the same number hyiglati as many (people)
ALLODEICTIC hyugla not as much/not as much/not as many hyuglas a different amount hyuglasi a different number of things hyuglati a different number of people
Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
  • Et deuze huygla fi..... You sing so well.
  • At se hegla booka..... I am somewhat tired.
  • Hogla pati et teata hijub?.... How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay hugla tami..... I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe hyiglas vyel et..... She wants the same amount as you.
  • Hoglati yantexe yet?.... How many (people) agree with you?
  • Hyoglati yantexe..... None agree.
  • Yit fu heglasi..... They would like some (of them).
  • Et yafe bier hyeglasi et fe..... You can take however many you want.
  • At se huugla booka.....I am so tired.
NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
  • hegla = gle = henog (somewhat, to some degree)
  • hyigla = ge = hyinog (as, equally, to the same degree)

Possessive Determiners[edit]

For a discussion of possessive determiners like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Possessive Adjectives under Pronouns.


Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
In Mirad, pronouns can be:
  • personal or deictic
  • ordinary or reflexive
  • animate or inanimate
  • specific or generic
  • ungendered or feminine

Basic Personal Animate Pronouns[edit]

Basic personal animal pronouns in Mirad have three person-levels (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and two genders (gender-neutral, female), and two specificities (specific and generic). Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here is two charts showing the basic personal animate pronouns, split into gender-neutral and female.
FIRST PERSON at....I, me yat....we, us
SECOND PERSON et....you yet....you, you all
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC it....he, him yit....they, them
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them
THIRD PERSON REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself yut....selves, oneselves
FIRST PERSON ayt....I, me yayt....we, us
SECOND PERSON eyt....you yeyt....you, you all
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iyt....she, her yiyt....they, them
The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are of common gender and are used as English one and they, people (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ha yakwas..... One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de hav et vyode hoj..... They/People say you never lie.
The person specific ungendered pronouns refer by default to males, but can serve as gender-neutral pronouns referring back to either males or females. If the vowel stem is iotated with a y, the pronoun then refers specifically to a female.
The first person plural pronoun ya(y)t can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others."
There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
  • Xu at fibun..... Do me a favor.
  • At so eta dat..... I will be your friend.
  • Hov tojbu it..... Don't kill him/her.
  • At ta hav iyt upo..... I knew she would come.
  • Fyadilu av yayt..... Pray for us (women).
Note: The English pronoun it is inanimate (refers to a thing or abstraction) and is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is explained later.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit]

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed postfixing the reflexive pronoun ut or yut depending on whether the pronoun is singular or plural. The gender of the pronoun is reflected in the first personal pronoun morpheme, not the ut morpheme. The generic pronoun ot cannot be feminized.
FIRST PERSON atut.... myself aytut.... myself yatyut.... ourselves yaytyut.... ourselves
SECOND PERSON etut.... yourself eytut.... yourself yetyut.... yourselves yeytyut.... yourselves
THIRD P. SPECIFIC itut.... himself iytut.... herself yityut.... themselves yiytyut.... themselves
THIRD P. GENERIC otut.... oneself -- yotyut.... people themselves --
Examples of usage:
  • At yafe teater atut be ha sinzyef.....I can see myself in the mirror.
  • Iyt yubteaxa iytut.....She examined herself.
  • Tyeu etut!....Know thyself.
  • It tojbu itut.....He would kill himself.
  • Ot yefe ifer otut.....One must love oneself.
  • Yot glajodi voy ife yotyut.....People often don't love themselves.
The reflexive pronoun ut self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
  • tojber.... kill uttojber.... commit suicide
  • vyixer.... clean utvyixer.... wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
  • exer.... function utexer.... function automatically, self-run
  • izber.... pilot utizber.... auto-pilot, self-drive
  • exut.... operator utexut.... automaton
  • deber.... rule utdebea.... autocratic, self-ruling
  • tejdin.... biography uttejdin.... autobiography
  • fider.... praise utfider.... boast   (= self-praise)

Emphatic Personal Pronouns[edit]

Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the reflexive deictic pronoun hyit or hyiti, depending on whether the personal pronoun is singular or plural. The feminine is marked only on the personal pronoun.
FIRST PERSON at hyit I myself, me myself yat hyiti we ourselves, us ourselves
SECOND PERSON et hyit you yourself yet hyiti you yourselves
THIRD PERSON it hyit he himself
iyt hyit she herself
yit hyiti they themselves
  • At hyit voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
  • At jateate yeyt hyiti be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you gals yourselves on that stage.
  • Iyt hyit voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.

Reciprocal Personal Pronouns[edit]

The reciprocal pronoun one another, each other is translated with ot hyut:
  • Yat yefe ifer ot hyut..... We must love one another. (hyut here means another, other person.)
This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a possessive adjective by suffixing a, as in ot hyuta....one another's:
  • Yat yefe fiyzaxer ot hyuta fwasi. We must respect one another's wishes.
Note the following:
  • othyutif....Mutual love = love for one another
  • hyutin....altruism

Possessive Adjectives[edit]

Possessive adjectives, which can also be referred to as pronominal determiners, are derived from basic and reflexive personal pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the basic or reflexive personal pronoun, as follows:
FIRST PERSON ata my yata our atuta my own yatyuta our own
SECOND PERSON eta your yeta your etuta your own yetyuta your own
iyta her
yita their
iyta their (f.)
ituta his own
iytuta her own
yityuta their own
yiytyuta their own (f.)
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's yota people's otuta one's own yotyuta people's own
The above possessive adjectives an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s thing possessed, or si things possessed, as follows:
FIRST SINGULAR POSSESSOR atas mine, my thing atasi mine, my things atutas my own, my own thing atutasi my own, my own things
SECOND SINGULAR POSSESSOR etas yours etasi yours, your (things) etutas your own etutasi your own, your own things
iytas hers
itasi his (things)
iytasi her (things)
itutas his own (thing)
iytutas her own (thing)
itutati their own (things)
iytutasi their (f.) own (things)
THIRD SINGULAR GENERIC POSSESSOR otas one's otasi one's , one's things otutas one's own otutasi one's own (things)
FIRST PLURAL POSSESSOR yatas ours yatasi ours, our things yatyutas our own yatyutasi our own (things)
SECOND PLURAL POSSESSOR yetas yours yetasi yours, your things yetyutas your own yetyutasi your own (things)
THIRD PLURAL POSSESSOR yitas theirs yitasi theirs, their things yityutas their own yitutasi their own (things)
  • Yat yefe valbeler yatyutasi.....We must protect our own.
  • Etasi naze ga vyel atasi....Yours are worth more than mine.

The Concrete vs. Abstract Inanimate Pronoun it[edit]

The pronoun it is a special case in Mirad. When it refers back to a previously-specified inanimate object or non-human subject such as book or dog, the definite deictic determiner has is used, for example:
  • At eke bay ha epet avhas at iyfe has..... I play with the dog because I like it.
The possessive forms of has is hasa its, for example:
  • At iyfe ha epet ay at ife hasa dyun..... I like the dog and I love it's name.
If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it, then the pronoun hasi.
  • Ha epeti se via ay at ife hasi..... The dogs are beautiful and I love them.
The possessive form of hasi they/them is hasia their, for example:
  • Ha epeti se via oy hasia dyuni se otwa..... The dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
  • Mamilo..... It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia hav et upa..... It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et..... It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se yuka yarper hia meb..... It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

Referring to Third Persons with Deictic Determiners[edit]

The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
  Thing Things Person Persons
DEFINITE has it, the thing
hasa its
hasi they/them, the things
hasia their
hat he/him, the person
hata his
hayta she/her
hati they/them, them, the persons
hatia their
haytia their, the girls'
PROXIMAL his it, this
hisa its, this thing'
hisi they/them, these things
hisia their
hit he/him, this person
hita his
hiyta her
hiti they/them, these people
hitia their
hiytia their, these girl's
DISTAL hus it, that
husa it's, that thing'
husi they, them, those things
husia their
hut he/him,that person
huta his
huyta her
huti they/them, those people
hutia their, those people's
huytia their, those womens'
By changing -t to -yt (post-iotating), the above person pronouns can be made feminine. For example, hiyt she, her. These pronouns can also be converted to possessive adjectives by suffixing the adjective ending a, for example, hiyta her. Furthermore, the possessive adjectives can be substantivized by suffixing s (s.) or si' (pl.) , for example, hiytias theirs, these women's or hiytiasi theirs, these women's (things).
Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
  • Huyt voy se tadsa..... She (that woman) is not married.
  • At hoj teataye hiti..... I have never seen them (these people).
  • Hutiasi se ga aga vyel atasi..... Theirs are bigger than mine.
  • Hom et koxa has?.... Where did you hide it (the thing)?
  • Hoyen et ijtya hat?....How did you meet him (the person)?
  • At tyaye huyt yagjob..... I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
The above pronouns answer the questions hos? what?, hosi? what things?, hot? who(m)?, or hoti? what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat? which one?, hoayti? which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas? which one/thing?, and hoasi? which ones/things?:
DEFINITE haas the one haasi the ones haat the one haati the ones
PROXIMAL hias this one hiasi these hiat this one hiati these
DISTAL huas that one huasi those huat that one huati those
Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
  • Duhev et fu hias ey huas?.... Would you like this one or that one?
  • Huayt se haat..... She (that female person) is the one.
  • At iyfe hiasi ga vyel huasi..... I like these more than those.
Compare the following two examples:
  • Hoas et fu? Hias..... Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
  • Hos et fu? His..... What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)

Relative Pronouns[edit]

Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Verbs, under the section "Free Relative Clauses".


Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as bayser to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, and the stem is the infinitive minus the wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
This shows how the STEM is derived:
bayser to have bays-
xer to do x-
poser to stop pos-
xwer to happen (PASSIVE) x-

Verb Categories[edit]

Conjugated forms of verbs can be described with the following morphological categories:
  • STATES: finite, non-finite
  • TENSES: present, past, future
  • ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional
  • VOICES: active, passive (reflexive and reciprocal are lexical, not morphological)
  • MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
  • PERSONS: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural
In effect, the PERSONS category does not affect the morphology of the verb form itself, because the verb form stays the same for all PERSONS.
In addition, lexically, verbs can be described as stative, transitive, intransitive, reflexive, inchoative, causative, dynamic, autonomous, directional, of motion, gestural, and various combinations of these, etc.. For example:
STATIVE ser be
REFLEXIVE utvyixer wash up
INCHOATIVE tujaser fall asleep
CAUSATIVE tujaxer put to sleep
GESTURAL baseger shake
OF MOTION oper get off
DIRECTIONAL iper go away
DYNAMIC yijber (perform an action to make something) open
AUTONOMOUS yijer open (by itself)
RECIPROCAL tujer hyit-hyut kill one another

Non-finite Forms[edit]

Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • INFINITIVES: the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
  • GERUNDS: verbal nouns, ending in en
  • PARTICIPLES: verbal adjectives, ending in a


Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
agas er agaser to grow
agax er agaxer to magnify
p er per to go
x wer xwer to happen, be done
The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:

PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified
PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified


The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
agaxer...to magnify agax- agaxen... magnifying, magnification agaxwen being magnified
per... to go p- pen... going (no passive voice)
saxer... to create, make, form sax- saxen... forming, creation saxwen being created
Some examples:
  • Ha saxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi..... The formation of this star took millions of years.
  • Iyta deuzen sa gla via..... Her singing was very beautiful.
  • Popen se yika yex..... Traveling is hard work.
  • Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti..... Being heard well is important for actors.


Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles can be present, past, future, or hypothetical. They can also be active or passive. Here is a table of participles:
PRESENT ACTIVE deuzer to sing deuz- -ea deuzea singing ha deuzea pat the singing bird
PRESENT PASSIVE ebdaler to discuss ebdal- -ewa ebdalewa being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen the book being discussed
PAST ACTIVE pier to depart pi- -aa piaa departed ha piaa topi the departed souls
PAST PASSIVE azyujber to lock azyujb- -(a)wa azyujbawa locked ha azyujbawa (or: azyubwa) mes the locked door
FUTURE ACTIVE tajber to give birth tajb- -oa tajboa about to give birth ha tajboa toyb the woman about to give birth
FUTURE PASSIVE osexer to destroy osex- -owa osexowa about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed
HYPOTHETICAL ACTIVE tojber to kill tojb- -ua tojbua apt to kill tojbua til a lethal potion
HYPOTHETICAL PASSIVE tiler to drink til- -uwa tiluwa drinkable tiluwa mil potable water
Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
  • Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay. She entered the room singing.
  • Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia. The speech having been finished, he left.
Also, the above participles can be nominalized by suffixing n. Examples:
  • tiluwa drinkable tiluwan potability
  • tojbua lethal tojbuan lethality
  • piaa departed ita piaan his having departed...
Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for peoples. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
  • xwa known xwas what is known, a fact
  • xwa known xwasi facts, information
  • oxwa unknown oxwas what is not known, a mystery
  • osexea destroying osexeas a destroyer
  • tojbua lethal tojbuas something lethal, a lethal thing
  • tojboa moribund someone about to die, a fatal case
  • tejea living tejeat a living person
  • tejea living tejeasi living things
There is a special nominalized animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer), which refer to person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
  • sexut.... builder
  • nuut.... supplier
  • tojbut.... killer
  • ifut.... lover
  • akuti.... winners
Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut the winner.

Finite Forms[edit]

In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • two MOODS (indicative and hypothetical)
  • three TENSES (present, past, future)
  • five ASPECTS (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional)
  • two VOICES (active, passive)
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person suject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he is, etc.


There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
  • Indicative Mood
The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, and future indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.
  • Hypothetical Mood
Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an imagined if-condition, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (If I were a rich man...)
  • an imagined then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (I would be happy.)


There are four aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
  • the CONDITIONAL aspect, i.e. an action supposed to happen.
  • The Simple Aspect (default)
Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, and non-conditional.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (saxer to create and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxa. I created At sa. I was
INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxo. I will create At so. I will be
Vas yat saxu! Let's create! [HORTATIVE]
Saxu has! Create it! [IMPERATIVE]
Vas hyat saxu! May everyone create! [JUSSIVE]
At su. I would be
Vas has su. Let it be.
Su fia! Be good!
Vas hyat su iva! May everyone be happy!
  • The Simple Indicative Present Tense
The simple indicative present tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
  • The Simple Indicative Past Tense
The simple past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time.
  • The Simple Indicative Future Tense
The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
  • The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal
A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
Generally, if a verb form ending in u begins a sentence, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!. If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers vas, ves, or vos, than it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per. I would like to go.. If the subject of the verb is preceded by ves if, then it is a SUBJUNCTIVE (unreal conditional) clause as in Ves at su nasikat... If I were a rich man.. If the subject is preceded by Vas that/let/may or vos don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Vas et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Vas yat fadilu. Let us pray. or a prohibition like Vos tilu his! Don't drink this!.


Mirad has two voices, ACTIVE and PASSIVE (although REFLEXIVES and RECIPROCALS can be produced lexically.).
  • Active Voice
The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
  • Passive Voice
A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
INFINITIVE xer to do xwer to be done Ese hyos xwer. There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPAL sexea constructing sexewa being constructed His se sexewa. This is under construction.
PRESENT xe does xwe is done Huyenasi hoj xwe. Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPAL xaa having done x(a)wa done Hyas se xawa. Everything is done.
PAST tojba killed tojbwa was killed Hoj it tojbwa? When was he killed?
HYPOTHETICAL bakxu heal bakxwu be healed Hav it bakxwu. May he be healed.
Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobob tajbwa zajub. The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobob taja zajub. The child was born yesterday.)
  • Reflexive Voice
A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
  • tojber to kill uttojber to kill oneself
  • milber to wash utmilber to wash up
  • teater to see utteater to see oneself
  • yalber to lift utyalber to lift oneselfUtyalbu! Lift yourself up!
  • ter to know utter to know oneselfUttu! Know thyself!
  • Reciprocal Voice
A verb is made reciprocal by using hyit-hyut one another as the object, for example:
  • tojber to kill tojber hyit-hyut to kill one another
  • vyixer to wash vyixer hyit-hyut to wash one another
  • teater to see teater hyit-hyut to see one another

Aspects Revisited[edit]

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple conditional refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
SIMPLE PRESENT at xe.... I do Has xwe.... it is done
SIMPLE PAST at xa.... I did Has xwa.... it was done
SIMPLE FUTURE at xo.... I will do Has xwo.... it will be done
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL at xu.... I would do Has xwu.... it would be done

The Progressive Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE at xeye.... I am doing Has xewe.... it is being done
PAST PROGRESSIVE at xeya.... I was doing Has xewa.... it was being done
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE at xeyo.... I am going to be doing Has xewo.... it will be happening
CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE at xeyu.... I would be doing Has xewu.... it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT PERFECT at xaye.... I have done Has xawe.... it has been done
PAST PERFECT at xaya.... I had done Has xawa.... it had been done
FUTURE PERFECT at xayo.... I will have done Has xawo.... it will have been done
CONDITIONAL PERFECT at xayu.... I would have done Has xawu.... it would have been done

The Imminent Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT IMMINENT at xoye.... I am going to do Has xowe.... it is going to be done
PAST IMMINENT at xoya.... I was going to do Has xowa.... it was going to be done
FUTURE IMMINENT at xoyo... I will be about to do Has xowo.... it will be about to be done
CONDITIONAL IMMINENT (not used) (not used)

The Potential Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT POTENTIAL at xuye I am to do Has xuwe it is to be done, it is doable
PAST POTENTIAL at xuya I was to do Has xuwa it was to be done, it was doable
FUTURE PERFECT (not used) (not used)
CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)

Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit]

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
xer to do
xwer to be done, to happen
xaer to have done
xwaer to have been done, to have happend
xea doing
xwea being done, happening
xaa having done
xwaa xwa done, happened
xoa about to do
xwoa about to happen
xua bound to do
xwua doable
xen doing, deed
xwen being done, happening, event
xe does
xwe is done, happens
xa did
xwa was done, happened
xo will do
xwo will be done, will happen
xu would do, do!
xwu would be done, would happen, be done!
xeye is doing
xewe is being done, is happening
xeya was doing
xewa was doing, was happening
xeyo will be doing
xewo will be happening
xeyu would be doing
xewu would be happening
xaye has done
xawe has been done, has happened
xaya had done
xawa had been done, had happened
xayo will have done
xawo will have been done, will have happened
xayu would have done
xawu would have been done, would have happened
xoye is about to do
xowe is about to be done, is about to happen
xoya was to be done
xowa was to be done, was to happen
xuye is supposed to do
xuwe is supposed to be done, is supposed to happen
xuya was supposed to do
xuwa was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen

Predicate Types[edit]

Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to whether the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed as a question (INTERROGATIVE), a declaration (DECLARATIVE), a negation (NEGATIVE), affirmation (AFFIRMATIVE), or combinations of these.

Making Predicates Interrogative[edit]

To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duves Tell me whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos? What?, Hot? Who(m)?, or Hom? where?. Note that the Du in Duves means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duves...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word ves without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duves is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos? What? and Hom? Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
Et se tadsa..... You are married. Duves et se tadsa?.... Are you married?
Ha mari se maya..... The stars are bright. Duves ha mari se maya?.... Are the stars bright?
Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?.... Who won?
Iyt aka glas.....He won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?.... How much did she win?
It paye..... He has gone. Hom it paye?.... Where has he gone?
Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
  • Et tame ha yubem?.... You live in the neighborhood?
Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duves usually are answered with va yes, ve maybe, or vo no or their equivalents.
Duves eta dyun se John?.... Is your name John? Vo, se Bill..... No, it's Bill.
Duves eta apet aka?.... Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka....Yes. Mine won indeed.
Duves et texe vas ha malyen gafiso hijub?.... Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve..... Maybe.
Fe per bay at?... Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.... Maybe tomorrow.

Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit]

The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe.... Yes, I indeed/do/really agree.
DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po..... Maybe. I may/possibly will go.
NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva..... No. I would not be happy.

Mixing Them Up[edit]

The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
  • Duves et voy se tadsa?.... Aren't you married?
  • Avhos iyt se voy tadsa?.... Why isn't she married?
  • Vey voy mamilo..... It may not rain.
  • At vay voy tadso iyt..... I will certainly not marry her.
  • Et peyo, vya?.... You will go, right?
  • Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa..... No. That may indeed be wrong.
  • Et te ha dud, vya?.... You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
  • At voy te. .... I don't know.
  • At te voy. .... I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]

Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit]

An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the hypothetical without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
  • Ipu!.... Go away!
  • Tiju!.... Wake up!
  • Su fiat!.... Be a good person!
Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer vas that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive' mood.
  • Hav yat fadilu..... Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
  • Hav et aku hia ifek..... May you win this game.
  • Hav ha edeb yagteju..... Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
  • Hov dalu at huyen..... Don't (you) speak to me that way.
  • Hov yit oku..... May they not lose.
  • Hov yat toxu it..... Let's not forget him.


Hav, hev, and hov are part of a whole system of complementizers:
INTERROGATIVE duhev...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duhev eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John?
CONDITIONAL hev if, whether Hev et te, du has.
At utdide hev it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless Oves et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win.
POSITIVE/HORTATIVE hav that, so that, let, may At ta hav it upo.
Hav yat dilo.
Hav et su iva.
At xa has hav et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let's pray.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE hov Don't, let...not, lest Hov teaxu at.
Hov yat su uva.
At pio hov et futepyensu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.
RELATIVE hu who, whom, that, which Ha toybi hu ifaye et...
Ha toyb hu et ife.
Koxon hu at yofe onyafxer.
The women who have loved you.
The woman (whom) you love.
A problem (that/which) I cannot solve.

Subjunctive Clauses[edit]

The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer hav that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
  • Ha ideb dila hav at tyoibu za it..... The king asked that I kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa hav et upu gwa ig..... It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
  • Dirwa hav hyat dolu..... It was ordered that everyone be silent.
A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest.
  • Su bikaya hov et pyosu..... Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
The conditional complementizer hev if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
  • At sexu tam hev at su nasika....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
  • Hos et xu hev et baysu ga nas?...What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
  • Ha ideb dila at tyoiber za it..... The king asked me to kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig..... It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
  • Hyat dirwa doler..... Everyone was ordered to be silent.
  • Su bikaya voy pyoser..... Be careful not to fall.

If-Then Conditional Clauses[edit]

A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer hev if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
Hev ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
ot akxe.
one succeeds.
Hev et ta,
If you knew,
et dola.
you kept quiet.
Hev et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
Hev at su nasika,
If I were rich,

Hev et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nusbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.

et testu.
you would understand.
Hev at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."

If/Whether Subordinate Clauses[edit]

Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer hev whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
At utdide
I wonder
hev it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
At voy te
I don't know
hev yit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
At voy te
I don't know
hev et ujako.
if / whether you will succeed.
At utdide
I wonder
hev et yantexu.
if / whether you would agree.
At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it se tadsa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
At dida
I asked
hev iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
At dida
I asked
hev it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
At dida
I asked
hev it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
The negative conditional complementizer ohev unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
Ot voy ujake
One does not succeed
ohev ot yexe jestay.
unless one works hard.
Et voy teato at
You won't see me
ohev et upo.
unless you come (= will come).

Relative Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses are of two types:
  • Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
  • Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.

Bound Relative Clauses[edit]

The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
  • Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jabi, bayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
  • Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
  • Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
  • Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
  • Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
  • Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya ob it je gla jabi....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha toybi hu at deuza av iyti fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/iyta/yita/yiyta (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
  • Ata yubati, hu yita tam sa jay ga aga vyel yatas, agaxa yita param gajod....Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
  • Ha dyeni hu at dyedi (hasi) zamaj sa hya fiasi....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good (ones).

Free Relative Clauses[edit]

Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
THING(S) has hu...what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu...what/those which/the things that
hyes hu...whatever/anything that
hyesi hu...whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu...everything that/all that
hyasi hu...all (things) that
hyos hu...nothing (that)
hyosi hu...none of the things (that)
haas hu...which one
haasi hu...which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futepyenua at....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu...who//the person (who)
hati hu...those who/the ones who
hyet hu...whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu...whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu...everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu...all (people) who
hyot hu...nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu...no people (that/who)
huta hu...whose
haat hu...which one
haati hu...which ones
Hat hu et teata pia....The person you saw left.
Hsti hu at tye yantexe....The people I know agree.
At teapo hyet wa at fe....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtya sa fiyena....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hati hu ifpot his se....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe....I know which ones (people) I like least.
PLACE ham hu...where
hyem hu...wherever
hyam hu...everywhere
hu...bi ham...from where, whence
hu...bu ham...to where, whither
Yat teje ham hu ha malyem se ema....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu...when
hyej hu...whenever
hyaj hu...everywhere
Du at haj hu et puo....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu...how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu...however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu...how, to what extent
hyigla hu...as, to the same degree as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se....You'll never know how happy I am.
At yofe poper hyigla yib hu et yafe....
I cannot travel as far as you can.
QUANTITY hagla hu...how much, how many
hyegla hu...however much, however many
hyigla hu...as much/many as
Duhev et te hagla nas hu it bayse?...Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla tami hu yat sexa....You guys asked us however many houses we built.
Et niso hyigla nas hu at xe....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON avhas hu...why, for what reason
avhyes hu...why ever, for whatever reason
Duhev et te avhas hu it xa hus....Do you know why he did that?
Yat voy teste avhyes hu et xu hus....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
  • RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu yata mer zyupe has dyunuwe ha amar. The star that our planet goes around (Lit: it) is called the sun.
  • NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha amar, hu yata mer zyupe has, se vay anay hea mar. The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a star.

Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit]

As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.

Indirect Discourse[edit]

Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer hav (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad hav complementizer can never be omitted.
  • At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would (= will) come.
  • Ata ted da hav it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut..... My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
  • Se vyaa hav at gra tele..... It is true that I eat too much.
  • At jada hav et puo jwa..... I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
The conditional complementizer hev if, whether and the negative complementizer hov lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.

Direct Discourse[edit]

Direct discourse works exactly as in English. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
  • Iyt da, "At voy fe per." She said, "I don't want to go."
  • At dida it, "Hot sa eta ted?". I asked him, "Who was your father?"


Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit]

Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
xer do ser be
agxer grow (something) agser grow (up)
amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up
puxer throw puser jump
per go ber put
aber put on aper get on
yaber raise yaper rise
poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop
yuber bring yuper approach
yeber insert yeper enter
  • At agxe vobi..... I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ha vobi agseye ig..... The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ha par!.... Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ha par posa..... The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ha mis..... I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ha amar yapaye..... The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].

Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity[edit]

Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer to sleep vs. tujper to fall asleep.
Ha mes yija....The door opened.
Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open.
At yijba ha mes....I opened the door.
Ha mes yuja.....The door closed.
Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned.
At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door.
Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started.
Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately.
At ijba ata tul.....I started my meal.
Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended.
Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end.
A ujba ha dyen.....I finished the book.
Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening.
Ha tob tojpa.....
The man dropped dead.
Hot tojba ha tob?....Who killed the man?
Tejpu!.....Come alive!.
Yat efe tejber ha tob.....We need to revive the man.
Ha tobob taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Iyt tajba awa tobob zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday.
At tija jwe.....I woke up on time.
It voy tijpa.....
He did not come to..
At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early.
At tujeya.....I was sleeping.
At tujpeya.....
I was falling sleep.
At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep..
The transitive voice of verbs like those in the above chart can be made passive with w:
  • Ha tob tojbwa zomoj.....The man was killed last evening.
  • Ha tobob tajbwo bey ha bekut.....The baby will be delivered by the nurse.
  • Ha bukwat voy yafe tejbwer.....The injured person cannot be saved.
  • Ha mis yijbwa je ha moj.....The window was opened during the night.

Reflexive Verbs[edit]

Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye atut..... I am going to kill myself.
  • Tu etut!.... Know thyself!
  • It gorba itut bay gorbar..... He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer otut..... One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber.... commit suicide
  • utboler.... support oneself
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyimiler etut..... You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
  • Et efe utvyimiler.....You need to wash up.

Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit]

Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home., It pa Paris. He went to Paris.
der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name., Du at has. Tell it to me.
peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me.
buer give (to) Buu at hua dyes. Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu has bu at. Give it to me.

Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs[edit]

Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
to magnify
to grow
to unify
to unite
to separate
to cut
to lengthen
to stretch
to retard
to brake
to formalize
to form
to equalize
to copy, equate
to prioritize
to prepare
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
to get bigger
to grow
to unify
to unite, become united
to become separate
to break

Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
  • Ansu ey yet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Hisi agaxo has hu et teate. These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
  • Hia tobot agseye ig. This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom. My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]

Derived from Nouns[edit]

Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
mog ash mogxer
to incinerate
to become ashes
yan collection yanxer
to collect
to get together
tad spouse tadxer
to marry
to get married
yom ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
to freeze/become ice
mag fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
to burn, get burned
uk void ukxer
to empty
become empty, empty out

Derived from Verbs[edit]

Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
  • At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj..... I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at..... You cannot make me go.
  • It tojbuxa yit..... He had them killed.
  • At efe vyilxuxer ata par..... I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa him avhes..... You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et..... I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at..... You cannot make me sing.
  • At ivteuduxwa..... I was tickled (= made to laugh).
  • Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat..... Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Hav het ivasuxu et..... May someone get you to be happy.

Directional Verbs[edit]

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
bier to take buer to give
nier to consume nuer to supply
nyier to order nyuer to deliver
nunier to buy nunuer to sell
nazunier win a prize nazunuer award a prize
noysier pay off noysuer charge
ojbier borrow ojbuer lend
tadier get married taduer marry off
papier take flight papuer send off flying
pipier set sail pipuer dock
simbier take a seat simbuer offer a seat
tampier leave home tampuer arrive home
tamier settle in tamuer shelter
nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell
telier to eat teluer to feed
gonbier to participate gonbuer to share
tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink
teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out
teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show
taxier to memorize taxuer to remind
alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire
ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak
ifier to enjoy ifuer to please
dier to ask duer to suggest
tier to learn tuer to inform
pier to depart puer to arrive
kebier to choose kebuer to distribute
tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep
tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill
byier to originate byuer to target
mempier to take off mempuer to land
sinier visualize sinuer display
xier to result xuer to cause

Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
ab on aber apply aper get on, mount
ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount
eb between eber block eper intervene
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yob down yober take down yoper descend
yub near yuber bring near yuper approach
yib far yiber take away yiper go far away
yeb in yeber insert yeper enter
yeb in yepuxer throw in yepuser jump in
oyeb out oyeber expose oyeper exit
oyeb out oyepuxer eject oyepuser jump out
zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper revolve
zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour
av for avdaler plead avper pursue
ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene
yan together yanber compose yanper meet
yon apart yonber separate yonper separate
iz direct izber lead izper head
uz curved uzber divert uzper diverge
yuz around yuzbexer surround yuzper circulate
yiz beyond yizber transfer yizper surpass
The prefix eej- anew, again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember to positioneejember to reposition, replace
  • der to sayeejder to repeat
  • sanxer to shape, formeejsanxer to reshape, reform
The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer to build, constructlosaxer to destroy, deconstruct
  • yonxer to uniteloyonxer to disunite
  • xer to doloxer to undo
The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
  • nadxer to alignvyonadxer to misalign
  • der to sayvyoder to misstate, lie
  • utbier to appropriatevyoutbier to misappropriate
The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer to operateyanexer to cooperate
  • tamer to dwellyantamer to cohabit
  • napber to put in orderyannapber to coordinate
The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
  • teaper to visitzoyteaper to revisit
  • uper to comezoyuper to return, come back
  • buxer to pushzoybuxer to repel, push back
  • puxer to throwzoypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison
The prefix az- (from aza strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
  • yujber to closeazyujber to lock
  • der to sayazder to emphasize
  • duer to suggestazduer to urge
  • dizeuder to laughazdizeuder to guffaw
By contrast, the prefix oz- (from oza weak) is used as a softener, eg.:
  • der to utterozder to whisper
  • duer to suggestozduer to hint
  • dizeuder to laughozdizeuder to chuckle
  • uvteuder to moanozuvteuder to whimper
The prefix ja- before is used as the English prefix pre-, fore-, or ante-, eg.:
  • der to telljader to foretell, predict
  • teater to seejateater to foresee, preview
  • ter to knowjater to presage, have foreknowledge of
  • yever to judgejayever to prejudge
  • juder to datejajuder to antedate
By contrast, jo- after is used as the English prefix post-, eg.:
  • juder to datejojuder to postdate
  • texer to thinkjotexer to reflect on, review
  • der to sayjoder to mourn, regret
  • ibler to obtainjoibler to inherit
The prefix gra- too much is used for actions that are excessive, eg.:
  • telier to eatgratelier to overeat
  • fer to wantgrafer to cover
  • der to saygrader to exaggerate
  • daler to talkgradaler to yammer

By contrast, the prefix gro- to little is used for actions that are underdone, eg.:

  • fyinder to valuegrofyinder to underestimate
  • mageler to cookgromageler to undercook

Modal Verbs[edit]

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.

Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
afer may
ayfer might
efer need ofer may not
oyfer might not
ifer love
iyfer like
fer want ufer hate
uyfer dislike
yafer can, be able
yayfer might, could
yefer must, have to
yeyfer ought, should
yofer cannot
yoyfer could not, might not
yifer dare   yufer be afraid
yiver have a right, be free   yuver be bound
If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
  • At fe per..... I want to go.
  • At fu per..... I would like to go.
  • Et yafe aker..... You can win.
  • Et yafu aker..... You could win.
  • Yet yefe iper..... You must leave.
  • Yet yefu iper..... You ought to leave.
Post-iotating the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
  • At ife et. ....I love you.
  • At iyfe et. ....I like you.
  • Et yefe iper..... You must leave.
  • Et yeyfe iper..... You should leave.
  • Iyt yafe aker..... She can win.
  • Iyt yayfe aker..... She might win.
  • At ufa uda tuz..... I hated that art.
  • At uyfa uda tuz..... I disliked that art.
By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
  • Hua toyb yufxa at..... That woman scared me.
  • Hua toyb yulfxa at..... That woman intimidated me.
  • Hua toyb yurfxa at..... That woman terrorized me.
  • Hia yex efwo..... This work will be necessary.
  • Hia yex elfwo..... This work will be critical.
  • Hia yex erfwo..... This work will be indispensable.
  • Su yifa..... Be brave.
  • Su yilfa..... Be bold.
  • Su yirfa..... Be heroic.
  • Et yuve buer nas..... You are supposed to give money.
  • Et yulve buer nas..... You are bound to give money.
  • Et yurve buer nas..... You are absolutely compelled to give money.
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe oyeper ay ifeker..... You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer..... We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier him..... One is prohibited to smoke here.
  • Mavier him ofwe..... Smoking here is prohibited.
  • At ife dyeer..... I love to read.
  • He et fe yebuper?.... Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et edjub..... I would like to visit you some day.
  • It ufaye hyaj teaxwer..... He has always hated being looked at.
  • Duhev et iyfe per tilami?.... Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa..... I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu..... You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas..... You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay..... You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi..... I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der hyea fuas..... I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Hov yufu der has hu et tesde..... Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut..... You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuve kyoejer..... We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit]

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented." The participial adjective yafa able is subject-oriented and refers to a person, whereas the passived adjective yafwa possible is patient-oriented and refers to a thing or event. Here is a chart of the principal modal verbs and corresponding participial adjectives with this subject/object-orientation distinction shown:
PERMISSION afer.... may afa.... allowed afwer.... be permitted afwa.... permissable
NECESSITY efer.... need efa.... needful efwer.... be necessary efwa.... necessary, required
PROHIBITION ofer.... be unallowed ofa.... prohibited ofwer.... be prohibited ofwa.... banned
POSSIBILITY yafer.... be able yafa.... able yafwer.... be possible yafwa.... possible
OBLIGATION yefer.... must yefa.... obliged yefwer.... be obligatory yefwa.... obligatory
DUTY yeyfer.... should yeyfa.... supposed, duty-bound yeyfwer'.... be supposed yeyfwa.... due
IMPOSSIBILITY yofer.... be unable yofa.... unable yofwer.... be impossible yofwa.... impossible
VOLITION fer.... want fa.... willing fwer.... be desirable fwa.... desirable, wanted
LOVE ifer.... love ifa.... enamored ifwer.... be loved ifwa.... lovable
HATE ufer.... hate ufa.... averse ufwer.... be hated ufwa.... odious
RISK yifer.... dare yifa.... daring, brave yifwer.... be safe yifwa.... safe
FEAR yufer.... be afraid yufa.... afraid yufwer.... be a danger yufwa.... frightening
JOY iver.... enjoy iva.... glad ivwer.... be a joy ivwa.... enjoyable
SORROW uver.... be sorry uva.... sorry, sad uvwer... be a shame uvwa.... regrettable
Examples of subject-oriented forms:
  • At se yafa xer hes..... I am capable of doing anything.
  • Et ofe teater hia dyezun..... You are not allowed/are prohibited to see this film.
  • Duhev at afe per hum?.... Am I allowed to go there?
  • Yat fu ter eta dyun..... We would like to know your name.
  • Piti ufe beser be mel..... Fish hate to remain on dry land.
  • At ajay ifa dazer..... I once loved to dance.
  • Et se iva, at yife der..... You are beautiful, I dare say.
  • At yeyfa xer has ga ig..... I should have done it sooner.
  • Hov yufu; At yupeye..... Fear not; I am coming.
  • Et yefe puer ja eymaj..... You must arrive before noon.
  • Yet yofe daler je ha dezun..... You must not talk during the performance.
  • Yat yeyfe (= se yeyfa aker..... We should (= are bound/supposed/due) to win.
  • At ive teater et bakser..... I'm glad to see you get better.
  • Su iva..... Be happy.
  • Yat uvu teater et iper..... I would be sad to see you leave.
Examples of patient-oriented forms:
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him..... It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him..... It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) hav yet dolu..... It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser him gajob..... It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder..... It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe hav et piu ig..... It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi?.... Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo..... More help will be needed.
  • Yurx se ufwa xetyen..... Slavery is an odious practice.
  • Uvwe hav it oka..... It's a shame that he lost.
*Ofawa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.

Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit]

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
afxer allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer permit (something to be done)
efxer require efwaxer necessitate
ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit
yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible
yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory
yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable
yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe
yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening
ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant

Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit]

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yafa able to X, -able -yofa unable to X, un-X-able
PATIENT-ORIENTED -yafwa possible to X -yofwa impossible to X
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -ifa fond of Xing, Xophile -ufa averse to Xing, Xophobic
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yika hard of Xing -yuka comfortable Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED -yikwa hard to X -yukwa easy to X
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -efa in need of Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED -efwa necessary to X
SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yufa afraid of Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED -yufwa frightening to X'
This table shows some of these modal suffixes applied to actual verb and noun stems:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyafer be able to see teatyofa blind teatyofer be blind
PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa visible teatyafwer be visible teatyofwa invisible teatyofwer be invisible
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyafer be able to hear teetyofa deaf teatyofer be deaf
PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa audible teetyafwer be audible teeyofwa inaudible teeyofwer be inaudiable
SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa able to speak dalyafer be able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb dalyofer be mute, dumb
SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa patriotic doabifer be patriotic doabufa rebellious doabufer rebel
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa sensitive tosyafer be able to feel tosyofa insensitive tosyofer be numbed
PATIENT-ORIENTED tayotyafwa palpable tayotyafwer be palpable tayotyofwa numb tayotyofwer be impalbable, numb
PATIENT-ORIENTED testyukwa easy to understand testyukwaxer make easily understood testyikwa hard to understand testyikwaxer make hard to understand
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa thirsty tilefer be thirsty
SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa hungry telefer be hungry
PATIENT-ORIENTED tejefwa vital tejefwer be vital

Sensing Verbs[edit]

Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern, as the following chart shows:
teab eye
teata visual
teeb ear
teeta audial
teib nose
teita olfactory
teub mouth
teuta gustatory
tayob skin
tayota tactile
RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE teater see teeter hear teiter smell teuter taste tayoter feel
RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE teatwer be seen teetwer be heard teitwer be smelled teutwer be tasted tayotwer be felt
STATIVE teaser seem teeser sound teiser smell teuser taste tayoser feel
DYNAMIC/ACTIVE teaxer look at teexer listen teixer sniff teuxer taste tayoxer touch
DYNAMIC/PASSIVE teaxwer be looked at teexwer be listened to teixwer be sniffed teuxwer be tasted tayoxwer be touched
CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE teatuer show teetuer make hear teixuer make smell teuxuer offer a taste tayoxuer make feel
CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE teatuwer be shown teetuwer be made to hear teituwer be made to smell teutuwer be given a taste tayotuwer be made to feel
INCHOATIVE/ACTIVE teatier perceive,
catch sight of
teetier catch the
sound of
teitier get a whiff of teutuer get a taste of tayotier get the sensation of
INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE teatiwer be perceived teetiwer be heard teitiwer be whiffed teutiwer be tasted tayotiwer be felt
teatyofer be blind teetyofer be deaf teityofer be unable to smell teityofer be unable to taste tayotyofer be insensitive
teatyofwer be invisible teetyofwer be inaudible teityofwer be undetectable
teityofwer be insipid tayotyofwer be undetectable
by touch
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofxer blind teetyofxer deafen teityofxer desensitize
to smell
teutyofxer desensitize to
tayotyofxer desensitize
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofwaxer make invisible teetyofwaxer make inaudible teityofwaxer make odorless teutyofwaxer render tasteless tayotyofwaxer numb
Examples of usage:
  • At teatyofxwa bey ha mani. I was blinded by the lights.
  • Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea. The noise was deafening.
  • Hia tit se gla teatiyea. This pupil is very perceptive.
  • Hua bekil se teityofwa. That medecine is odorless (impossible to smell).
  • Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni. Make the spots invisible.
  • Ha magmeb yonpyerx tayotyafwa zya ha mir. The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.


Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.

Single-word Prepositions[edit]

Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
ab on, upon eb between ob off, off of
ayb over, above eyb among, amid oyb under, below
bu to be at bi from, of
byu as far as, up to   byi since, starting with
ub toward   ib away from
za in front of ze at the middle of zo behind, in back of
zu (to the) left (of)   zi (to the) right (of)
  zye through  
ja before je during, while jo after
ju until   ji since
bay with bey by boy without
av for vyel than, as, compared to, about ov against
ay and ey or oy but, except
gab plus, +   gob minus, -
gal times, × gel like
ogel unlike
gol, ÷ divided by
gar to the power of, ˆ gor to the root of,
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ha dyes se ab ha sem..... The book is on the table.
  • Hov et pyosu ob ha abtamas!.... Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ha pati papa ayb ata tam..... The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ha yagsim..... He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb hut ay at..... Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati..... We live among good people.
  • Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?.... What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • His se ifek bi kyen..... This is a game of luck.
  • Duvas et sa be hua duzun zomoj?.... Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil..... We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis..... She walked up to the door.
  • Ha tob tojbwa bey gobar..... The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at ev boy at..... You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ha amar..... Look away from the sun.
  • Hov teaxu iz ub ha man..... Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Iyt simpa za at. .... She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb..... You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu has zu ha mis..... Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simpo zi et..... I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ha pat poosa ze ha tim..... The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Mil upeye zye ha mes..... Water is coming through the door.
  • His xwo ja zajub. .... This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ha moj..... There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj..... Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub..... I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe xu hes av at..... Please do something for me.
  • Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti..... This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia vyel nas. Friendship is better than money.
  • Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat..... They were working against us.
  • Et ay at yeyfe ser dati..... You and I should be friends.
  • Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
  • Hyat oy hut ta ha dud..... Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at..... You are not like me.
  • Et se hyagla ogel at..... You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u..... Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e..... Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u..... Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a..... Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya..... Four squared equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Alya gor e gese u..... The square root of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the root of two...)

Phrasal Prepositions[edit]

Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs[edit]

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
yub near yib far
yuz around yiz beyond
iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout
yab up yeb in
oyeb out
yob down
yaz along yez flush (with) yoz perpendicular (to)
zay forward, ahead zey across zoy back
The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
yub bi near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et..... I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer..... The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam..... He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi up from Su yab bi ha sim..... Get up from the bed.
yab bey up (along) Yat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab..... We will walk up the hill.
yab be up on Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha abtammmas..... The cat was found up on the roof.
yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos..... Run down to the cellar.
yob bi down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam..... The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey down from Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab..... She ran down the hill.
yob be down on Ha dyes kase yob be ha oybmas..... The book is down on the floor.
yob ab down on top of Has kawa yob ab eta oybmos..... It was found down on your floor.
yeb be in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam..... Your mother is in(side) the house.
yeb bu into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip..... He jumped into the river.
yeb bi in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem..... Come in from the cold outdoors.
yaz bi along He tob tyoyapa yaz bi ha mip.....The man walked along the river.
yez bi flush with Ha simi se yez bi ha mas..... The chairs are flush with the wall.
yoz bi perpendicular to Ha mampar pyosa yoz bi ha mel..... The plane fell perpendicular to the ground.
yuz bi around Ha pati papa yuz bi yata tam.....The birds flew around our house.
yiz bi beyond, past Et paye yiz bi ha yuznad.....You have gone beyond the perimeter.
iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim..... He came right back from the office.
zay bu on to, forth to, ahead to Ha naadpar popa zay bu zona doym..... The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat..... She sat across from us.
zey bi across Et yefe per zey bi hia mip..... You must go across this river.
zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ha yexim..... I am back from the office.

Phrasal Prepositions Using Nouns[edit]

The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
ab on abem top
abned upper surface
abmas roof
eb between ebem interstice
ebjob interval
ebnod intersection
ebmas partition
ob off obem bottom
obned lower surface
obmas foundation
ayb above aybem area above
aybmas ceiling
oyb below oybem area below
oybmas floor
yab up yabem upstairs, upper area
yabneg top level
yob down yobem downstairs, lower area
yobneg bottom level
yeb in yebem inside, interior, indoors
yebnig inner space
oyeb out yobem outside, exterior, outdoors
za in front of zam front, foreground
zan face
ze in the middle of zem middle
zenod center, hub
zen center
zenad median
zo behind zom back, rear, background
zi right zim right area
zikum left side
ziizon right direction
zimer east
zu left zum left area
zukum left side
zuizon left direction
zumer west
iz straight izmep direct route
iznad vector
izon direction
uz indirectly uzmep detour
uznad curve
uzon deviation
yub near yubem vicinity
yubkum near side
yubaj recent past
yib far yibem distance
yibkum far side
yibnod pole
yiboj distant future
yuz around yuzem perifery
yuznad perimeter
yuznig environment
yiz beyond yizem area beyond
yiznod extremity
The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of
be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of
be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between
be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above
be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below
be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of bi eybem bi from the midst of
be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of
be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of
be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of
be zim bi at the right of bu zim bi to the right of bi zim bi from the right of
be zum bi at the left of bu zum bi to the left of bi zum bi from the left of
be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of
be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of
be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with
be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with
be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route
be yebem bi on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi to the exterior of
bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of
be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of
be nod bi at the point of be yebem bi at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay in line with be uznod bi alongside be tes bi in the sense of
be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with
be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of
be avson bi on behalf of be vyeson bi on the subject of bay yux bi with the aid of


Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. They are divided into coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Also some conjunctions consist of a combination of words.

Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

This chart shows the coordinating conjunctions used in Mirad:
ay and
ey or
oy but
oey nor
Usage examples:
  • At oveko ay at ako. I will compete and I will win.
  • Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et. Be still or I will spank you.
  • It yeka oy it oka. He tried but he lost.
  • At voy tilo oey at telo. I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.

Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

The above coordinating conjunctions can be associated in correlative pairs, as follows:
hyaewa...ay both...and
hyeawa...ey either...or
hyoawa...oey neither...nor
voy hyawa...oy (gay) not only...but (also)
  • At hyaewa dyede ay dre Mirad..... I both read and write Mirad.
  • Et yafe hyeawa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun..... You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
  • Yat hyoawa move oey tile..... We neither smoke nor drink.
  • At voy hyawa deuze oy gay at daze.....I not only sing but also I dance.

Subordinating Conjunctions[edit]

Subordinating Conjunctions introduce a dependent clause. All subordinating conjunctions must consist of at least one of the five so-called complementizers in the following chart. These complementarizers function in two ways:
  • as a clause linker, where the complementizer introduces a clause that is a statement of FACT or CONDITION, or
  • as a clause introducer, where the complementizer introduces a sentence that is a command/wish, a prohibition, or a yes-no question. Some of these complementizers can act in either or both roles.


There are six complementizers, which, in and of themselves, are subordinating conjunctions:
POSITIVE / HORTATIVE hav that, the fact that May... (something happen), Let... (something happen)
CONDITIONAL hev if, whether --
NEGATIVE / PROHIBITIVE hov lest, that...not Don't
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless --
INTERROGATIVE Duhev...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)?
RELATIVE hu that, which, who(m) --
Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
  • At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would come.
  • At xa has hav et testu..... I did it so that you would understand.
  • At voy ta hev et upo..... I did not know whether you would come.
  • Hev et te ha dud, du has..... If you know the answer, say it.
  • At yufa hov et upu..... I feared lest you come.
  • At voy upo ohev et upo gay..... I will not come unless you come, too.
Example of these conjunctions introducing different types of statements:
  • Hav yat fadilu..... Let us pray. (HORTATIVE, i.e., A WISH)
  • Hav yit teliu avol!.... Let them eat bread.
  • Hav ad edeb yagteju..... May the king live long.
  • Duhev et te ad dud?.... Do you know the answer? (YES/NO QUESTION)
  • Duhev et se tadsa..... Say whether you are married.
  • Hov (et) yufu..... Don't (you) be afraid. (PROHIBITIVE, i.e., AN INJUNCTION)
  • Hov ud xwu..... Let that not happen.
The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duhev (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether....
  • Duhev et se tadokayt?.... Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).

Conjunctions with hav[edit]

Other conjunctions are formed with two or more morphemes, the last being a complementizer. These contain an a preposition or adverb of place, time, cause, etc., followed by the positive complementizer hav or sometimes, the conditional complementizer hev. English can use a bare preposition as a conjunction, as in the sentence "He will grow up before you notice it." However, Mirad requires the hav or hev complementizer, much as in French, where "avant" (before) must be accompanied by "que" when followed by a clause ("Il se grandira avant que tu ne le remarque.") Here is a chart showing the most important of these conjunctions:
ja hav.... before Du hay ja hav et pio..... Say hi before you leave.
je hav.... while Je hav at so him, at xo gle yex av et..... While I'm here, I'll do some work for you.
jo hav.... after At buo et has jo hav et nuso..... I will give it to you after you pay.
ju hav.... until Yat voy ijo ju hav et puo him..... We won't start until you get here.
ji hav.... since At voy teataya huyenas ji hav et sa hum..... I had not seen such a thing since you were there.
gey hev.... even if Gey hev et yontexe, at bolo et..... Even if you disagree, I'll support you.
gel hev.... as if Yat yeyfe axer gel hev yat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing.
gey ov hav.... even though Gey ov hav ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.....Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it.
ov hav.... (al)though At po ov hav at voy fe..... I'll go, although I don't want to.
av hav.... so (that) It utifbua av hav hyuti yafu tejer..... He sacrificed himself so that others might live.
If the conjunction contains a deictic adverb like where, when, how, etc., then the relative complementizer is attached, as in the following examples:
haj hu.... when
(Lit: the time that...)
Haj hu et pua, ha iv ija..... When you arrived, the fun began.
ham hu.... where
(Lit: the place that...)
At voy te ham hu it pa..... I don't know where he went.
av has hu.... why
(Lit: for the thing that...)
Duhev et te av has hu it xa his?.... Do you know why he did it?
av has hu.... because
(Lit: for the thing that...)
It xa has av has hu it fa teatuer yat hes..... He did it because he wanted to show us something.
hayen hu....how, as, in the way that
(Lit: the way that...)
Xu hayen hu et fu hav hyuti alxu ub et..... Do as you'd want others to act toward you.
In other cases, the conjunction is really just a relative adverb, and often ends in hus that:
jo hus.... then Yat deuza jo hus hyat daza..... We sang, then everyone danced.
je hus.... meanwhile Je hus, at ujba hyas..... Meanwhile, I finished everything.
av hus.... so, therefore It vuda at, av hus at pia..... He insulted me, so I left.
(gey) ov hus.... nevertheless, even so, despite that, yet, however At yexa kyotepay, ov hus, at ujoka.....I work diligently, yet I failed.
gey hus.... likewise, also, similarly At daze. Gel hus, at deuze.....You dance; likewise, I sing.
ogey hus.... otherwise, else Du hes, ogey hus, piu.....Say something, otherwise, leave.
There are some common conjunctions that need no complementizers:
ay....and It upa, it teata, ay it akra.....He came, he saw, and he conquered.
ey (hyuyen)....or (else) Yexu kyotepay ey (hyuyen) et ujoko.....Work hard or (else) you'll fail.
oy....but It tyoyafa oy iyt pa bey par.....He walked but she went by car.
hyiyen....likewise, and so It aka; hyiyen at.....He won; and so did I.
hyuyen....otherwise, else Xu has; hyuyen dolu.....Do it; otherwise shut up.


Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
va yes
ve maybe, perhaps
vo* no
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, it voy se tadsa. He is not married.

  • Va. At se otadsa..... Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadsa..... Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay..... Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa..... Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo?.... Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay..... Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et..... No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe hov xu has..... No! Don't do it.
  • Et se Amerikama, va vo?.... You're American, yes or no?
  • Hev va, xu has..... If so, do it.
  • Hev vo, wo xu has..... If not, don't do it.
Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is...
DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is...
POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hway!* Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!,Hurrah!, Thanks!
SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hwey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!, You're welcome!
NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hwoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!, Sorry!
  • hw is pronounced like the wh in English words.
  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Hoyena et se?....Hey, John, how are you?
  • Hey, Fyaat! O, God!
  • Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ha dyen et dila..... Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tobyan..... Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundraf..... Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xawa..... Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy hos at yaka..... There's what I expected.
  • Hway et!.... Good for you!
  • Hway! Et utnaze his...... Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hwey via maj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hwey At ta voy hav et upo..... Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hwoy at..... Woe is me.
  • Hwoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay..... Pity!. Better luck next time.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.

Alternating Directionals[edit]

There is a class of words in Mirad which are called alternating directionals, which are abbreviated combinations of opposite morphemes that mean something and something else or something or something else. For example, in English, swinging is "rocking BACK-AND-FORTH", or, questions can be of the type "YES-OR-NO". The vowels in these directionals are, for euphonic purposes, ao, eo, or ui. These alternating expressions are often used as adverbs or verbal prefixes. Here is an incomplete list of such expressions, the elements decomposed, and examples of their usage:
yaob....up-and-down yab (up) + yob (down) yaobur....elevator (up-and-down machine)
yaopyaser....jump up and down
yeob....in-and-out yeb (in) + oyeb (out) yeobar....piston (in-and-out-device)
zao....front-and-back / north-and-south za (front) + zo (back) zaobaser....rock
zui....left-and-right / east-and-west zu (left) + zi (right) zuinada....horizontal
bui....to-and-from // give-and-take bu (to) + bi (from) buinax....round trip fare
buipar....shuttle bus
aob....off-and-on ab (on) + ob (of) aoper....get on and off
aober....take on and off
vao....yes-and-no / yes-or-now va (yes) + vo (no) vaoder....decide
vaodud....yes-or-no question
yuij....open-and-shut yuj- (shut) + yij- (open) yuijer....blink
teoj....life-or/and-death tej (life) + toj (death) teoja ebyem....life-and-death situation
huim....here-and-there hum (there) + him (here) huimpoper....travel here and yon
huis....this-and-that hus (that) + his (this) huisbier....select (between this and that)
hyaos....all-or-nothing hyas (everything) + hyos (nothing) hyaoson....all-or-nothing matter
hyuit....one another hyut (another) + hyit (the same person) hyuita....mutual
hyuitifer....love one another
Keep in mind that if an alternative directional ends in b, the b assimilates to the first consonant of per (go) and ber put words, such that -b + b becomes b and -b + p becomes p. Thus, aob + per becomes aoper. This follows the regular manner of assimilation between any prepositional prefixes ending in -b before per and ber verbs and their derivatives.


[This page under construction]

Mirad is an SVO language like English, that is, the subject (S) comes first, then the verb (V) predicate, then the object (O). Determiners (D) and adjectives (A) generally precede the noun (N) they modify. Adverbs (AD) can float more freely, as long as no ambiguity results.

Following are some example sentences showing this word order:

  • Yat (S) iyfe (V) pit (O)....We (S) like (V) fish (O).
  • Yat (S) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O) gla(AD)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) fried (A) fish (N O) very much (AD).
  • Yat (S) voy (AD) iyfe (V) hia (D)yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O) gla(AD)....We (S) do not (AD) like (V) this (D) fried (A) fish (N O) very much (AD).
  • Yat (S) gle (AD)) iyfe (V) hia (D)yelmagelwa (A) pit (N O)....We (S) rather (AD) like (V) this (D) fried (A) fish (N O).

Greetings and Other Polite Expressions[edit]

Hay! Hello!
Hey! Hey!
Hoy! Bye!
Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici
Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voila
Hway!* Great! / Good for you! / Thanks! / Congratulations!
Hwey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well! / Your're welcome!
Hwoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!'
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fimoj! Good evening!
Hoyen et xeye? How are you? (Lit. How are you doing?)
Fi. Ay et? Fine. And you?
Thank-you. (Lit. (It) will be fondly remembered.)
You're welcome. (Lit. Forget (it).)
Diwe. Please. (Lit. It is asked.)
Yovobu (at).
Excuse (me).
Fipop! Bon voyage!
Su valta! Be safe!
Igbaksu! Get well soon!
Congratulations! (Lit: together-happy-feeling)
Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday!
My condolences! (Lit: together-sad-feeling)
  • hw is pronounced in Mirad like a wh in English words.

Word Formation[edit]

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings have been attached to consonants and various values have been ascribed to vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of core words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Word Formation[edit]

The vocabulary is built on root morphemes, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from root morphemes in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules.

Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. These root morphemes are divided into two groups:
  • 1st Group:  consisting of nouns
  • 2nd Group:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs.
Root Morphemes of the 1st Group (nouns) are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel1 called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
t o b man
d o t society
f a b tree
1. A vowel in this case includes pre-yodified vowels like ya, ye, etc.
Root Morphemes of the 2nd Group (Adjectives, Verbs,and anything but nouns)

are composed of a consonant+vowel or vowel+consonant, such as the following:

ab....on ob....off
bu....to bi....from
if-....love uf-....hate
fi-....good fu-....bad
va....yes vo....no
vya-....true vyo-...false
In a few cases, a 2nd group root morpheme consists of just a single consonant or just a single vowel:
b-....put p-....go
s-....be x-....do
t-....know d-....say
f-....want w-....[passive marker]
i....[plural marker] o....un-
a....[adjective marker] -t...person

Consonants and Their Meanings[edit]

The classifier and generic letters in 1st group root morphemes are consonants and 2nd group root morphemes almost always have one consonant, so one needs to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
CONSONANT 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 2nd Group Root Morphemes Numeric Value
b organ, illness, body, etc. organism gesture, manner, movement
p animal, vehicle movement
s thing, furniture form, thing hundred
x do, action do, action
d society person, thing reading, writing
t person person intelligence, knowing
f vegetation clothing volition
v plant, color linen veracity
g measurement quantity
k condition, risk change, chance
j time time time
z jewel, precious, art spatial
l element, liquid ten
m nature place, building, furniture, metal ml = million
n mechandise abstraction
r tool, machine thousand, mr = billion
The letters l and r are used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word. The letter y, if used before a stem vowel intensifies the semantics of the word, but mitigates the semantics if it follows the stem vowel.
The letter h is used only in certain interjections, conjunctions, and determiners and has no semantic identity.
The letter w has no semantic identity of its own, but is used only to form the passive of verbs and to form a counter morpheme used in numbers, and sometimes to substitute for y when the latter letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo late, instead of jyo).

1st Group Root Morphemes[edit]

The ordinal vowels of noun morphemes have certain values:
  • Numeric Values:
The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-iotated vowels.
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu alo ala ale
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve
A vowel with a numeric value is sometimes prefixed to nouns to form a hierarchy of nouns:
adeb emperor adab empire
edeb king edab kingdom
ideb prince idab principality
udeb duke udab duchy
yodeb marquis, margrave yodab marquisate
yadeb earl, count yadab county, earldom
yedeb lord, vassal yedab dominion
yideb viscount yidab viscountcy
yudeb baron yudab barony
alodeb tribal chief alodab tribe
Sometimes the numeric vowel falls inside the word after the ordinal vowel. This happens with days of the week, as shown here:
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
  • Positional Values:
The positional value of vowels is shown below (Rule nr. 10):
  a.... up, superior, north, ahead, on  
u.... left, west, near e.... center, middle i.... right, east, away
  o.... down, inferior, south, back, off  
  za.... front, ahead  
zu.... left ze.... middle zi.... right
  zo.... back  
  zamir.... north  
zumir.... west zemir.... equator zimir.... east
  zomir.... south  
  ab.... on  
ib.... away eb.... between ub.... toward
  ob.... off  
  yab.... up  
yib.... far yeb.... in yub.... near
  yob.... down  
  ja.... before  
ji.... since je.... during ju.... until
  jo.... after  
  • Geophysical Values:
o outer space, nature
a air, gas, sky
e land, soil, earth
i liquid, water, juice
u underground, minerals
Some examples:
mol nature mom outer space poper travel pot animal mop orbit dop military
mal air mam sky paper fly pat bird map wind dap air force
mel soil mem land peper ride pet land animal mep road dep army
mil water mim sea piper sail pit fish mip river dip marines
mul mineral mum underground puper burrow put bug mup tunnel dup submarine force
Morpheme Chart[edit]
The meaning of the 1st Group root morphemes comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the generic consonant, as show in the chart below. Most often, the root morphemes have a zeroth element in which the ordinal vowel is o. Related, usually hierchically subordinate, words are created by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel.
tob man t = human, animal b = organism
tod family t = human, animal d = society
tof clothes t = human, animal f = tissue
tov lingerie t = human, animal v = linen
tol food t = human, animal l = fluid, substance
vob plant v = plant b = organism
tom building t = human, animal m = place
dob state d = social b = organism
dom city d = social m = place
dop military d = social p = movement
som furniture s = thing m = place
pot animal p = movement t = human, animal
Chart of 1st Group root morphemes:
bok....illness bak....health bek....treatment bik....care buk....injury
byok....pain byek....cure
doeb....federal state
alodeb....tribal leader
dam....air fielddem....parkdim....fountain
dop....military dap....air forcedep....army
diep....marine force
dip....navydup....submarine forces
jiyob.... May
jilob.... October
jwob....hourjwab....minute jweb....second
mor....universe mar....star
mol....nature mal....air
mom....cosmos mam....skymem....land
meleg....terra cotta

mop....orbit map....wind


.... meb....mountain
mos....floor mas....wallmes....doormis....windowmus....stairs
som....furniture sam....chestsem....tablesim....chair
nod....point nad....line


nid....volume nud....column
nog....degree nag....measure
neg....level nig....space
nyox....waste nyax....accumulation nyex....storage nyix....demand nyux....supply
nef....knit nif....wire
fob....vegetation fab....tree

afab....apple tree
efab....pear tree
ifab....cherry tree
ufab....prune tree
yofab....apricot tree
yafab....peach tree
yefab....quince tree
yifab....walnut tree
yufab....hazelnut tree
alofab....blackberry bush
defab....pine tree
dyofab....cocoa plant
fefab....date palm
fifab....banana tree
fufab....coconut palm
fyofab....pomegranate tree
kafab....olive vine
lafab....orange tree
lefab....mandarin tree
lifab....lemon tree
lufab....grapefruit tree
lyofab....lime tree
rafab....acorn tree
refab....beechnut tree
rifab....chestnut tree
safab....tea plant
sefab....coffee plant
sifab....pepper plant
sufab....strawberry tree
syofab....red current tree
vafab....grape vine
vefab....ivy bush
fyob....rootfyab ....fruit
defyab....pine cone
sefyab....coffee bean
syofyab....red current
sar....instrument sir....machine sur....motor
large intestines
upper arm
tof....clothes taf....suit
tef....hattif....waist coat
tov....linen tev....scarf
tod....family tad....husband
tyad.... grandfather
tyed....relative tyud....tutor
top....soul tap....physiquetep....mindtip....sentimenttup....member
tom....building tam....house
yem ....enclosed space
toj....death taj....birthtej....lifetij....wakefulnesstuj....sleep

teaz spectacle
zavob....strawberry plant
vab....grass veb....tuft vib....stem vub....twig
avyab....green bean
uvyab....broad bean
apavol....white cabbage
epavol....Brussels sprout
lyavol....Jersualem artichoke
lavos....lily of the valley

favoz.... beige
ivoz.... red
livoz.... lemon yellow
yavoz.... mauve
yevoz.... lilac
yivoz.... purple
pot....animal pat....bird

apat....cock, rooster

pet....land animal




ripit....sperm whale

pyot....wild animal




2nd Group Root Morphemes[edit]

The vowels of 2nd Group Root Morphemes also have certain values:
  • Positive-Intermediate-Negative Values:
  • POSITIVE a, ya oppose NEGATIVE o, yo
  • POSITIVE i, yi oppose NEGATIVE u, yu
Some examples:
ag- big eg- normal og- small
az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak
va yes ve maybe vo no
ak- win ek- play ok- lose
yad everything yed anything yod nothing
ig- fast ug- slow
im- wet um- dry
fi- good fu- bad
kyi- heavy kyu- light
  • Directional Values:
a- free movement from above onto aber apply
-a movement with contact from above onto baer lean
ya- free movement upward yaper rise
-ya movement with contact upward pyaser jump
o- free movement from below upward ober remove
-o movement with contact from below onto boer uphold
yo- free movement downward yoper descend
-yo movement with contact fall pyoer fall
u- free movement toward the center uper come
-u movement with contact toward the center buer give
yu- free movement near yuber bring
-yu movement with contact near byuer touch
i- free movement away iper leave
-i movement with contact away bier take
yi- free movement far away yiper move far away
-yi movement with contact far away pyier originate
e- stop   eper intervene
-e pause   peser wait
ye- in   yeper enter
-ye in   byexer contain
Special Values of Certain Vowels:
  • The prefixes a-, an- have to do with one, single, singular and are opposed to:
  • The prefixes ya-, yan- meaning together, plural.
  • The prefix yan- contrasts with yon- meaning apart.
Some examples:
auta individual, private yauta communal
at I, me yat we, us
anla singular yanla plural
yanper join yonper separate
yanmel continent yonmel island
adut the one person yadut everybody
Morpheme Chart[edit]
The 2nd Group root morphemes, containing roots other than nouns, come from a combination of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel (which is sometimes zero). The vowel can be pre- or post-iotated and modified with the scalar enhancer consonants r, l, and w. Here is a chart showing the principle root morphemes of this group. The root morpheme itself is in boldface, sometimes followed by derived words incorporating that root.
ja before, pre-
jana previous
japer precede
je during
jena current
jeper continue
jo after, post-
jona next
joper follow
ji since
ju until
aj past
ajna old
ej present
ejna new
oj future
ojna next
ij beginning
ijna initial
uj end
ujna final
jwa early
jwaa early
jwe on time
jwea punctual
jwo late
jwoa late
yij opening
yija open
yijber open
yuj closure
juja closed
yujber close
ga more
gaber add
galer multiply
gra too much
gwa most
ge equal
geber equate
gean equality
gre enough
gwe average
go less
gober substract
goler divide
gro insufficient
gwo least
gi- point
gin point
gia sharp
gu- angle
gun angle
gua dull
gya- fat
gyaxer fatten
gyo- thin
gyoxer emaciate
gyi- solid
gyian solidity
gyu- fragile
gyuan fragility
ag- big
agaxer magnify
agla huge
eg- normal
egaxer normalize
egan normality
og- small
ogaxer miniaturize
ogla tiny
ig- fast
igay quickly
igper rush
ug- slow
ugay slowly
ugper amble
yag- long
yagaxer lengthen
yog- short
yogaxer shorten
yig- hard
yigaxer harden
yug- soft
yugaxer soften
ka- find
kaxer find
kader reveal
kaxwas trove
ke- seek
kexer seek
keder inquire
kexwas pursuit
ko- hide
koxer hide
koder cover up
koxwas stash
kia diagonal
kim slope
kua lateral
kun edge
kum side
ak- win
akun gain
ek- play
ekun risk
ok- lose
okun loss
ik- full
ikber fill up
uk- empty
ukber empty out
kya- variable
kyaser change
kye- random
kyeser happen
kyo- fixed
kyoser stand still
kyi- heavy
kyiaxer weigh down
kyu- light
kyuaxer lighten
yak- expect
yakwa expected
yek- try
yekwa attempted
yok- be surprised
yokwa unexpected
yik- difficult
yikan difficulty
yuk- easy
yukan ease
va- yes
vader affirm
ve- maybe
veder equivocate
vo- no
voder deny
vi- beautiful
vila gorgeous
vu- ugly
vula hideous
av- for
avon favor
ev- than
evon condition
ov- against
ovon hindrance
iv- happy
ivan happiness
uv- sad
uvan sadness
vya- true
vyan truth
vye- relative
vyen relation
vyo- false
vyon error
vyi- clean
vyisa pure
vyu- dirty
vyusa foul
yav- innocent
yavder acquit
yev- fair
yevder judge
yov- guilty
yovder accuse
yiv- free
yivxer release
yuv- captive
yuvxer capture
f- want
fer want
fi- good
fider praise
fu- bad
fuder malign
fya- holy
fyader bless
fyo- profane
fyoder curse
fyi- useful
fyin worth
fyu- damaging
fyun harm
af- allow
afwa allowed
ef- need
efwa necessary
of- ban
ofwa prohibited
if- love
ifwa beloved
uf- hate
ufwa despised
yaf- able
yafer can
yef- obliged
yefer must
yof- unable
yofer cannot
yif- brave
yifer dare
yuf- afraid
baer lean on
baler press
barer crush
baxer shake
→abaxer stroke
→abalxer rub
ber put
be at
beser stay
bexer hold
beler keep
boxer carry
boler support
→oboler drop
bi from
bier take
bixer pull
bilxer yank
birxer uproot
bu to
buer give
buxer push
bulxer shove
burxer kick
bay with bey by boy without
ab on
aber put on
abem top
eb between
eber block
ebem gap
ob off
ober take off
obem bottom
ib away
iber receive
ilber obtain
ub toward
uber send
ulber deliver
yab up
yaber raise
yalber lift
yaper rise
yeb in
yeber introduce
yelber insert
yeper enter
yob down
yober lower
yolber down
yoper descend
yib far
yiber remove
yilber banish
yiper flee
yub near
yuber bring near
yolber abduct
yuper come
byaxer erect
byeer behave
byen manner
byoxer hang
byi since
byiser spring from
byu up to
byuser reach
pa- motion
paser move
paxer move (tr.)
per go
peser wait
pexer trap
po- rest
poyser pause
poser stop
poxer stop (tr.)
pi- motion away
pier leave
piser withdraw
pixer catch
pu- motion toward
puer arrive
puser jump
puxer throw
pya- strong upward motion
pyaser jump up
pyaxer launch
pye- strong inward motion
pyeser bump into
pyexer strike
pyo- strong downward motion
pyoser plunge
pyoxer knock down
pyi- strong motion away
pyiser spring
pyixer snatch
pyu- strong motion toward
pyuser pounce
pyuxer ram
za in front of
zaper precede
ze in the middle of
zeber balance
zo behind
zoper succeed
zi- right
zituyaba right-handed
zu- left
zutuyaba left-handed
zay forward
zayper advance
zey across
zoy back
zoyper recede
az- strong
aza strong
ez- medium
eza medium
oz- weak
oza weak
iz- straight
izper go straight
uz- curved
uzper turn
zya- wide
zyaber spread
zye through
zyeteatuwa transparent
zyo- narrow
zyober restrict
zyi- flat
zyixer flatten
zyu- round
zyuper rotate
yaz- vertical
yazber stand upright
yez- horizontal
yezber lay flat
yoz- perpendicular
yoza perpendicular
yiz- beyond
yizper surpass
yuz- around
yuzper surround
daler talk
der say
drer write
dryer print
deler declare
doler be silent
dier ask
dider question
diler request
direr demand
din story
duer suggest
duder answer
duler insist
durer prod
dun word
dyeder read
dyen book
dyier phone
dyuer call
dyun name
taxer remember
tajer be born
t- know
ter know
texer think
teser mean
tejer live
toxer forget
tojer die
ti- learn
tier learn
tider understand
tixer study
tin doctrine, -ism
titam school
tijer wake
tu- teach
tuer teach
tuder explain
tuxer instruct
tun science, -ology
tutam institute
tujer sleep
tyan race
tyen craft, occupation
tyeer be familiar with
tryen industry
tyier get acquainted
tyuer acquaint
san form
saxer make
saun kind
ser be
son thing (abstract)
sat being
sexer build
soer undergo
sin image
siun sign
su- thing
sun thing
syan type
syen style
syin subject
syun object
aser become
eser exist
oser vanish
iser be the result
user be the cause
xaer execute
xaler accomplish
xer do
xen action
xeler conduct
xier result
xuer bring about
xuler provoke
xyen practice
xyel exercise
xyier wear out
xyuer proceed
axer act
alxer operate
exer function
oxer be idle
ixen effect
uxer cause
yexer work
yelx labor
yelx drudgery
yixer use
yilxer hire
yirxer exploit
yuxer help
yulxer serve
yurxer slave
nax cost
nas money
naz value
nam shop
nex thrift
nes savings
nox spending
nos expense
noz jewel
nix earning
nizer deserve
nux payment
nuz award
nun merchandise
nunam market
nyaxer accumulate
nyan stack
nyexer store
nyem box
nyef bag
nyoxer waste
nyos surplus
nyixer order
nyixut client
nyuxer deliver
nyuxut supplier
nyus package
hav so that hev whether hov lest
hay hi hey hey hoy bye hiy voici huy voila
hyay bravo hyey thanks hyoy what a shame
ha- the he- some ho- which? hi- this hu- that
hya- every hye- any hyo- no hyi- same hyu- other
Vowel Patterns[edit]

Note that that in 2nd Group core words there is a three-way contrast with the root vowels a, e, o and a two-way contrast with the root vowels i and u, as in the chart below, where the root vowels are underlined:

3-WAY (a-e-o) aza strong eza medium oza weak
2-WAY (i-u) fia good -- fua bad
Meaning of the Classifier Consonant[edit]
Most human qualities are presented in the 2nd Group root morphemes that contain the consonants f or v.
Root morphemes relating to time all have the letter j.
The letters g and k relate mostly to physical qualities, measurements, and actions.

Parallelism in Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes exhibit both vertical and horizontal parallelism in meaning as shown in some sample charts below:
aza za va vyaa yava
strong front yes true innocent
eza ze ve vyea yeva
moderate middle maybe relative fair
oza zo vo vyoa yova
weak back no false guilty
ja jwa aja kaer aker
before early past find win
je jwe eja keer eker
during on time present seek play
jo jwo oja koer oker
after late future hide lose
fia via vyia fyia iva yiva ifer
good beautiful clean proud happy free to love
fua vua vyua fyua uva yuva ufer
bad ugly dirty ashamed sad bound to hate
tab tib tub tyob tayob tayeb tyab
body trunk arm foot skin hair ovary
fab fib fub fyob fayob fayeb fyab
tree tree trunk branch root bark leaf fruit
vab vib vub vyob vayob vayeb vyab
plant stem twig root peel leaf seed

Ordered List of Root Morphemes[edit]

o zero
o- un-
a one
an- mono-
ayn- whole
e two
en- bi-
eyn- half-
i three
in- tri-
iyn- terci-
u four
un- quadri-
uyn- quarti-
-o (future tense) -a (past tense)
-a (adjective)
-ay (adverb)
-e (present tense) -i (plural) -u (hypothetical mode)
ob off ab on eb between ib away ub toward
of- must not af- may ef- need to if- love uf- hate
og- small ag- big eg- normal ig- fast ug- slow
oj future
aj past
ej present
ij beginning uj end
ok- lose ak- win ek- play ik- full uk- empty
-al gas -el food
-yel oil
-il liquid
om- cold am- hot im- wet um- dry
-am house -em place -im room
-on (issue) -an (abstract quality -en (present gerund) -in (-ism) -un (thing)
op- get off ap- get on ep- stay ip- go away up- come
-ar instrument -er (infinitive) -ir device -ur machine
os- be absent as- become es- exist is- be the result us- be the cause
ot one at I et you it he ut self
-ut one who
ov against av for ev- neutral iv- happy uv- sad
ox- be idle ax- act ex- operate ix- result ux- cause
oy but ay and ey or
oz- weak az- strong ez- moderate iz- straight uz- curved
bo- support
byo- hang
boy without
ba- lean on
bya- stand
bay with
bax- gesture
b- put
be- have
be at
bel- carry
bex- hold
byex- strike
bi from
bi- take
bix- pull
byi since
bu to
bu- give
bux- push
byu as far as
bok illness
byok pain
bak health bek treatment
byek cure
bik care buk wound
bruk- mutilate
do- be silent dal- speak
-ad (language)
d- say
del- declare
dyed- read
dr- write
drye- print
deu- voice
di- ask
did question
dil- request
dir- demand
du- suggest
dud answer
dul- insist
dur- prod
dob state dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister
dom city dam airport dem park dim pool
dop military dap air force dep army dip marine
dot society dat friend det mate dit citizen dut gentleman
daz dance dez theatre
dyez cinema
drez poetry
diz comedy duz music
fi- good
fiz honor
fu- bad
fuz shame
fyo- profane fya- holy fyi- worth fyu- waste
go less
glo few
gro insufficiently
gwo least
gyo- thin
ga more
gla very
gra too
gwa most
gya- thick
ge equal
gle quite
gre enough
gwe average
gin point gun angle
gya- fat gyo thin gyi- solid gyu- delicate
ho- which
hyo- no
hov don't
hoy! bye!
hyoy! boo!
ha the
hya- every
hav that
hay! hello!
hyay! hurrah!
he some
hye- any
hev if
hey! hey!
hyey! thanks!
hi this
hyi- same
hiy... voici...
hu- that
hyu- other
jo after
jwo late
joy then
ja before
jwa early
jay already
je during
jwe on time
jey still
ji since
jiy ago
ju until
juy hence
job time
jwob hour
jab year
jwab minute
jeb season
jweb second
jib month jub day
jod occasion jud date
jog- young jag- old
ko- hide ka- find ke- seek ki- slant ku- side
kyo- fixed kya- mobile kye- random kyi- heavy kyu- light
lo- (dis-)
mon dark
man light
mob cliff mab? meb mountain mub promontory
mof galaxy maf cloud mef brick muf pole
mog ash mag fire meg stone mug metal
muk mineral
moj night maj day
mok cosmic dust mak electricity mek dust muk mineral
mol nature mal air mel soil mil water mul matter
mom space mam sky mem land mim sea mum underground
mop orbit map wind mep road mip river mup tunnel
mor universe mar star mer planet mir world mur satellite
mos floor mas wall mes door mis window mus stairs
mov smoke mav flame mev porcelain muv rod
moz- black maz- white mez- crystal
no- spend
noz jewel
na- money
naz value
nya- stack
ne- save
nye- store
ni- consume
nyi- order
nu- supply
nyu- deliver
nod point nad line
nab row
nap order
ned plane nid volume nud column
nof textile
nov linen
nyov ribbon
nyof film
naf cloth nef web
nyev bag
nyef sack
nif thread
niv strand
nyiv lace
nyif rope
nuf leash
nyuf knob
nog grade
nok degree
nag measure
nak meter
sag number
syag count
jag age
xag frequency
neg level nig space
nik liter
nem place
-em place
nyem box
-yem enclosure
-im room
po- stop
pyo- fall
pa- move
pya- jump
p- go
pyex- attack
pi- leave
pix- catch
pu- arrive

pux- throw
pyux- bump
pop- travel pap- fly pep- drive pip- sail pup- burrow
pot animal
pyot wild beast
pat bird pet land animal pit fish
som furniture sam armoire sem table sim chair sum bed
son matter
syoz fantasy
san form
saz sculpture
s- be sin image
siz painting
sun thing
syun object
suz artifact
sar instrument
-ar instrument
sir machine
-ir machine
sur apparatus
-ur apparatus
tob human
tyob leg
-t person
tab body teb head
tyeb brain
tib trunk tub arm
tod family tad spouse ted parent tid uncle tud godfather
tof clothing taf suit tef hat tif vest tuf sleeve
toj death taj birth tej life tij- awake tuj sleep
tol nourishment
tyal meal
-al gas
tel food
-el food
-yel oil
til drink
-il liquid
tul dish
tom building tam house tem hall tim room tum cell
top soul tap physique tep mind tip psyche tup member
tos- feel tas- t- know
tes- mean
tye- recognize
tea- see
tee- hear
tei- smell
teu- taste
teud- shout
ti- learn tu- inform
tox- forget tax- remember tex- think tix- study tux- teach
toz- skin color taz- statue tez- culture
tyez- magic
tiz- tuz- art
vo no
voy not
va yes
vay indeed
ve maybe
vey possibly
vi- beautiful vu- ugly
vob plant
vol vegetable
voz color
vab grass
vaz- green
veb tuft vib stem vub twig
vyo- false vya- true vye- relative vyi- clean vyu- dirty
-w- (passive voice)
xo- xa- execute x- do
xey- behave
xeus- noise
xi- result xu- affect
yob down yab up yeb in yib far away yub near
yof- cannot yaf- can yef- should yif- dare yuf- fear
yog- short yag- long yig- hard yug- soft
yij- open yuj- close
yok- surprise yak- expect yek- try yik- difficult yuk- easy
yom ice yam fire
yon- apart yan- together -yen manner
yop- descend yap- ascend yep- enter yip- move away yup- approach
yot they yat we yet you yit they yut selves
yov- guilty yav- innocent yev- just yiv- free yuv- bound
yox- be idle yex- work yix- use yux- serve
yoz- concave yaz- convex yez- horizontal yiz beyond yuz around
zo behind za before ze middle zi right zu left
zoy back zay ahead zey across
zyo- narrow zya- wide zye through zyi- flat zyu- round

Rules for Deriving New Words[edit]

Derived words, that is, words that are built from root morphemes and other words, are formed following certain very simple rules of vocabulary-building:
These word-building rules govern:
  1. Combining whole words
  2. Affixation
  3. Scaling Words through numerically-ordered Vowels
  4. Combining partial words
  5. Word-building by adding ordinal vowels
  6. Swapping endings
  7. Scientific word-building
  8. Feminizing words
  9. Geophysical vowel codification
  10. Directional and positional vowel codification
  11. Mnemonic markers
  12. Creating nuances of meaning

Rule #1: Combining Whole Words[edit]

Compound words are formed by the combination of two or more words. When compounding, the determining word is placed very simply in front of the determined word.
  • mar star + tun sciencemartun astronomy
  • mag fire + meb mountainmagmeb volcano
  • tul meal + dren documenttuldren menu
  • nax cost + aga bignaxaga expensive
  • nax cost + oga smallnaxoga cheap
  • amar sun + yap ascentamaryap sunrise
  • amar sun + yop descentamaryop sunset
  • mam sky + par vehiclemampar airplane
  • map wind + yaf powermapyaf windpower
  • dom city + teas viewdomteas cityscape
  • tej life + tun sciencetejtun biology
  • man light + tam housemantam lighthouse
Such compounds sometimes consist of more than two agglutinated words, for example:
  • mam sky + par vehicle + tam househangar

Rule #2: Affixation[edit]

Affixes can be prefixed or suffixed to verbs, nouns, and other parts of speech.
Adverbs and prepositions can serve as prefixes, especially for forming new verbs, eg.:
go less ber put gober subtract
yeb in ber put yeber* introduce
oyeb out ber put oyeber* oust
yuz around ber put yuzber surround
ob off ber put ober* remove
ig fast xer do igxer accelerate
ug slow xer do ugxer brake
ja before xer do jaxer prepare
je during xer do jexer continue
oj future xer do ojxer plan
ab on per go aper1 get on
yeb in per go yeper* enter
oyeb out per go oyeper* exit
zay ahead per go zayper advance
zoy back per go zayper retreat
ja before per go japer precede
jo after per go joper follow
yuz around per go yuzper circulate
va yes der say vader affirm
vo no der say voder deny
fi good der say fider praise
fu bad der say fuder malign
ja before der say jader predict
ja before dren writing jadren preface
jo after dren writing jodren postscript
*Note: If the prefix is an adverb or preposition ending in b and is being affixed to the verb per go or ber put, then the b of the prefix is dropped. See the next section for this:
Prefixes Ending in b with Verbs per and ber[edit]
Prepositional prefixes ending in b lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
yab up ber put yaber raise (NOT: yabber)
yab up per go yaper rise (NOT: yabper)
ab on ber put aber put on, apply
ab on per go aper get on, mount
yob down ber put yober take down
yob down per go yoper descend
ob off ber put ober take off, remove
ob on per go oper get off, dismount
yeb in bux a push yebux impulse
yeb in pyoser fall yepyoser collapse
Prefixing with Whole or Clipped Words[edit]
The two or three first letters of a root morpheme can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
oza weak der say ozder whisper
yaga long der say yagder ramble
aja past der say ajder evoke
yoga short der say yogder summarize
tyoyab foot per go tyoyaper walk
dreer write sar tool dresar pencil
tuyob hand dren writing tuyodren manuscript
mam sky mil water mamil rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs.
Prefixing with Prefixes Per Se[edit]
o- un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendlyodata unfriendly
lo- un-, same as o but used where o is not clear gla manylogla rare
yo- un-, same as o but more intense dat friendyodat enemy
av- pro- fatin religionavfatina pro-religious
ov- anti-, counter- dropek warovdropeka anti-war
hyas- all-, pan-, omni- tea awarehyastea omniscient, all-knowing
ja- before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj birthjataja pre-natal
jo- after, post- judrer to datejojudrer post-date
yiz- beyond, meta- tapa physicalyiztapa metaphysical
ey(n)- semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate
eej- re-, again eejanxer reunite, eejder repeat, eejvader reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad[edit]
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yo(b)per < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye(b)bixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yebber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder
penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo eejxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
Mirad has semantic suffixes, grammatical suffixes, and part-of-speech-changing suffixes
  • Semantic Suffixes
Semantic suffixes are generally formed from the two last letters of a root morpheme. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
mil water -il liquid teabil tear < teab eye
    teubil saliva < teub mouth
    tayebil sweat < tayeb skin
    mamil rain < mam sky
tam house -am house apatam chicken coop < apat chicken
    apelatam beehive < apelat bee
    melyexam farmhouse < melyex agriculture
    datibam hostel < datib guest-reception
nem place -em place vobyexem plantation, farm < vob plant + yex work
    vabem field < vab grass
    abem top, surface < ab above, upper
    obem bottom < ob below
nof cloth -of material tof clothes < t- human
    misof curtain < mis window
    faof wood < fa(b)- tree
    tayof leather < tayo(b) skin
sar tool -ar instrument par vehicle < p- motion
    zyupar rotor < zyup turn
    gorbar knife < gorb cut
    syaagar computer < syaag computation
sun thing -un thing dun word < d- utter, say
    gorfun piece, scrap < gorfer rip, shread, tear
    zyiun plaque, plate < zyia flat
    vyun spot < vyua dirty
tin doctrine -in -ism totin theism, religion < tot- god
    Kristin Christianity < Krist Christ
    vyisatin puritanism < vysiat puritan, clean person
    otofin nudism < otofa nude
fuf pipe -uf cylinder object manuf candle < man light
    tiibuf artery < tiib heart
    miluf toilet < mil water
    movuf cheminee < mov smoke
yel oil -yel oil, gel, wax, pulp kafyel olive oil < kaf olive
    apelatyel wax < apelat bee
    levyel jam, jelly, confiture < leve sugar, sweet
    bekyel salve < bek care, treatment
    megyel cement < meg stone
    yanyel paste < yan together
  • Grammatical Suffixes
Mirad has only a few grammatical or derivational (non-inflexional*) suffixes:
-er (verb infinitive) sag- cipher sager to count
nab ranknaber to rank
yex work yexer to work
-n (deverbal or deadjectival noun) yexe works yexen working
via beautiful vian beauty
yuba near yuban proximity, nearness
-a (adjective) yib- far away yiba remote
mor universe mora universal
ake wins akea winning
-y (deadjectival adverb) iga- quick igay quickly
yiba remoteyibay remotely
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
  • Augmentative Suffixes
-ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
-og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack
  • Suffixes Forming Nuanced Adjectives
-aya full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekaya dusty
-oya empty of, -less, -free vyun spot vyunoya spotless
-ika full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekika dusty
-uka empty of, -less, -free miek dust miekuka dust-free
-ea (present active particple) doing X, -ing, -ant, -ent ilp flow ilpea flowing, fluent
-yea given to doing X, -ive vyod lie vyodyea mendacious, given to lying
-wea (present passive participle) being Xed vyixer to clean vyixwea being cleaned
-yena like, -ly, -ic tat angel tatyena angelic
-(a)wa (past passive participle) Xed oter to ignore otwa or otawa unknown
-uwa (potential passive participle) -able, liable to be Xed teater to see teatuwa visible
  • Other Suffixes
-an abstract quality, -ness, -hood, -ity iva happy ivan happiness
    via beautiful vian beauty
    ama hot aman heat
-at person who has the quality of yova guilty yovat guilty party
    oga little ogat little person
-ut agent, practitioner, one who does X, -er, -ant, -ent yuxer to help yuxut helper, assistant
    vyoder lie vyodut liar
-eat one who does X vyixeat cleaning person
-(a)wat one who has been Xed tujber to kill tujbwat or tujbawat murder victim
-(a)was what is/was Xed ter to know twas or tawas what is known, fact
-et a person a level down ted father tedet son
    tid uncle tidet cousin
    tad spouse tadet brother
-es item of lesser importance nas money nases change, coin
-ob child of, offspring tob man tobob infant
    apet horse apetob foal
-un < sun concrete thing viber decorate vibun ornament
-on < son abstract thing kyiser weight down kyison problem
    ifer to love ifon love
-tun science, ...ology tej life tejtun biology
    tob man tobtun anthropology
-in < tin doctrine, -ism tot god totin theism, religion
    dot society dotin socialism
-yan collection, aggregate fab tree fabyan forest
    mar star maryan constellation
-ar < sar instrument, tool, device per go par vehicle
    teab eye teabar eyeglasses
-ur < sur machine yalb lift yalbur elevator
Many of the above suffixes and prefixes can be combined as in the following example:
  • ov- against, anti- + dot society + -in ism + -at person having the quality of + -yena like, -ish ovdotinatyena anti-socialistic

Rule #3: Scaling Words through Numerically-ordered Vowels[edit]

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to root morphemes of the 1st group. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the root morpheme stem as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
  • First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m
tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant som furniture
tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree sam armoire
teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop sem table
tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk sim chair
tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum wing dub ministry fub branch sum bed
tyob leg jyob* hour fyob root
    jyab* minute
    jyeb* second
* Easier to pronounce as jwob, jwab, and jweb.
  • Second-level Ordinal Scaling
A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b
mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg
miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip
miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh
miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee
miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin
miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle
tuyab hand tyoyab foot
tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel
tuyib palm tyoyib sole
tuyub finger tyoyub toe
tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
  • Third-level Ordinal Scaling
A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
tuyub finger
atuyub thumb
etuyub index
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = man
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub thumb
  • Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
...dob ...pet ...mer
dob state pet animal mer planet
adob empire apet horse Amer Mercury
edob kingdom epet bull Emer Venus
idob principality ipet ass Imer Earth
udob duchy upet ram Umer Mars
yodob marquisate yopet goat Yomer Jupiter'
yadob county yapet pig Yamer Saturn
yedob dominion yepet dog Yemer Pluto

Rule #4: Portmanteau Compouding[edit]

When forming a compound word, the generic consonant (the last one) of the determinant (first word) is the same as the classifier consonant (first) of the determined (2nd word), the generic consonant is suppressed so as to avoid two of the same consonants in a row. This is also called portmanteau compounding.
  • dom city + mep waydomep boulevard
  • pat bird + teub mouthpateub beak
  • pat bird + tub armpatub wing
  • teb head + bok illnesstebok headache
When forming a compound word, the principal word has one or two prefixed vowels, this vowel or these vowels come at the beginning of the compound word.


  • tuyub fingeratuyub thumbiatuyub right thumb
Codifying the Negative and Opposite Senses[edit]
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 1st group, the negative sense or opposite sense is obtained by adding the prefixes o and yo, the latter being more intense.
  • mola naturalomola unnatural, artificial
  • tobyena humaneotobyena inhumane
  • data friendlyyodata inimical
  • poos peaceyopoos turmoil
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 2nd group, the opposite sense is obtained by prefixing lo dis-, un-, de- if followed by a consonant, or ol if followed by a vowel, eg.:
  • fwa wantedlofwa unwanted
  • yuvxer to tie uployuvxer to untie
  • axaxer to activateolaxaxer to deactivate
  • afwa allowableolafwa disallowed

Rule #5: Codification by the Addition of Ordinal Vowels[edit]

a) When you wish to form a compound word with words from a same family of vowels, if the ordinal vowel is an o, you replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
a d o b republic
  d e b leader
a d e b president
i d o b kingdom
  d e b leader
i d e b king
b) If, on the other hand, the two words are already subordinate, then the vowel of the determinant is placed between the ordinal vowel of the determined and the generic consonant.
  • mil watermal airmial steam, vapor
  • mel soilmil watermeil mud
  • tul mealtil drinktuil soup
c) You can also form new compound words by applying the Rule # 6 above (a and b).
  • adob republicdab governmentadab government of the republic
  • adab government of the republicdeb leaderadaeb president of the republic
  • (Applying Rule #8 on feminizing words by post-iotation) ⇒ adaeyb Madam President of the Republic

Rule #6: Swapping Endings[edit]

When the generic consonant of a core word is replaced by that of another core word, all of the vowels of this latter word undergo the transformation required by the new generic consonant.


tob man tof clothes tov lingerie
tab body taf suit tav robe
teb head tef hat tev scarf
teab eye teaf blinder teav eye patch
teeb ear teef ear phone teev ear muff
teib nose teif noseguard teiv handkerchief
teub mouth teuf muzzle teuv mask
teyob neck teyof necktie teyov collar
tib trunk tif waistcoat tiv sweater
tiab chest tiaf vest tiav shirt
tyob leg tyof pants tyov underwear
tyoyab foot tyoyaf shoe tyoyav sock
tyoyib knee tyoyif knee pad tyoyiv knee sock
tyoyob ankle tyoyof ankle bracelet tyoyov ankle sock
tuyob wrist tuyof cuff tuyov wristband
tuyab hand tuyaf glove tuyav mitten

Rule #7: Scientific Vocabulary-building[edit]

Chemical Elements[edit]
The names of chemical elements are formed from a number representing the element's atomic number (number of electrons), followed by a letter combination indicating whether it is a metal or metalloid, and followed, if pertinent, by a combination of letters indicating whether it is a gas or liquid. The table that follows shows how this composition works:
silver 47 = ulye ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali alim
iron 46 = elya elyam
gold 79 = yelyum yelyum
copper 29 = elyu elyum
tin 50 = yolo yolom
phosophorus 15 = alyo alyoms
carbon 6 = ya yams
    GAS = al LIQUID = il
hydrogen 1 = a amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi yimsal
mercury 80 = yilo yilomsil
The words amsal, yemsal, and yimsal each carry three pieces of information.
The first letter indicates their classification by number of electrons.
The two following letters: mc indicates metalloids; The two last letters: al indicates that they are a gas.
The word yilomil also carries three pieces of information:
The three first letters: yi-l-o show classification by number of electrons.
The fourth letter, m, indicates that it's a metal.
The two last letters, il, indicates that it's a liquid.
Other Non-elemental Substances[edit]
Non-elemental natural and man-made substances and alloys are formed using mnemonic components.
  • steel = elyamyig < elyam iron + yig(a) hard
  • plastic = sanyel < san- shape + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • rubber = yugyel < yug- soft + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • glass = zyev < zy(e) (see) through + (m)ev porcelain
  • bronze = elyumyig < elyum copper + yig(a) hard
  • paint = vozil < voz color + -il liquid
  • ink = dril < dr(er) write + -il liquid
  • coal = yamsun < yams carbon + -un substance
  • glue = yanil < yan together + -il liquid
  • paste = yanyel < yan together + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • resin = defabyel < defab pine tree + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • wood = faof < fa(b) tree + (n)of material, tissue
  • leather = tayof < tayo(b) skin + (n)of material, tissue
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • concrete = megyelyig < meg stone + -yel viscous matter + yig hard
  • tar = movgyin < mov smoke + gyin solid
  • lava = magmebil < mag fire + meb mountain + -il liquid
  • fuel = magil < mag fire + -il liquid
  • shampoo = tayel < taye(b) hair + -(y)el oil, wax, gel, gum
  • detergent = vyunobil < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -il liquid
  • soap = vyil < vyi(a) clean + -(i)l liquid
  • cheese = bilyig < bil milk + yig(a) hard
  • butter = bilyug < bil milk + yug(a) soft
  • syrup = gyalevil < gya extremely + lev(el) sugar, sweet + -il liquid
  • gravy = taobil < taob flesh, meat + -il liquid
  • alcohol = fil < (levaf) ferment + -il liquid
  • wax = apelatyel < apelat bee + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • honey = apelatil < apelat bee + -il liquid
  • brick = mef < m(el) earthen + (no)f hard material
  • porcelain = mev < m(el) earthen + (no)v soft material
  • gem = mez < m(el) earthen + (no)z value, precious
Atomic and Subatomic Particles[edit]
From the word mul matter, substance, stuff, we get the following derivatives:
  • mul matter, substance, stuff
  • mula material, substantial, physical
  • omula immaterial, unsubstantial, non-physical
  • ovmul anti-matter
  • omul nothingness, void, nihil
  • omulxer anihilate
  • moza mul black matter
  • multun physics
  • multuna physics-related
  • multut physics scientist
  • mulog particle
  • muloga particulate
  • mulogxer crush, crumble, pulverize
  • vamulog proton
  • omulog neutron
  • vomulog electron
  • vomuloga electronic
  • vomulp electricity
  • vomulpa electric, electrical
  • vomulpaxer electrify
  • mules element
  • mulesa elemental
  • mulesyan compound
  • yanmul mix, mixture, chemical
  • yanmula chemical
  • yanmultun chemistry
  • yanmultuna chemical
  • yanmultut chemist
  • gwomul atom
  • gwomula atomic
  • obgwomula subatomic
  • zemul nucleus
  • zemula nuclear

Rule #8: The Feminization of Words[edit]

To form the feminine of a word or to indicate that an object or thing belongs to females, post-iotate (append a y) to the ordinal vowel of the word.
tob man toyb woman
tad spouse, husband tayd wife
tadet brother taydet sister
ted father teyd mother
tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt
tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
apet horse apeyt mare
epet bull epeyt cow
tiav shirt tiayv blouse
tyof pants tyoyf skirt
tulyuxut waiter tulyuxuyt waitress
Note that personal pronouns can be feminized as well. The unfeminized form is either masculine or neutral with respect to gender.
at I / me ayt we / us women
et you eyt you gals
it he / him iyt she / her
yat we / us yayt we females / us women
yet you guys yeyt you gals
yit they / them yiyt they / them (f.)
This process works for the possessive adjective derivatives of these pronouns:
  • iyta her
  • yeyta you gals'
The animate demonstrative pronouns (animate deictic determiners) can also be feminized:
  • huyt that female person, she, her
  • huyti these females, they, them

The generic pronouns ot one, yot they (generic) and (y)ut are not normally feminized.

Rule #9: Geophysical Vowel Coding[edit]

Geophysical vowel coding, as it's name indicates, occurs on vowels by giving them a particular geophysical meaning.
  • a = air, gas, skyward
  • e = soil, ground
  • i = water, liquid, juice, etc.
  • u = concrete thing, material, mineral, underground
  • o = abstract thing, initial item, outer space
This codification occurs on the ordinal vowel of 1st Group core words only.
m...m m...p d...p p...t m...l p...p
mom outer space mop galaxy dop military pot animal mol nature pop travel
mam sky map wind dap air force pat bird mal air pap flight
mem land mep way dep army pet (land) animal mel soil pep ride
mim sea mip river dip navy pit fish mil water pip sea voyage
mum underground mup tunnel dup submarine force mul mineral pup tunneling
Vowel coding also allows for arriving at other combined-concept word categories by placing a vowel having the value ascribed to it by Rule # 9 just a before the generic consonant of the initial word. (See Rule #5)
pait aquatic bird pat bird + liquid / sea
piat flying fish pit fish + skyward / air
diap naval aviation dip navy + skyward / air
meil mud mel soil + liquid / sea

Rule #10: Directional and Positional Vowel Coding[edit]

Directional and positional vowel coding works along lines of the charts below. Those vowels preceded by a y (iotated vowels) are, for this analysis, considered to be vowels pure and simple. Those vowels that are capitalized are positional in nature and serve as prefixes to 1st group words. Those vowels that are italicized are directional as prefixes to 2nd group words. The vowels that are underlined are directional in nature and are infixed just after the classifying consonant of 2nd group words, mostly verbs.
A a a ya ya
U u u yu u E e e ye ye I i i yi yi
O o o yo yo
A positional 1st group prefix above, north zamer north
a directional 2nd group prefix on, onto aber put on, ab on
a directional 2nd group infix on, onto baer lean on
ya directional 2nd group prefix up yaber lift up, yab up
ya directional 2nd group infix upward pyaser jump up
O positional 1st group prefix under, south zomer south
o directional 2nd group prefix off, under, below ober take off, ob off
o directional 2nd group infix from below, downward boer support
yo directional 2nd group prefix down yober lower, yob down
yo directional 2nd group infix down with contact pyoser fall down
U positional 1st group prefix left, west zumer west, utuyab left hand
u directional 2nd group prefix toward uper come, ub toward
u directional 2nd group infix to, toward with contact puer arrive, bu to
yu directional 2nd group prefix near yuber bring, yub near
yu directional 2nd group infix up to, as far as byuer touch, byu up to, as far as
I positional 1st group prefix right, east zimer east, ituyab right hand
i directional 2nd group prefix away iper go away, ib away from
i directional 2nd group infix away with contact pier depart, bi to
yi directional 2nd group prefix far away, far from yiper go far away, yib far
yi directional 2nd group infix since, starting from byier originate, byi since
E positional 1st group prefix center, middle equator zemer equator, eb between
e directional 2nd group prefix staying in the middle, between eper stay
e directional 2nd group infix stopped in the middle, at beer hold, be at
ye directional 2nd group prefix inside yeber contain, yeb in
ye directional 2nd group infix inside byeer keep
Examples of verbs undergoing the rules of directional coding:
With ber put (transitive):
aber put on eber hold ober take off iber receive uber send
yaber raise yeber contain yober lower yiber put away yuber bring
baer lean on beer have boer hold up bier take buer give
byaer lift byeer keep byoer hang byier obtain byuer reach for
With per go (intransitive):
aper get on eper stay oper get off iper go away uper come
yaper rise yeper enter yoper descend yiper put away yuper bring
paer stand peer wait poer fall pier depart puer arrive
pyaer get up pyeer stick around pyoer get down pyier originate pyuer reach

Rule #11: Codifying Mnemonic Markers[edit]

By changing the classifying or generic consonant of a derived word, a new, but related meaning can be obtained. Also, the classifying consonant can be replaced with an entire or partial word. The relationship among the altered word forms is therefore mnemonic. Here are some examples:
teub mouth teud cry     (d = communicate, utter, social)
teuz voice     (z = precious, art, etc.)
deuz song     (d = communicate, utter, social)
tayab fat fayab vegetable fat     (f = vegetable)
mayab mineral fat     (m = nature, mineral)
tub arm fub branch     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vub twig     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
dub minister     (d = communicate, utter, social)
xub department     (x = do, work)
patub wing     (pat = bird)
pitub fin     (pit = fish)
tayob skin fayob bark     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vayob peel     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
piyetayob shell     (piyet = mollusk)
pitayob scale     (pit = fish)
epeytayob cowhide     (epeyt = cow)
tayeb hair fayeb leaf     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
pitayeb scale     (pit = fish)
potayeb fur     (pot = animal)
patayeb feather     (pat = bird)
vosayeb petal     (vos = flower)
mayeb foil     (m = nature, mineral)
gorbayeb blade     (gorb = cut)
taob flesh, meat faob wood     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vaob hay     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
epeytaob beef     (epeyt = cow)
kovaob thatch     (ko = cover + v = plant)
fyaob pulp     (fy(ab) = fruit )
faof board, plank     (f = vegetable, tree, etc. )
teater see teaxer look     (x = do, teab = eye)
teaper visit     (p = go)
teaser seem     (s = be)
teader testify     (d = communicate, utter, social)
izeader indicate     (iz = direct )
izteaxer aim     (x = do)
beaxer watch     (b(eer) = keep)
abeaxer survey     (ab = over)
yoneater discern     (yon = apart, t = know )
vyaleaxer check     (vyal = accurate )
yageaxer stare     (yag = long )
Suppressing Syllables for Brevity[edit]
Sometimes, syllables of longish words can be omitted for brevity as long as no confusion of meaning results. Here are some examples:
  • vafil wine < vafyabil (vafyab grape + -il liquid)
  • bil milk < tilabil (tilab breast + -il liquid)
  • ateuder neigh < apeteuder (apet horse + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • iteuder bray < ipeteuder (ipet donkey + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • bilyig cheese < tilabilyig (tilab breast + -il liquid + yig(a) hard)

Rule #12: Creating Nuances of Meaning[edit]

Words following Rule #12 are those that relate to one another through similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances indicated by phonetic devices that activate these nuances.
These nuances are obtained by:
a) Adding a sub-ordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
valay surely vaalay assuredly
nad line naad rail
dab government daab administration
dob state doob nation
tam house taam home
vyab rule vyaab regime, system
job time joob era, time period
b) Post-iotating ordinal vowels and subordinal vowels. Often, the meaning of the word with the post-iotated vowel is a mitigated nuance of the word without the iotated vowel:
nad line nayd ray
vua ugly vuya plain
ifer love iyfer like
iva happy iyva content
tam house taym cottage
ab on ayb over
ob off oyb under
en- two- eyn- half-
ud that uyd such
ama hot ayma warm
c) Adding the sense-augmenting consonants l and r, the latter being the stronger.
iva happy ivla glad ivra delighted
via beautiful vila magnificent vira marvelous
yifa brave yilfa courageous yirfa heroic
fua bad fula awful fura horrendous
alo hundred aro thousand amso million
yufxer intimidate yulfxer frighten yurfxer terrorize
aga big agla huge agra tremendous
Note: Sometimes the l or r nuance-enhancing consonants come after the generic consonant.
d) Adding consonants other than l and r as generic consonants. Sometimes, more than one nuance-altering consonant is added in the same word:
vala = sure
valta = safe

fua = bad
futa = evil [t usually refers to people or animals]

vyaa = true
vyala = authentic
vyafa = precise
vyama = real [m usually refers to nature, minerals, etc.]
vyava = exact [v usually refers to veracity]
vyalva = right
vyaba = regular [b usually refers to an organization or organism]
vyada = frank [d usually refers to communicating, talking, writing, etc.]
vyata = reliable
vyasma = concrete

Forming Adjectives[edit]

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
taam home taama domestic
doob nation dooba national
tej life teja vital
tyoyapyaf ability to walk tyoyapyafa ambulatory
martun astronomy martuna astronomical
at I, me ata my
etut yourself etuta your own
hiyen this kind hiyen this kind of
hot? who? hota? whose?
ifeken recreation ifekena recreational
teje (he) lives tejea living
tojo will die tojoa moribund, about to die
tojbu would kill tojbua lethal
twe is known twa known

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
voz color vozaya colorful
futax resentment futaxaya resentful
tiibil blood tiibilaya bloody
yilf courage yilfaya courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
voz color vozoya colorless, pale
tajyaf talent tajyafoya untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya)
map wind mapika windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya)
nas money nasuka broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of
tobob child tobobyena childish, infantile
tot god totyena divine, godly
pit fish pityena fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t- know twa or tawa known
dal- speak dalwa or dalawa spoken, oral
nisbu- sell nisbuwa sold
-ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot- not know otea ignorant
tej- live tejea living, alive
tuj- die tujea dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb- kill tujbyea murderous
tex- think texyea pensive, thoughtful
tox- forget toxyea forgetful
ax- act axyea active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex- operate exuwa operable
tos feel tosuwa palpable
tex- think texuwa conceivable
tel- eat teluwa edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafa sightful, able to see
dyed- read dyedyafa literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafwa visible
tax- remember taxyafwa memorable
teet- hear teetyafwa audible
tel- eat telyafwa edible
-yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofa blind
tyoyap- walk tyoyapyofa lame
teet- hear teetyofa deaf
dal- speak dalyofa dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofwa invisible
teet- hear teetyofa inaudible
tox- forget toxyofa unforgetable
dal- speak dalyofa unspeakable
-ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
pot animal potifa pet-friendly
hyitoob- same-gender hyitoobifa homophile
tobot child tobotifa pedophile
fitel food fitelifa gourmand
doob nation doobifa patriotic
-ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
tob human tobufa misanthropic
hyut- other person hyutufa xenophobic
toyb- woman toybufa misogynist

Negating Adjectives[edit]

The sense of an adjective can be negated with the prefix o or the more intensive yo.
  • vlea probable ovlea improbable
  • vyafa perfect ovyafa imperfect
  • twa known otwa unknown
  • bosa calm yobosa worried

Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes[edit]

As in English, the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin. Here are the most common:
un-, a(n)-, in-, non- o- obaka unhealthy, oyezyebeya incontinent, oyelpea non-invasive, ototina atheist
anti-, counter- ov- ovzuina anti-leftist, oviztida counter-intuitive
pseudo- kovyo- kovyotepina pseudo-intellectual
all-, pan-, omni- hyas- yadtea all-knowing, omniscient
re- yeg- yegtajbwa re-born
mis- vyo- vyoseudwa mispronounced
semi-, half- eyn- eynlevelaya semi-sweet, eyntija half-awake
ultra-, super- yiz-, gwa- gwadoobina ultra-nationalist, yizmola supernatural
under-, hypo- gro- grojaga under-aged
over-, hyper-, uber- gra- graagxwa overgrown, gratoseya hypersensitive
miso- [see suffixes]
multi-, many-, poly- gla- glakuma multilateral, glatadaya polygamous
mal-, ill- fu- futeyenxwa ill-conceived, fusanxwa malformed
well- fi- fitofabwa well-dressed
quasi- yuyb- yuybdaba quasi-governmental
pre-, (a)fore-, pro- ja- jateyenxwa pre-conceived, jaigdawa aformentioned
post- jo- jodropeka post-war

English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison[edit]

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
-ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya colorful, tuzika skillful
-ous full of -aya, -ika nazika precious, milaya aqueous
-filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoke-filled
-y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoky,
-ous of, like -a totina religious, vyosa erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena godly, toybyena womanly
-like like -yena patyena bird-like
-ish like -yena tobobyena childish
-y like -yena fyabyena fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena artistic, silyena acidic
-ic of, related to -a tuna scientific, , beka therapeutic
-ical of, related to -a zyunida spherical, iztexa logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina militarist(ic), nasyanina capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa xenophonic, tobyanufa misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobobifa pedophilic, tobifa philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena bestial
-al of, pertaining to -a teja vital, amana thermal
-less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka lifeless, toboboya childless
-free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka ice-free, vyosoya, error-free

Forming Adverbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-iotating the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
fia good fiay well
vyaa true vyaay truly
gyua easy gyuay easily
iga quick igay quickly
auta personal autay personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of deadjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig. He walks fast.
  • Yit xa ad fi. They did it well.

Special Adverbs[edit]

Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
Here are the principal such adverbs:
vay.... indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va.... yes)
vey.... possibly, may, might (cf. ve.... maybe)
voy.... not (cf. vo.... no)
ga.... more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gay.... also, moreover, further, still
ge.... as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gey.... even
go.... less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
goy.... no longer, no more
gla.... very
glay.... quite, rather, so
gle.... so
glo.... not very, not so
gra.... too
gre.... enough, sufficiently, over-
gro.... not...enough, inadequately, under-
gwa.... most, super-
gwe.... average
gwo.... least, sub-
The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa..... Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa..... Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yurxut..... I am not your slave.
The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
  • Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
  • Et peya gra ig.'.... You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
  • It gra dale.'.... He talks [=VERB] too much.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
yab up Ad pat papa yab bu ha mam. The bird flew up to the sky.
yob down Teaxu yob bu ha mel. Look down to the ground.
yub near Pesu yub bi ha mas. Stay near the wall.
yib far Ad tobi igpia yib bi ha yovbyokam. The men fled far from the prison.
ib away Teaxu ib, diwe. Look away, please.
ub this way Tyoyapu ub. Walk toward this way.
yeb in, inward, inside Kyedu hot ogja tyoyapa yeb! Guess who just walked in!
oyeb out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye ha zama mes. He walked out through the front door.
yuz around Yit daza yuz bi yat. They danced around us.
yiz beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz bi hia titam av yux. You must look beyond this school for help.
iz....directly, straight Pu iz bu hat. Go right up to him.
zi....right Uzpu zi! Turn right!
zu....left Hat uzpa zu. He turned left.


There are also adverbial expressions that are agglutinated with deictic and quantitative morphemes to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-verbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Determiners in Deictic Pro-adverbs.

Forming Verbs[edit]

Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.

Forming Verbs from Nouns[edit]

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
syag count syager to count
tof clothes tofer to dress
tam house tamer to dwell, live, reside
dyun name dyuner to name, call
teud cry, shout teuder to cry, shout, exclaim
taj birth tajer to be born
tej life tejer to live
toj house tojer to die
ej present ejer to continue
ij beginning ijer to begin
uj end ijer to end
yuj sleep tujer to sleep

Verb Formants[edit]

Sometimes an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser to be usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefitting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefitting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • -ter to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see_
yav innocence der to say yavder to acquit
yov shame, guilt aber to apply, put on yovaber to shame, accuse
yov shame, guilt ober to remove, take off yovober to excuse, exculpate
tof clothes aber to apply, put on tofaber to dress, don
tof clothes ober to remove, take off tofober to undress, strip
det associate ser to be, become detser to associate
dat friend xer to do, make datxer to befriend
san form ser to be, become sanser to form (intransitive)
san form xer to do, make sanxer to form (transitive)
tel food (b)ier to take telier to eat, consume
tel food (b)uer to give teluer to feed, nourish
if pleasure (b)ier to take ifier to enjoy
if pleasure (b)uer to give ifuer to please
taj birth (b)uer to give tajuer to give birth
tej life (b)ier to take tejier to come alive
tej life (b)uer to give tejuer to bring to life
toj death (b)ier to take tojier to drop dead
toj death (b)uer to give tojuer to kill
tij wakefulness (b)ier to take tijier to wake up
tij wakefulness (b)uer to give tijuer to awaken
tuj sleep (b)ier to take tujier to fall asleep
tuj sleep (b)uer to give tujuer to put to sleep
tax memory (b)ier to take taxier to recall
tax memory (b)uer to give taxuer to remind
yev justice der to say, tell yevder to judge
vyan truth der to say, tell vyander to tell the truth
vyon falsehood der to say, tell vyonder to tell a lie
il liquid aker to gain ilaker to take on liquid
il liquid oker to lose iloker to leak, lose liquid
il liquid (b)ier to take ilier to soak up
il liquid (b)uer to give iluer to pour, water
il liquid ikser to get full ilikser to be soaked (intransitive)
il liquid ikxer to fill up ilikxer to flood, soak (transitive)
il liquid ukser to become empty ilukser to drain (intransitive)
il liquid ukxer to empty ilukxer to flush (transitive)
il liquid ser to be, become ilser to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il liquid xer to do, make ilxer to liquify, melt (transitive)
il liquid aber to apply, put on ilaber to wash (transitive)
il liquid aper to get on ilaper to float (intransitive)
il liquid per to go ilper to flow (intransitive)
il liquid zyaber to spread ilzyaber to spray, shower (transitive)
il liquid zyober to squeeze ilzyober to squirt (transitive)
il liquid pyexer to strike ilpyexer to splash (with liquid)
il liquid yujer to close ilyujer to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser[edit]

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
aza strong azaxer fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser get strong
oza week ozaxer weaken ozaser grow weaker
kyia heavy kyiaxer weigh down kyiaser grow heavy
kyua light kyuaxer lighten, make lighter kyiaser get lighter
yana together yanaxer bring together yanaser get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
aga big agaxer magnify agaser get big
agxer grow agxer grow up, mature
iga fast igaxer accelerate igaser speed up
igxer rush igser hurry up
baka healthy bakaxer make healthy bakaser get healthy
bakxer heal bakser heal
sana formal sanaxer formalize sanaser become formal
sanxer form, shape sanser form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per[edit]

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
ab on aber apply, put on aper mount, get on
eb between eber block eper intervene
ob off ober remove, take off oper dismount, get off
ib away iber receive iper leave
ub toward uber send uper come
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yeb in
oyeb out
yeber insert
oyebertake out
yeper enter
oyeper exit
yob down yober lower yoper descend
yib far yiber take away yiper move away
yub near yuber bring yuper approach
zay forward zayber advance zayper advance, go forward
zey across zeyber take across, transfer zeyper cross, go over, transit
zoy back zoyber set back, return zoyper retreat, go back, return
iz straight izber guide izper aim for
uz crooked uzber divert uzper turn, diverge
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper pass by
yuz around yuzber take around yuzper go around
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
ber put
beer have
byeer keep
per go
baer lean on baler press
yanbaler compress
yobaler depress, suppress
yuzbaler hug
zoybaler repress
barer crush
baser gesticulate baxer make a gesture
abaxer caress, pat
paser move paxer move
byaser stand up byaxer set up, erect pyaser jump up pyaxer shoot, launch
balser budge balxer rouse
abalxer massage
palser get excited palxer excite
apalxer sweep
barser shake balxer shake
abarxer rub
aparxer brush
beser stay bexer hold
zoybexer restrain
yobexer detain, hold down
peser wait pexer trap
byeser behave byexer hit pyeser run into, bump into pyexer strike, knock
yonpyexer break
yopyexer knock down
yanpyexer fight
apyexer attack
ovpyexer offend
kunpyexer sideswipe
tuyapyexer slap
balser adhere balxer retain pelxer pound, beat
apelxer assault
yonpelxer shatter, burst
yanperser implode
yonperser explode
perxer blast, bomb
boser calm down
boyser rest
boxer quieten, quell poser stop
poyser pause
poxer stop
byoser hang byoxer hang pyoser fall
yonpyoser decay
pyoxer drop, throw down
yopyoxer topple
biser originate bixer pull
yanbixer contract
yonbixer distract
yubixer attract
yibixer distract
oyebixer extract
yebixer push in
pixer catch
bilser spring bilxer yank pilxer snag, capture
yipilxer abduct
buser be destined buxer push, drive
zyobuxer squeeze
yebuxer expel
abuxer impose
apuser assault puxer throw, thrust
byuser bump into byuxer touch
yanbyuxer contact
pyuser run into pyuxer crash
bulser swoop bulxer shove pulser lunge, pounce pulxer thrust
zyapulxer splatter
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
baxer gesture, make a bodily motion
ab on abaxer caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz straight izbaxer point
teb head tebaxer nod
va yes vatebaxer nod yes
vo no votebaxer nod no
ve maybe vetebaxer shrug
tuyab hand tuyabaxer wave
tub arm tubaxer flail, swing
teubab tongue teubabaxer lick
teab eye teubaxer wink
patub wing patubaxer flap
tiyub tail tiyubaxer wag
baser gesticulate
ig- fast igbaser jerk
zay forward igzaybaser lurch
zoy back zoybaser recoil
yob down yobaser bow, bend down
ku- side kubaser slide
ig- fast igkubaser slip
iz straight + uz curved izuzbaser sway, swagger, swish
zi right + zu left zizubaser wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative Verbs[edit]

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by affixing the syllable eg to the verb stem. Here are some examples:
paser move paseger shake, shudder
pyaser jump pyaseger bounce
paper fly papeger flutter, flit
braser shake braseger shudder, quivver, vibrate
teupixer bite teupixeger nibble
ilzyaber spray ilzyabeger sprinkle

Forming Verbs and Other Words with Alternating Component Expressions[edit]

Expressions with alternating components like back-and-forth, up-and-down, etc. are formed in a peculiar, hybrid way. The following table shows this formation and how such words can be used, especially as prefixes on verbs:
yab up + yob down yao(b)- up-and-down yaoper fluctuate, yaopuser bounce
zay forth + zoy back zayo(b)- back-and-forth zayobaser swing
za front/north + zo back/south zao(b)- front-back/north-to-south zaonada vertical, zaobaser rock
bu to + bi from bui- to-and-from buipar shuttle, buipop round-trip
ab on + ob off ao(b)- on-and-off aoper get on and off
yuj- closed + yij- open yuij- open-and-shut yuijbar switch, igyuijer blink
uj- stop + ij- start uij- stop-and-start uijparpan stop-and-go traffic
yeb in + oyeb out yeo(b)- in-and-out igyeoper run in-and-out
yub near + yib far yui(b)- near-and-far yuipoper travel near-and-far
ub toward + ib away ui(b)- toward-and-away uipen coming and going
hum there + him here huim here-and-there huimkexer search high-and-low (here-and-there)
hus that + his this huis this-and-that huisyexer do odd jobs, work at this-or-that
hyut other person + hyit same person hyuit one another hyuitifer love one another, hyuita mutual, reciprocal

Word Families[edit]

The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub mouth:
ceux sound
xeus noise
xeuz tune
teuz voice
deuz song
seuz tone
deus accent
Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
teb head deb leader xeb boss feb treetop
tub limb dub minister xub subsidiary fub branch vub twig patub wing petub paw pitub fin
teub mouth pateub beak peteub muzzle
tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale fayeb leaf vosayeb petal potayeb mane
tayob skin tayof leather petayob hide fayob bark vayob peel
tyob leg fyob root vyob plant root
tib trunk fib tree trunk vib stem
tulob nail petulob claw fulob thorn defulob needle mulob pin, prick
tiibuf artery fuf pipe muf stick, rod movuf cheminee fauf log manuf candle
til drink teabil tear teubil saliva dril ink mil water mamil rain tayobil sweat bil milk

The xer (Do) Family[edit]

The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this core word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).

Core Words[edit]

This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
axer act exer function oxer abstain ixer effect uxer cause
alxer activate elxer operate olxer fail ilxer react ulxer influence
arxer perform
xaer execute xeer exercise xoer undergo, submit xier result xuer affect
xeyer behave
xaler accomplish xeler practice xoler fail xiler undertake xuler achieve
yexer work yoxer be idle yixer use, hire yuxer help, serve
yerxer struggle yorxer resign yirxer exploit yurxer slave

Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes[edit]

Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
ana single xer make anaxer unify
an- one- xer make anxer unite
yana together 'exer operate yanexer cooperate
yan- together yexer work yanyexer collaborate
yon- apart xer make yonxer split
ge- equal xer make gexer copy
ja before xer make jaxer prepare
je while xer do jexer continue
ig- fast xer do igxer rush
ug- slow xer do ugxer delay
oj future xer do ojxer plan
yeg- re- xer do yegxer redo
sa(n) shape xer make saxer create
se(n) being xer make sexer build
lo- un- sexer build losexer destroy
mel soil yexer work melyexer plough
tea(b) eye xer do teaxer look
o- un- yirxer hire oyirxer fire
mag fire xer cause magxer burn
yuf fear xer cause yufxer frighten
dofun crime xer do dofunxer commit a crime
gra too much xer do graxer exaggerate
yeg- re- axer act yegaxer react
fu- bad xeyer behave fuxeyer misbehave

Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

Hundreds of verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
aga big agaxer magnify
goa lesser goaxer diminish
fia good fiaxer improve
jwoa late jwoaxer retard
uva sad uvaxer sadden
via beautiful viaxer beautify
ebdooba international ebdoobaxer internationalize
Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
The passive of xer, xwer to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
  • Hoj hus xwa? When did that happen?
  • At uvaxwa ham wa at teata ad tobob. I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.

Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms[edit]

The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
  • xer deuz to perform a song
  • xer ifpop to take a cruise
  • xer ebdid to conduct an interview

The ser (Be) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
aser become eser exist, there to be oser cease to be iser start out user end up

Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
aga big agaser get big
aga big agser grow
uza curved uzaser curve, bend, bow
kyaa mobile kyaser change, vary
mayna clear maynaser clear up
iga fast igaser become fast, accelerate
iga fast igser rush, hurry
Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
  • It agxe vafyabi. He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Vafyabi voy agse fi him. Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
  • His kyaxa yata teji. This changed our lives.
  • Yata teji kyasa hujub. Our lives changed on that day.
  • Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi. The winds bent the trees.
  • Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag. The trees bowed during the storm.
  • Wo igxu at. Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Igsu! Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)

Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns[edit]

The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
meg stone megser petrify, become rock
abnod peak abnodser peak, climax
mus scale, stair musser escalate
yom ice yomser freeze
maf cloud mafser cloud over
il liquid ilser liquefy, melt

Creating Dynamic Verbs from Inherently Stative Verbs[edit]

Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic counterparts end in -ber for transitive verbs and in -per for intransitive verbs. There is a table showing this:
tojer die tojber kill tojper drop dead
tajer be born tajber give birth (to), bear tajper spring up
tejer live tejber bring to life tejper come to life
tijer be awake tijber awaken tijper wake up
tujer sleep tujber put to sleep tujper fall asleep
ijer begin ijber begin (something) ijper start up
ujer end ujber finish, put an end to ujper come to an end
yijer open up yijber open up (something) yijper come open
yujer close yujber close, bring to a close yujper come to a close

The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families[edit]

The core words ber to put and per to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.

Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels[edit]

ab on aber put on aper get on baer lean paer stand
yab up yaber raise yaper rise byaer lift pyaer jump
ob off ober remove oper dismount boer hold up poer hang
yob down yober lower yoper descend byoer hang pyoer fall
ub toward uber send uper come bu to buer give puer arrive
ib away iber receive iper go away bi from bier take pier leave
yub near yuber bring yuper approach byu up to byuer touch pyuer reach
yib far yiber take away yiper move far away byi since byier emanate pyier originate
eb between eber block eper intervene yeb in
oyeb out
yeber inject
oyeber eject
yeper enter
oyeper exit
za front zaber advance zaper advance zay forward zayber promote zayper proceed
zo behind zober put behind zoper follow zoy back zoyber put back zayper return
ze middle zeber balance zeper mediate zey across zeyber transfer zeyper cross
zu left zuber put to the left zuper go left uz curve uzber deviate uzper turn
zi right ziber put to the right ziper go right iz straight ziber guide izper head
zya all over zyaber spread zyaper tour zye through zyeber interject zyeper permeate
zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper roll yuz around yuzber turn yuzper circulate
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper surpass zyag stretched out zyagber stretch zyagper stretch out
ja before jaber prepare japer precede aj past ajber pass ajper pass
jo after jober delay joper follow oj future ojber postpone ojper wait?
je during jeber continue jeper continue ej present ejber present ejper present oneself
yan together yanber assemble yanper join bay with bayber impart bayper accompany
yon apart yonber take apart yonper separate boy without boyber deprive boyper go without
kia oblique kiber bend kiper slant
kua lateral kuber set aside kuper avoid

The der (Say) Family[edit]


Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
daler speak der say
doler be silent dier ask
diler request
direr demand
duer suggest
duler urge
durer instigate
drer write
dryener print
droer erase
dyeder read
dyes book
dider ask duder answer
deser pronounce
drez verse
din story dun word
dyun name
drun phrase
draf card
dref paper
dryef notebook
drof cardboard dyuf sheet
dyuv page

Saying Verbs[edit]

Many saying verbs are created by prefixing elements to der to say, tell, eg:
va yes vader affirm
vo no voder deny
ve maybe veder guess
vyaa true vyader swear
vyoa false vyoder lie
fyaa holy fyader bless
fyoa profane fyoder curse
oza weak ozder hint
eej re- eejder repeat
ve maybe + yova guilty veyovder indict
va yes + yova guility vayovder convict
ja before jader predict
vao yes/no vaoder decide
yev justice yevder judge
fia good fider praise
fua bad fuder disparage
af permission afder authorize
of prohibition ofder ban
naz value nazder evaluate
yov guilt yovder blame
zyaa wide zyader broadcast
yaga long yagder elaborate
vyoa wrong + via beautiful vyovider flatter
vyea relative vyeder relate
va yes + oj future vaojder promise
ut self + fia good utfider boast
uv sorrow + tax memory uvtaxder regret
tes meaning tesder mean
ov against ovder object
kyia heavy kyider emphasize
jwa' early jwader warn
ja before + vo no javoder preclude
yuj close yujder conclude
ja before + nap order janapder preordain
hyay hurrah hyayder congratulate
hyey thanks hyeyder thank
gra too much grader exaggerate
diz comedy dizder joke
dre- write dreder spell
eb between ebder communicate
eb between + di- ask ebdider interview
eb between + tes meaning ebtesder interpret
eb between + tex thought ebtexder decide
ek- play ekder pretend

Animal Sounds[edit]

Animal noise verbs are created by replacing the final -t of an animal name with der:
yepet dog yepeder bark
yipet cat yipeder mew
epeyt cow epeyder moo
epat duck epader quack
ipat turkey ipader gobble

Speaking in Languages[edit]

Names of languages can be formed by replacing the final -m of the country name with -d. Then, the verb meaning to say in x language or speak in x language can be formed by adding -der or -daler, eg:
Anglam England Anglad English Anglader say in English Angladaler speak in English
Fransam France Fransad French (language) Fransader say in French Fransadaler speak French
The name of the language discussed in this book is Mirad, which comes from mira, meaning global, world. Thus, say in Mirad is Mirader and speak Mirad is Miradaler. A speaker of Mirad is a Miradut or Miradalut. Duhev et Mirade? Do you speak Mirad?. Hey Miraduti, ansu! Hey, speakers of Mirad, unite!

Communication Arts[edit]

Words for various communication art forms begin d- and end in -z, eg:
dazun....a dance dazut....dancer
dazutyan....dance troupe
vidazim....ballet studio
dez....theater dezun....a play dezut....stage actor
diz....comedy dizun....a sketch dizut....comedian
dizutyan....comedy cast
dizam....comedy club
drez....poetry drezun....a poem drezut....poet drezim....poetry salon
duzdinog....operetta, musical
duzun....a musical piece duzut....musician
duzam....music arena
duzdinagam....opera house
duzar musical instrument
dyez....cinema dyezun....a movie dyezut....screen actor
dyezam....movie theater
dyezim....movie salon
deuz....song deuzun....a song deuzut....singer duzam....auditorium
dyezmis screen

The ter (Know) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental states and activities like knowing, thinking, feeling, etc.:
tep mind, intellect
teptija conscious
teptuja unconscious
tepaza smart
tepoza stupid
tepiga witty
tepsin imagination
top soul
toptun psychology
tip sentiment
tipaga generous
tigoga stingy
tipifa kind
tipufa mean
tipyija tolerant
tipyiva liberal
tipyiga stern
tipyuga lenient
taxer remember
taxier memorize
taxuer remind
texer think
vatexer believe
vatexuer persuade
vetexer suspect
votexer doubt
votexuer dissuade
vyatex reason

ter know
oter ignore
ten knowledge
twas datum

tyer1 recognize
tyier get acquainted
tyuer acquaint

tez culture
tyez magic
ten knowledge
tyen technique
tyenyan technology
tyenier train (oneself)
tyenuer train

teyen idea
teyentun philosophy
teyenyan ideology
teyenier conceptualize
toxer forget tixer study tuxer teach
tayoter feelteser mean
tesier infer
tesuer imply
tester understand
tesder explain
testier realize
testun semantics
toser feel tier learn
tin doctrine
iztis intuition
vyatis wisdom
tuer inform
tun science
tuin theory
tuz art

1. Note that tyer recognize, know, be familiar with is used instead of ter know when referring to a person, much like Fr. connaître be familiar with (a person) vs. savoir know (a fact, how to), eg. It voy te hav at tye it. He doesn't know that I know him.
Suffixing -tun science to words forms many -ology terms. An -ologist is rendered with -tut, eg:
tep mind teptun psychology teptut psychologist
tieb lung tiebtun pneumology tiebtut pneumologist
toj death tejtun thanatology tejtut thanatologist
pat bird pattun ornithology pattut ornithologist
pit fish pittun ichthyology pittut ichthyologist
pot animal pottun zoology pottut zoologist
mul matter multun chemistry ("materiology?") multut chemist
ko- hidden, dren writing kodrentun cryptology kodrentut cryptologist
Some -ology words in English refer to theories or pseudo-science and are translated into Mirad with the ending -tuin:
mar star martuin astrology (cf. martun astronomy) martuit astrologist
sag number sagtuin numerology (cf. sagtun mathematics) sagtuit numerologist
nif string niftuin string theory niftuit string theoretician
Words in English referring to doctrines, dogmas, or -isms are translated into Mirad with the ending -tin, eg:
dot society dotin socialism
Buda Buddha Budatin Bhuddism
gwa most, fis good thing gwafistin optimism
vyaa true vyatin orthodoxy, truism
an- one, fyaat god anfyaatin monotheism
The general word for school is titam (house of learning). The various levels of schools are translated with this word scalarized numerically.
atitam primary school
etitam secondary school, high school, lycee
ititam college
utitam university
The word pre-school, kindergarten is represented with jatitam (lit. pre-school), while post-graduate school is rendered with joutitam (lit. pre-university).
Some other, related terms:
  • enjab ititam two-year college
  • dovyap titam law school
  • yexyen titam trade school, vocational school
  • zetitam middle school
  • tutam academy
  • tiut pupil
  • tixut student
  • tixutyan student body
  • tuxut teacher
  • tuut educator
  • tuen education
  • tut professor, scholar
  • tit disciple, learner
  • titameb principal
  • ititameb dean
  • tuxutyan faculty
  • tuxim lecture hall, classroom
  • tixim study hall
  • tityan class
  • tiun lesson
  • tiundyes lesson book
  • aa tinag first grade
  • ea tinag second grade

The job (Time) Family[edit]

Here are the most important words derived from job time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to a point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning frequency, translated by jod in Mirad.

Calendar Time Units[edit]

job time jeab spring jiab January juab Monday
jab year jeeb summer jieb February jueb Tuesday
jeb season jeib autumn jiib March juib Wednesday
jib month jeub winter jiub April juub Thursday
jub day jiyob May juyob Friday
jwob* hour jiyab June yuyab Saturday
jwab* minute jiyeb July juyeb Sunday
jweb* minute jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
yejab week asojab century amlojab millennium
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.

Times of Day[edit]

maj daytime
ijmaj dawn
imaj morning
eymaj noon
joeymaj afternoon
ujmaj dusk
umaj evening
moj night
eymoj midnight

General Time Words[edit]

job time
jod time, instance, occasion
xag frequency
jud date
jag age

Scalar Time Periods[edit]

joob eon
joab era
joeb period
joib epoch
joub age
joyob chron
joyab term

Some Parallel Time Terms[edit]

taj birth aj past ja before jana previous ajna former, old jaga old jwa early jwana pre-mature
tej life ej present je during jena current ejna new jwe on time jwana mature, ripe
toj death oj future jo after jona next ojna future joga young jwo late jwona stale
tij wakefulness ij beginning ji since ijna initial jiga fresh, vibrant
tuj sleep uj end ju until ujna final juga tired, jaded

Time, Frequency, and Age Questions[edit]

hoj? when? hoxag how often? hojaga? how old?
haj hu when haxag hu as often as hajaga hu as old as
hej sometime hexag sometimes hejaga of a certain age
hij now hixag this often hijaga this old
huj then huxag that often hujaga that old
huyj at such a time huyxag so often huyjaga so old
hyoj never hyoxag not once glejaga rather old
hyaj always hyaxag at all times grajaga too old
hyej anytime hyexag however often grojaga underaged
hyij (vyel) at the same time (as) gexag (vyel) as often (as) gejaga (vyel) of the same age (as)
hyuj (vyel) some other time (then) ogexag (vyel) not as often (as) ogejaga (vyel) not as old (as)
be jobi at times awa jod once awa (jab) jaga one year old
be hujobi in those times ewa jodi twice ewa (jabi) jaga two years old
byu jobuj forever gla jodi many time alo (jabi) jaga ten years old
byi huj since then aloni bi jodi hundreds of times gajaga (vyel) older (than)
How old are you? is expressed as Hojaga se et?. A typical response is At se ali (jabi) jaga. I am thirteen (years old). If the quantity of time is months, than the answer would be like the following: Iyt sa ewa jibi (jaga). She was two months (old).

Age Classes[edit]

awajagat one-year-old
alojagat ten-year-old
aloyjagat teenager
grojagat minor
grejagseat adolescent
grejagat adult
gajagat older person, elder, superior
grajagat over-aged person
jaygat youngish individual
yiloyjagat octogenarian
yuloyjagat nonagenarian
asoyjagat centenarian
jogat youngster, youth, boy
joyayt young girl
gojagat younger person, cadet
jagat oldster, veteran, old person, old man, elder
jagayt old lady
jaygat oldish person
zejagat middle-aged person
gwajogat a person as young as possible, youngest person
gwajagat the oldest person, eldest

The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families[edit]

The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.
ag size nod point
sag number nad line
syag count ned plane
syaag calculation nid volume
nog degree nab rank
nag measure nap order
neg level naab organization
nig space naap system
jag age nyap rule
xag frequency nyed grid
yag length


zyus circle
zyuys oval
zyunid sphere
unizgun rectangle
ungekun square
ungun quadrangle
unoizgun rhombus
ingun triangle
yoongun pentagon
ginid cone
yagunid cube
inguginid pyramid
fufnid cylinder
amezsan diamond
tosan cross
uznad arc
ilpsan wave
gunsan wedge
amarsan star

The tom (Building), em (Place) Families[edit]

The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.
tom building -em general place
tam house -am indoor place
tem hall -yem enclosed space
tim room -im room
tum cell -yeb container

Common Spaces with -(e)m[edit]

The words in the following table refer to spaces or open places:
abem....top ab....on
obem....bottom ob....base
ebem....interval eb....between
oyebem....outdoors oyeb....out
yebem....indoors yeb....in
yubem....vicinity yub....'near
yibem....distance yib....far
yabem....upstairs yab....up
yobem....downstairs yob....down
hom?....where? ho-....which
zem....middle ze-....middle
zam....front za....before
zom....back zo....after
kum....side kua....lateral
kim....slope kia....diagonal
byim....source byi....since
byum....destination byu....up to
bem....position be....at
dem....park d(o)-....social
dopekem....battleground dopek....battle
melyexem....farm mel....soil + yex...work
goynem....sector goyn....cut
ijem....origin ij....start
kosem....hideout kos-....hide
kyosem....settlement kyos-....stay
mem....country m-...natural things
mimpuem....dock mim....sea + pu-....arrive
obdobem....colony ob....off + dob....regime
apem....wharf ap-....embark
sexem....construction site sex....construction
tojmelukem....cemetery toj....death + mel....soil + uk...vacuum
tom....building to-....human
ujem....terminus uj....end
vobem....planation vob....plant
xem....office x-....do
yomyuglapem....iceskating rink yom....ice + yugla...smooth + p-....go

Common Places with -am[edit]

These words refer to houses and buildings:
nam....shop n-....commercial
aajasnam....antique store aajas....antique
apelatam....beehive apelat....bee
apetigpekam....(horse) racetrack 'apet....horse + ig-....fast + pek....competition
tam....house t-....house
bektam....hospice bek....treatment
bextam....castle bex-....keep + tam....house
bekilnam....pharmacy bekil....medecine + nam....store
saxam....factory sax-....make
bilunsaxam....dairy bil....milk + -un....product + sax-...make
datibam....hotel dat....friend + ib-....receive
titam....school tit....learner
doyevam....court do-....public + yev....justice
doptam....barracks dop....military + tam....house
dresam....bureau dres-....write
bokam....hospital bok....sickness
mamparam....hangar mam....sky + par....vehicle
mogxam....crematorium mog....ash + x-....make
posam....station pos-....stop
'taolgorbam....butcher shop taol....meat + gorb-....cleave
tilam....bar til-....drink
yibdubam....embassy yib....far + dub....minister

Common Containers and Enclosed Spaces with -yem[edit]

apetyem....corral apet....horse
nyem....box n-....commercial
syem....institution s-....exist
milpyem....swimming pool milp-....swim
nunyem....package nun....merchandise
ponyem....suitcase po-....travel
tebnyem....skull teb....head
tuyabyem....pocket tuyab....hand
vabijyem....pod vabij....seed
tyem....residence t-....human
tobijyem....ovary tobij....embryo
tojnyem....casket toj....death
ukyem....slot uk-....empty
myem....plot of ground m-....natural things
magilyem....fuel tank magil....fuel
koyem....shelter ko-....hide

Common Rooms with -(t)im[edit]

These words describe type of rooms (tim):
tim....room t-....human
aybmostim....attic ayb-....upper + mos....floor
oybmostim....basement oyb-....lower + mos....floor
ebmostim....mezzanine eb....between + mos....floor
avoliim....pantry avol....bread
apetim....stall apet....horse
beaxim....ward beax-....watch
azla bikim....intensive care unit azla....intensive + bik....care
belunim....cargo bay belun....cargo
biktim....clinic bik....care
datibim....lobby dat....friend + ib-....receive
dyezim....screening room dyez....cinema
doebdalim....conference room do-....public + eb....between + dal-....speak
ebtim....corridor eb....between
fyadilim....chapel fya-....holy + dil....request
dokebidim....voting booth do-....public + kebi-....choice
fyatim....sanctuary fya-....holy
milufim....toilet mil....water + -uf....pipe
movim....smoking den mov....smoke
novim....linen closet nov....linen
saxim....studio sax-....create
sumtim....bedroom sum....bed
teexutim....auditorium teexut....listener
tulim....dining room tul....cuisine
vaobim....hayloft vaob....hay
vyakexim....laboratory vyakex....test
zatim....antechamber za....front
zyutim....rotunda zyu-....round
yexim....office yex-....work

Locative Deictic Adverbs[edit]

The locative deictic adverbs use the -m suffix of place, eg:
hom? where?
ham hu the place where, where
hem somewhere
him here
hum there
hyom nowhere
hyam everywhere
hyem anywhere, wherever
hyim (at) the same place
hyum elsewhere, somewhere else

The a (One) yan (Together) Families[edit]

The stems in this family are based on a one, and yan together and their opposites, o zero and yon apart.
a- one o- zero, un-
awa one owa zero
an- uni-, mono- on- non-
yan- together, con- yon- apart, dis-
hya- all hyo- none
-aya -ful -oya -less
ay and oy but

Collective Nouns[edit]

The suffix -yan is used to form collective nouns. Here are some examples:
fab tree fabyan forest
vyap rule vyapyan regimen, system
vos flower vosyan bouquet
uzun ring uzunyan chain
ut person utyan group
toom apartment toomyan apartment complex
teyen idea teyenyan ideology
tyen technique tyenyan technology
tixut student tixutyan student body
tit pupil tityan class
telar eating utensil telaryan cutlery
sir machine siryan machinery
pat bird patyan flock
An extension of yan is nyan, meaning stack, pile, accumulation, crowd, and so is a bit more intensive:
pet land animal petnyan herd
ut person utnyan crowd
dit citizen ditnyan populace
taib bone taibnyan skeleton
yaut public persona yautnyan commune
dun word dunnyan list
vaob hay vaobnyan haystack
The following confusing terms should be kept distinct:
aut individual, person auta personal
anut private individual anuta private
utyan group utyana collective
autyan people autyana popular
autyanin populism autyanina populist
autyandab republic, democracy autyandaba republican, democratic
yaut constituent, commoner yauta common, collective, public
yautyan community, constituency, public yautyana communitarian
yautnyan commune, collective yautnyana communal, collective
yautin communism yautina communist
dot society dota societal
dotin socialism dotina socialist
dit citizen dita civilian, civic
dityan citizenry, population dityana of the citizenry, populational
ditnyan populace ditnyana popular
ditnyanin populism ditnyanina populist
yanav party (political) yanava partisan
yaniv party (fun) yaniva festive
yanut associate yanuta general, public
yanutyan association yanutyana associational

The tob (Man) Family[edit]

The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism, body, or organ or p, having to do with the non-corporeal aspects of man, such as mind and emotion.
-B -P
tob human, man top soul, psyche
tab body tap physique
teb head tep mind
tib trunk tip sentiment, emotion
tub arm tup member
tyob leg

All the names of the parts of the body are derived from these core words in a hiearchical fashion using stem vowel scalarization, as can be seen from the sample chart below of the body parts relating to arm and leg (not the parallelism):
upper arm

Bodily Functions and Gestures[edit]

The following chart shows how gestural and bodily movements and functions are derived from body parts:
tob humantobser become human, tobxer humanize, tobtojber murder
tobij embryo tobijier conceive, tobijuer impregnate, tobijer ovulate, tobijbeler gestate
tab body tabazaxer work out, tabmelukxer entomb, tabteaxer autopsy
tayeb hair tayebarer comb, tayeboker go bald, tayefarer brush, tayeborber shave, tayelber shampoo, tayevarer mop
tayob skin tayobiler sweat, tayobober flay, tayoboser itch, tayoser feel like, tayoter feel, tayoxer palpate, tayobdriler tattoo, tayotyofxer numb
teb head
tebabun scalp
tebzan face
tebabunober scalp, tebbaxer nod, tebober decapitate, tebzaner face
teab eye
teababun eyelid
teabyeb eyelash
teabil tear
teaser seem, teater see, teatyofxer blind, teaxer look, teaxuer show, teazuer amaze, teabizer aim, teaper visit, teabyujiger blink
teababuner blink
teababyexer bat an eyelash
teabiler tear up
teeb ear teeter hear, teeser sound like, teeper attend, teeder rumor, teeyofxer deafen, teexer listen
teib nose teiter smell, teiser smell like, teitier take a whiff of, teituer reek, teixer smell, teseuxer snore, teizber perfume, teipulxer sneeze, teibalier sniff, teibalegier sniffle, teibiler run at the nose, teibukxer blow the nose
teub mouth
teubil saliva
teubsin expression
deuz song
seux sound
seuz tone
teuz voice
toleuz taste
teuv mask
teuf muzzle
teubier swallow, yijteuber yawn, teuser taste like, teuter taste, teutier sample, teutuer offer a taste, teuxer taste, teuder shout, ivteuder laugh, uvteuder groan, ivteuber smile, uvteuber frown,vyoivteuder mock, ufteuber scowl, uvseuxer grumble
teubiler salivate, teubiloker drool, teubilokeger dribble, teubiloyeber expectorate, teubilpuxer spew, teubiluer spit, teubilier slurp
teubsiner grimace
deuzer sing, yandeuzer harmonize, yagdeuzer chant
seuxer ring seuxder pronounce, voyseuxder mispronounce
zoyteuzer echo, uvseuzer sigh
teuzuer vote, teuzier poll, teuzibarer telephone
toleuser taste like, toleuter taste, toleuxer savor, fitoleuser taste good, futoleuser taste bad
teuvuer mask
teufuer muzzle
teubab tongue teubaxer wag the tongue, teubabaxer lick
teubib gum teubixer chew, teubixeger ruminate
teupib tooth teupixer bite, teupixeger nibble, yebteupixer crunch
teubob lip teuboxer kiss, teuboxeger smooch, teubobaxer smack the lips
teyob neck teyobabaxer neck, teyopixer collar, teyozyober choke , teyopyoxer hang
tib trunk tibuzer bow
tibuj tail
tibuf train
tibujbarxer wag
tibufer trail
tieb lung
tiebal breath
tiebbok cold
tiexer breath, tiebyujber suffocate, teibukxer cough
tiebalier inhale, tiebaluer exhale, tiebaloker belch
tiebbokier catch a cold
tiib heart
tiibil blood

tiibiler bleed tiibiloker bleed out, tiibilglalser clot, tiibilier suck blood, tiibiluer let blood
tikeb stomach
tikebil chyme
tikebier digest, tikebukxer vomit
tikyeb anus
tikyebal flatulence
tikyebil feces

tikyebaler fart
tikyebiler defecate
tikyob bowels tikyobier ingest, tikyobober disembowel
tub arm yantubier embrace, tubbaxer wave
tuyab hand tuyaxer handle, tuyaber handle, tuyabalxer shake hand, tuyabexer manipulate, tuyabier grab, tuyabirer wrestle, tuyasiuner wave, tuyabuer hand out, tuyadrer write out longhand, tuyapixer clasp tuyapyexer clap
tuyeb fist tuyepeker fistfight, tuyebalxer shake one's fist, tuyepyelxuer pound, tuyepyexer box
tuyib palm tuyibabaxer pat, tuyibaber palm, tuyibuer palm off, tuyipyexer slap
tuyob wrist tuyoxer wave
tuyub finger tuyubarxer wag one's finger, tuyubifeker fiddle, tuyubizder point out, tuyuibeaxer indicate, tuyugiber poke, tuyupyexer tap, tuyuxer palpate
tulob fingernail
paltulob claw
tuloxer scratch, tuloxefer itch
patuloxer claw, patulober grip
tyoib knee tyoixer kneel, tyoiper crawl
tyoyab foot tyoyabarer stomp, tyoyakyeper hobble, tyoyapyexer kick, tyoyapyexuer kick
tyoyeb heel tyoyeber spurn
tyoyib sole tyoyiber supplant
tyoyub toe tyoyubaxeger wiggle one's toe, tyoyuzyuper pirouette

The bak (Health) Family[edit]

Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:
bak health
baak hygiene
bakxer heal, bakser heal
bek treatment
byek cure
bekuer treat, bekier get treated
byeker cure
bok illness
book fatigue
bokser get sick, bokxer sicken
bookser grow tired, bokxer tire out
bik care bikuer care for, bikier take care
buk injury
bruk mutilation
bukser be injured, bukxer injure
bruker mutilate
byok pain
byork torture
byokuer inflict pain, byokier incur pain
byorker torture

The tod (Family) Family[edit]

Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.
tod = family
tad husband tayd wife tadet brother taydet sister
jatad fiance jatayd fiancee taodet brother-in-law taydet sister-in-law
ted father teyd mother tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
tud brother-in-law tuydet sister-in-law tudet nephew tuydet niece
tyod father-in-law tyoyd mother-in-law tyodet son-in-law tyoydet daughter-in-law
tyad grandfather tyayd grandmother tyadet grandson tyaydet granddaughter
tyed relative tyeyd female relative
tyid godfather tyiyd godmother tyidet godson tyiydet goddaughter
tyud tutor tyuyd nanny tyudet pupil tyuydet female pupil
The part below is an experimental way to do kinship terms based on the Swedish model:
Root forms:
MALE FEMALE (with vowel post-iotated)
tad....spouse, husband tayd....wife
ted....father, parent teyd....mother
tid....brother, sibling tiyd....sister
tud....son, child tuyd....daughter
Prefixes or word elements used to modify the above rootwords:
to-....god- (as in godson)
ta-....-in-law, through marriage
taj-....birth-, real
ij-....first, original
aj-....ex-, former
ej-....current, step-, half-
oj-....future, -to-be
aa yiba....first-removed
ea yiba....second-removed
ota-....out-of-wedlock, bastard
oyted-....orphan(ed), without parents
oytad-....unmarried, without spouse
oytud-....childless, without child
Kinship Terms Formed from the Above Root Words and Prefixed Elements
tad....spouse, husband
ajtad....ex-spouse, ex-husband
ijtad....first spouse, first husband
ejtad....current spouse, step spouse
ojtad....spouse-to-be, husband-to-be, fiance
ijtayd....first wife
ejtayd...current wife, step-wife
ojtayd....wife-to-be, fiancee
ted....father, parent
tajted....birth parent
ejted....stepfather, foster father, foster parent
ojted....father-to-be, parent-to-be
teted....grandfather, grand-parent
toted....godfather, godparent
tajteyd....birth mother
ejteyd....stepmother, foster mother
tid....brother, sibling
ejtid....stepbrother, step-sibling
tetetid....great uncle
tetetiyd....great aunt
tud....son, child
ijtud....first-born son
ejtud....stepson, stepchild
otada tud....bastard child, bastard son
aa tetitud....first cousin
ea tetitud....second cousin
aa yibe tetitud....cousin first removed
otada tuyd....bastard daughter
tetituyd....(female) cousin
aa tetitud....first cousin
ea tetitud....second cousin
aa yiba tetitud....cousin first removed
Suffixed -if gives you affectionate equivalents:
  • tadif....darling husband
  • tayif....darling wife
  • tedif....daddy, papa
  • teydif....mommy, mama
  • tidif....bro
  • tiydif....sis
  • tudif....sonny, kid
  • tuydif....darling daughter
Other terms:
  • todat....relative, sib
  • tiibil todat....blood relative
  • todatan....kinship
  • todatyan....kinfolk, clan
  • todeb....pater familias
  • todeyb....mater familias
  • otatud....bastard, bastard son, bastard child
  • otatuyd....bastard daughter
  • oytetud....orphan, orphan son
  • oytetuyd....orphan daughter
  • oytadat....bachelor, unmarried man'
  • oytadayt....spinster, unmarried woman, bachelorette
  • oytudayt....childless woman
  • glatidat....person with many siblings
  • oytidat....person with no siblings
  • tadat....in-law
  • tamted....foster parent
  • tamtud....foster child
  • tamteder....foster
  • teder....parent
  • tadier....get married, take on a spouse
  • taduer....marry, preside over a marriage
  • todtun....genealogy
  • tood....ethnos, tribe, clan, race
  • toodtun....folklore
  • tooddin....folk story
  • toos....gender, sex
  • hyitoosifa....homosexual
  • hyutoosifa....heterosexual
  • entoosifa....bisexual
  • hyatoosifa....pansexual
  • hyotoosifa....asexual
  • hyitoosa tadan....same-sex marriage
  • tadyan....married couple
  • jwaa tadien....shotgun wedding

The dot (Society) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.
dot society
dat friend
det comrade, mate
dit citizen
dut gentleman, sir
dout bourgeois

The tof (Clothes) and nof (Textile)[edit]

The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof cloth and nov lingerie. The words have to do with clothing.
tob man tof clothing
tab body taf suit, tayf dress
teb head tef hat
teyob neck teyof necktie
tuab shoulder tuaf shawl
tib trunk tif vest
zetib waist zetif belt
tiab chest tiav shirt, tiayv blouse
tilab breast tilav bra
tuyab hand tuyaf glove
tyob leg tyof pants, tyoyf skirt
The nof family words begin with n meaning commercial and end in f meaning textile. Here is a summary:
nof textile, tissue
nov linen
nofur loom, nofxer weave
nofyank stitch, nofyanker sew, nofyankut seamster
nofyonk rip, nofyonker rip, nofyonkar scissors, shears
nofyuj pleat, nofyujber fold
nofzyiar iron, nofzyiarer iron
novyan lingerie, novim linen closet 
misof curtain, obmasof carpet yebof sack
favof cotton, favoyf cotton wool
fevof flax
fivof hemp
fuvof jute
tayof leather
naf material, cloth, fabric
naaf drape
naef canvas
naif velvet
nauf veil
nayaf cordoroy

nef knit
neof stitch
neaf net, mesh, web
neef lace
neif braid
neuf wicker
neyof loop
neyaf wale
neyef strip, band
neyif plait
nayuf lattice
nefxer knit, neofxer stitch, neifxer braid neyofxer loop
nefar knitting needle
nefiaf sweater
vinef embroidery
yotayef goat's hair, wool
tayef bristle
utayef wool
zyef pane of glass, zyev glass
nyef bag, sack
yebeaf mesh bag
yebeuf wicker basket
nif yarn, fiber
niv thread
niyf filament, string
niif twine
nifur spinnernifxer spin, nifun spider's web
nifar needle
nivar pin
mugnif wire
apeyetif silk
nuf button
nufyujber button
nufyijber unbutton
nufzyeg buttonhole
nufag knob
nyaf knot
nyafer tie, onyafer untie, unravel
mugnyaf clasp, buckle
nyef bag, sack
zotibnyef backpack
tolnyef grocery bag
yignyef basket
nyif rope
mugnyif cable
nyifog lace, cord
nyuf package
nyufag crate

The mos (Floor) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
mos floor omos ground floor
amos first floor
abmos attic
ebmos mezzanine
obmos basement
mas wall abmas roof
aybmas ceiling
obmas foundation
oybmas floor
masof carpet
abzamas balcony
obzamas porch
ebmas partition
mes door zames front door
zomes back door
mesnufag door knob
mesyuznad door frame
mestuyar door handle
mis window miszyef window pane
eymis shutter
misof curtain
mus stairs musnog step, stair rung
musim starwell
magmus fire escape
musabnod climax
muys ladder
pasmus escalator

The som (Furniture) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
som furniture somber furnish
somxut carpenter
milsom sink
sam armoire, chest telarsam china cabinet
telsam cupboard
tovsam chest of drawers
samnyem drawer
sem table semof table cloth
tilsem bar
yagsem counter
yuzsem round table
dresem desk
dalsem pulpit
sim chair zaopsim rocking chair
(yug)yagsim couch
zyupsim swivel chair
eysim stool
edebsim throne
yigyagsim bench
sum bed suam cushion
suaym pillow
suav pillow case
suem mattress
suev sheet
suef blanket
absuef bedspread
obsuev liner
suim box spring
summuf bedpost
eonsim twin bed
eysum day bed
igsum cot
suym couch
nyanxwa sum bunk bed
milsum waterbed
tabsum sleeping bag
pyoxwa sum hammock
malsum airbed
summanar bed lamp

The sar (Tool) and par (Vehicle) Family[edit]

Stems having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile.
sar -ar instrument, tool, device (default)
sir -ir apparatus, hand-driven machine
sor -or machine, powered machine
sur -ur motor, engine
Note: the words and suffixes other than sar, -ar (the default) are used only to distinguish words like bicycle and motorcycle or needle and loom, etc.


Vehicle words end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument, unless there is a need for further distinction, in which case, the ending may be -ir, -or, or -ur.
par vehicle, car
por carriage
pur motorcar
mampar airplane
mempar automobile, land vehicle
mimpar boat
mimpor ship
mimpur motorboat
mumpar subway
mompar spaceship
kyinpar truck
kyinpir cart, wagon
naadpar train
yautpar bus
enzyuspar bicycle
enzyuspor scooter
enzyuspur motorcycle
inzyuspar tricycle
yuglapar sled
yuglapir skate
yuglapor sleigh

Tools and Machines[edit]

drar pencil
drir typewriter
dror printer
syaagar calculator
syaagor computer
vyixar brush
vyixir sweeper
vyixur vacuum cleaner

The tol (Food) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
tol food tolnam grocery store
toltun dietetics
tolvyaab diet
toluer feed
toyl nutrition
toyles nutrient
toyluer nourish
tolsam food buffet
toleus taste
toleusgab relish
tolmek spice
tolsyeb casserole
tel- eat telier eat
teluer feed
telam restaurant
telar fork
telyeb plate
telefa hungry
telifut gourmet
gratelut glutton
teltun gastronomy
oteliwas leftover
til- drink tilsem bar
tilier drink
tilef thirst
tilgronag drought
gratilut drunk
tilyeb glass
tilar spoon
tilarog teaspoon
tilarag ladle
tilsyeb cup
teilsyeb soup bowl
kyitilsyeb mug, stein
tul dish jatul appetizer
jotul dessert
agtul main dish, entree
ogtul tapa
igtul snack
atulyan first course
second course
china cabinet
dine at home
dining room
banquet hall
tyal meal atyal breakfast
etyal lunch
ityal dinner
utyal supper
etyalier have lunch
etyaluer serve lunch
tyalag banquet
vabemtyal picnic
yomxwa tyal frozen dinner
-il liquid, drink teil soup
til beverage
bil milk
mil water
gyalevil syrup
aybil cream
bilyig cheese
bilyug butter
mekil gruel
gyalevabil pudding
taobiil gravy
tuil sauce
tuilyeb saucer
fil alcohol
vafil wine
vafiltun oenology
grafiliut alcoholic
filxer ferment
filvyunober distill
levafil liquour
teabil tear
teubil saliva
ilyeb bottle
yavil beer
magiler boil
dril ink
ilneyeb tank, reservoir
ilsyeb carafe, beaker, flask
apelatil honey
bavuil ketchup
-yal juice sefyal coffee
safyal tea
vafyal grape juice
-el food level sugar
yapel pork
vipel venison
eopel beef
mageler cook
movelwa smoked
ummagelar oven
elsyeb pot, pan
-yel gel, oil dofyel chocolate
megyel cement
myel plastic
tayel shampoo
tulyel cooking oil
magyel fuel
yugyel rubber
fyel wax
magyeler fry
magyelsyeb frying pan
leveyel jam, confiture
yiglevyel candy
kafyel olive oil
gevyel corn oil
tulyel cooking oil
gavyel sunflower oil
-eil soup teil soup
yagteil stew
-ol food avol bread
taol meat
umleavol biscuit
sifyol pepper
mimol salt
ovol bran
zyuavol roll
zyiavol flatbread, pita
yuzavol wrap, gyro, taco
uzavol twist, croissant
ebavol sandwich
toleusgabol condiment
leavol pasta

The mor (universe) and mom (outer space) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc.
mor....universe mom....cosmos mol....nature mop....orbit moj....evening
mok....dark matter
mam....sky mal....air map....wind maj....day
mem....land mel....soil mep....road mef....brick
mir....world mim....sea mil....water mip....river
mum...underground mul....matter mup....tunnel muk....mineral
mub....cave, pit
A few important derivations:
  • amar....sun  ("number one star")
  • amarnaap....solar system  (the "sun system")
  • amaryap....sunrise  ("sun rise")
  • amaryop....sunset  ("sun descent")
  • amarnad....sunbeam  ("sun line")
  • amarmap....solar wind  ("sun wind")
  • amarman....sunlight  ("sun light")
  • amur....moon   ("number one satellite)
  • amurned....lunar surface   ("moon surface")
  • amurmoyb....lunar crater   ("moon depression")
  • Imer....Earth   ("third planet from the sun"
  • imertun....geology   ("earthscience"
  • imerzyunad....earth's axis   ("earth turn line"
  • imermop....earth's orbit   ("earth's orbit"
  • marmaf....galaxy   ("star cloud")
  • Amarmaf....Milky Way   ("number one galaxy")
  • maryan....constellation   ("collection of stars")
  • marmeg....comet   ("star rock")
  • mommeg....meteor   ("space rock")
  • mammeg....meteorite   ("sky rock")
The following are vehicles and derivatives that are specific to one of the above physical spheres:
mompar....spaceship momper.... travel through space momput....cosmonaut, astronaut
mampar....airplane mamper....fly mamput....flyer, pilot
mempar....automobile memper....ride, drive memput....rider, driver
mimper sail, navigate mimput sailor, navigator
mumpar....subway mumper.... tunnel, go by metro mumput....metro rider

Names of the Planets[edit]

Here are the names of the planets in our solar system. Notice that Earth is the fourth "rock" from the sun.
Amer.... Mercury
Emer.... Venus
Imer.... Earth
Umer.... Mars
Yomer.... Jupiter
Yamer.... Saturn
Yemer.... Uranus
Yimer.... Pluto

Polar Directions[edit]

DIRECTIONS mer....planet
za....front zamer.... north
zo....behind zomer....south
zi....right zimer....east
zu....left zumer....west
Related terms:
  • zamernod....north pole (nod = point)
  • zomernod....south pole
  • zaomernad....longitude (zao = north-south, nad = line)
  • zuimernad....latitude (zui = east-west)
  • zemernad....equator (ze = middle)
  • merzyun....globe, sphere (planet-ball)
  • eymerzyun....hemisphere (half-planet-ball)

Types of Clouds[edit]

maaf.... stratus
maef.... nimbostratus
maif.... cumulus
mauf.... cumulonimbus
mayof.... stratocumulus
mayaf.... allocumulus
mayef.... allostratus
mayif.... cirrocumulus
mayuf.... cirrostratus
malof.... cirrus

Types of Roads and Paths[edit]

mep.... way, road, route
    zeymep.... bridge, crossing
    aybmep.... overpass, bridge
    oybmep.... underpass
    zyemep.... tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
    kumep.... side path
    zomep.... back way
    ebmep.... aisle
    tyoyamep.... sidewalk, walkway
    homep?'....which way?
    yilpmep....escape route
    vyamep....right way
    vyomep....wrong way
    izmep.... direct route, straight path, vector
    yebmep.... entryway, entrance
    oyebmep.... exit, way out
    mummep.... subway
    mammep.... air route
    elyamep.... railroad, railway
    mimmep.... sealane
domep.... street
    agdomep.... highway
    aagdomep.... main street
    zyadomep.... broadway
    igdomep.... expressway
    uzmep.... byway, detour
    yuzdomep.... beltway, loop
    zyudomep.... roundabout, circle, rotary
    anizona domep....
one-way street
meap.... avenue
meep.... boulevard
meip.... lane
    zimeip....right lane
    zumeip....left lane
    zemeip....median, middle lane
    anmeip.... single lane
    enmeip....double lane
meup.... trail
    mebmeup....mountain trail
meyp.... path
    tyoyameyp.... footpath

Types of Stones, Gems, etc.[edit]

meg .... stone mez .... gem mek .... dust
meag .... marble amez .... diamond miek .... sand
meeg ....slate emez .... topaz myek .... powder
meig ....gramote imez .... ruby mel .... soil
meug ....clay vamez .... emerald meil .... mud
meyag ....chalk yamez .... amethyst megil .... cement
meyeg ....limestone yomez .... sapphire myel .... plastic
meyig ....alabaster mil .... water
meyog .... china mial .... vapor
meyug .... gypsum miil .... dew
melag .... adobe mimol .... salt
meleg .... terra cotta mamil .... rain
melig .... marl mal .... air
melug .... kaolin mayl .... gas
melyag .... feldspar magil .... petroleum
melyeg .... petunse mug .... metal
melyig .... silica muk .... mineral
melyog .... pegmatite mul .... matter
melyug .... flint mag .... fire
mieg .... coral mog .... ash
mav .... flame
mov .... smoke

Thermal Conditions[edit]

ama .... hot ayma .... warm
oma .... cold oyma .... cool
ima .... wet iyma .... humid
uma .... dry uyma .... arid
yoma .... frozen yoyma .... chilly
yama .... burning

Weather Phenomena[edit]

mamyen .... weather
mamil .... rain
mamyom .... sleet
mamyoym .... snow
yoym .... frost
yom .... ice
mial .... steam
miil .... dew
maf .... cloud
miaf .... fog
mapil .... storm, windstorm
xeusmapil .... thunderstorm
mapilag .... tempest
mimmapil .... hurricane
map .... wind
maap .... puff
maep .... breeze
maip .... gust
maup .... gale
mayop .... typhoon
mapulz .... tornado, twister, cyclone
mammanig .... lightning
mamxeus .... thunder
mamiluz .... rainbow
jibim .... monsoon
graim .... flood, deluge

Atmospheric Layers[edit]

mal .... air
maal .... atmosphere
mael .... troposphere
mail .... stratosphere
maul .... ionosphere
mayol .... exosphere

Rivers and Streams[edit]

mip .... river
miap .... stream
miep .... brook
miip .... rivulet
miup .... tributary
miyop .... creek
miyap .... rill
mipuj .... estuary
mipkum .... river bank

Bodies of Water[edit]

mim .... sea
mimag .... ocean
miam .... lake
miem .... lagoon
miim .... pond
mium .... pool, basin
miumog .... puddle
immem .... swamp
ebmim .... strait
zyomip .... canal

Land Features[edit]

mem .... land
meam .... region
meem .... territory
meim .... countryside
meum .... zone, district
meyom .... tract, parcel, acre
meb .... mountain
meyb .... mount
meab .... hill
meeb .... knob
meib .... mound
meub .... ridge
meyob .... bump
mimeib ... cape
yabmimeib .... promontory, headland, bluff
zyimeb .... plateau
magmeb .... volcano
mub .... chasm, precipice, cliff
muab .... gulf, gulch
mueb .... ravine, valley, dale
muib .... cave
muyob .... ditch
mimuib .... cove
mimkum .... beach, seaside, coast
uzmimkum .... bay
zyimem .... plain
ummem .... desert
immem .... wetland, swamp
zomem .... hinterland
zyamem ....prairie
memsin .... landscape
yonmel .... island
eynyonmel .... peninsula
yanmel .... continent
zyoebmel .... isthmus
yijmem .... field, meadow

Different Worlds[edit]

mir .... world, realm, domain
jomir.... here-after, after-world, metasphere
fyajomir....heaven, paradise
yizmir....world beyond, spirit world
yizmirat....spirit, sprite
fyamir.... sacred world, paradise
fyomir....wicked world, hell
obmir....nether world
komir....secret realms
mor .... universe

The pot (Animal) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with the letter p, denoting movement, and end in the letter t, denoting a living creature. Thus, the words have to do with animals.
pot animal
pyot wild animal
IN THE AIR pat bird
ON LAND pet land animal
pelt insect
pyet reptile
IN WATER pit fish
plit crustacean
ON LAND AND IN WATER pyeit amphibian
Note that the vowels in the word stem indicates geo-spatial properties like a for in the air, e for on land, i for in the sea, u for underground, and ei for on land and sea (amphibian). Pre-iotation of the stem vowel creates a set of less domestic animals, while the letter l preceding or following the stem vowels is used similarly to divide animals into new groups. The initial ordinal vowels create a taxonomy, while initial consonants increase the taxonomic levels.

Principal Domestic Land Animals[edit]

pet (land) animal
apet horse
epet ox
ipet ass
upet ram
yopet goat
yapet pig
yepet dog
yipet cat
yupet rabbit

Principal Wild Land Animals[edit]

pyot wild animal, beast
rapyot lion
repyot tiger
ripyot leopard
rupyot wolf
ryapyot hyena
tepyot bear
tapyot orang-utan
yapyot boar

Principal Birds[edit]

pat bird
apat cock
epat duck
ipat turkey
upat goose
yopat guinea fowl
yapat pigeon
rapat eagle
repat vulture
fapat crow

Principal Marine Animals[edit]

  • -it water only
  • -iet water and land
pit fish
apit trout
epit lobster
ipit prawn
upit crawfish
lipit salmon
ryepit tuna
rapit shark
repit dolphin
fapit whale
apiet seal
epiet sea lion

Principal Reptiles[edit]

pyet reptile
gapyet crocodile
gepyet alligator
kapyet lizard
lopyet snake
lapyet boa
lepyet cobra
fapyet grass snake
fepyet slug
fipyet leech
vapyet snail

Principal Insects[edit]

  • -elt non-flying insects
  • -elat flying insects
pelt insect
apelt spider
kapelt louse
kopelt vermin
kepelt flea
kipelt bug
lepelt cobra
apelat bee
epelat wasp
ipelat horsefly
upelat fly
yopelat mosquito
lapelat cockchafer
lepelat beetle
tapelat cicada
gapelat butterfly
fapelt ant
fepelt cockroach
fapelt ant

Principal Ambphibians and Worms[edit]

apyeit toad
epyeit frog
apyeat bat
peyet worm
apeyet silkworm

Animal Sounds[edit]

The animal noise verbs are formed by replacing the final t of the animal's name to der (communicate, utter), as in the following chart:
apet horse apeder neigh, whinny
epet bull epeder bellow
eopetob veal eopetoder bleat
eopet ox eopeder low, moo, bellow
epeyt cow epeyder moo
ipet ass ipeder bray, hehaw
ilapet llama ilapeder growl
upet sheep upeder bleat
yopet goat yopeder bray
yapet hog yapeder grunt, snort, oink
yepet dog yepeder bark
yepyot wolf yepyoder howl
yeypyot vixen yeypyoder yelp
yipet cat yipeder mew, purr, meow
yipyot tiger yipyoder growl
yupet rabbit yupeder drum
kapet squirrel kapeder squeak
kyipet raccoon kyipeder chitter
klepet mouse klepeder squeak
eplet koala epleder wail
rapyot lion rapyoder roar
ryapyot hyena ryapyoder laugh
ryaapyot jackal ryaapyoder howl
tapyot ape tapyoder gibber
tepyot bear tepyoder growl
gapet elephant gapeder trumpet
vepet reindeer vepeder bellow
vyipet moose vyipeder bellow
fapet camel fapeder grunt
fipet giraffe fipeder bleat
kepyet gecko kepyeder go to-key, make a gecko noise
lepyet cobra lepyeder hiss
apyeat bat apyeader screech
epyeit frog epyeider rivet, make a frog noise
apelat bee apelader buzz
lepelat beetle lepelader drone
tepelat cricket tepelader chirp
pat bird pader chirp, tweet, coo, sing
apat rooster apader crow, cockadoodle-doo
apayt hen apayder cluck
apatog chicken apatoder cheep
epat duck epader quack
ipat turkey ipader gobble
yapat pigeon yapader coo
rapat eagle rapader squawk
repat vulture repader scream
fapat raven fapader croak
fepat crow fepader craw
fipat chatter fipader chatter
fupat hoot fupader hoot
fyipat jay fyipader chatter
gapat ostrich gapader bleep
dapat swan dapader cry
zapat swallow zapader squeal
tapat parrot tapader parrot
vapat nightingale vapader pipe
fepat warbler fepader warble
gapait penguin gapaider honk
ipiet platypus ipieder chitter
rupit walrus rupider groan
ryopit porpoise ryopider whistle

Animal Habitats[edit]

By suffixing the final t of the animal name with tam house, you get corresponding animal's living quarters:
apet horse apetam stable
epet ox epetam cowshed
yapet pig yapetam pigpen, pigsty
yepet dog yepetam doghouse
rapyot lion rapyotam den, lion's den
fapelt ant fapeltam anthill
apelat bee apelatam beehive
pat bird patam nest, bird's nest
apat hen apatam henhouse, chicken coop
rupyot bear rupyotam lair
pyot wild animal pyotam cage

Animal Meats[edit]

By changing the final letter of the animal's name to an l, you get the meat eaten from that animal:
eopet ox eopel beef
vipet deer vipel venison
yapet hog yapel pork
yapetyoab hog's thigh yapetyoal ham
uopet sheep uopel mutton
eopetob calf eopetol veal
vapyet snail vapyel escargot

Animal Groupings[edit]

By adding yan aggregate or nyan crowd to the name of an animal, you get the animal grouping:
pat bird patyan flock
eopet ox eopetyan cattle
pit fish pityan school
pelt insect peltyan swarm
pit fish pityan school
apat hen apatyan poultry
pot animal potnyan herd
yopet goat yopetyan goatherd

Animals' Babies[edit]

The baby of an animal ends in ob offspring:
pat bird patob chick
apet horse apetob foal
eopet ox eopetob calf
yepet dog yepetob pup
yipet cat yipetob kitten
apat hen apatob chick
rapat eagle rapatob eaglet
upat goose upatob gosling
upet ram upetob lamb
yopet goat yopetob kid

Animals' Hair[edit]

The hair of an animal ends in tayeb hair:
pat bird patayeb feather
apet horse apetayeb horsehair, mane
yipet cat yipetayeb fur
fapet camel fapetayeb camelhair
pit fish pitayeb scale
upat goose upatayeb down
tepyot bear tepyotayeb fuzz
uopet sheep uopetayeb wool, fleece

Female Counterparts of Animals[edit]

The word for the female counterpart of an animal is created by post-iotated (i.e. adding a y to) the last vowel of the male animal's name:
epet bull epeyt cow
apet horse apeyt mare
ipet ass ipeyt she-ass
yopet goat yopeyt nanny goat
yapet hog yapeyt sow
yepet dog yepeyt bitch
yepyot wolf yepyoyt wolverine
yeypyot fox yeypyoyt vixen
gapet elephant gapeyt cow elephant
vipet buck vipeyt deer
apat rooster apayt hen

Interesting Parallels in Animal Vocabulary[edit]

teub mouth pateub beak poteub mug mimeub bay
teib nose poteib snout gapeteib elephant trunk meib promontory
tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale petayeb fur fayeb leaf vosayeb petal uopetayeb wool, fleece
tulob nail patulob claw apelatulob stinger fulob prick vulob thorn
tyoyab foot apetyoyab hoof potyoyab paw meboyab foothills fyoyab stump vyoyab stub
tayob skin potayob hide piyetayob shell mayob crust fayob bark vayob peel patijayob eggshell

The fob (Vegetation)and vob (Plant) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with f for vegetation or v for plant and end in b for organism. These words have to do with trees, fruits, nuts, vegetables, plants, grasses, and grains, as shown in this chart:
fob vegetable vob plant
fab tree vab grass
feb fruit, nut veb tuft
veeb seed
veeyb grain
fib trunk vib stem
fub branch vub twig
fayeb leaf vayeb bud
fyob root vyob tendril

The vol (Edible Vegetable), vos (Flower), and voz (Color Family[edit]

vol edible vegetable
vos flower
voz color

Colors (voz)[edit]

The names of common colors in Mirad are mnemonically based on flowers and other natural products that have distinctive colors. In the summary chart below, the mnemonic origin is given for each color term.
voz color vos flower
ovoza plain, blank o zero
avoza white avos lily
evoza yellow evos narcissus
ivoza red ivos poppy
uvoza pink uvos rose
yovoza blue yovos blueberry
yavoza mauve yavos hydrangea
yevoza lilac yevos lilac
yivoza violet, purple yivos violet
lafyaza orange lafyab orange
vaza green vab grass
moza black mon dark
maza white man light
maoza gray man + mon
meza brown mel soil
The common colors consist of a mnemonic stub for a flower, plant, fruit, or other natural item exhibiting most vividly the color in question, followed by the suffix -za (reminiscent of voz color, itself reminiscent of vos flower), eg. va- (from vab grass) + z = vaza green.
The most exotic or rare colors can be expressed by the numerical position in the alphabetized Wikipedia list of colors + -za. For example, the color Alabama Crimson is the tenth color in that list when alphabetized, so it's name is aloza.
A color referring to one's skin or race is suffixed with -ata-, eg. mozata black-skinned, black, while the person of that skin color ends in -at, eg. mazat white person, a white. A person of mixed color is a eyvozat ('ey- half). A non-white is expressed with omazat.
A color referring to one's hair is a combination of toz, preceded by the first vowel of the color, eg. i from ivoza red + toz yields itoza auburn, red-headed.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is post-iotated, then the meaning is the lighter version of the color, eg. ivoyza light red.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is pre-iotated, then the meaning is the darker or deeper version of the color, eg. ivyoza deep red.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is doubled, then the meaning is the brighter version of the color, eg. ivooza bright red.
  • If the syllable yen is inserted between the stem and the adjectival ending a, then the meaning is -ish, eg. avozyena reddish.
  • If the color word is preceded by gwa, it is of maximum intensity, eg. gwaivoza as red as can be.

The tuz (Art) Family[edit]

This family includes words having to do with the arts, such as theater, sculpture, music, poetry, etc. Word stems ending in -z refer to something that is precious or artful. Stems with eu are mnemonic for teub mouth and refer to sound, singing, noises, etc.
tuz art
taz statue
tez culture
siz painting
saz sculpture
voz color
daz dance
dez theater
diz comedy, circus
duz music
dyez cinema
drez poetry
teuz voice
deuz song
seux sound
xeus noise
seuz tone

The dob (State) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family start with d for society and end with b for organization.
dob state, regime
dab government
deb leader
dib administration
dub minister

Regimes and Rulers[edit]

adob empire adeb emperor adeyb empress
edob kingdom edeb king edeyb queen
idob principality ideb prince ideyb princess
udob duchy udeb duke udeyb duchess
yodob marquisate yodeb marquis yodeyb marquise
yadob count yadeb count yadeyb countess
yedob domain yedeb lord yedeyb lady, dominatrix
yidob barony yideb baron yideyb baroness
alodob tribe, chiefdom, clan alodeb chief, tribal chief, chieftain alodeyb chieftaine

Governments and Leaders[edit]

ditdab republic, democracy ditdeb president
andab autocracy andeb autocrat
anadab dictatorship anadeb dictator
nasdab plutocracy nasdeb plutocrat
yabdab aristocracy yabdeb aristocrat
fyaatdab theocracy fyaatdeb theocrat
abdab dominion, fiefdom abdeb overlord, feudal lord, master
obdab protectorate, subject state obdeb protector, subjugator
yibdab colony yibdeb colonial master

Regional Administrations[edit]

domem province, state
domeam department, county, prefecture
domeem sub-prefect
domeim canton
domeum commune
domgon district, arrondissement

The nas (Money) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family all begin with n for merchandise. All the words have to do with money, business, trade, and merchandise.
nas money
nax price
naz value, worth
naxer cost
nasbuer allocate
nasaker profit
naseker gamble
nasyefer owe
nasyefier borrow
nasyefuer lend
naxter appreciate
nazer be worth
nazder assess
nazbuer reward
nes savings nexer save
neuner reserve
nis income, revenue nixer earn
nizer deserve
nier consume
nixbuer sell
jobnier rent
nus payment, outlay
nuz award
nuxer pay
nuzuer award
nuer supply
jobnuxer lease
nos spending
noz jewelry
noxer spend
funoxer waste
nun merchandise nuneker deal
nunier buy
nunuer sell
nunuier trade
nunamper shop
nundeler advertise
nunsager inventory
nunyember pack
nyan stack nyaxer stack
nyeun stores nyexer stock
nyember box up
nyis order nyixer demand
nyos waste nyoxer waste
nyus delivery nyuxer supply

The dop (Military) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d social and end in p mobile and have to do with the military and war.
dop military doptof uniform
dopnab military rank
dopeb commander-in-chief
dopbier conquer
dopnogper march
dopyaf military power
dopar weapon
dopek combat
dopekem battleground
dopekut combat soldier
odopeker defend
dopembier deploy
dopektof battle attire
dropek war
dropekut warrier
dap air force dapeb air force commander
dapat airman
dapar fighter jet
dep ground force, army depeb army commandere
depet enlisted soldier
dip navy dipeb navy commander
dipat ensign
obdipar submarine
dipar battleship
adipar aircraft carrier
edipar dreadnaught
idipar frigate
udipar destroyer
yadipar corvette
yedipar gunboat
yodipar cruiser
diep marine diepeb marine commander
diepat marine soldier


dopar weapon
uzdopar bow
doparier take up arms
doparuer arm
adopar gun
tuyab adopar handgun, pistol
zyup adopar revolver
edopar rifle
idopar shotgun
udopar musket
dopir artillery
adopir cannon
edopir bazooka
idopir howitzer
dopur machine gun
dopyonar bayonet
zyidopyonar sword
mimdopyonar cutlass
zyadopyonar battle-ax


depat soldier dipat ensign dapat airman diepat private
adepat private adipat seaman recruit adapat airman basic adiepat private
edepat private 2 edipat seaman apprentice edapat airman ediepat private 1st class
idepat private first class idipat seaman idapat airman first class idiepat lance corporal
udepat army specialist udipat petty officer 3rd class udapat senior airman udiepat corporal
yodipat petty officer 2nd class yodapat staff sergeant yodiepat sergeant
yadipat petty officer 3rd class yadapat technical sergeant yadiepat staff sergeant
yedipat chief petty officer obyedapat master sergeant yediepat gunnery sergeant
abyedapat master sergeant with diamond
yidipat senior chief petty officer obyidapat senior master sergeant yidiepat master sergeant
abyidapat senior master sergeant with diamond
obyudipat master chief petty officer obyudapat chief master sergeant yudiepat first sergeant
ebyudipat fleet master chief petty officer alodiepat master gunnery sergeant
abyudipat master chief petty officer of the navy abyudapat chief master sergeant with diamond aladiepat sergeant major
adeplat warrant officer adiplat ensign adaplat 2nd lieutenant adieplat warrant officer
edeplat chief warrant officer 2 ediplat lieutenant junior grade edaplat 1st lieutenant edieplat chief warrant officer 2
ideplat chief warrant officer 3 idiplat lieutenant idaplat captain idieplat chief warrant officer 3
udeplat chief warrant officer 4 udiplat lieutenant commander udaplat major udieplat chief warrant officer 4
yodeplat chief warrant officer 5 yodiplat commander yodaplat lieutenant colonel yodieplat chief warrant officer 5
yadeplat second lieutenant yadiplat captain yadaplat colonel yadieplat second lieutenant
yedeplat first lieutenant yedieplat first lieutenant
yideplat captain yidiplat ensign yidieplat captain
yudeplat major yudieplat major
adeprat brigadier general adiprat rear admiral lower half adaprat brigadier general adieprat lieutenant general
edeprat major general ediprat rear admiral upper half edaprat major general edieprat colonel
ideprat lieutenant general idiprat vice admiral idaprat lieutenant general idieprat brigadier general
udeprat 4 star general udiprat commandant udaprat general air force chief of staff udieprat major general
yodeprat 5-star general yodiprat fleet admiral yodaprat general of the AF yodieprat lieutenant general
yadieprat general

The ab (On), yab (Up) Family[edit]

aber....put on
aper....get on
oper....get off
obem bottom
yaba.... high
yeber....put in
yeper....get in
oyeber....put out
oyeper....get out

The af (Permission), yaf (Ability) Family[edit]

afer.... may
efer.... need
efa....in need of
ofer.... be prohibited
ofa....not allowed
yafer.... can
yefer.... must
yofer.... cannot

The aga (Big), yaga (Long) Family[edit]


The aj (Past), taj (Birth) Family[edit]

tajer....be born
tajber....give birth
tejber....bring to life

The ak- (Win), yak- (Expect) Family[edit]

eker....play, risk
tejok....loss of life
yoker....be surprised
yokxeus...sudden noise, boom
yoktoj....sudden death

The av (For), yav- (Innocent) Family[edit]

avan....behalf, behest
avon....asset, advantage
avun....favor, benefit
ovon....liability, handicap, disadvantage
doyevan.... justice
doyevon....court case
yovder....indict, accuse

The az- (Strong), yaz- (Convex) Family[edit]

aza strong eza moderate oza weak
yaza convex yeza flush yoza concave

aza strong, firm

azay strongly, firmly
azan strength, power, fortitude, firmness
azon force
azaxer strengthen, fortify
azaxen strengthening, fortification
azaxwa strenghthened, fortified
azaser grow strong, get strong, fortify
aztam fort
azyujer lock
azyujwa locked
azyujar lock
azyujwam locker, lockbox, safe
oazyujer unlock
oazyujwa unlocked
azder emphasize, shout
azden emphasis, shouting
azdun shout
azdwa shouted
azdeya emphatic
azdeyay emphatically
seuxaza loud
seuxazan loudness
seuxazay loudly
seuxazaser get louder
tepaza smart, intelligent
tepazan smartness, intelligence
tepazat intelligent person
aztexyena opinionated
fanaza strong-willed, stubborn
fanazan strong will, stubbornness
bakaza robust, hardy
bakazan robustness, hardy
tapaza physically strong, sturdy, hardy
tapazan physical strength, sturdiness, hardiness
azla intense
azlan intensity
seux azlan volume, loudness
azlay intensely
azlaxer intensify, turn up
azlaxen intensification
azlaxwa intensified, turned up
azlaser become intense, grow in intensity
azlaxar intensifier
oazlaxer deintensify, turn down
azra powerful, potent
azray powerfully
azran power, potency, potential
azraser become powerful, grow powerful
azrat potentate, strongman
azranoya powerless, impotent
azranoyan powerlessness, impotence::
azara violent, brutal
azaran violence, brutality
azaray violently, brutally
azaranxer perpretrate violence, commit violence
azaraser become violent, grow violent, become brutish
azarat violent person, brute
azaras act of violence
oazara non-violent
oazaran non-violence
azta energetic
aztay energetically
aztan energy
oazta tired
oaztan fatigue
oaztaxer tire out
oaztaxeya tiring, boring, tiresome
oaztaser grow tired, get tired, tire
azata vigorous
azatay vigorously
azatan vigor
azataxer invigorate
azataxea invigorating
azataxwa invigorated

eza moderate

ezan moderation, moderateness
ezaxer moderate
ezaxen moderation
ezaxwa moderated
eztola sober
eztolan sobriety
oeza immoderate, extreme
oezan immoderate

oza weak

ozay weakly
ozan weakness
ozaxer weaken
ozaxen weakening
ozaxwa weakened
ozaser become weaken, grow weak
ozasa enfeebled
ozta worn down
oyzaser wither
ozder whisper
ozden whispering
ozdun whisper, whispered remark
ozdwa whispered
tepoza feeble-minded
tepozan feeble-mindedness
tapoza physically weak, feeble
tapozan feebleness

yaz protrusion, bulge, mound, swelling, convexity, contusion

yaza convex, mounded, bulged, swollen
yazser swell, bulge, stick out, protrude, rise
yazsea protruding, sticking out, swelling, bulging
yanyaz pile, stack, accumulation
yanyazaxer stack up, pile up, accumulate
yanyazaxwa stacked, piled, accumulated
yanyaxaseye cumulative
yazan convexity
yazmem mound, hill, highland, rise
yazmemika hilly
yazmemikan hilliness
yayz bump, pimple
yayzika bumpy
yayzer go bump
yayzmem knob

yez along

yeznad parallel line
yeznada parallel
yeznader parallel
yez ha kum bi along the side of
yeza flush

yoz hollow, concavity, depression, valley

yoza concave, sunked, depressed, hollow
yozser sink, dip, cave in
yozxer dip, sink, depress
yozaxer hollow out, excavate, dig
yozaxen excavation
yozaxwa excavated
yozan concavity, sunkenness, hollowness
yozmem valley, hollow, dale
melyoz cave
melyozyena cavernous
melyozper explore a cave
melyozpen cave exploration
melyozput cave explorer
melyoztamut cave-dweller
melyoztob caveman, troglodyte
melyoztuz cave art::
yobmelyoz cavern
melyozag cavern
melyoyz hole, hole in the ground, pit
yagmelyoyz ditch, furrow, trench
petmelyoz burrow
mop tunnel
petmop burrow
petmoper burrow
milyoz well, water well, oasis, waterhole
yoyz hole, cavity, depression
yoyzika full of holes, riddled
yoyzber put a hole in, knock a hole in
yoyzog nick, dent, cavity
yoyzogber nick, dent
yoyzogbwa nicked, dented
yoyzogbun indentation

The fya- (Holy) Family[edit]

fyaa holy fyoa profane
fyamir heaven fyomir hell
fyaat god fyoat devil
fyaet angel fyoet demon
afyaet archangel afyoet archdemon
fyait saint fyoit evil person
fyaut priest
fyax sacrament fyox sacrilege
fyaz miracle fyoz witchcraft
fyaxin religion
fyaxam church
fyadab church hierarchy
fyadeb church elder, clergyman
afyadeb pope
efyadeb cardinal
ifyadeb archbishop
obifyadeb bishop
ufyadeb parish priest
obufydeb deacon
fyad blessing fyod curse
fyadil prayer
fyaxel ritual, mass fyoxel occult

The fi- (Good), fyi- (Useful) Family[edit]

fiva ....ok
fider....praise fuder....malign

fia good

fian goodness
fiay well
fi well
gafi better, rather
fi- eu-, bene-
fiat good person
fiaxer improve, make good, fix, repair
fiaxen improvement, reparation
fiaxwa improved, fixed, repaired
egfiaxer repair, fix
egfiaxen reparation, fix
egfiaxwa repaired, fixed
gafiaxer improve, better
gafiaxen improvement, betterment
gafiaxwa improved, bettered
fix good deed, benefit
fixer do good, benefit
fixut do-gooder, benefactor
fixea beneficial
gafiser do better, improve, get better
gafisea getting better, improving
gafisen improvement
fin quality, qualification, virtue
fina qualitative
finay qualitatively
finaya qualified, virtuous, meritorious
finayan qualification, virtuosity, meritoriousness
finayser deserve, merit, qualify
finaysea deserving, qualified
ofinaysea undeserving, unqualified
finayxer reward, qualify
finayxea rewarding, qualifying
finsiz medal, award, merit badge
finsizer award
finsizwat award recipient, medal recipient
finok demerit, penalty
finokuer issue a demerit, penalize, punish
finokier get a demerit, be penalized, be punished
finak award
finakuer award
finakuut award-giver
finakier receive an award
finakiut award recipient, awardee
finoya of no merit, useful, without merit
finoyxer disqualify, demerit, discredit
finoyxen disqualification, discreditation
dofin morality, moral, morals
dofina moral
dofinan morality
dofinat moral person
fudofina immoral
fudofin immorality
dofinaxer moralize
odofin amorality
odofina amoral
lodofin immorality
lodofina immoral
lodofinaxer demoralize
lodofinaxwa demoralized
lodofinaxen demoralization
fider praise, laud, applaud, commend
fid praise, applaud, commendation
fiden praising
fiduwa praiseworthy, laudatory, commendable
fiduwan praiseworthiness, llaudatoriness, commendableness
fidwa praised, lauded, commended
fidwat honoree, hero, person being praised
fidun prize, award, commendation
fidunuer bestow an award, award, present a prize
fidunier get an award, receive a prize
utfider boast
utfiden boasting
utfideya boastful
utfidut boaster, self-applauder::
fiader recommend
fiaden recommendation
fiadwa recommended
ofiadwa unrecommended:
fis something good, a good thing, benefit, asset
fiser benefit, serve, be a good thing
fiva ok
fivader approve
fivad approval
fivaden approbation
favadwa approved
fitaj noble birth, good stock (same as fita)
fitaja noble, of good stock
fitajan nobility, good lineage
fitajat nobleman, noble
fitajatyan noble class, nobility
fibak well-being, good health
fibaka in good health, well, salubrious, sound, healthy
fibakan wellness, healthiness
fibakat a person of good health, sound individual
fiz honor
fizeya honorable
fizeyan honorableness
fizeyay honorably
fizaxer honor
ofiz dishonor
ofizeya dishonorable
ofizeyan dishonorably
ofizaxer dishonor
ofizaxea dishonorable
lofiz shame
lofiza shameful
lofizaxer shame, put to shame
lofizaxen shaming
lofizaser be ashamed
lofizasa ashamed
lofizaber accuse, inculpate
lofizaben accusation, inculpation
lofizober excuse, pardon, disculpate
lofizoben excuse, pardon, disculpation
vyofiz fake honor
vyofizder flatter
vyofizden flattery
vyofizdut flatterer
fiyz respect
fiyzeya respectful
fiyzeyan respectfulness
fiyzeyay respectfully
fiyzaxer respect
fiyzaxwa respected
ofiyz lack of respect
ofiyzaya unrespectful
lofiyz disrespect
lofiyzaya disrespectful
lofiyzaxer disrespect
lyofiyzaxwa disrespected
utfiyz dignity, self-respect
utfiyza worthy
utfiyzay with dignity
utfiyzaxer dignify
utfiyzaxwa dignified
loutfiyzaxwa undignified
outfiyz lack of dignity, lack of self-respect
outfiyza indignant
fiiz deference
fiiza deferent
agfiz glory
agfizaya glorious
agfizayan gloriousness
agfizaxer glorify
agfizaxen glorification
agfizaxwa glorified
agfizaxea glorifying
utagfiz vainglory, pride, vanity
utagfizaya vainglorious, proud, vain
utagfizder boast
utagfizden boasting
utagfizdeya boastful
utagfizdut boaster
fizfan ambition, drive
fizfanaya ambitious, driven, motivated
fixfanayan ambitiousness, motivation
ofizfan lack of ambition
ofizfanaya unmotivated
fizfaner pursue as an ambition, be motivated
fizfanuer motivate
fizfanuen motivation
fizfanuena motivational:
loutfiyzay indignantly
fizda honest
fizder be honest
fizdan honesty
fizday honestly
ofizda dishonest
ofizdan dishonesty
fiizda loyal
fiizdan loyalty
fiizday loyally
ofiizda disloyal
ofiizdan disloyalty
fizta noble
fiztan nobility
fiztat noble, nobelman
fiztatyan nobility
ofizta ignoble
ofiztan ignobility
ofiztay ignobly
ofiztaxer ennoble
ofiztaxea ennobling
ofiztaxen ennoblement
izfin rectitude, righteousness
izfina righteous
fibyen politeness
fibyena polite, well-mannered
ofibyen impoliteness, rudeness
ofibyena impolite, rude, ill-mannered
yixfia useful
oyixfia useless
oyixfian uselessness
oyixfiaxer render useless
yixfian usefulness, utility
yixfiser be of use, benefit, serve well
yixfiaxer make good use of, utilize, make the best of
yixfiaxen utilization
fiyix benefit, utility
fiyixer get good use out of, benefit from, utilize
fiyixut one benefitting
fiyux good service, benefit, good help
fiyuxer serve well, help out
fiyuxea beneficial
fiyuxwa well-served
fiyak hope, aspiration
fiyaker hope, aspire
fiyakaya hopeful
fiyakayan hopefulness
fiyakika hopeful
fiyakikan hopefulness
fiyakea hopeful
fiyakut aspirant
fiyaken aspiration
fiyakoya hopeless
fiyakuka hopeless
fiyaka hoped-for, hoped
ofiyak dispair
ofiyaka desperate
ofiyakay desperately
ofiyakea desperate
ofiyakean desperation
fisanxer reform, reshape
ficanxen reformation
ficanxwa reformed
ficanxut reformer
fisanser reform, get into better shape
fisansa reformed
fisansam reformatory
finaz merit, worth, value
finazer merit, deserve, qualify
finazen qualification
finazea meritorious, deserving
finazwa well-deserved
finazxiun medal, merit badge
fila luscious, delicious, delightful, luxurious, delux
filan luxury, delight
filanier luxuriate
filanuer delight, provide luxury
filanuea luxuriant
fiyla exquisite
fiylan exquisiteness
fiylay exquissitely::
fira excellent, top-notch
firan excellence
firay excellently
firser excel
firder sing the praises of, revere, idealize
firz ideal:::
firzin idealism
firza idealistic
firzinat idealist
firzay ideally
firzxer idealize
firzxen idealization
firzxwa idealized
firxa perfect
firxay perfectly
firxan perfection
firxer perfect
firxen perfection
firxenin perfectionism
firxeninut perfectionist
ofirxa imperfect
ofirxay imperfectly
ofirxan imperfection
ofirxas imperfection
fitex thanks, gratitude, appreciation, good thoughts
fitexer be grateful for, be thankful for, appreciate
fitexea grateful, thankful, appreciative
fitexean gratefulness, thanksfulness, appreciativeness
ofitexea ungrateful, thankless, unappreciative
ofitexean ungratefulness, thanklessness, unappreciativeness
fitexwa appreciated
fitexder express appreciation, thank
fitexdwu! thanks!
fitax good memory
fitaxer remember well, remember fondly, be thankful
fiteluz good taste, flavor
fiteluzer taste good
fiteluzea good-tasting, delicious, savory, flavorful
fiteaser look good
fiteasea good-looking, nice-looking, handsome
fidalea well-spoken, articulate
fidalean well-spokenness, articulateness
fiteis scent, nice smell, fragrance, nice aroma
fiteiser smell good
fiteisea good-smelling, fragrant, aromatic
fiseuser sound good, be melodious
fiseusea melodious, nice-sounding, euphonic
fiseus euphony
fiseusdrun euphemism
fiseusdruna euphemistic
fiseusdrunay euphemistically
fitoser feel good
fitosea nice to the touch
fitel fine cuisine, gourmet food
fitela gourmet
fitelut gourmand
fiteluuwa well-nourished
fitoofwa well-dressed
fibak good health, well-being
fibaka in good health, well
fiter know well, be familiar with, be expert
fitut expert, connoisseur
fitutan expertise
fitwa well-known, familiar
ofitwa not well-known, unfamiliar
fitwat celebrity, well-known person
fitidwa well-understood
fituswa well-educated:
fixer do well
fix good job, good deed
fixwa well-done
fixwa! well-done!, bravo!
flia excellent, superb, outstanding
flian excellence
fliay excellently
flider eulogize
flid eulogy
flidut eulogist
fria splendid, wonderful, great, fantastic, marvelous, extraordinary, glorious
frian greatness, splendor, glory, wonderment
friay splendidly, wonderfully, greatly, fantastically, marvelously, extraordinarily
frias marvel, wonder, thing of splendor
frider flatter, glorify
frid flattery, glory
friden flattery, glorification
frideya glorious, flattering
fridwa flattered, glorified
gafiaxer improve, better, fix
gafiaxen improvement, betterment
gafiaxwa improved, bettered, fixed
ogafiaxuwa unfixable, unimprovable
gafiser improve, do better
gafisen improvement, doing better
gafisea improving, doing better
gyafixer do one's best, do as well as possible, excel
gyafixen excellence, doing one's best
gyafixut top performer
gafifer prefer
gafif preference
gafifa preferable
gafifeya preferential
fijub! good day!
fiimaj! good morning!
fimaj! good day!
fiumoj! good evening!
fimoj! good night!
fiteju! long live!, viva!
fibak! to your health!, hail!
fiyex! good job!, well-done!
fipop! bon voyage!
fitojen euthanasia
fitos euphoria, good feeling, exhileration
fitosea euphoric, feeling good, exhilerant
fitosuer exhilerate
fitepa intelligent
fitepan intelligence
fitepat intelligent person, intellect
fitapa fit
fitapan fitness
fitapaxem gym, fitness center
fitapaser get fit
fitipa good-hearted, generous, nice, kind, genial
fitipan good-heartedness, generousness, niceness, kindness, geniality
fitipat good-hearted person, kind person, generous person, good soul
fitopa sane, of sound mind, mentally sound, psychologically ok
fitopan sanity, soundness of mind
ofitopa insane, mentally unsound
ofitopaser go insane
ofitopat insane person
ofitopatam insane asylum
fiteypesan good mood, good humor
fiteypesa in a good mood, good-humored
fitejer live well, live the good life
fitejea living well
fitejut bon-vivant
fidoter get along well, socialize well
fidoten getting along, socializing well
fidit model citizen, good citizen, loyal citizen
fidat good friend, pal, buddy, bonami
fitup member in good standing
fixiun good sign, harbinger, auspice, augur
fixiuner augur well, be a good sign
fiodaler be discrete
fiodal discretion
fiodalea discrete
fizotej heaven, paradise, (good-after-life)
fizoteja celestial, heavenly, paradisical
fizotejat creature of heaven, angel
aafizotejat archangel
fizotejata angelic

fua bad

fuan badness
fuay poorly
fu poorly
fu- miss-, mal-, ill-
gafua worse
gafuxer worsen, make worse
gafuxen worsening
gafuxwa worsened
gafuser worsen, become worse
gafu gafu worse and worse
gafuay worse
gafi worse
gyafua worst
gyafus the worst thing of all
gyafu worst
fut villain, sinner, devil, bad guy, malefactor
futan villainy
futa vile, evil
aafut archvillain, principal bad guy
fuas bad thing, something bad
fuaxer make bad, ruin, mess up, harm
fuaxea deleterious, harmful
fuaxen ruination
fuxer spoil, ruin
fux ruin
fuxwa ruined, spoiled
fuxwas spoilage, waste, spoils
fuxen ruination, spoiling
fuxut malefactor, spoiler, ruin-maker
fuyxer debase
fuyxen debasement
fuyser degenerate
fuysen degeneration
fuysat degenerate person, misfit
fuder curse, malign, damn, condemn
fud curse
fuden cursing, maligning, damnation, condemnation
fudwa cursed, maligned, damned, condemned
fudun curse word, dirty word, cuss word
fufan malice, malevolence, evil
fufanaya malicious, malevolent, vile
fufer wish bad for, want bad things
fufen malevolence, ill-will, vilainy
fufea malevolent, malicious
fufut vilain, vile person, bad guy, malefactor
fun vice
funaya vicioius
funayan viciousness
funika vicious
funikan viciousness
funder fault, blame
funden blasphemy, fault-finding
fundea blasphemous
funduwa blameworthy
funoya fault-free, faultless
funoyan faultlessness
funuka fault-free, faultless
funukan faultlessness
fuyn flaw, pecadillo, sin
fuynaya flawed
fuynoya flawless
fuynoyan flawlessness
fus defect, flaw, imperfection, bad thing
fusa flawed, defective
fusan defectivess
fusober correct, clear of any defects
fusoben correction
fusan malformation, deformation
fusana malformed, misshapen, deformed
fusanxer deform
fusanxen deformation
fusanxwa deformed, monstrous, malformed
fusanxwat deformed person, monster
fusanser become misshapen, become malformed
fusexwa shabby, poorly-constructed, delapidated
fusexwan shabbiness, delapidatedness
fubeker mistreat, abuse, bother, molest
fubek mistreatment, abuse, molestation
fubekwa mistreated, abused, bothered, molested
fubekwat victim of mistreatment, abused person
fubekut abuser, molester
fuivder mock, make fun of
fuivden mockery, irony
fula malignant
fulan malignancy
fulxer damage
fulx damage
fulxwa damaged
ofulxwa undamaged
lofulxer repair, fix
fuyuxer disserve, serve poorly
fuyux disservice
fuyixer misuse, use badly
fuyix misuse
fuyixut misuser
fuyixwa misused
fura cruel
furan cruelty
furat cruel person
fuuj bad end, bad result, misfortune, bad fate
fuuja misfortunate, ill-fated
fuujer end poorly
fuujea misfortunate
fuij bad start
futeiser smell bad
futeisa bad-smelling, stinky, malodorous
futeis bad smell, stink
futeluzer taste bad
futeluza bad-tasting
futeluz bad taste
futeet bad hearing
futeeta hard of hearing
fuader insult, criticize, offend, bad-mouth
fuad insult, criticism, offense
fuadea insulting, critical
fuadut critic, offender, bad-mouther
fuvader disapprove, reject, condemn
fuvad disapproval, rejection, condemnation
fuvadwa dispproved, rejected, condemned
futeser think ill of, regret, scorn, look down on
futes bad thought, scorn
futeswa scorned, ill-thought-of
futesder express regret
futepa dumb, stupid
futepan dumbness, stupidity
futepat dumb person, stupid person
futipa mean, nasty
futipan meanness, nastiness
futipat mean person, nasty person
funos waste
funoser waste
funoswa wasted
funosen wastage
futepyen anger, bad mood
futepyena angry, mad
futepyenay angrily
futepyenier get angry, get mad
futepyenuer anger, make mad
futepyenuwa angered, angry
futepyenxer anger, make mad
futepyenser grow angry, get mad
flutepyen rage
flutepyena enraged
flutepyenier get enraged
flutepyenuer enrage
flutepyenuwa enraged
flutepyenxer enrage
flutepyenser get enraged
frutepyen furor
frutepyena furious
frutepyenier get infuriated
frutepyenuer infuriate
frutepyenuwa infuriated
frutepyenxer infuriate
frutepyenser get infuriated
futopa insane, crazy
futopan insanity, craziness
futopat insane person, crazy person
futopatam insane asylum
fuyak dispair
fuyaker dispair
fuyakea despairing
fuyaka desperate
fuyaken desperation
fuyakay desperately
fuyakuer make despair, discourage, dishearten
fuebdaler argue, quarrel, dispute
fuebdal argument, quarrel, dispute
fuebdalut interlocutor
futider misunderstand, misapprehend
futiden misunderstanding, misapprehension
futidwa misunderstood, misapprehended
futuder explain poorly
futuden poor explanation
futudwa poorly explained
fubak bad health, ill health
fubaka in bad health, ill
futapa unfit, out of shape, in bad shape, physically unfit
futapan unfitness
fuzotej hell, (bad-after-life)
fuzoteja infernal
fuzotejpoa hell-bent
fuzotejat creature of hell
fuzotejeb devil
fudeser mispronounce
fudesen mispronunciation
fudeswa mispronounced
fudesinder misspell
fudesinden misspelling
fudesindwa misspelled
futos bad feeling
futoser feel bad
futosea feeling bad
fubyen bad manners, rudeness
fubyena ill-mannered, impolite, rude
fubyenat rude person
fubyenay rudely
futaja low-born, degenerate, common
futajat commoner, degenerate, low-brow
futojuer kill, murder, slay
futojuen killing, murder, slaying
futojuut killer, murderer, slayer
futojuwat murder victim
dofun crime, offense, public vice
dofuna criminal, offensive
dofunxer commit a crime, commit an offense
dofunxut ciminal, offender
dofunxwat crime victim
futeat bad vision
futeata poor-sighted
futeasa hard-to-see, obscure
futeasan obscurity
futeasaxer obscure
futeasaxwa obscured
fuseux cacophony, noise
fuseuxa cacophonous, noisy
fuseuxer make noise
fuseuxar noise-maker
fufyes accident
fufyesa accidental
fufyesay accidentally
flufyes calamity
flufyesa calamitous
frufyes catastrophe
frufyesa catastrophic
fuuj bad ending
fuujer end bad
fuom bad spot, bad situation, jam
fuoma ill-situated, badly positioned
fuper go badly, go wrong, fare poorly, fail
fup failure, dead-end
fuyaker dispair
fuyak dispair, desperation
fuyaka desperate
fuyakay desperately
fusaxwa shabby, poorly-made
fusaxwan shabbiness
futoofwa poorly-dressed
fuibwa ill-gotten
fusan malformation
fusana malformed, misshapen
fuytepyen bad attitude, bad disposition, lousy mood, bad temper
fuytepyena ill-disposed, in a lousy mood
tobufa misanthropic
tobufan misanthropy
tobufat misanthrope
toybufa misogynous
toybufan misogyny
toybufat misogynist
futuyswa badly-raised
funos waste
funoser waste
funoswa wasted
funoswas wasted stuff, waste matter, refuse, trash
funosen wastage
funosut waster
funes lack of thrift, wastefulness, thriftlessness
funesea unthrifty, thriftless, wasteful
fubak bad health

fyia useful, worthy, valuable, helpful

fyian usefulness, benefit, worth
fyias useful thing, benefit, advantage, asset, worthful item, a help, aid
fyin value, worth, sake
av fyin bi for the sake of, in the interest of
ofyin junk, trash
ofyina of no value, worthless
ofyinaxer junk, trash, discard, devalue
ofyinaxen junking, trashing, discarding, devaluation
ofyinaxwa junked, trashed, discarded, devalued
fyinder evaluate, assess
fyinden evaluation, assessment
fyindut evaluator, assessor
fyinter value, consider useful
fyit aide, helper, assistant, side-kick, agent
fyitan agency, service
fyixer make useful, make use of, utilize
fyixen utilization
fyixwa used
fyiser be of use, serve, benefit, help, aid, be instrumental
fyisea useful, serviceable, beneficial, helpful, instrumental
fyisut servant, server, helper, aid, agent
fyisutan agency, service
fyis instrument, aid, tool, service, asset, benefit
fyisyan toolchest, array of services, instrumentation
ofyia of no use, useless
ofyian uselessness
ofyias worthless item, trash, junk
vafyia valid
vafyian validity
vafyixer validate
vafyixen validation
vafyixwa validated
vofyia invalid
vofyian invalidity
vofyixer invalidate
vofyixen invalidation
vofyixwa invalidated

fyua harmful, noxious, damaging, hurtful, injurious

fyuan harmfulness, noxiousness, deleteriousness, hurtfulness
fyuxer harm, damage, hurt, injure
fyux harm, damage, injury
fyuxwa harmed, damaged, injured
ojfyua dangerous, threatening, menacing
ojfyux danger, threat, menace
ojfyuder threaten
ojfyudea theatening
ojfyud threat
ojfyudwa theatened
fyuya obnoxious, bothersome, troubling, annoying
fyuyxer bother, molest, trouble, annoy
fyuyxea bothersome, troublesome, obnoxious, troubling, annoying
fyuyxwa bothered, troubled, worried, annoyed
fyutexer worry
fyutexea worried
fyutexen worrying
fyutexuer worry, make someone worried
fyutexuea worrisome
fyutexut worryer, worry-wort
fyun harm, damage, hurt, injury
fyunika noxious
fyunuka harmless
vefyun danger, risk, peril, potential harm
vefyunxer endanger, imperil
vefyunxen endangerment
vefyunxwa endangered
fyuseux noize
fyuseuxa noisy
fyuseuxan noiseness
fyuseuxer make noise
fyuseuxar noise-maker

The ga (More), gla (Much), gra (Too Much), gwa (Most) Family[edit]

much, many, very
some, rather
little, few, slightly
too much, too
too little, not enough

ga more, plus

gas more of it
gat someone else, another person
gay still, yet, further
ga ay ga more and more
gaber add
gaba additional
gaben addition
gabwa added
gabwas addendum
gabsin plus sign, cross
gab plus
gaxer increase, augment
gax increment, increase, augment
gaxa incremental
gaxay incrementally, increasingly
gaxen increase, augmentation
gaxwa increased, augmented
gaxea increasing
gaser increase, grow
gasen increase, growth
gasea increasing, growing
galer multiply
gal multiple, times
gala multiple
galan multiplicity
galen multiplication
galwa multiplied
garer exponentiate
gar exponent, to the power of
gara exponential
garen exponentiation
garwa exponentiated
gagon majority
gagona major, majoritive
gaj still, more, further
gawa more
gawat more people, more
gawas more, more things, some more
gafer prefer
gaf preference
gafa preferential
gafwa preferred
gafuwa preferable
gla very, much, a lot
glas much, a lot
glawa many
glawas many things
glawat many people
glay so, so much
glays so much
glaywa so many
glan quantity
glana quantitative
glander quantify
glanden quantification
glandwa quantified
dulegla? how much? how?
duleglawa? how many?
hegla somewhat
higla this, so
hugla that, so
hogla not at all, to no extent
hyagla totally
hyegla however
hyigla as
hyugla not as
hyogla not at all
gladaleya loquacious
glanasa rich, monied
glanasat rich person
glanasaser get rich
glanasaxer make rich, enrichen
glanasaxwa enriched
glatwa famous
gladwa oft-said
glafwa much-desired
glasana polymorphous
glakuyna multifaceted
glajoda frequent
glajoday frequently
glagona multipartite
glajoba long-time
glamosa multi-floor, hi-rise
glaufwa much-hated, odious
glaebdalwa much-discussed
glasuna plural, manifold
glasunaxer pluralize
glasunaxen pluralization
gladooba multinational
glaseuza polytonic
glatada polygamous
glakyaxwa much-changed
glatima multiplex
glateza multicultural
glavoza multicolored
gladalyena multilingual::
gra too much, too, overly
gras too much
gray overly
grawa too many
grawas too many things
grawat too many people
gra-:over-, extra-
gradaleya overly talkative, loquacious
gradaleyan talkativeness, loquaciousness
graxer exaggerate, overdo
graxen exaggerated
graxwa exaggerated, overdone
grateler over-eat
gratelen overeating, gluttony
grateleya gluttonous
grafer covet
grafeya covetous
grafwa coveted
grabikea extra-cautious
gran excess, too much
grana excessive, extraneous
granay excessively:
granan excessiveness
graxeyn excitement
graxeynuer excite
graxeynuwa excited
graga exorbitant, extravagant
gragay exorbitantly, extravagantly
gragan exorbitance, extravagance
grasa excessive:

ge equal, as, like

ges as much of it
gewa as many
gewac as many things
gewat as many people
gey even
gea equal, same, even
geay equally
gean equality
geaxer equalize, even out
geaxen equalization
geaxwa equalized
ogea unequal, uneven
gexer equate
gexea nad eq
ge- equi-, even-
geyibana equidistant
genaza equivalent
gekuna equilateral
geyoniza parallel::
geteypa even-tempered
geteypan equanimity, even temper
geber equal
gebe equals
geben equation
gebaxer equalize, balance
gebaxwa equalized, balanced
ogebaxwa unbalanced
gebelker treat equally
gebelk equity
gebelkea equitable, fair::::
gela same, identical
gelan identity, sameness
gelaxer identify
ogela different
ogelan difference
ogelay differently
ogelaxer differentiate
ogelaxen differentiation:
geyla similar, like, such
geylay similarly
geylan similarity, likeness
ogeyla dissimilar
gelxer imitate
gelxen imitation
gedrer copy
gedren copy
gedrar copier
geydrun simile:
yubge almost
gre enough
gres enough of it
greti enough people

go less

goy not any more
gos less, less of it, piece
gowa fewer
gowas fewer things
gowat fewer people
go ay go less and less
gojoda rare
gojoday rarely
gon part, portion
gona partial
gonay partially
gonxer partition, part, divide, cut
gonxen partitioning
gonxwa partitioned
gagon majority
gogon minority
gegon equal share, equity, fair share
glagon plurality
vyegon proportion
vyegona proportional
vyegonan proportionality::
gonbier participate, take part
gonbiut participant
ogonbiut non-participant
ogonbien non-participation
gonbiena participatory
gonbuer share, divy up, apportion
gonbuwat sharehol, apportionment
gonbuwa shared, apportioned
gegonbuer share equally
eggonbuer reapportion
gorber cut
gorb cut
gorben cutting
gorbwa cut
gorbun shred, piece
gorbuner shred
eyngorber cut in half, cut in two, split down the middle
iyngorber split into three parts
uyngorber quarter
aloyngorber decimate
oyebgorber cut out, excise
yebgorber cut into
yebgorbun incision
gorbar knife
faogorbar axe
fabgorber axe, chop
taogorbar cleaver
taogorbut butcher
taogorber carve
tayegorbar shaver
tayegorber shave
degorbar paper cutter
fyagorber slice
zyogorber slice, slit
yubgorber graze
zyegorber pierce
tayogorber scar
taogorber stab, slash, lacerate
taogorbar dagger
vogorber snip
gorbeser nick,notch:
gorfer rip, tear
gorfen ripping, tearing
gorfwa ripped, torn
gorfun shred, rip, tear
gorfar scissors
yongorfer rip apart, tear apart
gorfun piece
gorfuner cut to pieces
gorfuneser mince::
gober subtract
gob minus
goben subtraction
gobwa subtracted
gobsin dash, minus sign
goler divide
gol divided by, part, division
golen division
golwa divided
gorer derive the root of
gor to the root of
egorer squared
egorwa squared
goxer reduce
gox reduction
goxen reduction
goxwa reduced
goser diminish
gosen diminution
goswa diminished
gosea diminishing
goynem sector
gones particle, crumb
gonesa particulate
gonesxer crumble
gonesxwa crumbled
goyn section
eyngoyner dissect
yongoyner section off
goyna sectional
goun piece
gouner cut into pieces
gounog tiny piece
zyigoun chip
yongoyn fragment
yongoyner fragment, fracture, break, rupture, break apart
yongoynwa fragmented, fractured, broken, ruptured
teugorber bite
teugorbun bite, morsel:

gyaa fat

gyaan fatness, obesity
gyaxer fatten
gyaxeya fattening
gyaxwa fattened
gyaser get fat
gwa most
gwas most of it, as much as possible
gwati most people

gwe just gyo thin

gyoan thinness
gyoxer thin out
gyoser get thin
gragyoxwa emaciated

The gi- (Sharp), gyi- (Solid) Family[edit]

solid, firm

gin point, tip, butt, end

gia sharp, pointed
yabgin peak, zenith, summit, highpoint
yobgin nadir, lowpoint
mabgin mountain peak, summit
zyigia sharp
zyigiar sword
gixer sharpen
gixen sharpening
gixwa sharpened
gixar sharpener
gim extremity, end
gisa extreme
gisan extremity
giber poke, stick, jab
gibar poker
grin blade

gun angle

guyn corner
mepguyn street corner
guna angular, hooked
gunan angularity
ingun triangle
inguna triangular
ingunxer triangulate
ingunxen triangulation
ungun quadrangle
unguna quadrangular
grun hook (uzfod?)
pitgrun fish hook
kyoxgrun anchor
kyoxgrunber drop anchor
kyoxgrunbwa anchored
grunxer hook
grunxen hooking
grunxwa hooked

gyia solid, firm, compact, dense, tough

gyian solidity, firmness, density, toughness
gyiay solidly, firmly, densely, toughly
gyiaxer solidify, firm up, toughen
gyiaxen solidification, firming up, toughening
gyiaxwa solidified, firmed up, toughened
gyita robust
gyitan robustness
gyitay robustly

gyua fragile, flimsy, slight, delicate, frail, dainty

gyuan fragility, frailty, delicacy, daintiness
gyuay delicately, slightly, daintily
gyuas delicacy

The if (Pleasure), yif (Courage) Family[edit]


if pleasure

ifer love
ifen loving, love
ifwer be loved
ifwen being loved
ifwa beloved, loved
ifwat loved one, beloved
ifut lover
ifutan lovership
iyfer like
iyfuwa likable, sympathetic, nice, agreeable
ifser be pleasing, be agreable
ifson pleasure
ifxer please, placate
ifxea pleasing, pleasurable
ifier get pleasure, enjoy, like
ifuer please
ifuea pleasing, pleasant
ifuuwa pleased
ifsler charm, enchant, seduce
ifslea charming, enchanting, seductive
ifslon charm, enchantment, seduction
ifslwa charmed, enchanted, seduced
ifslut charmer, enchanter, seducer
iyfslon grace
iyfslona gracious
ifla kind, gentle, tender
iflan kindness, gentleness, tenderness
ifran passion
ifrana passionate
ifsrer ravish
ifsrea ravishing
ifiner show affection
ifin affection
ifinaya affectionate
ifrer adore, worship
ifrawa adored
ifruwa adorable
ifren adoration, worhip
ifper stroll, promenade
ifpen stroll, promenade
ifput stroller
lyutifan altruism
lyutifea altruistic
utifan egoism
utifea egoist
utifeat egoist

uf hate

ufer hate
ufon hatred
ufonaya hate-filled, hateful
ufwa hated

uyf disliking

uyfer dislike
uyfwa disliked

ulfer detest

ulfwa detested, detestable

ufser be displeasing

ufsea displeasing, disagreeable

ovufer avenge

ovufen revenge
ovufaya vengeful

urf scorn

urfer despice, scorn
urfaya scornful
urfwa despised
urfuwa despicable
urfwat despicable person
urfwas something despicable

yif courage, daring, boldness

yifer dare, be so bold as to
yifen daring
yifut dare-devil, hero
yifa bold, daring, courageous
yifan boldness, daring, courageousness
yifat person of courage, hero
yifayt heroine
yifatan heroism
yifaxer encourage, dare, embolden
yifaxen encouragement, emboldening
yifaxwa encouraged, embolded
yifaser be emboldened, be encouraged, grow bold

yuf fear, fright, dread

yufer fear, be afraid, shirk, dread
yufen fearing, cowering, shrinking, shirking, dreading
yufut coward, shirker
yufutan cowardice
oyufut dreadnaught
yufea afraid, fearful, timid, cowardly
yufean fearfulness, timidity, cowardice
yufeat fraidy-cat, scaredy-cat, timid person, coward
yufeatan cowardice
yufa dreadful, aweful, frightful, fearsome
yufan dreadfulness, awefulness, frightfulness, fearsomeness
yufas deadful thing, aweful thing, fearsome thing
yufat monster, dreaded creature
yufata monstrous
yufatan monstrosity
yufaser become dreadful, become fearsome
yufxer intimidate, frighten, scare, fearmonger, instill fear
yufxen intimidation, fearmongering
yufxea intimidating, scary, frightening, fearsome
yufxwa intimidated, scared, frightened
yufxut intimidator, fearmonger
yufser be scared, frighten, grow fearful
yulf terror, horror
yulfa terrible, horrible
yulfxer terrify, horrify
yulfxea terrifying, terrific, horrific
yulfxeay terrifyingly, tremendously, horrifically
yulfxwa terrified, horrified, terror-stricken
yulfser tremble in fear, shudder
yulfsea trembling, shuddering
yulfin terrorism
yulfina terroristic
yulfinat terrorist
yulfinxer terrorize
yulfinxen terrorization
yulfinxwa terrorized
yulfinxut terrorizer

yif courage, daring, boldness, bravery

yifer dare, be so bold as to, be brave
yifen daring
yifut dare-devil, hero
yifa brave, bold, daring, courageous
yifan bravery, boldness, daring, courageousness
yifat person of courage, hero, brave person
yifayt heroine, brave woman
yifatan heroism, bravery
yifxer encourage, dare, embolden
yifxen encouragement, emboldening
yifxwa encouraged, embolded
yifuer encourage
yifuen encouragement
yifuea encouraging
yifuuwa encouraged
loyifuer discourage
loyifuea discouraging
loyifuuwa discouraged
yifser be emboldened, be encouraged, grow bold
yifier get up the courage, take heart, brave
yilfer be valiant, be super-brave, be heroic
yilfa valiant, heroic, valorous
yilfan valiance, heroism, valor
yilfay valiantly, heroicly
yilfen being a hero
yilfut hero
yilfuyt heroine
yifultan heroism, hero status
yilf valor, honor
yilfa valorous, honorous
yilfas act of valor, heroic deed, honorous deed
yilfxer perform an act of heroism, show valor,
yilfxen heroic performance, showing valor

yuf fear, fright, dread

yufer fear, be afraid, shirk, dread
yufen fearing, cowering, shrinking, shirking, dreading
yufut coward, shirker
yufutan cowardice
oyufut dreadnaught
yufa afraid, fearful, timid, cowardly
yufan fearfulness, timidity, cowardice
yufat fraidy-cat, scaredy-cat, timid person, coward
yufatan cowardice
yuyfer shy away, shrink
yuyfen shying away
yuyfea shy, timid
yuyfean shyness, timidity
yuyfeat shy person, wallflower, timid person
yufwa dreadful, aweful, frightful, fearsome
yufwan dreadfulness, awefulness, frightfulness, fearsomeness
yufwas deadful thing, aweful thing, fearsome thing
yufwat monster, dreaded creature
yufwata monstrous
yufwatan monstrosity
yufxer intimidate, frighten, scare, fearmonger, instill fear
yufxen intimidation, fearmongering
yufxea intimidating, scary, frightening, fearsome
yufxwa intimidated, scared, frightened
yufxut intimidator, fearmonger
yufser be scared, frighten, grow fearful
yulf terror, horror
yulfa terrible, horrible
yulfxer terrify, horrify
yulfxea terrifying, terrific, horrific
yulfxeay terrifyingly, tremendously, horrifically
yulfxwa terrified, horrified, terror-stricken
yulfser tremble in fear, shudder
yulfsea trembling, shuddering
yulfin terrorism
yulfina terroristic
yulfinat terrorist
yulfinxer terrorize
yulfinxen terrorization
yulfinxwa terrorized
yulfinxut terrorizer

The ig- (Fast), yig- (Hard) Family[edit]

iga....fast uga....slow
igar....accelerator ugar....brake
igper....run ugper....amble
yigza....sharp, sour
yugza....mild, sweet
yugsa....supple, flexible
bilyig....cheese bilyug....butter

The ij (Beginning), yij (Opening), tij (Awakening) Family[edit]

ijper....start up
ijber....start up
ijar....on switch
ujper....come to an end
ujber....bring to an end
ujar....off switch
vabij....seed  (vab plant)
tabij....embryo  (tab body)
patij....egg  (pat bird)
texij....concept  (text thought)
milij....spring  (mil water)
manij....glimmer  (man light)
majij....dawn  (maj morning)
mojij....dusk  (moj evening)
kyeuj....fate  (kye- random)
dinuj....denouement  (din story)
mepuj....deadend  (mep road)
jobuj....eternity  (job time)
yijper....come open
yijber...open up
yujper...come to a close
yujber...bring to a close
tijer....be awake
tijper....wake up
tijtepa....conscious  (tep mind)
tujper....fall asleep
tujber....put to sleep

The ik-- (Full), yik- (Difficult) Family[edit]

ilaker....take on water
melik....dirt pile
meluk....hole, dugout
yukson....easy matter

The iv- (Happy), yiv- (Free) Family[edit]

ivla....glad, content
ivra....excited, thrilled
ivseuz....sigh of relief
ivek....game, play
ivuj....happy ending
uvra....morose, dejected
uvseuz....sigh of sorrow
uvuj....sad ending
yuva....bound, captive

The iz (Straight), yiz (Beyond) Family[edit]

izber....direct, steer
izper....go straight, head for
izmep....straight shot, beeline
iznad...vector straight line
izgun....right angle
izeaxer....indicate, point out
izbeb....pilot, driver
uzper....deviate, curve
uznod....turning point
uzyus....spriral, coil
tilabuz....tit ring, nipple ring
doparuz....bow, arch, bow-and-arrow
yuzkof....blanket, wrap

The ja (Before), jwa (Early) Family[edit]

jabikier....take precautions
jey....on and on, forth
joy....afterwards, then, next
ji huj....since then
ju hij....until now
jwapuer....arrive early
jwe....on time
jwea....ready, timely, ripe
jwepuer....arrive on time
jwoa....tardy, mature, stale
jwopuer....arrive late

The ka- (Find), kya- (Change) Family[edit]

kater....realize mission
discover, stumble on
keter....wonder, be curious about
nazkexut....treasure hunter
koxon....problem, quandary
kop....going into hiding
koembier....take refuge
koembuer...provide shelter
kopuer....sneak up to
kyaper...fluctuate, slide
tepkyaxer....persuade, motivate
kyes....event, happening, incident
kyeoj....fate, destiny
kyen....luck, chance
fikyen....good luck
fukyen....bad luck
kyenek....game of chance
kyenekar....gaming machine
kyeyanuper...happen to meet
fikyeoj...good fortune
kyoa....fixed, static, still
kyoser...stay, stand
kyos....status, state
kyoejea....constant, permanent
kyoxer....fix, park
parkyoxam....parking garage
kyotepier....pay attention

The ki- (Slant), kyi- (Heavy) Family[edit]

kim....slope kum....side
kyia....heavy kyua....light

kia oblique, slanted, sloped, diagonal, bent

kiay obliquely, diagonally, on a slant
kian obliqueness, obliquity
kin slant, slope, diagonal, incline, bend
kina diagonal
kinad diagonal line
kinada diagonal
eynkinad radius
eynkinada radial
kiser slant, slope, incline, bend, be inclined, lean
yobkiser decline, bend down, bow, lean down
yobkisen declension
yobkisea declining, bending down, bowing, leaning
yabkiser slope upwards, bend up, slant upwards
yabkisea bending up, slanting upwards
kisea sloping
eynkin radius
eynkina radial
kixer bend, deflect, bow
kixen deflection
kixea deflective
kixwa bent, deflected, bowed
yebkixwa inflected, bowed inward, bent in, concave
oyebkixwa bowed outward, convex
kim slope, incline, bend
yabkim upward slope, rise
yobkim downward slope, precipice
zikim right bend
zukim left bend
kiper limp
kipea limping
kip limp::

kua lateral, side

kuay sideways, sidelong
kuan laterality
kun side, flank
kunser flank
kunsen flanking
kunsa flanked
kuna lateral, side
kuser lie, lie down
kusea lying, recumbant
zakun front, front side, face, facade, bow
zakuna frontal, facial
zokun backside, rear, stern
zokuna back, rear
abkun topside, top, upper side
be abkun bi on top of, atop
obkun bottom, bottomside, underside, lower side
be obkun bi on the bottom of
zikun right side
zukun left side
bi kun bu kun from side to side
kun bay kun side by side
bu kun aside
kunad border, frontier, edge, boundary, limit
kunadser border
kunadoya borderless, limitless, boundless
kunadber limit, put a limit on, delimit
yuzkunad frame
yuzkunadxer frame
yuzkunadxwa framed
ungelkum square
ungelkuma square
gelkumnid cube
gelkumnida cubic
gelkuma equilateral
enkuma bilateral
glakuma multilateral
yemkuber displace, move out of the way
yemkuper be displaced, get out of the way
yamkupen displacement
kuber move aside, shunt aside, put to the side, put off to the side, sidetrack
kuper sidestep, get out of the way, avoid, avert
mepkum sidewalk, sideline
kudaz sideshow
kutim wing, side room
kunig latitude, side space
kunexut sidekick, partner, assistant
kutul side dish
kunix side effect
kumep side street
kupop side trip
kusun sidepiece
kumap sidewind
kun side
be kun bi beside, at the side of, next to
kunpyeser sideswipe, broadside
kum side, flank, coast, bank
mipkum river bank
mipkuma riparian
mimkum seashore, seacoast, coast
mimkuma coastal
mabkum mountainside
tabkum flank
tebkum side of the head

kyia heavy, hefty, ponderous, grave

kyian heaviness, weightiness, impact, import, gravity
debkyian clout
kyiay heavily, weightily
kyixer make heavy, weigh down
kyiser become heavy, be weighed down
kyiper gravitate
kyibix gravity
kyibixa gravitational
kyin weight, poundage
kyinar scale
kyinarer weigh
kyinxer weigh
kyinser weigh
kyinaya weighty
kyinayan weightiness
kyinoya weightless
kyinoyan weightlessness
kyinzebar scale, weights
kyinaker gain weight, put on weight
kyinak weight gain
kyinoker lose weight, take off weight
kyinok weight loss
kyinober remove pounds, get rid of weight
kyik gram
aronkyik kilogram
aroynkyik milligram
asonkyik hectogram
asoynkyik centigram
kyison weighty matter, grave matter, important issue, problem
kyisona important, grave, critical, problematic, grievous
kyisonan importance, gravity, impact, import, grievousness
okyisona unimportant, trivial
okyisonan unimportant matter, triviality
okyisonaxer trivialize
okyisonaxen trivialization
Yod kyison! No problem, You're welcome., Think nothing of it.
kyisun encumbrance
kyisunaya cumbersome
kyisunxer encumber
kyisunxwa encumbered
okyisunxer disencumber
kyis weight, ballast, anchor, plumb, bob
ovkyis counterweight
pyolkyis pendulum, plumb
kyiun cargo, burden, load
kyiunaber burden, load, charge
kyiunabeya burdensome
kyiunabwa laden, loaded, burdened
kyiunober unburden, offload, discharge, unload
kyiunaya burdensome, loaded
kyiunmimpar cargo vessel, cargo ship
kyiunmampar cargo plane
kyiunmempar truck
kyiunpar truck
kyiunparut trucker
kyiunparen trucking
kyiunparog wheelbarrow, cart
kyiunier assume the burden, carry, take on
kyiunuer burden, be a burden to
Voy sa kyiun! It was no burden!, No problem!
Yod kyiun No problem
Sa yod kyiun It was no problem, you're welcome, no problem, it was no big deal
kyiaber stress, emphasize, accentuate, apply pressure
kyiab stress, emphasis, pressure
kyiaben stressing, accentuation, emphasizing
kyiaba emphatic
kyiabeya stressful
kyiabjwab rush hour
kyiober relax, take the stress off, alleviate
kyiobeya relaxing
kyider emphasize, accentuate, stress, say gravely
kyid emphasis, accent, stress
kyidsiun stress, stress mark, accent, accent mark
kyidsiunaber apply an accent, apply a stress mark
kyidsiunober remove an accent
kyida emphatic
kyiday emphatically
kyidwa stressed, emphasized, accentuated
okyidwa unstressed, de-emphasized
kyitexer ponder

kyua light

kyuan lightness, levity
kyuay lightly
kyuxer lighten, alleviate
kyuxen alleviation
kyuser lighten, get lighter
kyuper levitate
kyupen levitation
kyuteba lightheaded
kyuson trivial matter
kyusona trivial

The va (Yes), vya- (True) Family[edit]

va....yes ve....maybe vo....no
vaa....affirmative vea....possible voa....negative
vay....indeed vey....possibly voy....not
vyaa....true vyea....relative vyoa....false
Factive adverbs:
vay indeed, really, do/does Yat vay tide et..... We really do understand you.
Vay upu gajod..... Do come again.
vey.... may, maybe, perhaps, might Vey mamilo..... It may rain.
voy.... not Et voy se ata xeb..... You are not my boss.
Factive Responses
va.... yes Va, at tide..... Yes, I understand.
ve.... maybe, perhaps Ve. At voy te..... Maybe, I don't know.
vo.... no Vo. Et yofe beer has..... No. You can't have it.
Correlative conjunctions:
ay.... and Et ay at po hum.....You and I will go there.
ey.... or Yat yake mamil ey mamyoym.....We expect rain or snow.
oy.... but At po oy at voy beso glajob.....I will go but I won't stay long.
ay/ey.... and/or Ha duzun yebio X ay/ey Y.....The concert will include X and/or Y.
hyaewa...ay.... both...and Hyaewa et ay at voduda..... Both you and I answered no.
Hyaewati voduda..... Both answered no.
Hyeawa...ey.... either...or Hyeawa et ey at ako..... Either you or I will win.
Hyeawat ako..... Either will win.
Hyoewa...ey.... neither...nor Hyoewa et ey at ako..... Neither you nor I will win.
Hyoewat (bi ha ewati) ako..... Neither (of the two) will win.
Some derivatives of va, ve, and vo:
  • vader.... affirm, assent, say yes, approve, ratify, vouch
  • vaduder.... answer yes, reply affirmatively
  • vaa.... positive, affirmative
  • vatin.... optimism
  • vatexer.... think so, believe, trust
  • vafer.... hope, anticipate
  • valder.... assure, promise
  • veder hesitate, say maybe, suppose, guess
  • Vea.... possible
  • vetin.... skepticism
  • vetexer.... wonder, be skeptical, hedge
  • vefer.... have qualms about, vacillate
  • veduder.... equivocate, reply neither yes or no, answer maybe
  • velder.... bet, wager
  • voder.... deny, negate, veto, say no, decline
  • voa.... negative
  • vofer.... reject, despair
  • votin.... pessimism
  • votexer.... doubt, think not, disbelieve
  • voduder.... answer no, reply negatively
  • volder.... warn

The vi- (Beautiful), vyi- (Clean) Family[edit]

via....beautiful vua....ugly