Mirad Grammar/Lesson 3
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Lesson 3: Where do you live?
- In this lesson, you will learn how to conjugate verbs in the basic tenses.
Dialog 3: Verbs in the Simple Active Indicative Tenses PERSON MIRAD ENGLISH M: Hay, Joe! Huyen et xeye? Hi, Joe! How are you doing? J: At xeye fiay, Maria. Ay et? I'm doing well, Maria. And you? M: Hyas se fia. Hom et tambese hij? Everything is good. Where do you live now? J: At tambese zedom hij. Ja his, at tambesa ha yizdom. I live downtown now. Before this, I lived in the suburbs. M: Huj Et sa gla yib bi him. Hij et tambese gla yub. You were then very far from here. Now you live very close by. J: Va. Hos et xe av yex hij? Yes. What are you doing for work now? M: At yexe be tolnam yub bi him. At so hum ju ha uj bi ha jeb. At work at a grocery store near here. I will be there until the end of the season. J: Su baka. Yexu jestay. At hoydo et hij. Be well. Work hard. I will say goodbye to you now. M: Hoy. Upu ha tolnam hej. Bye. Come to the grocery store some time.
Conjugating Simple Active Verbs
- You've seen some uses of the verb ser (to be) in the previous lessons. In this dialog, you see that same verb used in other tenses, aspects, and moods beside the simple present active indicative (is/am/are). In this lesson, you are going to learn that by changing the er ending of the infinitive to one of the vowels a, e, o, and u, you can conjugate any verb in three simple, active tenses plus one other tenseless form that can act as a conditional or imperative. The following chart shows these tenses (first the simple aspect tenses) and how ending are suffixed to the verb stem:
Conjugation in the Simple Active Tenses ASPECT VOICE MOOD TENSE ser
STEM s- x- up- SIMPLE ACTIVE INDICATIVE PRESENT at se....I am at xe....I do at upe....I come SIMPLE ACTIVE INDICATIVE PAST at sa....I was at xa....I did at upa....I came SIMPLE ACTIVE INDICATIVE FUTURE at so....I will be at xo....I will do at upo....I will come SIMPLE ACTIVE HYPOTHETICAL (CONDITIONAL)1
at su....I would be
at xu....I would do
at upu....I would come
- Note 1: These are TENSELESS forms.
- These are called simple aspect tenses and refer to habitual states and actions. In the dialog, the verb form xeye is in the progressive aspect (I am in doing something, as oppposed to I do something as a habitual action), which will be discussed in a later lesson.
- Verb forms do not change for person and number:
- At xe....I do
- Et xe....you do
- It xe....he does
- The plural pronouns begin with a y:
- Yat xe....We do
- Yet xe....You (pl.) do
- Yit xe....They (pl.) does
- Notice that the verb form does not change from person to person or from singular to plural.
- Take note also, that the above pronouns are genderless. So it xe can mean he does or she does. The singular pronouns can be marked for specific gender, but we'll get to that in a later lesson. Also, be aware that these personal pronouns do not change form whether they are the subject or object of a verb.
The Conditional and Imperative
- If the verb form ends in -u, it is in the tenseless hypothetical mood. It can act as a conditional verb form or an imperative verb form. It acts as a conditional if the subject is present and it is functioning in a main clause:
- Hus su fia.....That would be good.
- If the -u verb form has no subject, it can usually be interpreted as a command (= imperative):
- Su baka!....Be well!
- Xu has hij!....Do it now!
Omitting Prepositions after Certain Verbs
- Certain verbs contain inherent positionality or directionality and therefore can be followed by an direct object without a preposition. This is done in English a lot with expressions like go home or come this way or live downtown (instead of go to home or come toward this way or live in downtown). Here are some common examples of this omission:
- Upu ha nam hej.....Come (to) the store sometime.
- At tambese zedom.....I live (in) the downtown.
- Du at eta dyun.....Tell (to) me your name.
Quiz on Simple Active Verbs
- Fill in the blanks with the Mirad equivalents of the underlined English verb forms:
- At ______ hum.....I will be there.
- ______ eta yex hij.....Do your work now.
- Et ________ hom?....You lived where?
- Hot _______ bay et.....Who will come with you?
- Et _______ hos hij?....What do you do now? ( = You do what now?)
- Hus _____ fia.....That would be good.
- In the dialog, you see words like hoyen? (how), hij (now), and him (here). These are called deictic adverbs, because they point to the context of manner, time and place. This chart shows a few of these forms, which are correlated:
Correlative Deictic Adverbs TYPE PLACE TIME MANNER INTERROGATIVE hom?....where? hoj?....when? hoyen?....how? INDEFINITE hem....somewhere hej....sometime heyen....somehow PROXIMAL him....here hij....now hiyen....this way DISTAL hum....there huj....then huyen....that way
- There are quite a few more types that can be correlated this way, but you will learn them in future lessons.
- Examples of usage:
- Yit se hom?....Where are they?
- Yit tambesa him.....They lived here.
- Yat tambeso hem.....We will live somewhere.
- Ha tuxut upo hum.....The teacher will come there.
- Upu hij!....Come now!
- Et upo hoj?....When will you come?
- Et xeye huyen?....How are you doing?
- At tambesa hum.....I lived there.
- A complete list of deictic adverbs can be found in the chapter on Determiners.
Quiz on Deictic Adverbs
- Fill in the following blanks with deictic adverb equivalents underlined in English.
- Et tambese ____?....Where do you live?
- ____ et xeye?....How are you doing?
- Upu _____!....Come here!
- Yat upo zedom _____.....We will come downtown sometime.
- At xo has ______.....I will do it somehow.
- Adverbs can be formed from descriptive adjectives by adding -y to the end of the adjective:
- jesta....diligent --> jestay....diligently (or hard as in to work hard)
- baka....healthy --> bakay....healthily
- fia....good --> fiay....well
- fua....bad --> fuay....poorly
- via....beautiful --> viay....beautifully
- There are words in Mirad that are inherent adverbs and do not required a change of form, such as:
- hom?....where (and all of the other deictic adverbs)
- The adverbs yub and yib can be used in the following prepositional phrases, using bi (of, from):
- yub bi ha dom....near the city
- yib bi ha tolnam....far from the grocery store
- These two adverbs can also be converted to adjectives with the suffixation of -a:
- ha yuba tam....the nearby house
- hua yiba nam....that faraway store
- These two adjectival derivatives and be further adverbialized to produce two words with special meanings:
- It se yubay him.....He (or she) is almost (=nearly) here.
- Hus voy se yibay fia.....That is not remotely good.
Lesson 3 Vocabulary
- zedom....downtown (ze = middle + dom = city)
- yizdom....suburbs (yiz = beyond + dom = city)
- tolnam....grocery store (tol = foodstuffs + nam = store)
- uj....end (vs. ij = beginning)
- baka....healthy, well (vs. boka....ill)
- xer....to do
- tambeser....to live, reside (tam = house + beser = to stay)
- yexer....to work
- uper....to come
- hoyder....to say goodbye (hoy = bye + der = to say)
- jestay....diligently, earnestly
- yub....near, nearby (yubay....almost)
- yib....far, far away (yibay....remotely)
- gla....very (vs. glo....not very)
- hyas....everything (vs. hyos....nothing; see Determiners).
- bi....of, from (vs. bu....to)
- ja....before (je....during, jo....after)
- ja his....before this
- ju....until (vs. ji....since)
- av....for (vs. ov....'against)
- av hus....for that (reason), so