Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Mirad Grammar/Verbs#Non-finite Forms), such as ayser....to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, but the stem is still the infinitive minus the -er ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
- This shows how to determine the stem of a verb listed in the dictionary:
Verb Stems SIMPLE INFINITIVE VERB STEM INFINITIVE ENDING ayser....to have ays- -er poser....to (come to a) stop pos- -er xer....to do x- -er xwer....to happen, be done (PASSIVE) xw- -er
Verb Categories[edit | edit source]
Morphological Categories[edit | edit source]
- Verbs are inflected with the following morphological categories:
- STATES: finite, non-finite
- TENSES: present, past, future, tenseless1
- ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, potential
- VOICES: active, passive, reflexive, reciprocal
- MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
Note 1: The term "tenseless" means that tense is not marked. For example, in Mirad, Pu! is the imperative of the verb per....to go. It means Go! and in tenseless. The -u ending is a tenseless hypothetical mood marker.
- In effect, the PERSON/NUMBER category is not listed above, because this caterory does not affect the morphology of the Mirad verb form itself. The Mirad verb form stays the same for all persons and numbers. That information is contained in the subject pronouns governing the verb. In English, for example, the verb "be" has several different forms in the present tense verb form depending on the person and number (I am, you are, he is, we are, etc.) The following chart shows how the English pattern differs from the corresponding single Mirad verb form se for all persons and numbers:
Verbs Forms Unchanged for Person PERSON NUMBER ENGLISH
1st SINGULAR I am at se 2nd SINGULAR you are et se 3rd SINGULAR he/she/it is it se 1st PLURAL we are yat se 2nd PLURAL you are yet se 3rd PLURAL they are yit se
- This invariability of person/number exists for all tenses.
Lexical Categories[edit | edit source]
- In addition, verbs can be described in terms of the following opposing lexical categories. By lexical, is meant that verbs having different lexical properties are listed in the dictionary and have nothing to do with conjugation.
Verb Lexical Categories STATIVE DYNAMIC ser....to be xer....to do INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE agaser....to grow large agaxer....to magnify SUBJECT-DIRECTED PATIENT-DIRECTED bier....to take buer....to give REFLEXIVE NON-REFLEXIVE utvyixer....to wash up (wash oneself) vyixer....to wash INCHOATIVE CAUSATIVE tujper....fall asleep tujber....put to sleep AUTONOMOUS DYNAMIC yijer....to open (by itself) yijber....to (make it) open RECIPROCAL NON-RECIPROCAL hyuittujber....to kill one another tujber....to kill GESTURAL LOCOMOTIVE baser....to stir, budge paser....to move SUBJECT-ORIENTED OBJECT-ORIENTED teetyiker....to be hard of hearing teetyikwer....to be hard to hear
Non-finite Forms[edit | edit source]
- Non-finite verb forms are
- not conjugated for person or number
- cannot form a predicate
- and do not have a subject.
- There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
- infinitives: the dictionary lookup form of a verb, ending in -er or sometimes -wer
- gerunds: verbal nouns, ending in -en
- participles: verbal adjectives, ending in -a
Infinitives[edit | edit source]
- Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the active voice simple aspect infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or rarely the passive voice simple aspect infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus the -er or -wer ending is the verb stem.
Infinitive Stems INFINITIVE STEM ENDING agser....to grow ags- -er igxer....to quicken igx- -er per....to go p- -er xwer....to happen, be done xw- -er
- The infinitive in Mirad is used very much as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two aspects (simple, perfect) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective stems are underlined:
Active and Passive Infinitive Stems INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SIMPLE ASPECT igxer....to quicken igxwer....to be quickened PERFECT ASPECT igxayer....to have quickened igxawer....to have been quickened
: In the above chart, the verb stem is igx- and
- the infinitive marker is -er, and
- the simple aspect active voice marker is zero, and
- the simple aspect passive voice marker is w, and
- the perfect aspect active voice marker is -ay-, and
- the past aspect passive voice marker is -aw-.
Intransitive verbs like per to go do not have a passive voice. Also, the passive voice form of a verb will not appear in the dictionary unless it has a special meaning, such as xwer to happen. The perfect infinitives are never listed in the dictionary.
Gerunds[edit | edit source]
- The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
Gerunds INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND agaxer....to magnify agax- agaxen....magnifying, magnification agaxwen....being magnified ayser....to possess ays- aysen....possessing, possession ayswen....being possessed saxer....to create, make, form sax- saxen....forming, creation saxwen....being created
- Lexicalized gerunds, such as sanxen formation, forming generally appear in the dictionary in the active voice.
- Some examples:
- Ha sanxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi.....The forming (or: formation) of this star took millions of years.
- Iyta deuzen sa gla via.....Her singing was very beautiful.
- Popen se jesta yex.....Traveling is hard work.
- Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti.....Being heard well is important for actors.
- Teaten se vyatexen......Seeing is believing.
Participles[edit | edit source]
- Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns and pronouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles are marked by aspect (progressive, perfect, imminent, potential) and voice (active, passive). The template for a participle is "STEM+[e(a)ou]+(w)+a". The first letter of the participial ending is the aspect marker: e for progressive, a for perfect (see note 1 below), o for imminent, or u for potential 2. This is followed by a w if the participle is in the passive voice. The last letter of the ending is the adjectival marker -a.
- Here is a table of participles:
Participles ASPECT VOICE INFINITIVE PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE deuzer....to sing deuzea....singing ha deuzea pat....the singing bird3 PERFECT ACTIVE pier....to depart pi(a)a....departed ha pia topi....the departed souls IMMINENT ACTIVE tajber....to give birth tajboa....about to give birth ha tajboa toyb....the woman about to give birth POTENTIAL ACTIVE tojber....to kill tojbua....with potential to kill tojbua til....a lethal potion PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE ebdalwer....to be discussed ebdalewa....being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen....the book being discussed PERFECT PASSIVE yujbwer....to be closed yujb(a)wa....closed ha yujbwa mes....the closed door IMMINENT PASSIVE osexwer....to be destroyed osexowa....about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam....the house about to be destroyed POTENTIAL PASSIVE tilwer....to be drunk tiluwa....drinkable tiluwa mil....potable water
- Note 1: In passive participles, the perfect aspect vowel a is usually omitted for brevity's sake, unless the verb stem ends in one of the liquid sounds l or r, which would make the pronunciation difficult. For example, the perfect passive participle of xer is xwa but the pefect passive participle of xler is xlawa. In active perfect participles, the double aa is usually reduced to a, as in ha pia topi....the departed souls (rather than ha piaa topi. In poetry, the perfect aspect vowel a can be omitted or retained optionally in the perfect active or passive participle.
- Note 2: The potential aspect, represented by the vowel u is much like the conditional in English, but is not considered a tense in Mirad. For example, tojbu means would kill and the participle tojbua means lethal (referring to something that "would/has the potential to kill" ). More about this in a later section.
- Note 3: There is another form of the progressive participle that falls in the lexical, rather than morphological category, in that such forms are listed in the dictionary as adjectives. For example, in the phrase The animals bothering our bird feeder..., the participle bothering would be oboxea in Mirad. By inserting the letter y between the verb stem and the participial ending, the participle become an adjective denoting a propensity or habit, as in bothersome (oboxyea). Such participles are invariably in the active voice. Most such adjectives in English end in -ive as in repulsive or -ly as in wiggly or -ous as in circuitous. Such adjectives in Mirad are listed in the dictionary and end in -yea.
- Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
- Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay.....She entered the room singing.
- Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia.....The speech having been finished, he left.
- Also, the above participles can be converted into abstract nouns by suffixing n. Examples:
- tiluwa....drinkable → tiluwan....potability
- tojbua....lethal → tojbuan....lethality
- mansea....shining → he mansean bi iyta deuzen....the brilliance of her singing
- aakaxyea....inventive → aakaxyean....inventiveness
- Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for people or living things. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
- xwa....known → xwas....what is known, a fact
- xwa....known → xwasi....facts, information
- oxwa....unknown → oxwas....what is not known, a mystery
- osexea....destroying → osexeas....a destroyer
- tojbua....lethal → tojbuas....something lethal, a lethal thing
- tojboa....moribund → tojboati....people about to die, fatal cases
- tejea....living → tejeat....a living person
- tejea....living → tejeasi....living things
- There is a special tenseless, nominalized, animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer, Xant, Xist), which refers to a person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
- Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat....the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut....the winner.
Finite Forms[edit | edit source]
- In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
- Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person subject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se....I am, et se....you are, it se....he/she/it is, etc.
Moods[edit | edit source]
- There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
- Indicative Mood
- The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
- The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, future, and tenseless, indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, -o, and -u, respectively.
- Hypothetical Mood
- Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
- a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
- a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
- an unrealized situation, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (It is important that you be early.)
- an imagined if-then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (If I were rich, I would be happy.)
Aspects[edit | edit source]
- There are five aspects in the Mirad verb system.
- the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
- the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
- the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
- the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
- the POTENTIAL aspect, i.e. an action potentially happening.
- The Simple Aspect (default)
- Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional. Five tenses can be expressed in the simple aspect, PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE, and what's called TENSELESS, that is, irrespective of time, i.e. unmarked for tense.
- Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (per....to go and ser....to be) with the endings underlined:
Active Voice Conjugation of Per and Ser MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 per VERB #2 ser INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE At pe. I go At se. I am INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At pa. I went At sa. I was INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At po. I will go At so. I will be HYPOTHETICAL TENSELESS SIMPLE ACTIVE At pu. I would go [CONDITIONAL]
Van yat pu!....Let's go! [HORTATIVE]
Pu tam!....Go home! [IMPERATIVE]
Van hyat pu!....May everyone go! [JUSSIVE]
Se fia van et pu.....It is well that you go. [SUBJUNCTIVE]
At su.....I would be
Van has su.....Let it be.
Su fia!....Be good!
Van hyat su iva!....May everyone be happy!
Se glatesa van et su jwaa.....It's important that you be early.
- The Simple Indicative Present Tense
- The simple indicative present instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
- At yexe be tam. ....I work at home.
- Hia tom se nam. ....This building is a store.
- The Simple Indicative Past Tense
- The simple indicative past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time. The simple past contrasts in aspect with the past progressive (I was doing something) or the present perfect (I have done something), or past potential (I would have done something). The simple past is punctual, that is, it describes an event that occurred at a particular point in time.
- Iyt taja be yibmem. ....She was born abroad.
- At ujba ha dyes ji iwa jwobi. ....I finished the book three hours ago.
- His kyesa exag hijub.....This happened twice today.
- The Simple Indicative Future Tense
- The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
- Yit tadso zajab.....They are going to get married next year.
- Hua kaxon ujako. ....That solution will work.
- The Simple Hypothetical Tenseless Tense
- A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
- Upu him!....Come here! (IMPERATIVE)
- Von upu! ....Don't come! (NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE)
- Ha edeb fu teater et. ....The king would like to see you. (CONDITIONAL)
- Ven at su et, at dolu. ....If I were you, I would be quiet. (CONDITIONAL)
- Van eyt ujaku be eytia yexnadi. ....May all you women succeed in your careers. (HORTATIVE)
- Van yat ijbu bay fyadil. ....Let's begin with a prayer. (JUSSIVE)
- Se glatesa van et puu jwa. ....It's important that you arrive early. (SUBJUNCTIVE)
- Se glatesa von et puu jwo.....It's important that you not arrive late. (NEGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE)
- A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
- Hypothetical verb forms ending in -u can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the following syntactical patterns in the sentence:
- Generally, if a verb form ending in -u begins a sentence and has no subject, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!.
- If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers van, ven, or von, then it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per.....I would like to go..
- If the subject of the verb is preceded by ven....if, then it is a CONDITIONAL clause as in Ven at su nasikat.......If I were a rich man..
- If the subject is preceded by Van....that/let/may or von....don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Van et yagteju.....May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Van yat fyadilu.....Let us pray. or a prohibition like Von tilu his!....Don't drink this!.
- If the sentence consists merely of a SUBJECT + VERB ending in -u, the meaning is CONDITIONAL, eg.: At voy xu hus.....I would not do that.
- Hypothetical verb forms ending in -u can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the following syntactical patterns in the sentence:
Voices[edit | edit source]
- Mirad has four voices: ACTIVE, PASSIVE, REFLEXIVE and RECIPROCAL.
- Active Voice
- The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
- Passive Voice
- A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
- The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
"Contrasting Active and Passive Voice" TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE ACTIVE
At fe xer fi.
I want to do well.
to be done
Ese hyos xwer.
There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE sexea
Ha yansyem sexea hia tom...
The firm constructing this building...
His se sexewa.
This is under construction.
At xe fi be tistam.
I do well in school.
Huyenasi hoj xwe.
Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPLE xaa
Iyt, xaa hya iyta yex,...
She, having done all her work,...
Hyas se xwa.
Everything is done.
Hot tojba hwut?
Who killed that guy?
Hoj it tojbwa?
When was he killed?
Van it bakxwu.
May he be healed.
- Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer....to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa.....The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer....to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber....to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobot tajbwa zajub.....The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobot taja zajub.....The child was born yesterday.)
- Reflexive Voice
- A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
- tojber....to kill → uttojber....to kill oneself
- vyilxer....to wash → utvyilxer....to wash up
- teater....to see → utteater....to see oneself
- yalber....to lift → utyalber....to lift oneself → Utyalbu!....Lift yourself up!
- treer....to know → utter....to know oneself → Uttyeu!....Know thyself!
- Reciprocal Voice
- A verb is made reciprocal by prefixing the reciprocal pronoun hyuit....one another, for example:
- tojber....to kill → hyuittojber....to kill one another
- vyilxer....to wash → hyuitvyilxer....to wash one another
- teater....to see → hyuitteater....to see one another
- Both the reflexive pronoun and reciprocal pronoun can be used as standalone objects. However, the plural form yut is used if the subject is plural, for example:
- Yit vyilxa uti.....They (f.) washed up. (= washed selves).
- Ha twobeti dizeuda hyuit.....The boys laughed at one another.
- The word hyuit is a portemanteau of hyit....the same one combined with hyut....the other one.
Aspects Revisited[edit | edit source]
- Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
- SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
- PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
- PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
- IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
- POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.
The Simple Aspect[edit | edit source]
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple atemporal hypothetical ( = conditional) refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
Simple Aspect ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SIMPLE PRESENT INDICATIVE At xe....I do Has xwe....It is done SIMPLE PAST INDICATIVE At xa....I did Has xwa....It was done SIMPLE FUTURE INDICATIVE At xo....I will do Has xwo....It will be done SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL At xu....I would do Has xwu....It would be done
Note: Absence of tense (ATEMPORAL) + HYPOTHETICAL mood = CONDITIONAL
The Progressive Aspect[edit | edit source]
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
Progressive Aspect ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE at xeye....I am doing Has xewe....it is being done PROGRESSIVE PAST INDICATIVE at xeya....I was doing Has xewa....it was being done PROGRESSIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE at xeyo....I am going to be doing Has xewo....it will be happening PROGRESSIVE HYPOTHETICAL at xeyu....I would be doing Has xewu....it would be happening
The Perfect Aspect[edit | edit source]
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
Perfect Aspect ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PERFECT PRESENT INDICATIVE At xaye....I have done Has xawe....It has been done PERFECT PAST INDICATIVE At xaya....I had done Has xawa....It had been done PERFECT FUTURE INDICATIVE At xayo....I will have done Has xawo....It will have been done PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL At xayu....I would have done Has xawu....It would have been done
The Imminent Aspect[edit | edit source]
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. Not that only indicative mood imminent tenses are ever used.
Imminent Aspect ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE IMMINENT PRESENT INDICATIVE At xoye....I am about to do Has xowe....It is about to be done IMMINENT PAST INDICATIVE At xoya....I was about to do Has xowa....It was about to be done
The Potential Aspect[edit | edit source]
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. The future potential and hypothetical potential aspects are never used.
Potential Aspect ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE POTENTIAL PRESENT INDICATIVE At xuye....I am to do Has xuwe....It is to be done, it is doable POTENTIAL PAST INDICATIVE At xuya....I was to do Has xuwa....It was to be done, it was doable
Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit | edit source]
- The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer....to do and its passive xwer....to be done, happen:
to be done, to happen
|to have done|
to have been done, to have happend
being done, happening
xawa ∼ xwa
|about to do|
about to happen
|bound to do|
being done, happening, event
is done, happens
was done, happened
will be done, will happen
(CONDITIONAL / IMPERATIVE)
|would do, do!|
would be done, would happen, be done!
is being done, is happening
was doing, was happening
|will be doing|
will be happening
|would be doing|
would be happening
has been done, has happened
had been done, had happened
|will have done|
will have been done, will have happened
|would have done|
would have been done, would have happened
|is about to do|
is about to be done, is about to happen
|was to be done|
was to be done, was to happen
|is supposed to do|
is supposed to happen
|was supposed to do|
was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen
Predicate Types[edit | edit source]
- Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to how the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed, There are four predicate types in Mirad:
- These types can be combined, such as "negative interrogative" or "affirmative declarative", etc.
- A simple, non-negative statement is affirmative declarative, such as Ha meir yuzpe ha maar.....The earth goes around the sun.
- The following sections discuss non-declarative and non-affirmative predicate types.
Making Predicates Interrogative[edit | edit source]
- To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duven....Say whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos?....What?, Hot?....Who(m)?, or Hom?....where?. Note that the Du in Duven means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duven...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word ven without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duven is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos?....What? and Hom?....Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
Making Predicates Interrogative DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE Et se tadxwa.....You are married. Duven et se tadxwa?....Are you married? (= Say whether you are married.) Ha mari se manika.....The stars are bright. Duven ha mari se manika?....Are the stars bright? (= Say whether the stars are bright.) Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?....Who won? Iyt aka glas.....She won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?....How much did she win? It paye.....He has gone. Hom it paye?....Where has he gone?
- Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
- Et tambese ha yubem?....You live in the neighborhood?
- The yes-no tag vao can be placed at the end of a declaration to make it a question, eg.:
- Et tambese ha yubem, vao?....You live in the neighborhood, right?
- Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duven usually are answered with va....yes, ve....maybe, or vo....no or their equivalents.
"Yes-or-no Questions" YES-NO QUESTION ANSWER Duven eta dyun se John?....Is your name John? Vo, se Bill.....No, it's Bill. Duven eta apet aka?....Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka.....Yes. Mine won indeed. Duven et texe van ha maalyen gafiso hijub?....Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve.....Maybe. Fe per bay at?....Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.....Maybe tomorrow. Et tadso, vao?....You're going to get married, right? Vey va, vey vo.....Maybe yes, maybe no.
Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit | edit source]
- The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
Affirming, Doubting, Negative Declarations INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION AFFIRMATIVE va....yes vay....indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe....Yes, I indeed/do/really agree. DUBITATIVE ve....maybe, perhaps vey....possibly, may... Ve. At vey po.....Maybe. I may/possibly will go. NEGATIVE vo....no voy....not Vo. At voy su iva.....No. I would not be happy.
Mixing Them Up[edit | edit source]
- The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
- Duven et voy se tadxwa?....Aren't you married?
- Hosav iyt se voy tadxwa?....Why isn't she married?
- Vey voy mamilo.....It may not rain.
- At vay voy tadso iyt.....I will certainly not marry her.
- Et peyo, vao?....You will go, right?
- Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa.....No. That may indeed be wrong.
- Et te ha dud, vao?....You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
- Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
- At voy te. ....I don't know.
- At te voy. ....I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]
- Note that vao? is a particle meaning yes or no?, right?, n'est-ce pas?
Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit | edit source]
- An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the tenseless hypothetical mood ending in -u without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
- Ipu !....Go away!
- Tiju !....Wake up!
- Su fiat !....Be a good person!
- Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer van....that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive mood.
- Van yat fadilu.....Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
- Van weti aku hia ifek.....May you guys win this game.
- Van ha edeb yagteju.....Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
- The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer von....don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
- Von (et) dalu at huyen.....Don't (you) speak to me that way.
- Von yit oku.....May they not lose.
- Von yat toxu it.....Let's not forget him.
Complementizers[edit | edit source]
- Van, ven, and von are part of a whole system of complementizers:
Complementizers TYPE COMPLEMENTIZERS MEANING MIRAD
INTERROGATIVE duven...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duven eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John? CONDITIONAL ven if, whether Ven et te, du has.
At utdide ven it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL oven unless Oven et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win. POSITIVE/HORTATIVE van that, so that, let, may At ta van it upo.
Van yat dilo.
Van et su iva.
At xa has van et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE von Don't, let...not, lest Von teaxu at.
Von yat su uva.
At pio von et futipsu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.
RELATIVE hu who, whom, that, which Ha toybi hu ifaye et...
Ha toyb hu et ife.
Koxon hu at yofe lonyafxer.
The women who have loved you.
The woman (whom) you love.
A problem (that/which) I cannot solve.
Subjunctive Clauses[edit | edit source]
- The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer van....that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
- Ha idweb dila van at tyoibu za it.....The king asked that I kneel before him.
- Se igefwa van et upu gwa ig.....It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
- Dirwa van hyat dolu.....It was ordered that everyone be silent.
- A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer von....don't, lest.
- Su bikaya von et pyosu.....Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
- The conditional complementizer ven....if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
- At sexu tam ven at su nasika.....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
- Hos et xu ven et aysu ga nas?....What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
- Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
- Ha idweb dila at tyoiber za it.....The king asked me to kneel before him.
- Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig.....It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
- Hyat dirwa doler.....Everyone was ordered to be silent.
- Su bikaya voy pyoser.....Be careful not to fall.
If-Then Conditional Clauses[edit | edit source]
- A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer ven....if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
If-then Conditional Clauses IF-CLAUSE THEN-CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Ven ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE Ven et ta,
If you knew,
you kept quiet.
FUTURE INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE Ven et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL Ven at su nyaza,
If I were rich,
Ven et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nuxbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.
you would understand.
PAST HYPOTHETICAL PAST HYPOTHETICAL Ven at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
- Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."
If/Whether Subordinate Clauses[edit | edit source]
- Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer ven....whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
If-whether Subordinate Clauses MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE At utdide
ven it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE At voy te
I don't know
ven yit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE At voy te
I don't know
ven et ujako.
if / whether you will succeed.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL At utdide
ven et yantexu.
if / whether you would agree.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE At voy ta
I didn't know
ven wit se taduwa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE At dida
ven iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
PAST INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE At voy ta
I didn't know
ven it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL At dida
ven it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST HYPOTHETICAL At dida
ven it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
- The negative conditional complementizer oven....unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
Negative Conditional Complementizer MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Ot voy ujake
One does not succeed
oven ot yexe jestay.
unless one works hard.
FUTURE INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Et voy teato at
You won't see me
oven et upo.
unless you come (= will come).
Relative Clauses[edit | edit source]
- Relative clauses are of two types:
- Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
- Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.
Bound Relative Clauses[edit | edit source]
- The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
- Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jabi, ayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
- Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
- Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
- Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
- Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
- Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya oyb it ji gla jabi.....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
- Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
- Ha toybi hu at deuza av yit fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
- Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/yita (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
- Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb.....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
- Ata yubati, hu yita tam sa jay ga aga vyel yatas, agaxa yita puram gajod.....Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
- If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
- Ha dyesi hu at dyea (hasi) zamaj sa hyasi fia.....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good.
Free Relative Clauses[edit | edit source]
- Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
Free Relative Clauses RELATIVE PRONOUNS MIRAD....ENGLISH EXAMPLE THING(S) has hu....what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu....what/those which/the things that
hyes hu....whatever/anything that
hyesi hu....whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu....everything that/all that
hyasi hu....all (things) that
hyos hu....nothing (that)
hyosi hu....none of the things (that)
haas hu....which one
haasi hu....which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa.....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futipxa at.....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do.....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza.....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos.....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa.....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da.....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at.....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe.....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe.....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu....who//the person (who)
hati hu....the ones who
hyet hu....whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu....whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu....everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu....all those who
hyot hu....nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu....no ones (that/who)
haat hu....which one
haati hu....which ones
Hat hu et teata pia.....The one you saw left.
Hati hu at tye yantexe.....Those (people) I know agree.
At teapo hyet hu at fe.....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata.....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtyea sa fiyena.....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa.....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta.....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena.....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hata hu ifpot his se.....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe.....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe.....I know which ones (people) I like least.
RELATIVE ADVERBS MIRAD ADVERB....ENGLISH ADVERB EXAMPLE PLACE ham hu....where
hu....bi ham....from where, whence
hu....bu ham....to where, whither
Yat tambese ham hu ha maalyen se yugra.....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po.....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya.....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga.....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba.....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu....when
Du at haj hu et puo.....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze.....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe.....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu....how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu....however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu....just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus.....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos.....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has.....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu....how, to what extent
hyigla hu....as, to the same degree as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se.....You'll never know how happy I am.
At yofe poper hyigla (~ge) yib hu et yafe.....I cannot travel as far as you can.
QUANTITY hagla hu....how much, how many
hyegla hu....however much, however many
hyigla hu....as much/many as
Duven et te hagla nas hu it ayse?....Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla tami hu yat sexa.....You guys asked us however many houses we built.
Et nixo hyigla (~ ge) nas hu at xe.....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON hasav hu....why, for what reason
hyesav hu....why ever, for whatever reason
Duven et te hasav hu it xa hus.....Do you know why he did that?
Yat voy teste hyesav hu et xu hus.....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
- If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
- RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu yata mer yuzpe dyunwe ha maar.....The star that our planet goes around is called the sun.
- NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha maar, hu yata mer yuzpe, se vay haway hea mar.....The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a (= some) star.
Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit | edit source]
- As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.
Indirect Discourse[edit | edit source]
- Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer van (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad van complementizer can never be omitted.
- At ta van et upo.....I knew that you would (= will) come.
- Ata ted da van it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut.....My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
- Se vyaa van at gra tele.....It is true that I eat too much.
- At jada van et puo jwa.....I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
- The conditional complementizer ven....if, whether and the negative complementizer von....lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.
Direct Discourse[edit | edit source]
- Direct discourse works as in English, except that a colon (:) is used instead of a comma. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
- Iyt da: "At voy fe per."....She said, "I don't want to go."
- At dida it: "Hot so eta aadezut?".....I asked him, "Who will be your lead actor?"
Transitivity[edit | edit source]
- Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
- Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
Transitive vs. Intransitive TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE xer....do ser....be agxer....grow (something) agser....grow (up) amxer....heat, make hot amser....become hot, heat up puxer....throw puser....jump per....go ber....put aber....put on aper....get on yaber....raise yaper....rise poxer....stop (something) poser....(come to a) stop yuber....bring yuper....approach yeber....insert yeper....enter
- At agxe vobi.....I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
- Ha vobi agseye ig.....The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
- Poxu ha pur!....Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
- Ha pur posa.....The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
- At yaba ha mis.....I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
- Ha maar yapaye.....The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].
Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity[edit | edit source]
- Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer....to sleep vs. tujper....to fall asleep. The transitive forms can be either active or passive.
Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity INTRANSITIVE STATIC INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC TRANSITIVE ACTIVE TRANSITIVE PASSIVE Ha mes yija....The door opened. Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open. At yijba ha mes.....I opened the door. Ha mes yijbwa bey yelput.....The door was opened by an intruder Ha mes yuja.....The door closed. Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned. At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door. Ha mes yeyfe yujbwer ja sumjob.....The door should be closed by bedtime. Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started. Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately. At ijba ata tyal.....I started my meal. Ha tyal ijbwa jwa.....The meal was started early. Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended. Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end. A ujba ha dyes.....I finished the book. Ha dyes hyoj ujbwa.....The book never got finished. Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening. Ha tob tojpa.....The man dropped dead. Hot tojba ha twob?....Who killed the man? Ha twob tojbwa bey ita tayd.....The man was killed by his wife. Teju.....Live!. Tejpu!.....Come alive!. Yat efe tejber ha twob.....We need to revive the man. Ha twob yofwa tejbwer.....The man could not be revived. Ha tobot taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Hoj ha tobot tajpo?....When will the baby pop out? Iyt tajba awa twobot zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday. Ha twobot tajbwa jo eymoj.....The baby boy was birthed after midnight. At tija jwe.....I woke up on time. It voy tijpa.....He did not come to.. At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early. At voy fe tijbwo gra jwa.....I don't want to be woken too early. At tujeya.....I was sleeping. At tujpeya.....I was falling sleep. At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep.. Ha tobot tujbwo glojo.....The baby will be put to sleep soon.
Reflexive Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
- At tujboye aut.....I am going to kill myself.
- Treu eut!....Know thyself!
- It gobla iut bay goblar.....He cut himself with a knife.
- Ot yefe yuxer out.....One must help oneself.
- Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
- uttujber....commit suicide (= self-kill)
- utboler....support oneself (= self-support)
- utdider....wonder (= self ask)
- Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
- Et efe vyilxer eut.....You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
- Et efe utvyilxer.....You need to wash up [= self-wash].
Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
Inherent Propositions PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE per....go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home.
It pa Paris.....He went to Paris.
der....say (to), tell Du at eta dyun.....Tell me your name.
Du at has.....Tell it to me.
peser....wait (for) Pesu at.....Wait for me. buer....give (to) Buu at hua dyes.....Give me that book.
- As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu at hus.....Give me that. or Buu hus bu at.....Give that to me. See more about this in the chapter on Syntax.
Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs[edit | edit source]
Derived from Adjectives[edit | edit source]
- Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
- To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer....to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
-axer vs -xer in Transitive Verbs ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE -xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC aga
to copy, equate
- To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser....to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
Creating Inchoative Verbs ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE -ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC aga
to get bigger
to unite, become united
to become separate
- Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
- Ansu ey yet golxwo.....Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
- At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag.....I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
- Hisi agaxo has hu et teate.....These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
- Hia tobot agseye ig.....This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
- Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom.....My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]
Verbs Derived from Nouns[edit | edit source]
- Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
Verbs Derived from Nouns NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE mog....ash mogxer
to become ashes
to get together
to get married
to freeze/make ice
to freeze/become ice
to burn, set fire to
to burn, get burned
become empty, empty out
Causative Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
- At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj.....I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
- Et voy yafe puxer at.....You cannot make me go.
- It tojbuxa yit.....He had them killed.
- At efe vyilxuxer ata par.....I need to have my car washed.
- Et upuxwa him avhes.....You were made to come here for some reason.
- At bakambuxo et.....I will have you hospitalized.
- Et voy yafe deuzuxer at.....You cannot make me sing.
- At ivteuduxwa.....I was tickled (= made to laugh).
- Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat.....Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
- Van het ivasuxu weti.....May someone get you guys to be happy.
Directional Verbs[edit | edit source]
- The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
Directional Verbs SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED bier....to take buer....to give nier....to consume nuer....to supply nyier....to order nyuer....to deliver nunier....to buy nunuer....to sell nazunier....win a prize nazunuer....award a prize noysier....pay off noysuer....charge ojbier....borrow ojbuer....lend tadier....get married taduer....marry off papier....take flight papuer....send off flying pipier....set sail pipuer....dock simbier....take a seat simbuer....offer a seat tampier....leave home tampuer....arrive home tamier....settle in tamuer....shelter nuxbier....to buy nixbuer....to sell telier....to eat teluer....to feed gonbier....to participate gonbuer....to share tilier....to drink tiluer....to water, give to drink teubier....to swallow teubuer....to spit out teatier....to observe, watch teatuer....to show taxier....to memorize taxuer....to remind alier....to breathe in aluer....to breathe out, expire ilier....to absorb iluer....to leak, soak ifier....to enjoy ifuer....to please dier....to ask duer....to suggest tier....to learn tuer....to inform pier....to depart puer....to arrive kebier....to choose kebuer....to distribute tujier....to fall asleep tujuer....to put to sleep tojier....to fall dead tojuer....to kill byier....to originate byuer....to target mempier....to take off mempuer....to land sinier....visualize sinuer....display xier....to result xuer....to cause yifier....to get up the courage yifuer....to encourage yafonier....to gain power yafonuer....to empower trier....to become acquainted with truer....to acquaint tepizier....to pay attention to tepizuer....to draw attention to
Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit | edit source]
- Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per....to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
Verb Prepositional Prefixes PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB ab....on aber....apply aper....get on, mount ob....off ober....remove oper....get of, dismount eb....between eber....block eper....intervene yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise yob....down yober....take down yoper....descend yub....near yuber....bring near yuper....approach yib....far yiber....take away yiper....go far away yeb....in yeber....insert yeper....enter yeb....in yepuxer....throw in yepuser....jump in oyeb....out oyeber....expose oyeper....exit oyeb....out oyepuxer....eject oyepuser....jump out zyu....round zyuber....rotate zyuper....revolve zya....throughout zyaber....spread zyaper....tour av....for avdaler....plead avper....pursue ov....against ovber....oppose ovper....countervene yan....together yanber....compose yanper....meet yon....apart yonber....separate yonper....separate iz....direct izber....lead izper....head uz....curved uzber....divert uzper....diverge yuz....around yuzbexer....surround yuzper....circulate yiz....beyond yizber....transfer yizper....surpass zoy....back, re- zoyber....return zoyper....go back
- The prefix zoy-....back is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
- ember....to position → zoyember....to reposition, replace
- der....to say → zoyder....to repeat
- sanxer....to shape, form → zoysanxer....to reshape, reform
- The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
- saxer....to build, construct → losaxer....to destroy, deconstruct
- yonxer....to unite → loyonxer....to disunite
- xer....to do → loxer....to undo
- teaper....to visit → zoyteaper....to revisit
- uper....to come → zoyuper....to return, come back
- buxer....to push → zoybuxer....to repel, push back
- puxer....to throw → zoypuxer....to reject, throw back, jettison
- The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
- nadxer....to align → vyonadxer....to misalign
- der....to say → vyoder....to misstate, lie
- utbier....to appropriate → vyoutbier....to misappropriate
- The prefix yan-....together is used as the English co-, eg.:
- exer....to operate → yanexer....to cooperate
- tamer....to dwell → yantamer....to cohabit
- napber....to put in order → yannapber....to coordinate
- The prefix az- (from aza....strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
- yujber....to close → azyujber....to lock
- der....to say → azder....to emphasize
- duer....to suggest → azduer....to urge
- dizeuder....to laugh → azdizeuder....to guffaw
- By contrast, the prefix oz- (from oza....weak) is used as a softener, eg.:
- der....to utter → ozder....to whisper
- duer....to suggest → ozduer....to hint
- dizeuder....to laugh → ozdizeuder....to chuckle
- uvteuder....to moan → ozuvteuder....to whimper
- The prefix ja-....before is used as the English prefix pre-, fore-, or ante-, eg.:
- der....to tell → jader....to foretell, predict
- teater....to see → jateater....to foresee, preview
- ter....to know → jater....to presage, have foreknowledge of
- yever....to judge → jayever....to prejudge
- juder....to date → jajuder....to antedate
- By contrast, jo-....after is used as the English prefix post-, eg.:
- juder....to date → jojuder....to postdate
- texer....to think → jotexer....to reflect on, review
- der....to say → joder....to mourn, regret
- ibler....to obtain → joibler....to inherit
- The prefix gra-....too much is used for actions that are excessive, eg.:
- telier....to eat → gratelier....to overeat
- fer....to want → grafer....to cover
- der....to say → grader....to exaggerate
- daler....to talk → gradaler....to yammer
By contrast, the prefix gro-....to little is used for actions that are underdone, eg.:
- fyinder....to value → grofyinder....to underestimate
- mageler....to cook → gromageler....to undercook
Modal Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.
Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
Principle Modal Auxiliary Verbs POSITIVE NEGATIVE afer....may
efer....need ofer....may not
yafer....can, be able
yefer....must, have to
yoyfer....could not, might not
yifer....dare yufer....be afraid yiver....have a right, be free yuver....be bound
- If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
- At fe per.....I want to go.
- At fu per.....I would like to go.
- Et yafe aker.....You can win.
- Et yafu aker.....You could win.
- Yet yefe iper.....You must leave.
- Yet yefu iper.....You ought to leave.
- Post-y-gliding the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
- At ife et. ....I love you.
- At iyfe et. ....I like you.
- Et yefe iper.....You must leave.
- Et yeyfe iper.....You should leave.
- Iyt yafe aker.....She can win.
- Iyt yayfe aker.....She might win.
- At ufa uda tuz.....I hated that art.
- At uyfa uda tuz.....I disliked that art.
- By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
- Hua toyb yufxa at.....That woman scared me.
- Hua toyb yulfxa at.....That woman intimidated me.
- Hua toyb yurfxa at.....That woman terrorized me.
- Hia yex efwo.....This work will be necessary.
- Hia yex elfwo.....This work will be critical.
- Hia yex erfwo.....This work will be indispensable.
- Su yifa.....Be brave.
- Su yilfa.....Be bold.
- Su yirfa.....Be heroic.
- Et yuve buer nas.....You are supposed to give money.
- Et yulve buer nas.....You are bound to give money.
- Et yurve buer nas.....You are absolutely compelled to give money.
- Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
- Et afe oyeper ay ifeker.....You may go out and play.
- Yat efa tujer.....We needed to sleep.
- Ot ofe mavier him.....One is prohibited to smoke here.
- Mavier him ofwe.....Smoking here is prohibited.
- At ife dyeer.....I love to read.
- He et fe yebuper?....Do you want to come in?
- At fu teaper et edjub.....I would like to visit you some day.
- It ufaye hyaj teaxwer.....He has always hated being looked at.
- Duven et iyfe per tilami?....Do you like going to bars?
- At uyfe tijer gra jwa.....I dislike waking up too early.
- Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu.....You can do whatever you like.
- Et yefer xer ad vyaas.....You must do the right thing.
- Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay.....You should not talk so loud.
- At yeyfa ter ga fi.....I should have known better.
- At voy yifu der hyea fuas.....I would not dare say anything bad.
- Von yufu der has hu et tesde.....Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
- Et yive dier yevanavdut.....You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
- Yat voy yuve kyoejer.....We are not bound to stick around.
Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit | edit source]
- All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented." The participial adjective yafa....able is subject-oriented and refers to a person, whereas the passived adjective yafwa....possible is patient-oriented and refers to a thing or event. Here is a chart of the principal modal verbs and corresponding participial adjectives with this subject/object-orientation distinction shown:
Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms MODAL TYPE SUBJECT-ORIENTED SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED VERB ADJECTIVE VERB ADJECTIVE PERMISSION afer....may afa....allowed afwer....be permitted afwa....permissable NECESSITY efer....need efa....needful efwer....be necessary efwa....necessary, required PROHIBITION ofer....be unallowed ofa....prohibited ofwer....be prohibited ofwa....banned POSSIBILITY yafer....be able yafa....able yafwer....be possible yafwa....possible OBLIGATION yefer....must yefa....obliged yefwer....be obligatory yefwa....obligatory DUTY yeyfer....should yeyfa....supposed, duty-bound yeyfwer'....be supposed yeyfwa....due IMPOSSIBILITY yofer....be unable yofa....unable yofwer....be impossible yofwa....impossible VOLITION fer....want fa....willing fwer....be desirable fwa....desirable, wanted LOVE ifer....love ifa....enamored ifwer....be loved ifwa....lovable HATE ufer....hate ufa....averse ufwer....be hated ufwa....odious RISK yifer....dare yifa....daring, brave yifwer....be safe yifwa....safe FEAR yufer....be afraid yufa....afraid yufwer....be a danger yufwa....frightening JOY iver....enjoy iva....glad ivwer....be a joy ivwa....enjoyable SORROW uver....be sorry uva....sorry, sad uvwer....be a shame uvwa....regrettable
- Examples of subject-oriented forms:
- At se yafa xer hes.....I am capable of doing anything.
- Et ofe teater hia dyezun.....You are not allowed/are prohibited to see this film.
- Duven at afe per hum?....Am I allowed to go there?
- Yat fu ter eta dyun.....We would like to know your name.
- Piti ufe beser be mel.....Fish hate to remain on dry land.
- At ajay ifa dazer.....I once loved to dance.
- Et se iva, at yife der.....You are beautiful, I dare say.
- At yeyfa xer has ga ig.....I should have done it sooner.
- Von yufu; At yupeye.....Fear not; I am coming.
- Et yefe puer ja eymaj.....You must arrive before noon.
- Yet yofe daler je ha dezun.....You people must not talk during the performance.
- Yat yeyfe (= se yeyfa aker.....We should (= are bound/supposed/due) to win.
- At ive teater et bakser.....I'm glad to see you get better.
- Su iva.....Be happy.
- At uvu (= su uva) teater et iper.....I would be sad to see you leave.
- Examples of patient-oriented forms:
- Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him.....It is permissible to smoke here.
- Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him.....It is prohibited to throw litter here.
- Fwe (= se fwa) van yet dolu.....It is desired that you stop talking.
- Voy yafwe beser him gajob.....It is not possible to remain here any longer.
- Yofwa av at ivteuder.....It was not possible for me to laugh.
- Yefwe van et piu ig.....It is essential that you leave quickly.
- He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi?....Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
- Ga yux efwo.....More help will be needed.
- Yurx se ufwa xetyen.....Slavery is an odious practice.
- Uvwe van wit oka.....It's a shame that he lost.
- *Ofawa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.
Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit | edit source]
- Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED afxer....allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer....permit (something to be done) efxer....require efwaxer....necessitate ofxer....prohibit ofwaxer....prohibit yafxer....enable yafwaxer....make possible yefxer....oblige yefwaxer....make obligatory yofxer....cripple yofwaxer....disable yifxer....embolden yifwaxer....make safe yufxer....intimidate yufwaxer....make frightening ifxer....please ifwaxer....make pleasant
Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit | edit source]
- Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
Modal Suffixes SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED Xyafa....able to X, -able Xyafwa....posssible to X Xyofa....unable to X Xyofwa....impossible to X Xifa....fond of Xing, Xophile Xufa....averse to Xing, Xophobic Xyika....hard of Xing Xyikwa....hard to X Xyuka....comfortable/easy Xing Xyukwa....easy to X -Xefa....in need of Xing Xefwa....necessary to X Xyufa....afraid of Xing Xyufwa....frightening to X
- This table shows some of these modal suffixes applied to actual verb and noun stems:
Modals POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa....able to see, sighted teatyafer....be able to see teatyofa....blind teatyofer....be blind PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa....visible teatyafwer....be visible teatyofwa....invisible teatyofwer....be invisible SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa....able to hear, hearing teetyafer....be able to hear teetyofa....deaf teatyofer....be deaf PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa....audible teetyafwer....be audible teeyofwa....inaudible teeyofwer....be inaudiable SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa....able to speak dalyafer....be able to speak dalyofa....mute, dumb dalyofer....be mute, dumb SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa....patriotic doabifer....be patriotic doabufa....rebellious doabufer....rebel SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa....sensitive tosyafer....be able to feel tosyofa....insensitive tosyofer....be numbed PATIENT-ORIENTED tayotyafwa....palpable tayotyafwer....be palpable tayotyofwa....numb tayotyofwer....be impalbable, numb PATIENT-ORIENTED testyukwa....easy to understand testyukwaxer....make easily understood testyikwa....hard to understand testyikwaxer....make hard to understand SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa....thirsty tilefer....be thirsty SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa....hungry telefer....be hungry PATIENT-ORIENTED tejefwa....vital tejefwer....be vital
Sensing Verbs[edit | edit source]
- Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern, as the following chart shows:
|RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE||teatwer....be seen||teetwer....be heard||teitwer....be smelled||teutwer....be tasted||tayotwer....be felt|
|DYNAMIC/PASSIVE||teaxwer....be looked at||teexwer....be listened to||teixwer....be sniffed||teuxwer....be tasted||tayoxwer....be touched|
|CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE||teatuer....show||teetuer....make hear||teixuer....make smell||teuxuer....offer a taste||tayoxuer....make feel|
|CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE||teatuwer....be shown||teetuwer....be made to hear||teituwer....be made to smell||teutuwer....be given a taste||tayotuwer....be made to feel|
catch sight of
|teitier....get a whiff of||teutuer....get a taste of||tayotier....get the sensation of|
|INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE||teatiwer....be perceived||teetiwer....be heard||teitiwer....be whiffed||teutiwer....be tasted||tayotiwer....be felt|
|teatyofer....be blind||teetyofer....be deaf||teityofer....be unable to smell||teityofer....be unable to taste||tayotyofer....be insensitive|
|teatyofwer....be invisible||teetyofwer....be inaudible||teityofwer....be undetectable
|teityofwer....be insipid||tayotyofwer....be undetectable|
|NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE||teatyofwaxer....make invisible||teetyofwaxer....make inaudible||teityofwaxer....make odorless||teutyofwaxer....render tasteless||tayotyofwaxer....numb|
- Examples of usage:
- At teatyofxwa bey ha mani.....I was blinded by the lights.
- Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea.....The noise was deafening.
- Hia tit se gla teatiyafa.....This pupil is very perceptive.
- Hua bekil se teityofwa.....That medecine is odorless (impossible to smell).
- Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni.....Make the spots invisible.
- Ha magmeb yonprex tayotyafwa zya ha mir.....The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.
The Frequentative Infix[edit | edit source]
Frequentative verbs or repetitive action verbs can be formed with the infix -eg- placed between the verb stem and verb ending, eg.:
- pyaser....jump ⇒ pyaseger....bounce
- paper....fly ⇒ papeger....flitter
- kobirer....steal ⇒ kobireger....pilfer
- braser....shake ⇒ braseger....vibrate
- brases....shaking ⇒ brasegea....vibrating
Verbs of Intermediation[edit | edit source]
- To make a verb of intermediation, that is, a construction like have something done by someone or get something done, simply attach ux to the stem of the verb, as follows:
- At vyixuxa ata pur.....I got my car washed.
- Iyt xuxa hyiyta tayeb.....She had her hair done.
- At dovalpoxuxo et.....I will have you arrested.