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Mirad Grammar/Sample Texts Analyzed

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Article One of the Declaration of Human Rights[edit | edit source]

Article One of the Declaration of Human Rights is often used to show how various invented international auxiliary languages compare with one another in written form. Here is the Mirad version of Article One, followed by the English version:
Declaration of Human Rights Article One
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Hya tobi taje yiva ay gea be utfiz ay doyivi. Yit bulwe texyaf ay tyaf ay yeyfe hyuitaxler tidyenay.
1 hya all   <   hya- [distributive deictic determiner]   +  
2 tobi human beings   <   tob....human being [singular noun]   +   -i [plural suffix]
3 taje are born   <   taj-....be born [stem])  +   -e [present simple tense marker]
4 yiva free   <   yiv- [stem]   +   -a [adjectival suffix]
5 ay and [positive conjunction]
6 gea equal   <   ge- [stem]   +   -a [adjectival suffix]
7 be at, in [preposition]
8 utfiz dignity   <   ut....self [pronoun]  +   fiz....merit [noun]
9 doyivi rights   <   do(t)-....society   +   yiv....freedom, right [noun]  +  -i [plural suffix]
10 yit they/them   <   yit [3d person plural animate pronoun]
11 bulwe are endowed   <   bul-....endow [verb stem]   +   -w [passive]   +   -e [present]
12 texyaf reason   <   tex-....think   +   yaf....ability, faculty
13 tyaf conscience   <   t-....know   +   yaf....ability, faculty
14 yeyfe should   <   yeyf-....(have a) duty [verb stem]   +   -e [indicative simple present tense]
15 hyuitaxler treat one another   <   hyuit (comb. of hyut....other person   +   hyit....same person)   +   axl-....act [verb stem]   +   -er [verbal infinitive marker]
16 tidyenay in a brotherly way   <   tid....sibling [noun]   +   -yen....manner   +   -ay....-ly [adverbial suffix]

Lord's Prayer[edit | edit source]

Word-for-word analysis:
The Lord's Prayer
Our Father, who art in Heaven, Hey yata Twed, ho se be Totmir,
Hallowed by thy name. van eta dyun fyadwu.
Thy kingdom come. Van eta edob upu.
Thy will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven. Van eta fon xwu be Imer hoyen xwe be Totmir.
Give us this day our daily bread, Buu yat hijub yata hyajuba povel,
and forgive us our trespasses ay yovobu yat bi yata fuxeyni
as we forgive those who trespass against us. hoyen yat yovobe hoti fuxe yat.
And lead us not into temptation, Ay von izbu yat ub yekuen,
But deliver us from evil. oy yivxu yat bi fyox.
Amen. Xwu huus.
1 Hey O! [vocative particle]
2 yata our < yat [1st pl animate pronoun] we + -a [adjective suffix]
3 Twed Father < ted....parent + infix -w- [masculine]
4 ho who [invariable relative complementizer meaning who(m), that, which]
5 se am,is,are < s-[present stem of verb ser....to be] + -e [simple present tense suffix]
6 be in [preposition of general location at]
7 Totmir Heaven < tot....god + mir....world
8 van let/may/that [positive complementizer introducing a fact or wish; see 32]
9 eta your, thy < et [2d sing animate pronoun] you + -a [adjective suffix]
10 dyun name [noun < verb stem dyu-....to call]
11 fyadwu be blessed < fya- holy + d- [stem of verb say / call] + -w- [passive] + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive mood]
12 edob kingdom < e- [2nd level of scalar noun base dob....state]
13 upu come < u(b)34- toward + p [stem of verb to go] + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive mood]
14 fwas will < f- [stem of verb to want] + -w- [passive voice] + -a [adjective] + -s [inanimate nominalizer thing] = wanted thing
15 xwu be done < x- [stem of verb to do] + -w- [passive voice] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
16 Imer earth < -i- [3d level of scalar noun mer....planet] = third planet from the sun
17 hoyen as < ho [relative determiner prefix] + -yen [suffix = manner] hoyen = (which manner that)
18 xwe (it) is done < x- [stem of verb to do] + -w- [passive voice] + -e [present simple tense]
19 Buu Give < bu- [stem of verb to give] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
20 yat (to) us < yat we, us
21 hijub today, this day < hi- [proximate determiner this] + jub....day
22 yata our < yat [1st pl pron we/us] + -a [adjective suffix]
23 hyajuba daily < hya- [distributive determiner every] + jub....day + -a [adjective suffix]
24 povel bread [ < povob....cereal with ob (plant) -> el (food)]
25 ay and [positive conjunction] ( ey [intermediate] = or, oy [negative] = but)
26 yovobu forgive < yov....guilt, shame + ob [preposition off and stem of verb to remove] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
27 bi from [preposition meaning of, from; opp: bu....to]
28 fuxeyni bad deeds [noun] < fu-....bad + x-....do + -eyn [gerundive] + -i [plural suffix]
29 yovobe forgive < yov....guilt, shame + ob [proposition off and stem of verb to remove] + -e [present]
30 hoti those who < ho- [relative deictic determiner] + -t....person + -i [plural suffix]
31 fuxe offend < fu....bad + -x-....do + -e [present]
32 von lest, so not, don't [negative complementizer; van [positive] that/so that/let; ven [intermediate] if, whether]
33 izbu lead, guide < iz....direct, straight + b- [stem of verb put] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
34 ub toward [preposition; opp. ib....away]
35 yekuen temptation < yek- [stem of verb try] + -u- [causative formant] + -en [present gerund -ing] = causing (someone) to try (something)
36 oy but [negative conjunction; see 25]
37 yivxu deliver, free, liberate < yiv-....free + -x-....do, make + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
38 fyox evil < fyo-....profane, evil + x....doing
39 xwu be < s- [stem of verb to be] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
40 huus such < huu- [deictic determiner such] + -s....thing

Tower of Babel[edit | edit source]

The Tower of Babel Ha Yabtom bi Babel
Then, all earthly humans had a single language and a common vocabulary. Huj, hya imertobi bexa ana dalzeyn ay yansauna dunyan.
While people were migrating from the east, they discovered a plain in the region of Shenear and they settled there. Je van tobi emuipeya byi ha zimerem, yit yokkaxa zyimem be ha meam "Xenear" ay yit tamkyoxa hum.
The people said to one another, "Come on, let's mold some bricks and fire them." Thus, they had bricks for building stones and tar for mortar. Ha tobi hyuitda: "Upu, van yat sanxu hegla mefi ay magxu isi." Huyen, yit bexa mefi av sexmegi ay megyel av sexyanul.
Then, the people said, "Come on, let's build our own city with a tower reaching the sky. In that way, we will be famous and that will prevent us from being scattered all over the earth." Johus, ha tobi da: "Upu, van yat sexu yauta dom bay yabtom pyusea ha mam. Huyen, yat so yibtrawa ay hus jaebo yata yonzyaben bu hyami bi ha imer."
The Eternal one came down from the sky to see the city with the tower the people of earth had constructed. Ha Hyajeseat yopa bi ha mam av teater ho dom bay ho yabtom ha imerati sexaya.
Then, the Eternal One said, "Behold, they make up one people, all of whom have a common language. This is only their first accomplishment. After this, anything they plan will be realizable." Johus, ha Hyajeseat da, "Teaxu: Yit sanse ana tyod, ho hyati bexe yansauna dalyen. His se anay yita aa xal. Johis, hyes yit ojtexo so vyamxyafwa.
Come, let us go down there to confuse their language so they won't understand one another anymore." Upu, van yat yopu hum av yanmulxer yita dalzeyn von yit hyuittestu gaj."
Then the Eternal one scattered the men far from there to all parts of the earth, and they halted construction of the city and tower. Johus ha Hyajeseat yonzyaba ha tobi yib bi hum ub hyami bi ha imer, ay yit poxa ha sexen bi ha dom ay yabtom.
That is why this place was named Babel, i.e. "Confusion". It is where the Eternal One mixed up the languages of all humans and scattered them all over the earth. Hus se hosav him dyunxwa Babel, be hyua duni: "Yanmulx". Se hom ha Hyajeseat vyonapxa ha dalzeyni bi hya imerati ay yonzyaba yit bu hyami bi ha imer.
Word-for-word analysis:
  • ha....the [definite determiner]
  • yabtom....tower < yab-....high + tom....building
  • bi....of, from [preposition; opp: bu....to]
  • Babel [proper name]
  • huj....then < hu- [distal determiner that] + j [stub for job....time]
  • hya....all [distributive determiner]
  • imertobi....people of earth < imer....earth [ = planet 3] + tob....human + -i [plural marker]
  • bexa....had < bex- [verb stem of to have/hold] + -a [past tense]
  • ana....a single < a(n)-....one + -a [adjective marker]
  • dalzeyn....language < dal....speech + zeyn medium
  • ay....and [positive conjunction; opp: oy....but]
  • yansauna....common < yan-....together + saun....type + -a [adjective marker]
  • dunyan....vocabulary < dun'....word + -yan....collection
  • je van....while < je....during + van [positive complementizer] that
  • tobi....men, people < tob [noun] person/man/human + -i [plural marker]
  • emuipeya....were migrating < em....place + ui-....hither-thither + p-...go + -ey- [progressive aspect] + -a [past tense]
  • byi....since, starting with [preposition; opp: byu....up to]
  • zimerem....east < zi- = right/east + mer....planet + -em....location
  • yit....they, them < yit [3d plur animate pronoun]
  • yokkaxa....discovered < yok....surprise + kax- [stem of verb find] + -a [past simple tense marker]
  • zyimem....a plain < zyi-....flat + mem....land
  • tamkyoxa....settled < tam = home + kyox-....fix + -a [past tense marker]
  • hum....there < hu- [distal determiner that] + -m' [suffix of place]
  • hyuitda....said to one another < hyuit < hyui-....one-another + -t [person suffix] + d- [stem of verb say,tell] + -a [past tense maker]
  • van....that < [positive complementizer that, let, so that]
  • yat....we, us [1st plur anim pron]
  • sanxu....form, mold < san....form + -x-....do/make/-ify + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive]
  • hegla....some < he- [indefinite determiner prefix some] + -gla [determiner suffix quantity/amount/degree]
  • mefi....bricks < mef [noun] brick + -i [plural marker]
  • magxu....fire, burn < mag- = fire + -x-....do/make/-ify + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive]
  • isi....they, them < isi [inanimate 3p plur pronoun]
  • huyen....thus, so < hu- [distal determiner prefix that] + -yen [determiner suffix manner]
  • av....for [preposition; opp: ov....against]
  • sexmegi....building stones < sex- [stem of verb to build] + meg....stone + -i [plural marker]
  • megyel....tar, pitch, asphalt < meg....stone + -yel [suffix viscous liquid]
  • sexyanul....mortar < sex- [stem of verb to build] + yan = together + -ul....substance
  • johus....then, next < jo....after + hu-....that + -s....thing
  • da....said, told < d [stem of verb say/tell] + -a [past simple tense marker]
  • upu....come! < u(b) [preposition] toward + p- [stem of verb go] + -u [imperative]
  • sexu....build < sex [stem of verb build] + -u [subjunctive] > van yat sexu = let us build
  • yauta....our own < yat = we/us + ut = self + -a [adjective marker]
  • dom....city
  • bay....with (preposition; opp: boy....without]
  • yabtom....tower < yab- = high + tom....building
  • pyusea....reaching < pyus- reach + -e- [progressive] + -a [adjective marker]
  • mam....sky
  • so....will be < s- = [stem of verb to be] + -o [future simple tense]
  • yibtrawa....famous < yib....far + tra- [perfect stem of verb know/recognize] + -w- [passive voice] + -a [adjective marker]
  • jaebo....will prevent < ja- before + eb- between, block + -o [future tense marker]
  • yata....our < yat = we/us + -a [adjective marker]
  • yonzyaben....dispersal < yon....apart + zya- wide + b- = [stem of verb to put] + -e- [progressive] + -n (nominalizer) = -en [gerund] -ing
  • bu....to [preposition; opp: bi....from]
  • hyami....all places, all parts < [distributive determiner prefix hya- all] + [suffix -m....place + -i [plural marker]
  • bi....of, from [preposition; opp: bu....to]
  • Hyajeseat....Everlasting One < hya- = ever/all + jes-....to last + -ea [active present participle ending] + [suffix -t....person]
  • yopa....descended < yo(b)- = down + p- [stem of verb to go] + -a [past tense marker]
  • av....for [preposition; opp: ov....against]
  • teater....to see < tea(b)- = eye + t-....know + -er [infinitive ending]
  • ha....the [def. deictic determiner = def. art.]
  • dom....city
  • ho....that, which, who [relative complementizer]
  • sexaya....had built < sex- [stem of verb to build] + -ay- [perfect active aspect/voice marker] + -a [past tense marker]
  • teaxu....look! < tea(b)-....eye + x- do/make/-ify + -u [imperative]
  • yit....they
  • sanse....form/constitute < san....form + s- [stem of verb be/become/-ize + -e [present tense marker'
  • tyod....a people
  • hyati....all of them < hya- [distributive determiner prefix all] + [suffix -t....person) + -i [plural marker]
  • bexe....has, have < bays- [stem of verb to have] + -e [present tense marker]
  • his....this < [proximal determiner prefix hi-....this] + [suffix -t....thing]
  • anay....only < a(n)-....one + --ay [adverb ending -ly]
  • yita....their < yit [3d plur pronoun] they + -a [adjective marker]
  • aa....first < a-....one + -a [adjective marker]
  • xal....accomplishment deriv. of x- [stem of verb to do]
  • johis....then, next < jo....after + his [proximal inanimate determiner] this
  • hyes....whatever < [indiscriminate determiner prefix hye- = any/whichever
  • ojtexo....will plan, envisage < oj-....future + tex-- [stem of verb to think] + -o [future tense marker]
  • so....will be < s- [stem of verb to be/become] + -o [future tense marker]
  • vyamxyafwa....realizable < vyam- = real + x- [verb formant do/make/-ize] + -yaf-....able + -w- [pass voice] + -a [adjectival suffix] > possible to be made real
  • yopu....descend < yo(b)-....down + p- [verb formant to go] + -u [subjunctive marker] > van yat yopu hum....let us go down there
  • yanmulxer....mix up, confuse < yan-....together + mul....stuff + [verb formant x- do/make/-ify] + -er [infinitive suffix]
  • von....lest, don't, so that not [negative complementizer;
  • yit....they
  • hyuittestu....hyuit....one another + tes....meaning + t- [stem of verb know] + -u [subjunctive mood suffix]so they will not understand one another
  • gaj....further, anymore < ga-....more + -j....time (short for job....time)
  • Johus....then
  • ha Hyajeseat....the Everlasting One
  • yonzyaba....scattered < yon....apart + zya....wide + [verb formant b-....put] + -a [past tense marker]
  • ha tobi....the men
  • yib....far [adverb]
  • bi hum....from there
  • ub [preposition] toward; opp: ib away]
  • hyami....all parts < hya-....all + -m....place + -i [plural marker]
  • bi ha meir....of the earth
  • ay....and
  • yit....they
  • poxa....stopped < po-....still + [verb formant x-....do/make/-ify] + -a [past tense marker]
  • sexen....building < sex- [stem of verb to build] + -e- [present tense marker] + -n [abstract noun]
  • bi ha dom ay yabtom.....of the city and tower.
  • se....is, are < s-- [stem of verb to be] + -e [present tense marker]
  • hosav....the reason why < [relative determiner prefix ho-....which] + [stub sav....reason]
  • him....here, this place < [proximal determiner prefix hi- this] + [place suffix -m]
  • dyunxwa....was/were named < dyun....name + [verb formant x- do/make/=ify] + -w- [passive infix] + -a [past tense marker]
  • be hyua duni....in other words, i.e. < be [preposition] in, at hyua [adjective] other duni [plural noun] duni....words
  • hom....the place where < + [relative prefix ho- + place suffix -m]
  • vyonapxa....messed up, confused < vyo-....wrong/false + nap....order + [verb formant x- do/make] + -a [past tense marker]

Interlinguistics[edit | edit source]

The following text is from the Wikipedia article on Interlinguistics:
Ebdalzeyntun, gel tun bi exdrawa dalzeyni, esaye ji ga vyel awa sojab gel ansauna sub bi dalzeyntun av ha tix bi kyasauna teasgoni bi dalzeyna ebtuien. Interlinguistics, as the science of planned languages, has existed for more than a century as a specific branch of linguistics for the study of various aspects of linguistic communication.
Ebdalzeyntun se tixnad sanaxwa bey Otto Jesperson be 1931 (aro yusila) gel ha tun bi ebdalzeyni, be hyua duni: byux dalzeyni sankyaxwa av ebdooba ebtuien. Interlinguistics is a discipline formalized by Otto Jespersen in 1931 as the science of interlanguages, i.e. contact languages tailored for international communication.
Be ga yubaja jobi, ha syun bi tix bi ebdalzeyntun doytxwa bay dalzeyn exdren, ha iblen bi texnapi uxler jatexway ha sexyen ay ex bi tejea dalzeyn. Be hia yuzkason, ebdalzeyni ase oybanyan bi exdrawa dalzeyni, be hyua duni: oegla kyeoni bi dalzeyn exdren. In more recent times, the object of study of interlinguistics was put into relation with language planning, the collection of strategies to deliberately influence the structure and function of a living language. In this framework, interlanguages become a subset of planned languages, i.e. extreme cases of language planning.
Ebdalzeyntun ijnay teasia gel sub bi tixi kyoyuxwa bu ha syemben bi vyabi av gabyuxea dalzeyni, oy zye hisa sojabyaga ajdin his testwaye bey ogela asaxuti ga ay ga zyaay gel ebtixnada sub bi tun ho yebayse kyasauna teasgoni bi ebtuien, dalzeyn exdren, ay egonxen, gladalzeynin ay mirzyaxen, dalzeyna vyabyen, ebtestuen, dotdalzeyntun, ebteza ebtuien, ha ajdin bi dalzeyn saxen ay drenyan drawa be exdrawa dalzeyni (ebdooba gabyuxea dalzeyni = gabdali gab sexwa dalzeyni = sexdali, vyomdina tuza dalzeyni = tuzdali, yiva dalzeyni, dalyanmulxi, yankdalzeyni, ay sexwa dalzeyni be ha ebneaf ay hyua syini gabwa.) Interlinguistics first appeared as a branch of studies devoted to the establishment of norms for auxiliary languages, but over its century-long history it has been understood by different authors more and more broadly as an interdisciplinary branch of science which includes various aspects of communication, language planning and standardization, multilingualism and globalisation, language policy, translation, sociolinguistics, intercultural communication, the history of language creation and literature written in planned languages (international auxiliary languages : auxlangs as well as constructed languages : conlangs, fictional artistic languages : artlangs, lingua francas, pidgins, creoles and constructed languages in the internet and other topics were added.)

The North Wind and the Sun[edit | edit source]

The following is the English text of a fable called "The North Wind and the Sun", followed by a translation in Mirad:
The North Wind and the Sun
The North Wind and the Sun disputed as to which was the most powerful, and agreed that he should be declared the victor who could first strip a wayfaring man of his clothes. Ha Zamera Map ay ha Amar yontexda vyel hoat se ha gwa yafat, ay yantexda van hot yafo anapay tafober popea twob yefu delwer ha akut.
The North Wind first tried his power and blew with all his might, but the keener his blasts, the closer the Traveler wrapped his cloak around him, until at last, resigning all hope of victory, the Wind called upon the Sun to see what he could do. Ha Amera Map anapay yeka ita yaf ay maipxwa bay hya ita azan, oy ha ga aza ita mapyuxi, ha ga azbixway ha Poput nidyuzba ita koxof, ju van, ujay, lobuea hya fiyak bi aklan, ha Map dia ha Amar teater hos it yafu xer.
The Sun suddenly shone out with all his warmth. Ha Amar igbyenay mansa bay hya ita ayman.
The Traveler no sooner felt his genial rays than he took off one garment after another, and at last, fairly overcome with heat, undressed and bathed in a stream that lay in his path. Gwa jwa van ha poput tayosa ita fitipa naudi it oba awa taf jo ga awas, ay ujay, gle aklawa bey aman, tofopa ay milyepa be miap ho yeztaseya be ita mep.
The moral: Persuasion is better than force. Ha dofindin: Texuen se ga fia vyel yafluen.

Proverbs[edit | edit source]

The following are some famous proverbs translated into Mirad:
Absence makes the heart grow fonder. English Ibesen iflonikxe ha tiib ga azay.
Actions speak louder than words. English Axleyni dale ga azay vyel duni.
A picture is worth a thousand words. English Sin naze amlo duni.
Don't count your chickens before they hatch. English Von sagdu eta gafapayti ja van yit patijbwo.
Don't judge a book by its cover. English Von yevdu dyes bey isa abaun.
The early bird gets the worm. English Ha jwaa pat pixe ha peyet.
You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink it. English Et yafe izber ekpet bu mil, oy et yofe tiluxer it has.
Fruit of a tree falls near its roots. Turkish Feb bi fab pyose yub bi isa fyobi.
A fool dreams of wealth; a wise man, of happiness. Turkish Vyotuwat tujeaze nyaz; vyatuwat, ivan.
Mieux vaut prévenir que guérir. French Se ga fia jaeber vyel byeker.
Qui court deux lièvres à la fois, n'en prend aucun. French Hat hu zojoigpe ewa yupoti hyij ibe hyowat.
Übung macht den Meister. German Xetyen saxe ha tyeneb.
Anfangen ist leicht, Beharren ist Kunst. German Ijen se yuka, jetxen se tuz.
Η γλώσσα κόκαλα δεν έχει, αλλά κόκαλα τσακίζει. Greek Ha teubab ayse hogla taibi oy is myekxe taibi.
Veni, vidi, vici. Latin At upa, at teata, at akra.
Carpe diem. Latin Biru ha jub.
Non ducor, duco. Latin At voy izbwe, at izbe.
Far d'una mosca un elefante. Italian Saxer elpot bi dipelat.
事实胜于雄辩。 (Shìshí shèng yú xióngbiàn) Chinese Xeyni akle viduni.
Thùng rỗng kêu to. (Empty barrels make loud noises.) Vietnamese Uka faosyebi saxe xeusagi.

Genesis[edit | edit source]

Genesis, the Biblical Story of Creation
The Beginning Ha Ij
In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Be ha ij Tot saxa ha mami ay ha imer.
Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Spirit of God was hovering over the waters. Huj ha imer sa sanoya ay uka. Mon sa ayb ha abem bi ha yobyagan, ay ha Top bi Tot paeya ayb ha mili.
And God said, “Let there be light,” and there was light. Ay Tot da: "Van esu man" ay man esa.
God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness. Tot teata van ha man se fia, ay it yonxa ha man bi ha mon.
God called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the first day. Tot dyua ha man "maj" ay ha mon it dyua "moj." Ay esa moj, ay esa maj, ha aa jub.
And God said, “Let there be a vault between the waters to separate water from water.” Ay Tot da: "Van esu aybuz eb ha mili av yonxer mil bi mil."
So God made the vault and separated the water under the vault from the water above it. And it was so. Johus Tot saxa ha aybuz ay yonxa ha mil oyb ha aybuz bi ha mil ayb has. Ay sa huyen.
God called the vault “sky.” And there was evening, and there was morning—the second day. Ay Tot dyua ha aybuz "mam." Ay esa moj ay esa maj -- ha ea jub.
And God said, “Let the water under the sky be gathered to one place, and let dry ground appear.” And it was so. Ay Tot da: "Van ha mil oyb ha mam yanxwu bu awa nem, ay van uma mel teasiu." Ay sa huyen.
God called the dry ground “land,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” And God saw that it was good. Tot dyua ha uma mel "mem," ay ha yonxwa mili it dyua "mimi." Ay Tot teata van is se fia.
Then God said, “Let the land produce vegetation: seed-bearing plants and trees on the land that bear fruit with seed in it, according to their various kinds.” And it was so. Johus, Tot da: "Van ha mem nuxu fobyan: veebbea fobi ay fabi be ha mem ho tajbe febi bay yeba veebi joupea isa kyasauna sauni."

The Colors of the Rainbow[edit | edit source]

Ha Volzi bi ha Mamiluz
The Colors of the Rainbow
Hoj ha amarman pyexe mamilzyuyni be ha mal, isi alxe gel zyefnid ay sanxe mamiluz. When the sunlight strikes raindrops in the air, they act as a prism and form a rainbow.
Ha mamiluz se golen bi malza man bu gla via volzi. The rainbow is a division of white light into many beautiful colors.
Hisi bie ha san bi yaga zyua uzun, bay isa mep yab ayb, ay isa ewa uji teaseay yiz ha mamnad. These take the shape of a long round arch, with its path high above, and its two ends apparently beyond the horizon.
Ese, dwa bey tezdin, magilea elsyeb bi aulk be awa uj. There is, according to legend, a boiling pot of gold at one end.'
Yot teaxe, oy hyot hyej kaxe is. People look, but no one ever finds it.
Hoj het kexe hes yiz bi ita pyuxyaf, ita dati de van it kexeye av "ha elsyeb bi aulk be ha uj bi ha mamiluz." When a man looks for something beyond his reach, his friends say he is looking for "the pot of gold at the end of the rainbow."
Zya ha sojabi, yot testuaye ha mamiluz be kyasauna byeni. Throughout the centuries, people have explained the rainbow in various ways.
Heti vabiaye is gel fyateaz oy tapa testuun. Some have accepted it as a miracle without physical explanation.
Av ha Hebrati, is sa siun van eso hyogla mora yimi gaj. To the Hebrews, it was a token that there would be no more universal floods.
Ha Gerocamati ajyenay tepsinieya van is sa siun bi ha toti av jader dropek ey kyia mamil. The Greeks used to imagine that it was a sign from the gods to foretell war or heavy rain.
Ha Zamergonati yevtexa ha mamiluz gel zeymep ho ha toti aybzeypa bi imer bu yita taam be ha mam. The Norsemen considered the rainbow as a bridge over which the gods passed from earth to their home in the sky.
Hyuti yekaye testuer ha teakyes tapay. Others have tried to explain the phenomenon physically.
Aristotelis texa van ha mamiluz uxwe bey zoykixen bi ha amarnaudi bey ha mamil. Aristotle thought that the rainbow was caused by reflection of the sun’s rays by the rain.
Ji huj moltuti kaxaye van is voy se zoykixen, oy zoyyonxen bey ha mamilzyuyni ho uxe ha mamiluzi. Since then physicists have found that it is not reflection, but refraction by the raindrops which causes the rainbows.
Gla yikla teyeni vyel ha mamiluz sanxwaye. Many complicated ideas about the rainbow have been formed.
Ha ogelan be ha mamiluz yuvse gla bu ha agan bi ha zyuyni, ay ha zyaan bi ha volzbwa neyef agase je van ha nag bi ha zyuyni agase. The difference in the rainbow depends considerably upon the size of the drops, and the width of the colored band increases as the size of the drops increases.
Ha xuna anoga mamiluz teaxiwa dwe ser ha ix bi ayben bi glea uzuni. The actual primary rainbow observed is said to be the effect of super-imposition of a number of bows.
Ven ha alz bi ha enapa uzun pyose ayb ha ulz bi ha anapas, ha ix se xuer uzun bay oegay zyaa ilza neyef, hosav alza vay ulza man hoj yanmulxwa sanxe ilz. If the red of the second bow falls upon the green of the first, the result is to produce a bow with an abnormally wide yellow band, since red and green light when mixed form yellow.
His se glakaxwa saun bi uzun, hias teaxuea aagay alz ay ilz, bay gro ey hyoglo ulz ey yolz. This is a very common type of bow, one showing mainly red and yellow, with little or no green or blue.

De Accidentibus Rerum[edit | edit source]

This passage is the first part of an educational Latin-English lesson book by John Amos Comenius from 1633 found in [Linguarum Reserata]. It is translated as "on the accidence of things", but should properly be translated in modern English as "on the inflection of substantives", because it has to do with nouns and adjectives and their various forms and agreements.
Caput 1 Dé accidentibus rérum On the accidence of things Ayv ha sankyaxen bi sunduni
Deus est æternus
Mundus temporárius
Angelus immortális.
Homó mortális
God is eternal,
The world temporary.
An angel is immortal,
Man is mortal.
Tot se hyajoba.
Ha mir se joba.
Tat se otojua.
Tob se tojua.
Corpus vísibile
Spiritus invísibilis.
Anima itidem
The body is visible,
The spirit is invisible,
The soul also.
Ha tab se teatyafwa.
Ha top se teatyofwa.
Ha toop geyen.
Cælum est suprémum
Aër medius
Terra ínfima
Núbés est remóta
Nebula propinqua
Heaven is the highest,
The air in the middle,
The earth the lowest.
A cloud is far away,
A mist near.
Ha mam se yabra.
Ha mal se eba.
Ha meir se obra.
Maf se yiba.
Mif se yuba.
Locus est magnum aut parvus.
Tempus longum aut breve
Alea láta vel angusta
Domus ampla vel arcta
Montés sunt altí
Vallés profundæ
Collés elevatí
Casa est humilis
Turris excelsa
Abiés prócéra
A place is great or small,
Time is long or short.
A courtyard is wide or narrow,
A house large or narrow.
Mountains are high.
Valleys deep
Hills are raised
A cottage is humble
A tower lofty
A fir tree tall
Nem se aga ey oga.
Job se yaga ey yoga.
Zetam se zyaa ey zyoa.
Tam se nigaga ey nigoga.
Yazmeli se yaba.
Yozmeli se yoba.
Yazmeli se yub bi ha mam.
Tamog se yub bi ha mem.
Yabtom se yabaga.
Abpifab se yabaga.
Fluvius brevis aut profundus
Filum est tenue (subtíle),
Fúnis crassus.
Arundó est cava
Lignum solidum
Forámen est vacuum (ináne)
Camínus plénus fúmí
A river is shallow or deep
A thread is slender (thin),
A rope thick.
A reed is hollow,
Wood solid.
An opening is empty
A chimney full of smoke
Mip se yoboga ey yobaga.
Nif se gyoa.
Nyif se gyaa.
muvyeg se zyega.
Faob se gyia.
Yij se uka.
Movuf se ika bi mov.
Línea est recta vel curva
Superficiés aspera vel lævis
Pondus grave aut leve.
Numerus pár vel impár.
A line is straight or curved
A surface rough or smooth.
A weight is heavy or light
A number is even or odd
Nad se iza ey uza.
Ned se yigfa ey yugfa.
Kyis se kyia ey kyua.
Sag se euna ey oleuna.
Globus est rotundus
Columna teres
Mensa quadráta
X habet fórmam crucis
Pávó est fórmósus
Simia défórmis
A sphere is round
A column is cylindrical
A table is squared
X has the form of a cross
A peacock is beautiful
An ape misshapen.
Zyunid se zyua
Myuf se mufyega.
Sem se unkuna.
Xu bayse san bi xus.
Pafapat se via.
Homsimpyot se vua.
Colórés Colours Volzi
Créta est alba
Tabula nigra
Cinnabaris rubra
Sulphur luteum
Grámen viride
Firmámentum cæruleum
Vitrum est pellúcidum
Asser opacus
Aqua turbida vel clára
Chalk is white
A board is black
Vermilion is red
Sulphur yellow
Grass green
The firmament blue
Glass is transparent
A plank opaque
Water troubled or clear
Meyag se malza.
Drof se molza.
Hegelk se alza.
Solk se ilza.
Vab se ulza.
Mam se yolza.
Zyev se vyida.
Faof se vyuda.
Mil se vyifa ey vyufa.
Sapórés Flavours Teusi
Mel est dulce:
sícut et saccharum
Fel amárum
Acétum acidum
Sál salsum
Piper ácre
Immátúrum pómum acerbum vel austérum
Honey is sweet
as is sugar
Bile bitter
Vinegar is tart
Salt is salty
Pepper sharp
An unripe fruit is sharp or harsh
appelatil se yugza
ay geyen level.
Tikibil se yigaza.
Yigvafil se yigza.
Mimol se mimolaya.
Sifol giza.
Ojwefa feb se giza ey yigra.
Odórés Smells Teisi
Odor est suávis
foetor téter
A smell is sweet
A stink unsavoury
Fiteis se fiteisa.
Futeis se futeisa.
Aliæ quálitátés Other qualities Hyua fini.
Lutum est húmidum
Pulvis siccus
Ossa dúra
Caró mollis
Glaciés lúbrica
Prúna calida et candens
Carbó frígidus et áter
Nós incédimus vestítí
Indí núdí
Mud is moist
Dust dry
Bones hard
Flesh soft
Ice slippery
A hot coal is hot and glowing
A dead coal cold and black
We go about clothed
Indians nude
Meil se ima.
Mek se uma.
Taibi se yiga.
Taob se yuga.
Yom se kipyea.
Ama moog se ama ey mazea.
Tuja moog se oma ay moza.
Yat oyepe tofwa.
Initi oyepe otofwa.
Únicornis est ferum animal
Vacca mánsuétum (cicur).
Leó sævum
Ovis míte
A unicorn is a fierce beast
A cow gentle (tame)
A lion is cruel
A sheep quiet
Anteyufyet se yigra pyot.
Bopeyt se yugra pet.
Lefanpyot se frua.
Ovbopet se obosa.

Gettysburgh Address[edit | edit source]

Gettysburgh Address
English Mirad
The Gettysburgh Address Ha Dodal bi Gettysburgh
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Uwa eloni ay yewa jabi jay yata twedi zayaysupa be hia yanmel ejna doob tyunxwa be yivan ay dobuwa bu ha duun van hya tobi saxwa gea.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. Hij yat se eybxwa be aga dita dropek yekuea ven hua doob, ey hyea doob huuyen tyunxwa ay huuyen dobuwa, yafe yagjeser.
We are met on a great battle-field of that war. Yat se nyanupya be agala dopekem bi hua dropek.
We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. Yat upaye dobuer gon bi hua dopekem gel ujponem av hoti bua yita teji him av van hua doob teju.
It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. Se hyagla vyanaba ay vyala van yat xu his.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. Oy be ga zyaa tes, yat yofe doduer--yat yofe fyabuer---yat yofe fyaaxer---hia mel.
The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. Hoa yifa tobi, tejea ay tojya, yekra him, fyabuaye is yib ayb yata ukza yafon gaber ey gober.
The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. Ha mir glo tepio ay igtaxo hos yat de him, oy is yafe toxer hyoj hos yit xa him.
It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. Se av yat ha tejeati gajwa dobuwer him bu ha oujbwa yex ho hoti ebyexa him zaybaye byuhij huugla fizay zaybaye.
It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. Se gajwa av yat ser him dobuwa bu ha agala yexun besea za yat--van bi hia fizuwa tojati yat biu gaxwa fyabuen ub hua avson hos av bua ha ujna ika nid bi fyabuen av is--van yat him vafe azay van hia tojati von tojayu boy fyin--van hia doob, oyb Tot, baysu ejna taj bi yivan--ay van dab bi ha tyod, bey ha tyod, av ha tyod, von loteasu bi ha imer.