Mirad Grammar/Sample Texts Analyzed

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Sample Texts Analyzed[edit | edit source]

Article One of the Declaration of Human Rights[edit | edit source]

Article One of the Declaration of Human Rights is often used to show how various invented international auxiliary languages compare with one another in written form. Here is the Mirad version of Article One, followed by the English version:
  • MIRAD: Hyaa1 tobi2 taje3 yiva4 ay5 gea6 be7 utfiz8 ay5 doyivi9. Yit10 bulwe11 bay12 vyatex13 ay5 tyaf14 ay5 yefu15 hyuitaxner16 tidyenay17.
  • ENGLISH: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
1 hyaa all   <   hya- [distributive deictic determiner]   +   -a [adjectival suffix]
2 tobi human beings   <   tob....human being [singular noun]   +   -i [plural suffix]
3 taje are born   <   taj-....be born [stem])  +   -e [present tense marker]
4 yiva free   <   yiv- [stem]   +   -a [adjectival suffix]
5 ay and [positive conjunction]
6 gea equal   <   ge- [stem]   +   -a [adjectival suffix]
7 be at, in [preposition]
8 utfiz dignity   <   ut....self [pronoun]  +   fiz....positive value [noun]
9 doyivi rights   <   do(t)-....society   +   yiv....freedom, right [noun]  +  -i [plural suffix]
10 yit they/them   <   it [3d person singular animate pronoun]   +   -i [plural]
11 bulwe are endowed   <   bul-....endow [verb stem]   +   -w [passive]   +   -e [present]
12 bay with [preposition]
13 vyatex reason   <   vya-....true, right   +   tex....thought
14 tyaf conscience   <   t-....know   +   yaf....ability, faculty
15 yefu should   <   yef-....(have a) duty [verb stem]   +   -u [hypothetical/conditional]
16 hyuitaxner treat one another   <   hyuit (comb. of hyut....other person   +   hyit....same person)   +   axn-....behave [verb stem]   +   -er [verbal infinitive marker]
17 tidyenay in a brotherly way   <   tid....brother [noun]   +   -yen....manner   +   -ay....-ly [adverbial suffix]

Lord's Prayer[edit | edit source]

Hey1   yata2   Twed3  , hu4   se5   be6   Totmir7, Our Father, who art in Heaven,
van8  eta9  dyun10  fyadwu11. Hallowed by thy name.
Van8  eta9  edob12  upu13. Thy kingdom come.
Van8  eta9  fwas14  xwu15  be6  Meir16  hyiyen17  hu4  xwe18  be6  Totmir7. Thy will be done on Earth as it is in Heaven.
Buu19  yat20 hijub21  yata22  hyajuba23  avol24, Give us this day our daily bread,
ay25  yovobu26  yat20  bi27  yata22  fuxi28 and forgive us our trespasses
hyiyen17  hu4  yat20  yovobe29  hati30  hu4  vyonxe31  yat20. as we forgive those who trespass against us.
Ay25  von32  izbu33  yat20  ub34  fuyekuen35, And lead us not into temptation,
oy36  yivxu37  yat20   bi27  fyox38. But deliver us from evil.
Su39  huuyen40. Amen.
Word-for-word analysis:
1 Hey O! [vocative particle]
2 yata our < at [1st sing animate pronoun] I/me + -i [plural] + -a [adjective suffix]
3 Ted Father < ted....parent
4 hu who [relative complementizer meaning who(m), that, which]
5 se am,is,are < s-[present stem of verb ser....to be] + -e [present tense suffix]
6 be in [preposition of location at]
7 Totmir Heaven < tot....god + mir....world
8 van let/may/that [positive complementizer introducing a fact or wish; see 32]
9 eta your, thy < et [2d sing animate pronoun] you + -a [adjective suffix]
10 dyun name [noun < verb stem dyu-....to call]
11 fyadwu be blessed < fya- holy + d- [stem of verb say] + -w- [passive] + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive mood]
12 edob kingdom < e- [2nd level of scalar noun dob....state]
13 upu come < u(b)34- toward + p [stem of verb to go] + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive mood]
14 fwas will < f- [stem of verb to want] + -w- [passive voice] + -a [adjective] + -s [inanimate nominalizer thing] = wanted thing
15 xwu be done < x- [stem of verb to do] + -w- [passive voice] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
16 meir earth < -i- [3d level of scalar noun mer....planet] = third planet from the sun
17 hyiyen as < hyi- [determiner = same] + -yen [suffix = manner] hyiyen hu = (in the) same manner that
18 xwe (it) is done < x- [stem of verb to do] + -w- [passive voice] + -e [present tense]
19 Buu Give < bu- [stem of verb to give] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
20 yat (to) us < at [1st sing pron I/me] + -i [plural]
21 hijub today, this day < hi- [proximate determiner this] + jub....day
22 yata our < at [1st sing pron I/me] + -i [plural] + -a [adjective suffic]
23 hyajuba daily < hya- [distributive determiner every] + jub....day + -a [adjective suffix]
24 avol bread [1st level of scalar noun vol....cereal]
25 ay and [positive conjunction] ( ey [intermediate] = or, oy [negative] = but)
26 yovobu forgive < yov....guilt, shame + ob [preposition off and stem of verb to remove] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
27 bi from [preposition meaning of, from; opp: bu....to]
28 fuxi bad deeds [noun] < fu-....bad + -x-....do/deed + -i [plural suffix'
29 yovobe forgive < yov....guilt, shame + ob [proposition off and stem of verb to remove] + -e [present]
30 hati the people/those < ha- [definite deictic determiner the] + -t....person + -i [plural suffix]
31 vyonxe offend < vyon....wrong + -x-....do + -e [present]
32 von lest, so not, don't [negative complementizer; van [positive] that/so that/let; ven [intermediate] if, whether]
33 izbu lead, guide < iz....direct, straight + b- [stem of verb put] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
34 ub toward [preposition; opp. ib....away]
35 fuyekuen temptation < fu-....bad + yek- [stem of verb try] + -u- [causative formant] + -en [present gerund -ing] = causing (someone) to try (something)
36 oy but [negative conjunction; see 25]
37 yivxu deliver, free, liberate < yiv-....free + -x-....do, make + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
38 fyox evil < fyo-....profane + x....deed
39 su be < s- [stem of verb to be] + -u [hyp./imper./subj.]
40 huuyen thus, such a way < huu- [deictic determiner such] + -yen....manner, way

Tower of Babel[edit | edit source]

The Tower of Babel story in Mirad:
  1. Ha Yabtom bi Babel
  2. Huj, hya meirtobi bea ana dalzeyn ay yansauna dunyan.
  3. Jehu tobi emuipeya byi ha imeram, yit aakaxa zyimem be ha meam "Xenear" ay yit kyotambia hum.
  4. Ha tobi hyuitda: "Upu, van yat sanxu hegla mefi ay magxu hasi." Huyen, yit bea mefi av sexmegi ay megyel av sexyanul.
  5. Johus, ha tobi da: "Upu, van yat sexu atiutia dom bay yabtom pyusea ha mam. Huyen, yat so yibtrewa ay hus jaebo yata yonzyaben bu hyami bi ha meir."
  6. Ha Oyjobat yopa bi ha mam av teater ha dom bay ha yabtom hu ha meirtobi sexaya.
  7. Johus, ha Oyjobat da, "Teaxu: Yit sanse ana tyob, hu hyati bee yansauna dalyen. His se anay yita aa xal. Johis, hyes hu yit ojtexo so vyamxyafwa.
  8. Upu, van yat yopu hum av yanmulxer yita dalyen von yit hyuittestu gaj."
  9. Johus ha Oyjobat yonzyaba ha tobi yib bi hum ub hyami bi ha meir, ay yit poxa hasexen bi ha dom ay yabtom.
  10. Hus se hasav hu him dyunxwa Babel, be hyua duni: "Yanmulx". Se ham hu ha Oyjobat vyonapxa ha dalyeni bi hya meirtobi ay yonzyaba yit bu hyami bi ha meir.
English translation:
  1. The Tower of Babel
  2. Then, all earthly humans had a single language and a common vocabulary.
  3. While people were migrating from the east, they discovered a plain in the region of Shenear and they settled there.
  4. The people said to one another, "Come on, let's mold some bricks and fire them." Thus, they had bricks for building stones and tar for mortar.
  5. Then, the people said, "Come on, let's build our own city with a tower reaching the sky. In that way, we will be famous and that will prevent us from being scattered all over the earth."
  6. The Eternal one came down from the sky to see the city with the tower the people of earth had constructed.
  7. Then, the Eternal One said, "Behold, they make up one people, all of whom have a common language. This is only their first accomplishment. After this, anything they plan will be realizable."
  8. Come, let us go down there to confuse their language so they won't understand one another anymore."
  9. Then the Eternal one scattered the men far from there to all parts of the earth, and they halted construction of the city and tower.
  10. That is why this place was named Babel, i.e. "Confusion". It is where the Eternal One mixed up the languages of all humans and scattered them all over the earth.
Word-for-word analysis:
  • ha....the [definite determiner]
  • yabtom....tower < yab-....high + tom....building
  • bi....of, from [preposition; opp: bu....to]
  • Babel [proper name]
  • huj....then < hu- [distal determiner that] + j [short for job'....time]
  • hya....all [distributive determiner]
  • meirtobi....people of earth < meir....earth + tob....human + -i [plural marker]
  • bea....had < be- [verb stem of to have] + -a [past tense]
  • ana....a single < a(n)-....one + -a [adjective marker]
  • dalzeyn....language < dal....speech + zeyn medium
  • ay....and [positive conjunction; opp: oy....but]
  • yansauna....common < yan-....together + saun....type + -a [adjective marker]
  • dunyan....vocabulary < dun'....word + -yan....collection
  • jehu....while < je....during + hu [relative complementizer] who, which, that
  • tobi....men, people < tob [noun] person/man/human + -i [plural marker]
  • emuipeya....were migrating < em....place + ui- = hither-thither + -ey- [progressive aspect] + -a [past tense]
  • byi....since, starting with [preposition; opp: byu....up to]
  • imeram....east < i- = right/east + mer....planet + -am....place
  • yit....they, them < it [3d sing animate pronoun] + -i [plural marker]
  • aakaxa....discovered < aa....first + kax- [stem of verb find] + -a [past tense marker]
  • zyimem....a plain < zyi-....flat + mem....land
  • kyotambia....settled < kyo- = static, fixed + tam....house, home + bi- [stem of verb take] + -a [past tense marker]
  • hum....there < hu- [distal determiner that] + -m' [suffix of place]
  • hyuitda....said to one another < hyuit < hyui-....one-another + -t [person suffix] + d- [stem of verb say,tell] + -a [past tense maker]
  • van....that < [positive complementizer that, let, so that]
  • yat....we, us [1st plur anim pron]
  • sanxu....form, mold < san....form + -x-....do/make/-ify + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive]
  • hegla....some < he- [indefinite determiner prefix some] + -gla [determiner suffix quantity/amount/degree]
  • mefi....bricks < mef [noun] brick + -i [plural marker]
  • magxu....fire,burn < mag- = fire + -x-....do/make/-ify + -u [hypothetical/imperative/subjunctive]
  • hasi....they, the things < ha- [definite determiner prefix the] + -s [inanimate suffix thing] + -i [plural marker]
  • huyen....thus, so < hu- [distal determiner prefix that] + -yen [determiner suffix manner]
  • av....for [preposition; opp: ov....against]
  • sexmegi....building stones < sex- [stem of verb to build] + meg....stone + -i [plural marker]
  • megyel....tar, pitch, asphalt < meg....stone + -yel [suffix viscous liquid]
  • sexyanul....mortar < sex- [stem of verb to build] + yan = together + -ul....substance
  • johus....then, next < jo....after + hu- [distal determiner prefix that] + -s [inanimate suffix thing]
  • da....said, told < d [stem of verb say/tell] + -a [past tense marker]
  • upu....come! < u(b) [preposition] toward + p- [stem of verb go] + -u [imperative]
  • sexu....build < sex [stem of verb build] + -u [subjunctive] > van yat sexu = let us build
  • yauta....our own < yat = we/us + yut = selves + -a [adjective marker]
  • dom....city
  • bay....with (preposition; opp: boy....without]
  • yabtom....tower < yab- = high + tom....building
  • pyusea....reaching < pyus- reach + -e- [present tense] + -a [adjective marker]
  • mam....sky
  • so....will be < s- = [stem of verb to be] + -o [future tense]
  • yibtrewa....famous < yib....far + tre- [stem of verb know/recognize] + -w- [passive voice] + -a [adjective marker]
  • jaebo....will prevent < ja- before + eb- between, block + -o [future tense marker]
  • yata....our < yat = we/us + -a [adjective marker]
  • yonzyaben....dispersal < yon....apart + zya- wide + b- = [stem of verb to put] + -e- [present tense] + -n (nominalizer) = -en [gerund] -ing
  • bu....to [preposition; opp: bi....from]
  • hyami....all places, all parts < [distributive determiner prefix hya- all] + [suffix -m....place + -i [plural marker]
  • bi....of, from [preposition; opp: bu....to]
  • Oyjobat....Everlasting One < oy- = without + job....time + -a [adjective marker] + [suffix -t....person] = Jehova
  • yopa....descended < yo(b)- = down + p- [stem of verb to go] + -a [past tense marker]
  • av....for [preposition; opp: ov....against]
  • teater....to see < tea(b)- = eye + t-....know + -er [infinitive ending]
  • hu....that, which, who [relative complementizer]
  • sexaya....had built < sex- [stem of verb to build] + -ay- [perfect active aspect/voice marker] + -a [past tense marker]
  • teaxu....look! < tea(b)-....eye + x- do/make/-ify + -u [imperative]
  • sanse....form/constitute < san....form + s- [stem of verb be/become/-ize + -e [present tense marker'
  • tyob....a people
  • hyati....all of them < hya- [distributive determiner prefix all] + [suffix -t....person) + -i [plural marker]
  • bee....has, have < be- [stem of verb to have] + -e [present tense marker]
  • his....this < [proximal determiner prefix hi-....this] + [suffix -t....thing]
  • anay....only < a(n)-....one + --ay [adverb ending -ly]
  • yita....their < yit [3d plur pronoun] they + -a [adjective marker]
  • aa....first < a-....one + -a [adjective marker]
  • xal....accomplishment deriv. of x- [stem of verb to do]
  • johis....then, next < jo....after + his [proximal inanimate determiner] this
  • hyes hu....whatever < [indiscriminate determiner prefix hye- = any/whichever + [suffix -s....thing] + hu [relative complementizer that]
  • ojtexo....will plan, envisage < oj-....future + tex-- [stem of verb to think] + -o [future tense marker]
  • so....will be < s- [stem of verb to be/become] + -o [future tense marker]
  • vyamxyafwa....realizable < vyam- = real + x- [verb formant do/make/-ize] + -yaf-....able + -w- [pass voice] + -a [adjectival suffix] > possible to be made real
  • yopu....descend < yo(b)-....down + p- [verb formant to go] + -u [subjunctive marker] > van yat yopu hum....let us go down there
  • yanmulxer....mix up, confuse < yan-....together + mul....stuff + [verb formant x- do/make/-ify] + -er [infinitive suffix]
  • von yit hyuittestiu....so they will not understand one another < von [negative complementizer lest, so that...not, don't] yit....they hyuit....one another + tes....meaning + t- [stem of verb know] + -u [subjunctive mood suffix]
  • gaj....further, anymore < ga-....more + -j....time (short for job....time)
  • yonzyaba....scattered < yon....apart + zya....wide + [verb formant b-....put] + -a [past tense marker]
  • yib [adverb] far
  • ub [preposition] toward; opp: ib away]
  • poxa....stopped < po- = still + [verb formant x-....do/make/-ify] + -a [past tense marker]
  • sexen....building < sex- [stem of verb to build] + -e- [present tense marker] + -n [abstract noun]
  • se....is, are < s-- [stem of verb to be] + -e [present tense marker]
  • hasav hu....the reason why < [definite determiner prefix ha-....the] + [inanimate suffix -s....thing] + [postposition av....for] hu [relative complementizer that, which, who]
  • him....here, this place < [proximal determiner prefix hi- this] + [place suffix -m]
  • dyunxwa....was/were named < dyun....name + [verb formant x- do/make/=ify] + -w- [passive infix] + -a [past tense marker]
  • be hyua duni....in other words, i.e. < be [preposition] in, at hyua [adjective] other duni [plural noun] duni....words
  • ham hu....the place where < [definite determiner prefix ha-....the] + [place suffix -m] hu [relative complementizer] which, who, that
  • vyonapxa....messed up, confused < vyo-....wrong/false + nap....order + [verb formant x- do/make] + -a [past tense marker]

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