Mirad Grammar/Adverbs

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Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Derived Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs can be derived from descriptive adjectives by adding y to the a ending.
Derived Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia....good fiay....well
yeva....fair yevay....fairly
uja....final ujay....finally
joga....new jogay....newly
teyda....maternal teyday....maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi.....She sings well.
  • At upo ig.....I'll come quickly.
Otherwise, the full adverb form is used, eg.:
  • Weti yefe ugay fiaser.....You guys must slowly improve.
  • At tojo ivay, tea van at beaye fia tej.....I will die happily knowing that I've had a good life.

Inherent Adverbs[edit]

There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives, or because they already end in ay. Here are the most common examples:
Inherent Adverbs
yab....up yeb....in
oyeb....out
yob....down yub....near yib....far
ab....on eb....between
eyb....among
ob....off ub....toward ib....away
bay....with/along bey....by/via boy....without byu....as far (as) byi....since
vay....indeed vey....perhaps voy....not
zay....ahead zey....across
ze....in the middle
zye....through
zoy....back zu....on the left zi....on the right
uz....on a curve iz....straight, directly
yuz....around yiz....beyond
gay....also gey....even goy....no more
gaj....still goj....no longer
yan....together yon....apart
jay....beforehand, already jey....currently joy....afterwards, next
The words in the above chart that are underlined can also serve as prepositions (See Prepositions).
The words underlined below are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab.....I looked up.   (= At yabteaxa.)
  • Duven et hyej upo zoy?.....Will you ever come back.   (= ...zoyupo?)
  • Et po yib be tej......You will go far in life.   (= Et yipo...)
  • At voy se eta ted.....I am not your father.
  • Pu zu, jogat!....Go left, young man!   (= Zuypu...)
  • Yat vay sa hum.....We were indeed there.
  • It pa oyeb.....He went outside.   (= It oyepa.)
  • Iyt gay deuze.....She also sings.
  • Yit yexe gey be moji.....They work even nights.
  • Ha tobot gaj tujeye.....The baby is still sleeping.
  • Yat yefe yexer yan.....We must work together.   (= ...yanyexer.)
  • His vey upo yon.....This may come apart.   (= ...yonupo.)
  • Hit se jay toja.....This one is already dead.
Many of the above adverbs can be prefixed to verbs, nouns, and even adjectives to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
  • yeb (in) + per (go) = yeper (to enter)  [NOT: yebper]
  • oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (to take out)  [NOT: oyebbier]
  • yab (up) + per (go) = yaper (to rise)  [NOT: yabper]
  • yob (up) + kima (sloped) = yobkima (downward-sloping)
  • yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (to approach)  [NOT: yubper]
  • yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (to telephone)
  • yiz (beyond) + per (go) = yizper (to surpass)
  • yuz (around) + pipen (sailing) = yuzpipen (circumnavigation)
  • zay (ahead) + paser (move) = zaypaser (to advance)
  • ze (to the middle) + jaga (aged) = zejaga (middle-aged)
  • zye (through) + teatyafwa (visible) = zyeteatyafa (transparent)
  • zey (across) + mep (road) = zeymep (bridge)
  • zoy (back) + nogea (gradual) = zoynogea (retrogressive)
  • iz (straight) + nad (line) = iznad (vector)
  • zi (to the right) + kum (side) = izkum (right side)
  • zu (far) + tuyab (hand) = zutuyaba (left-handed)
  • uz (on a curve) + nad (line) = uznad (curve)
  • yan (together) + up (come) = yanup (a meeting)
  • yon (apart) + ber (put) = yonber (to separate)

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze vi.....He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer gwa ig.....You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et hyoj ako gwaika ivan.....You will never gain perfect happiness.
  • At voy te. (OR) At te voy. ....I don't know.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit]

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of Quantitative Determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
"Comparison of Adverbs by Degree"
POSITIVE +/=/- COMPARATIVE +/- SUPERLATIVE
fiay....well ga fiay vyel....better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
ge igay vyel....as well as
go fiay vyel....less well than
gwa fiay....(the) best (Lit: most good-ly, as well as possible
gwo fiay....(the) least well

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