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Adverbs[edit | edit source]
- Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Derived Adverbs[edit | edit source]
- Adverbs can be derived from descriptive adjectives by adding y to the a ending.
Derived Adverbs ADJECTIVE ADVERB fia....good fiay....well yeva....fair yevay....fairly uja....final ujay....finally joga....new jogay....newly teyda....maternal teyday....maternally
- At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
- Iyt deuze fi.....She sings well.
- At upo ig.....I'll come quickly.
- Otherwise, the full adverb form is used, eg.:
- Weti yefe ugay fiaser.....You guys must slowly improve.
- At tojo ivay, tea van at beaye fia tej.....I will die happily knowing that I've had a good life.
Inherent Adverbs[edit | edit source]
- There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives, or because they already end in ay. Here are the most common examples:
Inherent Adverbs yab....up yeb....in
yob....down yub....near yib....far ab....on eb....between
ob....off ub....toward ib....away bay....with/along bey....by/via boy....without byu....as far (as) byi....since vay....indeed vey....perhaps voy....not zay....ahead zey....across
ze....in the middle
zoy....back zu....on the left zi....on the right uz....on a curve iz....straight, directly yuz....around yiz....beyond gay....also gey....even goy....no more gaj....still goj....no longer yan....together yon....apart jay....beforehand, already jey....currently joy....afterwards, next
- The words in the above chart that are underlined can also serve as prepositions (See Prepositions).
- The words underlined below are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
- At teaxa yab.....I looked up. (= At yabteaxa.)
- Duven et hyej upo zoy?.....Will you ever come back. (= ...zoyupo?)
- Et po yib be tej......You will go far in life. (= Et yipo...)
- At voy se eta ted.....I am not your father.
- Pu zu, jogat!....Go left, young man! (= Zuypu...)
- Yat vay sa hum.....We were indeed there.
- It pa oyeb.....He went outside. (= It oyepa.)
- Iyt gay deuze.....She also sings.
- Yit yexe gey be moji.....They work even nights.
- Ha tobot gaj tujeye.....The baby is still sleeping.
- Yat yefe yexer yan.....We must work together. (= ...yanyexer.)
- His vey upo yon.....This may come apart. (= ...yonupo.)
- Hit se jay toja.....This one is already dead.
- Many of the above adverbs can be prefixed to verbs, nouns, and even adjectives to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
- yeb (in) + per (go) = yeper (to enter) [NOT: yebper]
- oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (to take out) [NOT: oyebbier]
- yab (up) + per (go) = yaper (to rise) [NOT: yabper]
- yob (up) + kima (sloped) = yobkima (downward-sloping)
- yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (to approach) [NOT: yubper]
- yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (to telephone)
- yiz (beyond) + per (go) = yizper (to surpass)
- yuz (around) + pipen (sailing) = yuzpipen (circumnavigation)
- zay (ahead) + paser (move) = zaypaser (to advance)
- ze (to the middle) + jaga (aged) = zejaga (middle-aged)
- zye (through) + teatyafwa (visible) = zyeteatyafa (transparent)
- zey (across) + mep (road) = zeymep (bridge)
- zoy (back) + nogea (gradual) = zoynogea (retrogressive)
- iz (straight) + nad (line) = iznad (vector)
- zi (to the right) + kum (side) = izkum (right side)
- zu (far) + tuyab (hand) = zutuyaba (left-handed)
- uz (on a curve) + nad (line) = uznad (curve)
- yan (together) + up (come) = yanup (a meeting)
- yon (apart) + ber (put) = yonber (to separate)
Word Order of Adverbs[edit | edit source]
- The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
- It deuze vi.....He sings beautifully.
- Et yefe xer gwa ig.....You must do it as quickly as possible.
- Et hyoj ako gwaika ivan.....You will never gain perfect happiness.
- At voy te. (OR) At te voy. ....I don't know.
Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit | edit source]
- Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of Quantitative Determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
Comparison of Adverbs by Degree POSITIVE +/=/- COMPARATIVE +/- SUPERLATIVE fiay....well ga fiay vyel....better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
ge igay vyel....as well as
go fiay vyel....less well than
gwa fiay....(the) best (Lit: most good-ly, as well as possible
gwo fiay....(the) least well