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Pronoun Categories[edit | edit source]
- Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest. The pronoun big one stands for a person or thing of some stature.
- In this grammar, pronouns are divided into three categories:
- personal pronouns
- deictic determiners
- deadjectival pronouns
- Deictic determiners like who?, this, that, such a, all, anything are discussed in a later chapter called Determiners.
- Deadjectival pronouns are discussed in the chapter on Adjectives, because they are basically pronouns built from an adjective or adjective stem, such as:
- fiat....a good guy
- fias....a good thing
- ha gwa fiasi....the best ones
- This chapter discusses personal pronouns.
Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- In Mirad, personal pronouns can be classified by the following features:
- 1st & 2nd hybrid
- direct object
- indirect object
- The chart below shows the principal personal pronouns, but does not include hybrid, reciprocal, emphatic, and possessive forms.
Personal Pronouns PERSON TYPE ANIMACY GENDER SINGULAR PLURAL 1st Specific Animate Neutral at....I, me yat....we, us 2nd et....you yet....you, you all 3rd it....he, she, him, her yit....they, them Masculine wit....he, him Feminine iyt....she, her Inanimate Neutral is....it yis....they, them Generic Animate ot....one, they yot....people Reflexive ut....self yut....selves
Animacy[edit | edit source]
- If a Mirad pronoun ends in -t, the pronoun is animate. If the pronoun ends in -s, the pronoun is inanimate.
- The Mirad 3rd person specific animate pronouns it (he/she), iyt (she), wit (he), and yit can refer to any animate or pseudo-animate creatures such as animals, babies, dolls, angels, gods, or monsters. However, Mirad it cannot refer to non-animate things such as tables, ideas, abstractions, etc. Instead, the 3rd person inanimate pronoun is (singular) or yis (plural) is used. A deictic determiner (this/that, these/those) can also be used in such cases, as discussed in the chapter on Determiners, eg.:
- Eta dom se via. At iyfe is.....You house is beautiful. I like it.
- Ata dyun se Pierre. Is se Feroda.....My name is Pierre. It's French.
- Tej se vira, oy is uje gra ig.....Life is wonderful, but it ends too soon.
- Teaxu hua amaryop. Has se via.....Look at that sunset. It (=the thing) is beautiful. In this case, is and the determiner has are synonymous.
- If the English word they or them refers to inanimate objects, concepts, or abstractions, then the Mirad 3rd person inanimate plural pronoun isi is used, eg.:
- At ujba dyeer ha dyesi. Isi sa gla fia.....I finished reading the books. They were very good.
- Note that the endings -t and -s alternate regularly in the language for things and persons.
Gender[edit | edit source]
- Personal pronouns are gender-neutral, except that the 3rd singular animate pronoun it (he/she) can be made to express gender by prefixing w for masculine or inserting y before the final t for feminine. This is optional and only used where needed to differentiate referents.
- iuta....his/her own
- iuyta....her own
- wiuta....his own
- In rare cases, distinguishing other personal pronouns for gender might be possible:
- wat....I/me, as a male
- eyt....you, a female
Number[edit | edit source]
- All plural personal pronouns begin with y:
- yat....we, us
- yet....you (all)
- yit....they, them (m. or f.)
- Plural personal pronouns do not express gender.
Case[edit | edit source]
- Personal pronouns in Mirad do not express case with inflected forms such as he vs. him or she vs. her, or they vs. them in English. Rather, the position in the sentence or prepositions do the job.
- Et teate at.....You see me. (subject)
- At teate et.....I see you. (direct object)
- Yat teate yit.....We see them. (subject)
- Yit teaate yat.....They see us. (direct object)
- Du at din.....Tell me a story. (indirect object)
- Buu is bu at.....Give it to me. (indirect object)
- Tell me a story. can also be expressed in Mirad as Du din bu at. (Tell a story to me.). Some verbs in Mirad like der (to tell), buer (to give), and uper (to come) have a built-in dative notion and do not require the preposition bu (to) if the object pronoun immediately follows the verb.
Expressing Pronouns with Quantitative Elements[edit | edit source]
- Here are some possible personal pronouns with quantitative elements:
- awat bi yat....one of us
- ewat bi yet....two of you
- Hyaewat bi yit....both of them
- hya yat....we/us all
- anay wet....only you (m.)
- duhot bi yet?....who of you?
- Hyawas se fia.....Each one is good.
- The above terms involve deictic determiners, which are discussed in the chapter on Determiners, as well as numbers, discussed in Numbers.
Generic Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are used as in English one and they, people (meaning unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
- Ot yefe xer ha yakwas.....One must do what is expected.
- Yot de van et vyode hyoj.....They/People say you never lie.
Hybrid Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- Mirad offers two special hybrid 1st & 2nd person pronouns, aet and ayet, which mean, respectively, I and you (dual) and I and you (plural). These are used only where the situation calls for it, eg.:
- Aet yeyfe tadser.....You and I should get married.
- Ayet efe yanbeser.....You people and I need to stick together.
Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed by postfixing a u just before the final t. Reflexive personal pronouns are invariable for gender. Translating iut as herself depends on the context.
Reflexive Pronouns PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL 1st specific animate aut....myself yaut....ourselves 2nd specific animate eut....yourself yeut....yourselves 3d specific animate iut....himself/herself yiut....themselves 3d specific inanimate ius....itself yius....themselves 3d generic animate out....oneself yout....people themselves
- Reflexive pronouns do not have gendered forms, because they hearken back to personal pronouns which can be gendered.
- The above reflexive pronouns can be adjectivized, as in the following:
- auta tam....my own house
- yiuta byen....their own way
- iusa volz....its own color
- These in turn can be pronominalized, as in the following:
- At bese yub bi autati.....I stay nearby my own (people).
- Eutas se ga fia.....You own is better.
- Iyt bexe iutasi.....She has her own things.
- Examples of personal pronoun usage:
- At yafe teater aut be ha sinzyef.....I can see myself in the mirror.
- Iyt yubteaxa iut.....She examined herself.
- Tru eut!....Know thyself.
- Yat yeyfe tadser.....We should get married.
- Iyt vey tojbo iut.....She may kill herself.
- Ot yefe ifer out.....One must love oneself.
- Yot glaxag voy ife yout.....People often don't love themselves.
- Yet ufe yeut.....You (people) hate yourselves.
- Yet yeyfe yovser yeut.....You people should be ashamed of yourselves.
- Yat ufe yet.....We hate you.
- Upu eker bay yat.....Come play with us.
- At aut voy movie.....I myself do not smoke.
- The reflexive pronoun ut....self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
- tojber....kill → uttojber....commit suicide
- vyixer....clean → utvyixer....wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
- exer....function → utexer....function automatically, self-run
- izber....pilot → utizber....auto-pilot, self-drive
- exut....operator → utexut....automaton
- deber....rule → utdebea....autocratic, self-ruling
- tejdin....biography → uttejdin....autobiography
- fider....praise → utfider....boast (= self-praise)
Emphatic Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the reflexive correspondent, eg.:
Emphatic Personal Pronouns PERSON GENDER SINGULAR PLURAL 1st neutral at aut....I myself, me myself yat yaut....we ourselves, us ourselves 2nd et eut....you yourself yet yeut....you yourselves 3rd it iut....the person him or herself yit yiut....they themselves masculine wit iut....he himself wit wiut....they themselves feminine iyt iut....she herself yit yiut....they themselves
Note: Gender is not expressed in personal reflexive pronouns. Only the personal specific pronouns express gender, and then only optionally.
- At aut voy vatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
- At jateate yet yeut be hua dezyem.....I foresee you yourselves on that stage.
- Iyt iut voy sa hum.....She herself was not there.
Reciprocal Personal Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- The animate reciprocal personal pronoun....one another, each other is translated with hyuit, which is a melding of hyut (the other person) and hyit (the same person). This is an invariable pronoun and does not express gender or number, but refers to sentient beings.
- Yat yefe ifer hyuit.....We must love one another.
- This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a pronominal determiner by suffixing a, as in hyuita....one another's, mutual, reciprocal:
- The inanimate reciprocal personal pronoun....one another, each other is translated with hyuis, which is a hybridization of hyus (the other thing) and hyis (the same thing. This is an invariable pronoun and does not express gender or number, but refers to inanimate objects, concepts, and abstractions.
- Meri glexag yanpyexe hyuis.....Planets sometimes crash into each other.
- Yat tobweti yefe fiyzaxer hyuita fwasi.....We guys must respect one another's wishes.
- This reciprocal pronouns can sometimes be used as a prefix, eg.:
- Yat yefe hyuitifer.....We must love one another.
- Hyuitfiyz....mutual respect
- Hyuisloyexen....mutual destruction.
Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns[edit | edit source]
- Possessive adjectives are derived from pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the end of the pronoun, as follows:
- at....I, me → ata....my
- aut....myself → auta....my own
- yat....we, us → yata....our
- yaut....ourselves → yauta....our own
- iut....himself/herself → iuta....his/her own
- hyuit....one another → hyuita....one another's
- In turn, these possessive adjectives can be pronominalized with singular and plural forms referring to things. The following chart shows these forms:
Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Adjective Pronoun Singular (thing) Plural (things) ata....my atas....mine atasi....mine auta....my own autas....your own autasi....your own aeuta....your and my own, our own aeutas....your and my own, our own aeutasi....your and mine, our own eta....your etas....yours etasi....yours euta....your own eutas....your own eutasi....your own ita....his/her itas....his/hers itasi....his/hers iuta....his/her own iutas....his/hers own iutasi....his/hers own wita....his witas....his witasi....his wiuta....his own wiutas....his own wiutasi....his own iyta....her iytas....hers iytasi....hers iuyta....her own iuytas....her own iuytasi....her own hyuita....one another's hyuitas....one another's hyuitasi....one another's isa....its isas....its isasi....its iusa....its own iusas....its own iusasi....its own ota....one's otas....one's otasi....one's outa....one's own outas....one's own outasi....one's own yata....our yatas....ours yatasi....ours yauta....our own yautas....our own yautasi....our own yaeta....your and ours yaetas....yours and ours yaetasi....yours and ours yaeuta....your and our own yaeutas....yours and our own yaeutasi....yours and our own yeta....your yetas....yours yetasi....yours yeuta....your own yeutas....your own yeutasi....your own yita....their yitas....theirs yitasi....theirs yiuta....their own yiutas....their own yiutasi....their own yisa....their yisas....theirs yisasi....theirs yiusa....their own yiusas....their own yiusasi....their own yota....people's yotas....people's yotasi....people's youta....people's own youtas....people's own youtasi....people's own
- Examples of possessive adjectives and pronouns in use.
- Ata tej se fia.....My life is good.
- Yata twed.......Our father...
- Ota fyadili yeyfe ser dola.....One's prayers should be silent.
- At voy teata ita dyes.....I did not see his/her book.
- At tre wita twed.....I know his father.
- Yat yefe ovmasber yatasi.....We must protect our own [pl. things].
- Etasi naze ga vyel atasi.....Yours are worth more than mine.
- Biku yeutasi.....You guys, mind your own business (= things).
- Yat toybeti fe ayser yauta nig.....We gals want to have our own space.
- Hia vafil bayse iusa toleuz.....This wine has its own taste.
- In rare cases, inanimate possessive pronouns like, say, yatasi (our own [things]) can be animated by changing the s to a t, yielding yatati (our own [people]), as in Ha Feromati ife vafil. Yatati gey.....The French people love wine. Ours do too.
Translating various uses of it in English[edit | edit source]
- When translating English it referring to animate creatures such as babies, animals, dolls, angels, ghosts, and monsters, the Mirad third person animate personal pronouns it he/she/it, iyt she, or wit he is used, eg:
- At eke bay ha epet hosav at iyfe it / iyt / wit.....I play with the dog because I like it / her / him.
- When translating English it referring to an inanimate object or abstraction, the inanimate personal pronoun is can be used.
- At teasa ha dyezun ay at iyfa is gla.....I saw the movie and I liked it a lot.
- Ha mes sa yija oy at voy ta is.....The door was open but I didn't know it.
- Deictic determiners like this and that can also be used. Read more about that in the chapter on Determiners.
- If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
- Mamilo.....It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
- Se fia van et upa.....It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
- Sa via jub bay et.....It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
- Voy se yuka yaprer hia yazmel.....It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)