Mirad Grammar/print version

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Introduction[edit]

Glojo, ha mir gonbio yansauna gabyuxea dar. (Soon, the world will share a common auxiliary language.)

Mirad, formerly known as Unilingua, is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, and is pronounced mee-RAHD, is categorized by constructed language experts as taxonomic, because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the wordstock of Mirad is considered a priori, meaning that there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.

The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry, where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.

Mirad is constructed on the following principles:

  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, semantic, or grammatical value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
  • Word opposites differ only in the stem vowel (iva = happy; uva = sad).

This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:

  • The letter w was added to mark the passive voice of verbs, among other things.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun.
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show.
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair.
  • The letter h was added, mainly to create a systematic set of determiners like this, that, and every.
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • The definite article ha (the) was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The writing system now consists only of letters of the Roman alphabet, with no diacritics.


Phonology and Orthography[edit]

There is a direct, one-to-one correlation between Mirad sounds (phonology) and the way these sounds are written (orthography).

Alphabet[edit]

Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English. Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the dieresis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
Alphabet
UPPERCASE A B C* D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q* R S T U V W X Y Z
LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z
MIRAD NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
* Not used in "native" Mirad words.
The letters c and q are used only to represent words and names imported into Mirad from other languages.
Spelling a word aloud means uttering the word's Mirad letter names in succession left to right. If the letter is a majuscule, then the letter name is preceded by ag-....big, eg.:
  • anxwa is spelled aloud as a-ni-xu-wu-a
  • Mirad is spelled aloud as ag-mi-i-ro-a-da
Text in Mirad is written from left to right with spaces between words. Capitalization and punctuation are described later.
The Mirad alphabet can be divided into three types of sounds: consonants, glides, and vowels. These are covered in the next section.

Consonants[edit]

There are 20 consonant phonemes.

Consonant Phonemes[edit]

The following IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) chart shows the consonant phonemes (minimal meaningful sounds) in Mirad:
Consonant Phonemes
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal /m/ /n/
Plosive voiced /b/ /d/ /g/
unvoiced /p/ /t/ /k/
Affricate voiced
unvoiced (/t͡ʃ/)*
Fricative voiced /v/ /z/ /ʒ/
unvoiced /f/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/
Approximate /l/ /j/ /w/
Flap /ɽ/
  • The approximate phonemes /j/ and /w/ are special and do not function as consonants in native Mirad words (They can, however, function as consonants in borrowings and proper nouns from other languages). They are considered glides or semi-vowels, and are used to form diphthongs (complex vowels). See Vowels.
  • The phonemes /r/ and /l/ are liquids and behave in a special way in forming words in Mirad.
*  Used only in foreign words.

Consonant Graphemes[edit]

The consonant graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above consonant phonemes are as follows:
Consonant Graphemes
PHONEME /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /ɽ/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /ʃ/ /j/ /z/
GRAPHEME b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w x y z
In Mirad, every consonant has a one-to-one correspondence with a single phoneme (ideal sound). Mirad does not use digraphs like sh or ph to represent consonant sounds. There are no double consonants, although sometimes a consonant will come together with the same consonant in the same word, but not the same syllable. There are no silent consonants. Also, there are no letters in "native" Mirad with diacritical marks like é or ñ.
That said, the y and w, while functioning as consonants in words from other languages, such as Yohan (Johann) and wan (wan), they are, in Mirad native words, used as glides to alter the pronunciation of vowels. See Pronunciation of Vowels.

Pronunciation of Consonants[edit]

Here are the letters that differ somewhat or function somewhat differently from English:
  • The letter x is pronounced like an sh in English.
  • The letter h is never silent. It is used to form the determiners in Mirad and is also used to simulate foreign sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach.
  • The letter j is pronounced like the zh in Russian Zhivago or the ge in English mirage.
  • The letter s is always unvoiced as English ss and never sounds like a z.
  • The letter g is always a hard sound as in English gap, not as in English wage.
  • The letter c is used only in foreign words and represents the unvoiced affricate sound t͡ʃ like the ch in English church. For example, the Mirad name for China is Cinam.
  • The unvoiced plosives p, t, and k are pronounced without the puff of breath that sometimes follows them in their English counterparts. The corresponding consonants in French are exact equivalents.
  • The consonant r should be a flap or trill like the r in Brit. Eng. very or the single r in Spanish pero.
  • The consonants in the Mirad alphabet correspond one-to-one with phonemes. There are no cases of sounds being represented by paired consonanst as in English ph, sh, ch, or th. For example, the sh sound in English is represented by x in Mirad.
Here is a chart showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
Consonants
MIRAD CONSONANT
GRAPHEME
IPA ARTICULATION NEAREST EQUIVALENTS
b [b] unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy
c [tʃ] unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words)
d [d] unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog
f [f] unvoiced bilabial fricative English fog
g [g] unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i)
h [h]
[x]
glottal fricative English house
(used in foreign words and names as a kh-like sound like German Bach
j [ʒ] voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage
k [k] unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English kite (without aspiration) or French comment
l [l] voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell.
m [m] voiced bilabial nasal English mother
n [n]
[ŋ]
voiced alveolar nasal English nobody
Before g or k, like English fang
p [p] unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English pan (without aspiration)
q - - (Only used in foreign words, where it has various guttural pronunciations)
r [r] alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma or British Eng. 'very
s [s] unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose)
t [t] unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English top (without aspiration)
v [v] voiced bilabial fricative English very
w [w]
[ʊ]
voiced labio-velar approximant As a pre-glide, English water, French oui
As a post-glide, as in English law
x [ʃ] unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher
y [j]
[ɪ]
voiced palatal approximant As a pre-glide, like English yard
As a post-glide, like English boy.
z /z/ voiced alveolar fricative English zone. German speakers, beware. Mirad z is pronounced like a German s, as in Sohn, not like z as in zehn, which sounds more like ts.

Note: If you see a blank here instead of an IPA symbol, it probably means that the font you are using to display characters in your browser does not support these characters.

Vowels[edit]

There are 5 vowel phonemes.

Vowel Phonemes[edit]

This IPA1 chart shows the Mirad vowel phonemes:
Vowel Phonemes
Front Central Back
High /i/ /u/
Mid /e/ /o/
Low /a/

Vowel Graphemes[edit]

The graphemes (alphabetic letters) in Mirad used to represent the above vowel phonemes (minimal meaningful sounds) are as follows:

Vowel Graphemes
PHONEME /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/
GRAPHEME a e i o u

Pronunciation of Vowels[edit]

Mirad vowels can be divided into simple vowels and glided vowels.
  • Simple Vowels
The simple vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some close examples in Spanish and French, and not-so-close examples in English.
Simple Vowels
VOWEL IPA1 SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH
APPROXIMATION
a [a] mano à
father
e [e] hecho et
day 2
i [i] si si
see2
o [o] no de l'eau
so3
u [u] tu ou
too3
  • Glided Vowels
Vowels in Mirad can be preceded, followed, or surrounded by y and/or w, which act as glides. The chart below shows the possible ways vowels can be glided, along with their pronunciations:
Glided Vowel Patterns
GLIDED
VOWELS
IPA1 PRONUNCIATION
PRE-Y-GLIDED VOWELS
ya [ja] Eng. yacht, Fr. hiacinthe (there is)
ye [je] Eng. yet, Fr. grillé (grilled)
yi [ji] Eng. yeast*, Fr. bouilli
yo [jo] Eng. yoke*, Fr. maillot
yu [ju] Eng. you*, Fr. piou-piou
PRE-W-GLIDED VOWELS
wa [wa] Eng. water, Fr. gouache (poster paint)
we [we] Eng. wet, Fr. ouais (yes)
wi [wi] Eng. wee2, Fr. oui (yes)
wo [wo] Eng. woke2
wu [wu] Eng. woo2
POST-Y-GLIDED
ay [aɪ] Eng. sight, Sp. hay (there is)
ey [eɪ] Eng. day, Sp. rey (king)
iy [iɪ] Eng. see, Fr. bille (marble)
oy [oɪ] Eng. boy, Sp. hoy (today)
uy [uɪ] Eng. gooey, Sp. muy (very)
POST-W-GLIDED
aw [ɔ] Eng. awe
ew [eʊ] Br. Eng. beau, colloq. Eng. Tell me!
iw [iʊ] Eng. eew! (sound of disgust), Du. niew
(new)
ow [oʊ] Eng. know, foe
uw [uʊ] Eng. goo
CIRCUM-Y-GLIDED
yay [jaɪ] Eng. yikes
yey [jeɪ] Eng. yea!
yiy [jiɪ] Eng. yeesh! (sound of disgust)
yoy [joɪ] Eng. yoink ( = New Jyoizy )
yuy [juɪ] Eng. Hughie
PRE-W-POST-Y-GLIDED
way [waɪ] Eng. wise, Fr. ouailles (flock)
wey [weɪ] Eng. way
wiy [wiɪ] Eng. wee! (sound of fun)
woy [woɪ] Eng. woy (rhymes with boy)
wuy [wuɪ] Eng. wooish (rhymes with gooey)
Note: That neither circum-w-glided vowels nor pre-y-glided, post-w-glided vowels exist in the language at present.

Note 1: International Phonetic Alphabet. See chart and click on sounds at [[1]].
Note 2: Without the typical y-glide at the end of the English vowel. The vowel should be pure, as in the Romance languages of Europe.
Note 3: Without the typical w-glide at the end of the English vowel. The vowel should be pure, as in the Romance languages of Europe.

Syllabification[edit]

Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-y-glide or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the liquids r and l, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide consonants (i.e. not y or w, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
Syllabification
CASE EXAMPLE SYLLABIFIED
1 ama.....hot a-ma
2 ayma.....warm ay-ma
3 aymsea.....warming up aym-se-a
4 prexwa....exploded pre-xwa
5 upayo....will have come u-pa-yo
6 vyaa....true vya-a
7 vyaay....truly vya-ay
8 vay....indeed vay
9 tambwa....settled tam-bwa

Phonotactics[edit]

For the purpose of this section:
  • G stands for the glides y or w.
  • L stands for the liquids r and l.
  • C stands for consonants other than glides or liquids.
  • V stands for single vowels.
  • + means 1 to 3 of the foregoing letter
  • Parentheses indicate that a letter is optional.
  • Bracketing indicates a choice of letters or patterns.
Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following pattern constraints:
Phonotactics
ALLOWABLE SYLLABIC PATTERNS EXAMPLES
(C)[LG]V+(G)(L)(C) o, ay, xwa, gyo, gra, toyb, glays, alp, mayr, hyos, va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre, vyaa, lo, wa, yu
...V(G)m[psx] mamp, yomx
...V(G)n[kgsx] yank, yons, anx, Englam, eynx
  • Two non-glide/liquid consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.
  • Two glides or liquids cannot come together in one syllable except in foreign-imported words.
This list shows most all possible syllable patterns in Mirad:
  • V
  • CV
  • GV
  • LV
  • V+
  • VC
  • VG
  • VL
  • CGV
  • CLV
  • CV+
  • CVC
  • CVG
  • CVL
  • GV+
  • GVC
  • GVL
  • LVC
  • V+C
  • V+G
  • VC+
  • VGC
  • VLC
  • CGV+
  • CGVC
  • CGVG
  • CGVL
  • CLV+
  • CLVC
  • CLVG
  • CLVL
  • CV+C
  • CV+G
  • CV+L
  • CVC+
  • CVGC
  • CVGL
  • CVLC
  • GCVG
  • GV+C
  • GVC+
  • GVGC
  • VGC+
  • CGV+C
  • CGV+G
  • CGV+L
  • CGVC+
  • CGVGC
  • CGVLC
  • CLGV+
  • CLGVC
  • CLV+C
  • CLV+G
  • CLV+L
  • CLVGC
  • CV+GC
  • CGV+GC
  • CGV+LC
  • CLGV+C
  • CLGV+G
  • CLV+GC
  • CLV+LC

Stress[edit]

Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel, included glided vowels. The following chart gives some examples:
Stress
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
teja....vital te-ja
igay....quickly i-gay*
Mirad....Mirad Mi-rad
booka....tired bo-o-ka
bookan....fatigue bo-o-kan
tejea....alive te-je-a
oyse....lacks oy-se
* Here ay is a y-glided vowel, and final, so it is not stressed.

Capitalization[edit]

Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English, that is:
  • The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
  • Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
  • All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
The following chart illustrates this:
Capitalization
Mirad English
Amerikam America
Amerikama American
Amerikat an American
Amerikad American English
Ivan Ivan
Dropek ay Poos War and Peace
At Mirade. I speak Mirad.
Hyat be ha mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon.
Yat tambeseya Boston. We were living in Boston.
His se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine.
Ha Anxwa Doobi gey dyunxwe ha AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.

Punctuation[edit]

Punctuation and the rules governing it are basically the same as in English, except for one difference. The part of a sentence in Mirad that introduces a direct quotation uses a colon (:) instead of a comma, eg.:
  • It da: "At voy te." .... He said, "I don't know."


Nouns[edit]

Types of Nouns[edit]

Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in these various ways:
  • common vs. proper
Common and Proper Nouns
COMMON PROPER
tam....house Emer....Venus
yagsim....bench Fransam....France
dyes....book Notre Dame...Notre Dame
tej....life Tot....God
  • concrete vs. abstract
Concrete vs. Abstract Nouns
CONCRETE ABSTRACT
tab....body ifon....love
mil....water oyman....coolness
deuz....song deuzen....singing
  • countable vs. mass
Countable vs. Mass Nouns
COUNTABLE MASS
pat....bird pattel....bird food
patayeb....feather patayebyan....plumage
meg....rock mil....water
  • gender-neutral vs. feminine or masculine
Gender-neutral vs. Gendered
GENDER-NEUTRAL FEMININE MASCULINE
tob....human being toyb....woman twob....man
edeb....royal person edeyb....queen edweb....king
ted....parent teyd....mother twed....father
  • singular vs. plural
Singular vs. Plural Nouns
SINGULAR PLURAL
dom....city domi....cities
gon....part goni....parts
jub....day jubi....days
  • inanimate (things) or animate (humans and animals, i.e. live, sentient creatures, not plants)
Inanimate vs. Animate Nouns
INANIMATE ANIMATE
mam....sky pot....animal
tom....building aut....person
job....time tobot....child
Nouns also include gerunds, i.e. abstract nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen....singing < deuzer....to sing or osexen....destruction < osexer....to destroy.
In Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a consonant. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma....Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat....birdpati....birds).
The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.

Pluralization of Common Nouns[edit]

A singular countable common noun always ends in a consonant and is made plural by suffixing the plural suffix marker -i. So, the plural of pur....car is puri....cars. In noun phrases, for example, where a noun is modified by an article and adjective, only the noun is pluralized, that is, there is no agreement across word boundaries as in many European languages (la belle fleur les belles fleurs).
Pluralization of Nouns
SINGULAR PLURAL
tam....house tami....houses
toyb....woman toybi....women
tej....life teji....lives
ha via dom....the beautiful city ha via domi....the beautiful cities

Articles[edit]

In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ha (the). There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Mirad Grammar/Determiners#Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Spanish. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
The Use of Articles
MIRAD ENGLISH SPECIFICITY
tam a house indefinite, no article
ha tam the house definite
ha tami the houses definite, plural
tej life general, no article
fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article
ha tej (...hu at ayse) the life (... that I have) specific
Fransad French language name, already specific, no article
Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article
Ha yivani hu yat ifie. The freedoms that we enjoy. abstraction specified
Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered already specific, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."


Proper Nouns[edit]

Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -yat; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take a definite article only in a few cases like ha Anxwa Doebi....the United States, which is really composed of common nouns. Otherwise, a country name like Fransam does not take a definite article, just as it does not in English.


Noun Modifiers: Placement and Agreement[edit]

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa....two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Noun Modifiers
Mirad English
ha ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifxea taxi many pleasant memories
hya fia tob every good man
ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja teji My past lives

Noun Linkage[edit]

Nouns can be
  1. linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
  2. juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
  3. compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
  4. hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
Examples:
Noun Linkage
LINKAGE EXAMPLE CONSTRUCTION
Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and)
ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or)
hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but)
nyandras boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without)
tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of)
job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of)
dyen ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about)
dropek jaxeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jaxeni (preparations)
dom yaudpur....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yautpur (bus)
tojvaf....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun vaf (wish)
jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league)
maj-moj....a day-and-night two or more equal, opposed nouns hyphenated
The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person, eg. ha tam bi Sam (Sam's house = the house of Sam). The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi....of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil....a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb....wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Mirad Grammar/Prepositions or Mirad Grammar/Conjunctions.
Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Mirad Grammar/Vocabulary Formation.

Noun Derivational Suffixes[edit]

Nouns can be divided into:
  • simple nouns such as pur....vehicle
  • compound nouns such as naadpur....train < naad....rail + pur....vehicle
  • derived nouns such as fabyan....forest < fab....tree + -yan, a suffix meaning collection
Derived nouns are formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
Noun Derivational Suffixes
SUFFIX MEANING BASE ONTO WHICH
SUFFIX IS ADDED
EXAMPLES
-ag big noun tam house → tamag....mansion
tyal....mealtyalag....banquet
tilar....spoontilarag....ladle
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem via....beautifulvia....beauty
yeva....fairyevan....fairness, equity
toba....humantoban....humanity, humanness, manhood
-ayg big and cute noun tam....housetamayg....cozy mansion
epet....dogepetayg....wolfie
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla....EnglishAnglad....English (language)
Mira....of the worldMirad....Mirad (world speech)
apet....horseaped....neigh, whinny
-ef need of noun tel....foodtelef....hunger
iga....fastigef....emergency
til....drinktilef....thirst
-en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifier....enjoyifien....enjoyment
deuzer....singdeuzen....singing
axer....actaxen....action, acting
-es smaller counterpart thing noun tom....buildingtomes apartment
saun....kindsaunes....sample
dreuz....poemdeuzes....stanza
mek....dust, powdermekes....speck, gain
-et smaller counterpart person noun twob....mantwobet....boy
toyb....womantoybet....girl
-if love of, -philia noun tel....foodtelif....gourmandise
doab....homelanddoabif....patriotism
dyes....bookdyesif....bibliophilia, love of books
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man....lightmanig....flash
pyex....strokepyexig....swat
yopaper....dive, fly downyopapig....swoop
-im room, chamber various stems fyadiler....to prayfaydilim....chapel
mageler....to cookmagelim....kitchen
tofer....to dresstofim....dressing room
-in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot....godtotin....religion, theism
otofa....nudeotofin....nudism
yufr-....terroryufrin....terrorism
-n abstract noun various stems ze....in the middle ofzen....center
za....in front ofzan....face
byi....since, starting withbyin....source
go....lessgon....part
-am house, building various stems nun- merchandise → nunam....store
til drink → tilam....bar, tavern
fyadiler....to prayfyadilam....church
-(e)m place various stems ho-? what-? → hom?....where?
yex....workyexem....worksite
ab....on, aboveabem....top, surface
kua....lateralkum....side
-im room various stems magel-....cookmagelim....kitchen
-um compartment, booth various stems teuzibar....telephoneteuzibarum....telephone booth
-yem enclosure, box various stems apet....horseapetyem....corral
b-....putbyem....position
-ud offspring, baby of noun apet....horseapetud....foal
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet....horseapetog....pony
tyal....mealtyalog....snack
gorbun....cutgorbunog....cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam....housetamoyg....cottage
apayt....chickenapaytoyg....chickadee
mimpar....boatmirparoyg....dingy
-ar
-ir
-ur
instrument, tool, machine, etc. usu. verb stem per....to gopur....car
drer....to writedrar....pencil
gobler....to cutgoblar....knife
yabler....to liftyablur....elevator, lift
yablar....lift, crane
dop....militarydopar....gun
dopur....machine gun
dopir....artillery, cannon
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas....first one, first thing
otwa....unknownotwas....mystery, an unknown
tejea....livingtejeas....living thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems ifer....to loveifon....love
ov againstovon....obstacle
aza strong → azon....force
yika....difficultyikson....problem
-(s)un object, thing, result of an action various stems vyua....dirtyvyun....spot
tamber....settletambiun....settlement
gofrer shredgofrun....scrap, shred
hyo....not a singlehyosun....not a single thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat....second one, second person
fya-....holyfyat....holy one, saint
ujna....lastujat....last one, last person
Amerika....AmericanAmerikat....an American
-tun science of, -ology noun tot....godtottun....theology
tob....mantobtun....anthropology
vob....plantvobtun....botany
-tut scientist, -ologist, -ist noun tot....godtottut....theologist
tob....mantobtut....anthropologist
vob....plantvobtut....botanist
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf....hydrophobia
totin....religiontotinuf....hatred of religion
toyb....womantoybuf....misogyny
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant, -ist verb stem beker....treatbekuyt....nurse
poper....travelpoput....traveler
aker....winakut....winner
-yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teater....to seeteatyaf....ability to see
texer....to thinktexyaf....cognition
tester....to understandtestyaf....comprehension
noser....to spendnosyaf....spending power
ter....to knowtyaf....conscience
-yag big and ugly noun tetwid....uncletetwidyag....dirty old uncle
toyb....womantoybyag....hag
-yan collection, grouping, -ary noun tob....mantobyan....mankind
mar....starmaryan....constellation
fab....treefabyan....forest
dyes....bookdyesyan....library
-yef duty to verb stem duder....to answerdudyef....responsibility
byoker....to achebyokyef....punishment
-yik difficulty to verb stem teeter....to hearteetyik....difficulty hearing
tiexer....to breathetiexyik....difficulty breathing, asthma
-yog little and ugly noun tam....housetamyog....shack
epat....duckepatyog....ugly duckling
kod....secretkodyog....little dirty secret
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teater....to seeteatyof....blindness
teeter....to hearteetyof....deafness
paser....to movepasyof....paralysis
tujer....to sleeptujyof....insomnia
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet....snakelopyetyuf....fear of snakes
mil....watermilyuf....hyrophobia
-yuk ease of verb stem peser to waitpesyuk....patience
kovyoxer to foolkovyoxyuk....gullibility, foolhardiness

Gender[edit]

Nouns in Mirad are gender-neutral, unless those relating to people, animals, and sometimes clothing, are altered to be specifically male/male-oriented or female/female-oriented. To create the male or male-oriented form of an otherwise gender-neutral noun, prefix the vowel of the semantically-significant syllable with the letter w. To create the female or female-oriented form, suffix the vowel of the semantically-significant syllable with y. If the noun is an agent noun with the suffix -ut, that is, a noun that means "one who does something as an occupation or behavior", the ending -ut is changed to -uyt for the female form, but the male form stays the same. The reason for this is that the addition of a w to the agentive ending could be confused with the verbal passive marker w (see the chapter on Mirad Grammar/Verbs. The chart below shows how this works:
Making Nouns Gender-specific
NEUTRAL MALE/MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE/FEMALE-ORIENTED
tob....human being, person twob....man toyb....woman
tobet....child twobet....boy toybet....girl
tad....spouse twad....husband tayd....wife
ejtad....step spouse ejtwad....step-husband ejtayd....step-wife
ajtad....ex-spouse ajtwad....ex-husband ajtayd....ex-wife
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
datif....sweetheart dwatif....boyfriend daytif....girlfriend
yapet....pig yapwet....boar yapeyt....sow
ideb....monarch idweb....king ideyb....queen
apat....fowl apwat....rooster apayt....hen
tiuv....underwear tiwuv....briefs tiuyv....panties
vapet....antelope vapwet....deer vapeyt....doe
deuzut....singer deuzut....singer deuzuyt....songstress
tud....child twud....son tuyd....daughter
For gender specification in pronouns, see Mirad Grammar/Pronouns, below).


Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives, which are words that modify nouns, can be of the following types and subcategories:
  • descriptive
  • qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
  • denominal ( ~ noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
  • deverbal ( ~ verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
  • preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab....on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
  • determinative
  • deictic ( ~ demonstrative, indefinite), like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
  • numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
  • quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (too much)
  • pronominal ( ~ possessive), like ata (my), hota? (whose), hyeta (anyone's)
Descriptive adjectives are the main focus of this section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participles, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal determiners (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.
All descriptive adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
  • fi- (qualitative root base word) ⇒ fia....good
  • pur (noun meaning vehicle) ⇒ pura....vehicular
  • dalw- (passive stem of the verb speak) ⇒ dalwa....spoken
  • ab (preposition meaning on) ⇒ aba....superior
Such adjectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
  • aga tam....a big house
  • ha fia toyb....the good woman
  • ata boka twed....my sick father
  • fia telsyeb bi vafil.....a good bottle of wine
  • yata dooba doof....our national flag
  • ata tejea tyedi.....my living relatives
doba xeut....state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
pata bok....avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.


Comparison of Adjectives by Degree[edit]

As in English, descriptive adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
Comparison of Adjectives by Degree
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINER COMPARISON
ga....more ga fia (vyel)....better (than)
ge....as, equally ge fia (vyel)....as good (as)
go....less go fia (vyel)....less good (than)
gla....very gla fia....very good
glay....so glay fia....so good
gle....rather/quite gle fia....rather/quite good
glo....not very glo fia....not very/slightly good
gra....too gra fia....too good
gre....enough gre fia....good enough
gro....not enough gro fia....insufficiently good/not good enough
gwa....most gwa fia (bi, be)....best (of, in)
gwe....average gwe fia....good on average
gwo....least gwo fia (bi, be)....least good (of, in)
The relative conjunction vyel is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison or than in a non-equalitative comparison. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga vyel etas.....My house is bigger than yours.
  • Hia tam voy se ge aga vyel atas.....This house is not as big as mine.
  • His se ha gwa aga tam bi yata yubem.....This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative and often other adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
Deriving Abstract Nouns from Adjectives
ADJECTIVE ABSTRACT QUALITY
fia....good fian....goodness
yeva....just yevan....justice
uja....final ujan....finality
joga....young jogan....youth
teyda....maternal teydan....motherhood, maternity
dooba....nation dooban....nationality
tojbuwa....lethal tojbuwan....lethality

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives[edit]

Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing the vowel o. This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable lyo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
In cases where the o- creates an ambiguous word, lo- is substituted. Note this in the last two words of the following chart:
Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives
NORMAL NEGATED
ega....normal oega....abnormal
twa....known otwa....unknown
geyla....similar ogeyla....dissimilar
iva....happy oiva....unhappy
data....friendly odata....unfriendly
lyodata....inimical, enemy-like
fwa....wanted lofwa....unwanted (ofwa means prohibited < ofer (prohibit)
ofwa....unprohibited oofwa....unprohibited

Adjectival Derivational Endings[edit]

All descriptive adjectives end in at least the suffix a. Many adjectives are derived from other parts of speech, using one of more of the following derivational endings.
Adjectival Derivative Endings
ENDING TRANSITION TYPE MEANING BASE WORD DERIVED ADJECTIVE
-a N->ADJ relating to, of fyaat....god
tob....man
dom....city
fyaata....divine
toba....human
doma....urban
-aya / -ika N->ADJ full of, -ful, -ous mil....water
meb....mountain
tes....meaning
milaya....watery, aquaous
mebika....mountainous
tesaya....meaningful
-oya / -uka N->ADJ empty of, -less, -free teb....head
level....sugar
tes....meaning
teboya....headless
leveluka....sugar-free
tesoya....meaningless
-yena N->ADJ like, -ish, -y fyaat....god
tob....man
dom....city
fyaatyena....godly, godlike
tobyena....manly, virile
domyena....urbane
-ea V->ADJ -ing, -ent, -ant ags-....grow
tej-....live
kyas-....change
agsea....growing, crescent
tejea....living, alive
kyasea....changing, variant
-yea V->ADJ -ive, tending to dal-....talk
tox-....forget
vad-....affirm
dalyea....talkative
toxyea....forgetful
vadyea....affirmative
-wa V->ADJ -ed dal-....talk
tox-....forget
vad-....affirm
dalwa....spoken
toxwa....forgotten
vadwa....affirmed
-oa V->ADJ -about to, apt to toj-....die
kyes-....happen
tajb-....give birth
tojoa....moribund
kyesoa....imminent
tajboa....about to deliver
-ua V->ADJ -able, potentially V tojb-....kill
bukx-....harm
akuj-....succeed
tojbua....lethal
bukxua....dangerous
akujua....potentially successful

Pronominalization of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be pronominalized (converted to a pronoun) by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
Pronominalization of Adjectives
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN
(THING)
ANIMATE PRONOUN
(PERSON)
fia....good fias....a good thing
fiasi....good things
fiat....a good person
fiati....good persons
aga....big agas....something big
agasi....big ones
agat....a big person
agati....big persons
joga....young, new jogas....something new, novelty
jogasi....new ones
yogat....young person, youth
yogati....youngsters
jaga....old jagas....antique
jagasi....old ones
jagat....elderly person
jagati....oldsters
awa....one
ewa....two
awas....one (of them)
ewasi....two (of them)
awat....one (of them)
ewati....two of them
hia....this hias....this one
hiasi....these (things)
hiat....this one
hiati....these
gla....much, many glas....a lot (of stuff)
glasi....many (things)

glati....many (people)
Examples:
  • Hia tyoyaf se gro aga. At fu ga agas.....This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
  • Yat fu daler bay ha gwa jogati.....We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
  • At fe teaxer ha jogas, voy ha jagas.....I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
  • Ha ujnati so ha ijnati.....The last shall be the first.


Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

Derived Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs can be derived from descriptive adjectives by adding y to the a ending.
Derived Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia....good fiay....well
yeva....fair yevay....fairly
uja....final ujay....finally
joga....new jogay....newly
teyda....maternal teyday....maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi.....She sings well.
  • At upo ig.....I'll come quickly.
Otherwise, the full adverb form is used, eg.:
  • Weti yefe ugay fiaser.....You guys must slowly improve.
  • At tojo ivay, tea van at beaye fia tej.....I will die happily knowing that I've had a good life.

Inherent Adverbs[edit]

There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives, or because they already end in ay. Here are the most common examples:
Inherent Adverbs
yab....up yeb....in
oyeb....out
yob....down yub....near yib....far
ab....on eb....between
eyb....among
ob....off ub....toward ib....away
bay....with/along bey....by/via boy....without byu....as far (as) byi....since
vay....indeed vey....perhaps voy....not
zay....ahead zey....across
ze....in the middle
zye....through
zoy....back zu....on the left zi....on the right
uz....on a curve iz....straight, directly
yuz....around yiz....beyond
gay....also gey....even goy....no more
gaj....still goj....no longer
yan....together yon....apart
jay....beforehand, already jey....currently joy....afterwards, next
The words in the above chart that are underlined can also serve as prepositions (See Prepositions).
The words underlined below are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab.....I looked up.   (= At yabteaxa.)
  • Duven et hyej upo zoy?.....Will you ever come back.   (= ...zoyupo?)
  • Et po yib be tej......You will go far in life.   (= Et yipo...)
  • At voy se eta ted.....I am not your father.
  • Pu zu, jogat!....Go left, young man!   (= Zuypu...)
  • Yat vay sa hum.....We were indeed there.
  • It pa oyeb.....He went outside.   (= It oyepa.)
  • Iyt gay deuze.....She also sings.
  • Yit yexe gey be moji.....They work even nights.
  • Ha tobot gaj tujeye.....The baby is still sleeping.
  • Yat yefe yexer yan.....We must work together.   (= ...yanyexer.)
  • His vey upo yon.....This may come apart.   (= ...yonupo.)
  • Hit se jay toja.....This one is already dead.
Many of the above adverbs can be prefixed to verbs, nouns, and even adjectives to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
  • yeb (in) + per (go) = yeper (to enter)  [NOT: yebper]
  • oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (to take out)  [NOT: oyebbier]
  • yab (up) + per (go) = yaper (to rise)  [NOT: yabper]
  • yob (up) + kima (sloped) = yobkima (downward-sloping)
  • yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (to approach)  [NOT: yubper]
  • yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (to telephone)
  • yiz (beyond) + per (go) = yizper (to surpass)
  • yuz (around) + pipen (sailing) = yuzpipen (circumnavigation)
  • zay (ahead) + paser (move) = zaypaser (to advance)
  • ze (to the middle) + jaga (aged) = zejaga (middle-aged)
  • zye (through) + teatyafwa (visible) = zyeteatyafa (transparent)
  • zey (across) + mep (road) = zeymep (bridge)
  • zoy (back) + nogea (gradual) = zoynogea (retrogressive)
  • iz (straight) + nad (line) = iznad (vector)
  • zi (to the right) + kum (side) = izkum (right side)
  • zu (far) + tuyab (hand) = zutuyaba (left-handed)
  • uz (on a curve) + nad (line) = uznad (curve)
  • yan (together) + up (come) = yanup (a meeting)
  • yon (apart) + ber (put) = yonber (to separate)

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze vi.....He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer gwa ig.....You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et hyoj ako gwaika ivan.....You will never gain perfect happiness.
  • At voy te. (OR) At te voy. ....I don't know.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit]

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of Quantitative Determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
"Comparison of Adverbs by Degree"
POSITIVE +/=/- COMPARATIVE +/- SUPERLATIVE
fiay....well ga fiay vyel....better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
ge igay vyel....as well as
go fiay vyel....less well than
gwa fiay....(the) best (Lit: most good-ly, as well as possible
gwo fiay....(the) least well


Determiners[edit]

Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context.

Types of Determiners[edit]

Determiners in Mirad fall into the following categories:
Types of Determiners
TYPE ENGLISH EXAMPLES
Quantitative more, less, very
Numerical one, half, first
Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when
Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
Furthermore, as for part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.

Quantitative Determiners[edit]

Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
  • specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
  • specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
  • specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
  • Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
  • Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
  • Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
The following table presents most of these word forms:
Quantitative Determiners
ADVERB / ADJECTIVE SINGULAR INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL ANIMATE PRONOUN
DEGREE: How...(big / quickly)?
AMOUNT: How much...(money)?
NUMBER: How many...(books)?
AMOUNT: How much...(+ STUFF)? NUMBER: How many...(+ THINGS)? NUMBER: How many...(+ PEOPLE)?
ga....more gas....more (stuff) gasi....many (things) gati....many (people)
ge....as, as much, as many ges....as much (stuff) gesi....as many (things) geti....as many people
go....less, fewer gos....less (stuff) gosi....fewer (things) goti....fewer (people)
gla....very, much, many
glay....so, so much, so many
glas....much (stuff)
glays....so much stuff)
glasi....many (things)
glaysi....so many (things)
glati....many (people)
glayti....so many (people)
gle....rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles....quite a lot (of stuff) glesi....quite a lot (of things) qleti....quite a few (people)
glo....slightly, a little, few glos....a little bit glosi....a few (things) gloti....few (people)
gra....too, too much, too many gras....too much (stuff) grasi....too many (things) grati....too many (people)
gre....enough gres....enough (stuff) gresi....enough (things) greti....enough (people)
gro....insufficiently, too little, too few gros....too little grosi....too few groti....too few (people)
gwa....most gwas....the most (stuff) gwasi....the most (things) gwati....most people
gwe....just so (much/many) gwes....just so much gwesi....just so many gweti....just so many (people)
gwo....least gwos....the least (stuff) gwosi....the least (number of) gwoti....the least number (of people)
Examples Using Quantitative Determiners
Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
  • At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
  • Et sa gra uga.....You were too slow.
Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
  • Twobi dale ge igay vyel toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
  • Yat yexe ga igay vyel yet.....We work faster (= more quickly) than you.
Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
  • Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
  • Gra nas noxwa.....Too much money was spent.
Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun (= things or people):
  • At ayse gro sari.....I've got too few tools.
  • Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
  • Yat efe gla ga valdibuti.....We need many more policemen.
Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something (= stuff):
  • Gas ilokeye.....More (stuff) is leaking.
  • Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much (stuff).
  • Yat kexo gwas.....We will seek as much (stuff) as possible.
  • At iba gwes.....I received just the right amount.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
  • Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
  • At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but too few.
Pronouns referring to a countable number of people:
  • Grati xaye vyosi be hia yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this work site.
  • Glati dyunwe oy gloti kebiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.

Numerical Determiners[edit]

Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:

Cardinal Numerals[edit]

The cardinal numerals are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical or scalar ordering of lexical concepts.
  • The units are formed from the plain and pre-y-glided vowels:
Unit Cardinal Numbers
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
The cardinal numerals 5-9 are pre-y-glided versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
  • The cardinal numerals are used as ordinal vowels in word-building. An example is the the word mer (planet). Here, the cardinal numbers are added as a secondary ordinal vowel to the stem vowel to create the names of the planets in our solar system:
Planet names
MONTH SECONDARY
ORDINAL
VOWEL
NUMERIC
VALUE
mear....Mercury a 1
meer....Venus e 2
meir....Earth i 3
meur....Mars u 4
meyor....Jupiter yo 5
meyar....Saturn ya 6
meyer....Uranus ye 7
meyir....Pluto yi 8
(See more on this in the section on Vocabulary Formation.
  • The cardinal numerals are also used in counting, for example, at a sports countdown.
  • The cardinal numerals are employed in reciting telephone numbers and addresses, for example:
Ata yibdalar sag se 703-842-6190 (pronounced: ye-o-i-yi-u-e-ya-a-yu-o).....My telephone number is....
At tambese 114 Maple Street. (pronouned: a-a-u Maple Street)
  • They are further used in mathematical operations. For example:
E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.
To make the unit numerals more understandable in contexts such as counting, arithmetic, and telephone communications, the unit formant wa is sometimes added to them. The wa formant is added only when the unit numbers stand alone, not in conjunction with higher numerals, such as the teens, hundreds, etc. More importantly, the numbers 0-9, when used as adjectival numerical determiners modifying nouns, MUST take this wa formant (see the section below on Integral Numerical Determiners.
Unit Numerals with wa Formant
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
owa awa ewa iwa uwa yowa yawa yewa yiwa yuwa
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
  • The decade formant l + o....zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
Decades
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o....zero in lo to other cardinal unit numerals, the numerals within decades can be generated as follows:
Decadal Counting
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ala....11 ela....21 ila....31 ula....41 yola....51 yala....61 yela....71 yila....81 yula....91
ale....12 ele....22 ile....32 ule....42 yole....52 yale....62 yele....72 yile....82 yule....92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu....19 elyu....29 ilyu....39 ulyu....49 yolyu....59 yalyu....69 yelyu....79 yilyu....89 yulyu....99
  • By adding the hundreds formant s, you get the hundreds:
Hundreds
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
All the numerals in-between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
  • asa....101
  • asale....112
  • usyulyu....199
  • The thousands are generated with the formant r:
  • aro....1,000
  • aro a....1,001
  • ero isi....2,300
  • yoro yasula....5,641
  • The millions are generated with the formant ml:
  • emlo....2,000,000
  • umlo....4,000,000
  • The billions are generated with the formant mr;
  • yamro....6 billion
The numerals composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numerals by a space.
iro asyulyo....3,195
yamlo asyulyo....6,000,195
alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele....10,075,186,922

Integral Numerical Determiners[edit]

Integral Numerical Determiners are adjectives based on whole numerals that modify a following noun.
The unit integral numerals are combined with the formant wa to form the first ten numerical determiners that are used to quantify a noun. The noun following the numerical determiner is plural if the number is greater than one. The wa formant is used on unit numerals when they are stand-alone, not when they are part of a larger number. Unlike English, "zero" is followed by a singular noun.
Unit Integral Numerical Determiners
owa tam awa tam ewa tami iwa tami uwa tami
no/zero houses one house two houses three houses four houses
yowa tami yawa tami yewa tami yiwa tami yuwa tami
five houses six houses seven houses eight houses nine houses
In a sequence of noun modifiers, the numerical determiner goes in the same place as in English, eg:
  • Ata iwa gajaga twidi.......My three older brothers...
Numerical Determiners in Use
Mirad English Wa Behavior Pluralization Behavior
owa tam no houses, zero houses The numeral is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.
The numeral is less than 2,
so the noun is singular.
awa tam one house, a house " "
ewa tami two houses " The numeral is greater than 2,
so the noun is plural.
iwa tami three houses " "
uwa tami four houses " "
yowa tami five houses " "
yawa tami six houses " "
yewa tami seven houses " "
yiwa tami eight houses " "
yuwa tami nine houses " "
alo tami ten houses The numeral is not a unit
so no wa is suffixed.
"
ase tami a hundred two houses " "
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses The numeral i is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.
"
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses The numeral alo is not a unit,
so wa is not suffixed.
"
Integral numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun....thing or suni....things. The t ending is short for aut....person or auti....persons. For example:
  • Et ayse awa tam. At gey ayse awas (= awa sun).....You have one house. I have one too.
  • At aysa alo dresari. Hij at ayse anay ewasi (= ewa suni).....I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti (= aso auti) yeb ha duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi huti.....We must choose twenty-four females from those people.

Ordinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numerals by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal numeral.
Ordinal Determiners
Cardinal Numeral Ordinal Numerical Determiner
o....zero oa....zeroth
a....one aa....first
e....two ea....second
i....three ia....third
alo....ten aloa....tenth
asu....104 asua....104th
The word nap....order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
  • anapa....first, first in order, primary
  • enapa....second, second in order, secondary
  • inapa....third, third in order, tertiary
  • alanapa....eleventh, eleventh in order
There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
  • ijna....initial, first, original
  • ujna....last, final
  • ajna....past, ex-, former, old
  • ojna....future
  • ejna....current, new, present
  • jana....previous, last
  • jona....next, following
Ordinal numerical determiners and adjectives can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Ordinal Adverbs
Adjective Adverb
aa....first aay....firstly
anapa....first anapay....primarily
ea....second eay....secondly
ujna....last ujnay....finally
Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
  • ha aas....the first thing
  • ha aat....the first person
  • ha aati....the first people
  • hua aayt....that first female
  • ha eas....the second thing
  • eat....another / a second person
  • ha ujnati so ha ijnati....the last shall be first
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal determiner> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • hua uwa aga tami....those four big houses
  • ha aa alo oga tami....the first ten little houses
  • ata anapa ewa oga toboti....my first two little children

Fractional Numerical Determiners[edit]

Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -yn for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
Fractional Numerical Determiners
CARDINAL NUMERAL FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB
o....zero oyn....a void, vacuum oyna....non-existant -- oy(n)-....devoid of oynxer....annihilate
a....one ayn....whole
ha ayn....the whole
ayna....entire, whole aynay....entirely ay(n)-....holo-, whole-, all- aynxer....integrate
e....two eyn....a half eyna....half eynay....halfway ey(n)-....half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynxer....halve
i....three iyn....a third iyna....third iynay....by a third iy(n)-....terci- iynxer....cut in third
u....four uyn....a quarter uyna....quarter uynay....quarterly uy(n)-....quadri- uynxer....quarter
alo....ten aloyn....a tenth aloyna....tenth aloynay....by a tenth aloy(n)-....deci- aloynxer....decimate
aso....hundred asoyn....hundredth, percent asoyna....hundredth asoynay....by a hundredth asoy(n)-....centi- asoynxer....cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • His uxo ha oynxen bi yata mir.....This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ha ayna mir te ayv et.....The whole world knows about you.
  • Has se gas ev ha ayn bi hasa goni.....It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Fransad se ayn-druna dalyen.....France is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn.....You can take half.
  • Yat yefo eynxer eta yexnix.....We will have to halve your salary.
  • Hus sa eyn-vyan.....That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eyn-zyunida dropek.....There is going to be a hemispheric war.
  • Duven his se eyn-utexea dopar?....Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynxu hua ableyavol.....Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay uynxwer.....He should be drawn and quartered.
  • Hia nas se aloyn bi has yat aysa zojab.....This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ha dep aloynxwu.....The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan baksa.....Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Hia tom se anay asoynge aga vyel hua tom.....This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi.....You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka.....She almost (=halfway) threw up.
Words like half of it, a third of them:
  • Eynas sa fia.....Half of it was good.
  • Eynasi sa fua.....Half of them (things) were bad.
  • Esa uwa tobi se hua fukyes. Eynati toja.....There were four people in that accident. Half (of them) died.
  • Iynati bi yet se vyasa.....A third of you are right.
  • Uynati bi yat yantexe.....A quarter of us agree.
  • Alo asoynasi bi hia dyesi fyunxwa.....Ten percent of these books were ruined.


Multiplicative Numerical Determiners[edit]

Multiplicative numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal numeral if the numeral is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
Multiplicative Numerical Determiners
CARDINAL NUMERAL MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER
o....zero oon....null oona....nil on-....zero- onxer....cancel, zero out
a....one aon....single aona....single aonay....singly an-....uni-/mono- anxer....unify
e....two eon....twosome, double eona....double eonay....doubly en-....di-/bi- enxer....double
i....three ion....threesome, triplet iona....triple ionay....triply in-....tri-- inxer....triple
u....four uon....quartet uona....quadruple uonay....quadruply un-....quadri-/tetra- unxer....quadruple
yo....five yoon....quintet yoona....quintuple yoonay....quintuply yoon-*....quinti-/penta- yoonxer*....quintuple
ya....six yaon....sextet yaona....sextuple yaonay....sextuply yaon-*....sexi-/hexa- yaonxer*....sextuple
alo....ten alon....decade alona....decadic alonay....by a multiple of ten alon-....deca- alonxer....multiply by ten
aso....hundred ason....hundredfold asona....hundredfold asonay....by a hundredfold ason-....hecato- asonxer....multiply by a hundred
* An extra o is added to these prefixes to avoid ambiguity with yan meaning together and yon meaning apart.
The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa.....Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
  • aonat....solo, single
  • aonatser....become single
  • eonat....duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eonatser....couple up, copulate
  • ionat....trio, threesome, trinity
  • Ionatin....Trinitarianism
  • uonat....quartet, foursome
  • yoonat....quintet, group of five people
  • yoonati....quintets


By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun....unit
  • auna....unitary, individual
  • aunser....unite
  • aunyan....series
  • aunyana....serial
  • eun....pair
  • euna....even, paired, binary
  • oeuna....odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oeunat....odd man out
  • eunxer....even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat naptyoyapa be eonati yez ha mep.....We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu is ovdal.....Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Hia ivxel xwe enyabay.....This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untubokat.....She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ha auni.....Please count the units.
  • Yet gafisa aronay!....You all have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se entyoyaba sat.....Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • anzyus....monocycle
  • enzyus....bicycle
  • ingun....triangle
  • ungun....quadrangle
Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon....apart and yan....together.
  • yoongona....quintipartite  BUT: yonper....separate, go apart
  • yaongun....hexagon  BUT: yanuper....meet, come together

Adverbial Determiners of Frequency[edit]

There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
  • Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
  • Using xag meaning frequency
Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
Frequentative Determiners
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING
hogla jodi? hoxag? how often?, how many times?
hagla jodi haxag as many times, as often
hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions
higla jodi hixag this often, this many times
hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times
huugla jodi huuxag so often, so many times
hyogla jodi hyoxag never, on no occasion
hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times
hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often
hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times
hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi gaxag (vyel) more often (than)
ge jodi gexag (vyel) as many times (as), as often (as)
go jodi goxag (vyel) less often (than)
gla jodi glaxag many times, often
gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom
gra jodi graxag too often
gre jodi grexag often enough
gro jodi groxag too seldom
gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times
gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times
gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible
owa jod -- never, at no time, zero times
awa jod -- once, one time
ewa jodi -- twice, two times
iwa jodi -- thrice, three times
alo jodi -- ten times
Examples:
  • Hoxag et pe ha tayegoblut?....How often do you go to the barber?
  • Hogla jodi et akaye hia ekun?....How many times have you won this game?
  • At teataye hua dyezun iwa ey uwa jodi.....I have seen that film three or four times.
  • At teataye has huugla jodi (or: huuxag) van at bokxeye.....I have seen it so many times that I am getting sick.
  • Hus xwaye gaxag vyel et te.....That has happened more often than you know.

Arithmetical Expressions[edit]

The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
Arthmetic Expressions
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT
gaber....add gab....addition gabwas....addend gabeas....adder gab....plus, + gabsin....plus sign gabix....sum
galer....multiply gal....multiplication galwas....multiplicand galeas....multiplier gal....times, x galsin....times sign galix....product
garer....exponentiate, raise gar....power garwas....number being raised gareas....exponent gar....raised to the power of garsin....exponent garix....root
gober....subtract gob....subtraction gobwas....subtrahend gobeas....subtractor gob....minus, - gobsin....minus sign gobix....difference
goler....divide gol....division, fraction golwas....dividend goleas....divisor gol....divided by, ÷ golsin....division sign golix....quotient
gorer....cut, uproot gor....cut, root gorwas....radicand goreas....radical gor....lowered to the power of, √ gorsin....radical sign gorix....root
geler....equal gel....equation gelwas....thing being equated geleas....equator gel....equal to, as, like gelsin....equal sign gelix....equation results
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gele u.....Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gele ya.....Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gele yu.....Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gele o.....Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gele i.....Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gele i.....Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gele alo.....One hundred squared equals ten.

Decimal Expressions[edit]

Decimal expressions like 2.5 use the word nod....point as in English.
  • Hia bavol kyinse ga vyel 10.8 (alo nod yiwa) ki-ge.....This tomato weighs more than 10.8 (ten point eight) kilograms.

Calendar Expressions[edit]

The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:

Basic Calendar Units[edit]

Time is divided using the following basic terms:
Calendar Units
MIRAD ENGLISH
job time
jab year
jeb season
jib month
jub day
jwob hour
jwab minute
jweb second
Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical stubs to some of the time units above:
Other Calendar Units
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA
rojab millenium year x 1,000
sojab century year x 100
lojab decade year x 10
eynjab half year year x 1/2
uynjab quarter year x 1/4
yajib semester month x 6
yejub week day x 7
yejubuj weekend day x 7 end
eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
Day Pointers
MIRAD ENGLISH
hijub
hia yejub
hijab
today
this week
this year
zojub
ha jana yejub
zajab
yesterday
last week
last year
zajub
ha jona yejub
zajab
tomorrow
next week
next year
hujub
hua yejub
hujab
that day
that week
that year
jazojub
ja ewa yejubi
jazojab
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jozajub
jo ewa yejubi
jozajab
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next

Seasons of the Year[edit]

Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
Seasons of the Year
MIRAD ENGLISH
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, Fall
jeub winter
Examples of usage:
  • be jeab....in spring
  • ja jeeb....before summer
  • ju jeib....until autumn
  • ji jeub....since winter
  • je ha jeb....during the season
  • ub ha uj bi jeeb....toward the end of summer
  • eb jeab ay jeeb....between spring and summer
  • jeeba gemoj....vernal equinox
  • jeiba fayebi....autumn leaves
  • jeba til....seasonal drink
  • jeubyena jebmalyen....wintry climate
  • jeabyena malyen....spring-like weather
  • jeuben....hibernation

Months of the Year[edit]

Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
Months of the Year
MIRAD ENGLISH
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
Some expressions using the months:
  • be jilob....in October
  • ja jiyab....before June
  • ja zajiyeb....by next July
  • hijib....this month
  • zojib....last month
  • zajib....next month
  • bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis....month-to-month rent
  • jibay....monthly
  • jibi joy....months later
  • jiba sindryen....monthly magazine
  • hujiba jobnis....that month's rent
  • hya ionjib....every trimester
  • jiber....menstruate

Days of the Week[edit]

Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
Days of the Week
MIRAD ENGLISH
juab Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
Day Expressions
MIRAD ENGLISH
hojub? which day
hajub hu... the day that...
hejub someday
hijub today
hujub that day
hyijub (on) the same day
hyajub every day
hyejub any day
zajub yesterday
zojub tomorrow
ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day
jazojub the day before yesterday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
hya ea jub every other/second day
hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
Examples of Usage:
  • be juyob....on Friday
  • ju juib....until Wednesday
  • ji zojub....since yesterday
  • lojo jubuj....by [Lit: not after] day's end
  • jo zajub....after tomorrow
  • je ha jub....during the day
  • bi juab bu juub....from Monday to Friday

Parts of the Day[edit]

Here are the principal parts of a day:
Parts of the Day
DAYTIME NIGHTTIME
maj....daytime, day moj....nighttime, night
bi maj....A.M. bi moj....P.M.
jamajij....pre-dawn jamojij....pre-dusk
majij....daybreak, dawn mojij....dusk
amaryap....sunrise, sunup amaryop....sunset, sundown
jwamaj....morning
zajwamaj....tomorrow morning
hijwamaj....this morning
zojwamaj....yesterday morning
hujwamaj....that morning
hyajwamaj....every morning
jwamoj....evening
zajwamoj....tomorrow evening
hijwamoj....this evening
zojwamoj....yesterday evening
hujwamoj....that evening
hyajwamoj....every evening
zemaj....noon zemoj....midnight
jozemaj....afternoon jozemoj....after midnight
majuj....day's end jwomoj....late night
  • Examples of Usage:
  • At tijpa ja majij.....I woke up before dawn.
  • At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa joeymaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
  • It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
  • Be gwa jwamoji, at teaxe sinibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.

Expressing Dates[edit]

The following is a how a date (jud) is normally expressed:
  • be juab, 11 jieb 2018 joK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
A date like 2018 can be expressed as twenty eighteen (elo alyi) or two thousand eighteen (ero alyi).
The day in the above expression is pronounced ali.
The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
The acronym for B.C. is jaK, short for ja Krist (before Christ).
The acronym for A.D. is joK, short for jo Krist (after Christ).
Other date expressions follow:
  • be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
  • ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
  • eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (elo awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
  • hyaje hua alojab....throughout that decade
  • At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
  • Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
  • Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab.....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.

Telling Time[edit]

Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
The usual time-of-day question is Se hojwob?....What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
The typical answer is in the format Se aa/ea....jwob gab/gob alo/ali....bi maj/moj. (Lit: (It) is (the) first/second....hour plus/minus ten/eleven...of day/night.
Here are some typical answers:
  • Se aa jwob.....It is one o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) first hour.] [NOTE: The article "the" is left unexpressed.]
  • Se ea jwob.....It is two o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) second hour.]
  • Se alea jwob.....It is twelve o'clock.  [Lit: It is (the) twelfth hour.]
  • Se ia jwob bi maj*.....It is three o'clock A.M.  [Lit: It is third hour of daytime.]
  • Se aloa jwob bi moj**.....It is ten o'clock P.M.  [Lit: It is tenth hour of nighttime.]
* bi maj (a.m.) can be abbreviated as bma
** bi moj (p.m.) can be abbreviated as bmo
  • Se ua jwob (gab) alo.....It is four ten.....  [Lit: It is fourth hour (plus) ten.]
  • Se iloa jwob gob ali.....It is thirteen minutes til three.  [Lit: It is thirteenth hour minus thirteen.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gab uyn.....It is quarter after five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour plus a quarter.]
  • Se yoa jwobi gob uyn.....It is quarter past five.  [Lit: It is fifth hour minus a quarter.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab eyn.....It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus a half.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gab ilo.....It is six thirty.  [Lit: It is sixth hour plus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob eyn.....It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus thirty.]
  • Se yaa jwobi gob ilo.....It is thirty minutes til six.  [Lit: It is sixth hour minus a half.]
  • Se vyavay yea jwob gab alo bi moj.....It is exactly 7:10 P.M..  [Lit: It is exactly seventh hour plus ten of nighttime.]
  • Et sa alo jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes.  [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
  • Has ijo jub 5:30 (= yaa jwob gab ilo) bmo (= bi moj).....It will begin around 5:30 (= five thirty [Lit: five hours plus thirty]) p.m.
  • Puu him loga jwoa ev 3 (= ia) j. (= jwob)....Get here no later than 3 (= three) o'clock.
  • Ha yautpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
  • Ha jwobar izeade 2:30 (= ea jwob gab ilo).....The clock says [Lit: indicates] 2:30.
  • Yit pua be 3a j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
Mirad normally uses a 24-hour clock system.
  • Yanpu at be iloa jwob gab alyo.....Meet me at 13:15. (= 1:15 p.m.)
The word jwob (hour, o'clock) can be abbreviated as j., as in the following:
  • Yanpu at be 13a j.....Meet me at 13:00 (hours) [Lit: at (the) 13th h.]
The word gab (plus) can be omitted, as in:
  • At teato et be yoa j. alyo.....I'll see you at five fifteen (~ quarter) past five.
Note the following clock time idioms:
Clock Idioms
MIRAD ENGLISH
jwa early
jwe on time
jwo late
Se vyavay eloa jwob. It is exactly two o'clock.
yub bi zemaj around noon
ub zemoj toward midnight
yeb be jwebi within seconds
alo jwabi ja hij ten minutes ago (= before now)
lojo 3a j. no later than / by 3 o'clock.
jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour
Hia pop efxe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: necessitates) 2 1/2 hours.
ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now
ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock.
je ha jana 12 jwabi for the last 12 minutes
ja / lojo 10a j. before / by 10 o'clock (= the tenth hour)
lojo 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours.
jo 10a j. after 10 o'clock.
jo 10 jwobi. after 10 hours / 10 hours later

Expressing Age[edit]

Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
The typical question is:
  • Et se hojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
A typical answer is:
  • At se eli jaga.....I am twenty-three years old.
The word jaga can be left understood:
  • At se ilo.....I am thirty.
The following chart shows other age expressions, many of which are agglutinations of the deictic prefixes beginning with h:
Age Expressions
AGE
hojaga?....how old?
hajaga....of the age
hejaga....of some age
hijaga....this old
hujaga....that old
huujaga....so old
jaga....old
jayga....oldish
joga....young
joyga....youngish
gle jaga....rather old, oldish
gla jaga....very old
gra jaga....too old, super-aged
gro jaga....under-aged, minor
ge jaga....as old, of the same age
awa jab jaga....one year old
awa jaga
awa jab
ewa jabi jaga....two years old
ewa jaga
ewa jabi
alo jabi jaga....ten years old
alo jaga
alo jabi
ga jaga vyel et....older than you
ga joga vyel at....younger than me
ge joga vyel iyt....as young as her
ha gwa jagat bi ata tedetyan....the youngest of my siblings
grojagat....a minor
alojagat....a ten-year-old
aloyjagat....a teenager
jogat....a boy, a youth
joygat....a girl
grejat....an adult, someone of age
jagseat....an adolescent
jagsat....grownup
yiloyjagat....an octogenarian
asoyjagat....a centenarian
Some other examples of usage:
  • Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
  • At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
  • His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
  • Egaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
  • At se ga jaga vyel ha meybi.....I am as old as the hills.
  • Teaxu ata gwa joga tobot.....Look at my youngest child.
  • Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
  • Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.

Money Expressions[edit]

This section is currency-dependent and remains under construction.

Deictic Determiners[edit]

Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words as to their context, including what grammarians often call demonstratives.
Categories of adjectival, pronominal, and adverbial deictic determiners:
  • Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns like this, that, those, that one
  • The definite article the(which is really a kind of demonstrative, like those above.)
  • Indefinite adjectives and pronouns like any, some, all, something, such, etc.
  • Adverbs of time like when, now, ever
  • Adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere
  • Adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow
  • Adverbs of kind like so, age this year old
  • Adverbs of direction like that way, any which way
  • Adverbs of reason why?, for that reason, for no reason
  • Adverbs of degree this (well), so (good), how (bad)
  • Adverbs of frequency like how often, so often, never
  • Adverbs of age like this old, how old?, of any age


Deictic Prefixes[edit]

There is a whole set of deictic prefixes, which are joined to category stubs to derive adjectival, pronominal, and adverbial determiners.
Deictic Prefixes
CATEGORY DEICTIC PREFIX
INTERROGATIVE ho-...?....what?
EXCLAMATORY hoo-...!....what a...!
DEFINITE ha-....the
INDEFINITE he-....some, a certain
PROXIMAL hi-....this, these
IMMEDIATE hii-....the following
DISTAL hu-....that, those
INTENSIVE huu-....such, so
NEGATIVE hyo-....no, not any
DISTRIBUTIVE hya-....every, all, each
INDETERMINATE hye-....any, whatever
IDENTICAL hyi-....the same, the very (Or: ge-)
NON-IDENTICAL hyu-....the other, another, else (Or: oge-)

Category Stubs[edit]

The table below shows word stubs that indicate the category of deictic expressions. They are called stubs, because they are part of a longer word that has been reduced. The combination of deictic prefixes and category stubs produce a matrix of deictic correlatives, seen later in this chapter. Use of the stub instead of the long form is a matter of optional economy. A few categories do not have stubs.
Category Stubs
CATEGORY STUB
LONG FORM
QUESTION WORD EXAMPLE
PERSON -t
tob (person)
hot?....who?
THING -s
sun (thing)
hos?....what?
PLACE -m
nem (place)
hom?....where?
TIME -j
job (time)
hoj?....when?
MANNER -yen
byen (manner)
hoyen?....how?
KIND -yena
syena (of kind)
hoyena?....what kind of?
DEGREE -gla
nog (degree)
hogla fi?....how well?
COUNTABLE QUANTITY -gla
sag (number)
hogla pati?....how many birds?
MASS QUANTITY -gla
glan (amount)
hogla mil?....how much water?
FREQUENCY xag (frequency)
sag jodi (number of times)
hoxag?....how often?
hogla jodi?....how many times?
REASON -v
sav (reason)
hov?....why?
AGE jaga (of age) hojaga?....how old?

Adjectival Deictic Determiners[edit]

Here is a table showing the deictic determiner prefixes attached to elements ending in -a to form various adjectival deictic determiners:

Adjectival Determiners
  ADJECTIVE
OF SELECTION
ADJECTIVE
OF KIND
ADJECTIVE
OF POSSESSION
INTERROGATIVE hoa...?....which...? hoyena...?....what kind of...? hota?....whose?
EXLAMATORY hooa...!....what a....!
DEFINITE ha1....the hayena....the kind of hata....the one's
INDEFINITE hea....some, a certain heyena....some kind of, a certain kind of heta....someone's
PROXIMAL hia....this, these hiyena....this kind of, such (a), like this, like these hita....this one's
IMMEDIATE hiia....the following hiiyena....the following kind of hiita....the following person's
DISTAL hua....that, those huyena....that kind of, like that, like those, such huta....that one's
INTENSIVE huua....such a, such huuyena....such a kind of huuta....such a person's
NEGATIVE hyoa....not, not a, not any hyoyena....no kind of, no such hyota....nobody's
DISTRIBUTIVE hya2....every, all, each hyayena....every kind of, all kinds of hyata....everybody's
INDETERMINATE hyea....any, whatever hyeyena....any kind of, whatever kind of hyeta....anybody's
IDENTICAL hyia....the same
ha gea....the same
hyiyena....the same kind of
ha geyena....the same kind of
hyita....the same one's
ha geta....the same one's
NON-IDENTICAL hyua....another
ogea....another
ha ogea....the other
hyuyena....some other kind of
ogeyena....another kind of
ha ogeyena....the other kind of
hyuta....someone else's
ogeta....someone else's
ha ogeta....the other person's

Note 1: The definite adjectival deictic determiner ha (actually, short for haa) is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article....the.
Note 2: The determiner hya is a reduced form of hyaa.
The pronominal deictic determiners can also incorporate gender in such a way that they refer to female or male persons specifically. This done by inserting the letter w before the characteristic vowel for males and the letter y after the characteristic vowel for females. Incorporating gender this way is relatively rare and only used in cases with the distinction is relative to the context:
  • Hwita tam se ga aga.....This guy's house is bigger.
  • At voy ayse huytia dyuni.....I don't have those women's names.
Usage examples of deictic determiner adjectives derived from:
  • Hoa tam se etas?....Which house is yours?
  • Hoa tej et ayse!....What a life you have!
  • Hoyena dyezuni ifxe et?....What kind of movies do you like?
  • Hota tef okwa?....Whose hat was lost?
  • Ha tob ta yata dyuni.....The man knew our names.
  • Hayena dini at ife, et ufe.....The kind of stories I love, you hate.
  • Hea mepi egdyunxwo.....Certain streets will be renamed.
  • Heyena fukyes uxaye purnyan.....Some kind of accident has caused a traffic jam.
  • Heta abtaf akwa be ha zatem......Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
  • Hia dyes se ata gafias.....This book is my favorite.
  • Hiia duni se yofwa.....The following words are prohibited.
  • Hiiyena xeyen voy afwu.....The following sort of behavior would not be allowed.
  • Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo.....This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
  • Hita tim so yovoza.....This person's room will be blue.
  • Hua mas efwe egvozilbwer.....That wall needs to be repainted.
  • Huua dini yufxe toboti.....Such stories scare children.
  • Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at.....Such words should not be used in front of me.
  • Hwuta tam magseye.....That guy's house is on fire.
  • Hyoa din se ga tesika.....No story is more important.
  • Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe.....No such meaning can be inferred.
  • Hyota jatexdras sa ga fia.....Nobody's plan is better.
  • Hya mepi izpe Roma.....All roads lead to Rome.
  • Hya tob yefe xer ita gon.....Every man must do his part.
  • Hyayena telami ese be hia mep.....All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
  • Hyata tej se uka bi yaobi.....Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
  • Hyaewa domi agsaye.....Both cities have grown.
  • Hyea voz so fia.....Any color will be fine.
  • Hyeyena til se aysyafwa.....Any kind of drink is available.
  • Hyeta ved se ge ifa vyel atas.....Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
  • Hyea tim et fe et yafe ayser.....Whatever room you want, you can have.
  • Hyia/(Ha gea) fukyesi kyese glaxag.....The same accidents occur frequently.
  • Hyiyena/(Ha geyena) dyezuni teaxuwa zajub.....The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
  • Hyita/(Ha geta) dyun yixwa gajod.....The same person's name was used again.
  • Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea.....The other movie was more entertaining.
  • Hyuyena/(Ogeyena) som teasu ga fia.....Another kind of furniture would look better.
  • Hyuta/(ogeta) texyen se ge fyia.....Someone else's opinion is equally valid.
  • Hiytia dyuni voy dodraye.....These women's names have not be make public.
  • Hwiitia dyuni voy dodrowe.....The following males' names will not be publicized.
If the definite article or any other deictic determiner is omitted before a noun, then it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun. For example:
  • Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil.....We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil.....We drank the second glasses of wine.
If an indefinite article sense is needed for clarity, the words awa (one) or hea (some, a certain) can be used, eg.:
  • At igtease awa tob yiztyoyaber.....I glimpsed a man walk by.
  • Hwit zoyupo hea juab.....He will come back on a / a certain / some Monday.

Pronominal Deictic Determiners[edit]

The following chart shows deictic determiners used as pronouns. Note that the suffix -s (short for sun) is used pronouns referring to things, while -t (short for tob) is used for those referring to persons. The suffix -i pluralized either of these. The distinction between a form like what? and a selective form like which? is made by using the full adjectival form (with -a-) in the selective forms. So, for example, hot? is who?, but hoat? is which one? (referring to a person). The determiners referring to persons can optionally be made specifically male with the insertion of the letter w before the stem vowel or specifically female with the insertion of the letter y before the stem-ending t:

Pronominal Deictic Determiners
PRONOUNS THING
THINGS
SELECTIVE THING
SELECTIVE THINGS
SELECTIVE PERSON
SELECTIVE PERSONS
PERSON
PERSONS
PERSON'S THING
PERSON'S THINGS
INTERROGATIVE hos?....what (thing)?
hosi?....what (things)?
hoas?....which one?
hoasi?....which ones?
hoat?....which person??
hwoat?....which man?
hoayt?....which woman?
hoati?....which people?
hwoati?....which men?
hoayti?....which women?
hot?....who?, whom?
hwot?....who?, whom?
hoyt....who?
hoti?....who?, whom?
hwoti?....who?, whom?
hoyti?....who?, whom?
hotas?....whose (thing)?
hwotas?....whose
hoytas?....whose?
hotasi?....whose (things)?
hwotasi?....whose?
hoytasi?....whose?
DEFINITE has....it, the thing
hasi....they, them, the things
haas....the one
haasi....the ones
haat....the one
hwaat....the male one
haayt....the female one
haasi....the ones
hwaasi....the male ones
haaysi....the female ones
hat....the person, he, him
hwat....he, him
hayt....she, her
hati....the persons, they, them
hwati....the males, they, them
hayti....the females, they, them
hatas....whose? (thing)
hwatas....whose
haytas....whose
hatasi....whose )things)
hwatasi....whose
haytasi....whose
INDEFINITE hes....something
hesi....some (things)
heas....a certain one
heasi....certain ones
heat....a certain one
hweat....a certain male
heayt....a certain female
heati....certain ones
hweati....some males
heayti....some females
het....someone
hwet....some male
heyt....some female
heti....some (people)
hweti....some males
heyti....some females
hetas....someone's
hwetas....some male's
heytas....some female's
hetasi....some people's
hwetasi....some males'
heytasi....some females'
PROXIMAL his....this
hisi....these
hias....this one
-
hiasi....these
hiat....this one
hwiat....this one
hiayt....this one
hiati....these ones
hwiati....these of the males
hiayti....these of the females
hit....this person
hwit....he, him
hiyt....she, her
hiti....these people, they, them
hwiti....these males
hiyti....these females
hitas....this person's, his
hwitas....this male's
hiytas....this female's
hitasi....this person's (things), theirs
hwitasi....this man's
hiytasi....this woman'
IMMEDIATE hiis....the following
hiisi....the following (things)
hiias....the following one
hiiasi....the following ones
hiiat....the following person
hwiiat....the following male
hiiayt....the following female
hiiati....the following ones
hwiiati....the following males
hiiayti....the following females
hiit....the following person
hwiit....the following male
hiiyt....the following female
hiiti....the following (people)
hwiiti....the following males
hiiyti....the following females
hiitas....the following person's (thing)
hwiitas....the following male's
hiiytas....the following female's
hiitasi....the following person's (things)
hwiitasi....the following male's
hiiytasi....the following female's
DISTAL hus....that
husi....those
huas....that one
huasi....those
huat....that one
hwuat....that one of the males
huayt....that one of the females
huati....those people, they
hwuati....those males
huayti....those females
hut....that person, he, him
hwut....that guy, he, him
huyt....that female, she, her
huti....those people, they, them
hwuti....those males
huyti....those females
hutas....that person's, his
hwutas....his
huytas....hers
hutasi....that person's (things), his
hwutasi....his
huytasi....hers
INTENSIVE huus....such, such a thing
huusi....such things
huuas....such a one
huuasi....such ones
huuat....such a person
(rare)
(rare)
huuati....such people
(rare)
(rare)
huut....such a person
hwuut....such a male
huuyt....such a female
huuti....such people
hwuuti....such males
huuyti....such females
huutas....such a person's
(rare)
(rare)
huutasi....such people's (things)
(rare>
(rare)
NEGATIVE hyos....nothing
hyosi....none
hyoas....not a one
hyoasi....none
hyoat....not a one
hyoati....none
hyot....nobody
hywot....no male
hyoyt....no female
hyoti....no people
hywoti....no males
hyoyti....no females
hyotas....nobody's
hyotasi....nobody's (things)
DISTRIBUTIVE hyas....everything, all
hyasi....all things
hyaas....each one
hyaasi....all of them
hyaat....each one
hyaati....all of them
hyat....everyone
hywat....every male
hyayt....every female
hyati....all (people)
hywati....all males
hyayti....all females
hyatas....everyone's
hyatasi....everyone's (things)
INDETERMINATE hyes....anything, whatever
hyesi....any
hyeas....whatever one
hyeasi....any of them
hyeat....whichever one
hyeati....whichever ones
hyet....anyone
hywet....any male
hyeyt....any female
hyeti....whoever
hyweti....whichever males
hyeyti....whichever females
hyetas....whoever's
hyetasi....anybody's (things)
IDENTICAL hyis....the same thing
hyisi....the same things
hyis....the same one
hyiasi....the same ones
hyiat....the same one
hyiati....the same one
hyit....the same person
hywit....the same guy
hyiyt....the same woman
hyiti....the same people
hywiti....the same men
hyiyti....the same women
hyitas....the same person's
hyitasi....the same person's (things)
NON-IDENTICAL hyus....something else
hyusi....other things
hyuas....the other one
hyuasi....the other ones
hyuat....the other one
hyuati....the others
hyut....someone else
hywut....the other guy
hyuyt....the other woman
hyuti....others
hywuti....the other guys
hyuyti....the other women
hyutas....someone else's
hyutasi....someone else's (things)

Here is a chart of pronominal deictic determiners of kind formed from the corresponding adjectival determiners of kind (eg. hoyena?....what kind of...?):

Pronominal Deictic Determiners of Kind
  KIND OF THING
KIND OF THINGS
KIND OF PERSON
KIND OF PEOPLE
INTERROGATIVE hoyenas?....what kind of thing?
hoyenasi?....what kind of things?
hoyenat?....what kind of person?
hoyenati?....what kind of people?
DEFINITE hayenas....the kind of thing
hayenasi....the kind of things
hayenat....the kind of person
hayenati....the kind of people
INDEFINITE heyenas....some kind of thing
heyenasi....some kind of things
heyenat....some kind of person
heyenati ....some kind of people
PROXIMAL hiyenas....this kind of thing, such a thing
hiyenasi....these kinds of things, such things
hiyenat....this kind of person, such a person
hiyenati....these kinds of people, such people
IMMEDIATE hiiyenas....the following kind of thing
hiiyenasi....the following kinds of things
hiiyenat....the following kind of person
hiiyenati....the following kinds of people
DISTAL huyenas....that kind of thing, such a thing
huyenasi....such things, such things
huyenat....that kind of person, such a person
huyenati....those kind of people, such people
INTENSIVE huuyenas....such a thing
huuyenasi....such kinds of things
huuyenat....such a person
huuyenati....such kinds of people
NEGATIVE hyoyenas....no such thing
hyoyenasi....no such things
hyoyenat....no such person
hyoyenati....no such people
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayenas....every kind of thing
hyayenasi....all kinds of things
hyayenat....every kind of person
hyayenati....all kinds of people
INDETERMINATE hyeyenas....any kind of thing
hyeyenasi....any kinds of things
hyeyenat....any kind of person
hyeyenati....any kinds of people
IDENTICAL hyiyenas....the same kind of thing
hyiyenasi....the same kinds of things
hyiyenat....the same kind of person
hyiyenati....the same kinds of people
NON-IDENTICAL hyuyenas....some other kind of thing
hyuyenasi....other kinds of things
hyuyenat....some other kind of person
hyuyenati....other kinds of people

Any of the above animate deictic determiners can (though rarely) be made to refer specifically to males or females with the ending -wat or -wati for males and -ayt or -ayti for females. For example: any kind of males would be translated with hyeyenwati.....Every kind of female would be translated with hyayenayt.

Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms[edit]

The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner hot? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart hoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
  • Hot aka zajuba ek?....Who won yesterday's game?
  • Hoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?....Which one of the winners was the best?
  • Hota tam se hus?....Whose house is that?
  • Hotas se hus?....Whose is that?
  • Hotia deuzi et gaife?....Whose songs do you prefer?
  • Hotias et gaife?....Whose do you prefer?
  • Hos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Hosi se eta gaifuni?....What are your preferences?
  • Hoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?....Which songs are your best?
  • Hoasi se eta gwafiasi?....Which ones are your best?
  • Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?....Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
  • Hiiti yaneko hijub.....The following people will compete today.
  • Hoati se gwa fia?'....Which ones are best?
  • Hoti et teexe gwa jodi?....Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
  • Huat hu at teexe gwaxag draye ejna deuz.....The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
  • Ejna deuz? At voy teste haas hu et tede.....New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
  • Hias.....This one.
  • Vo. Huasi se ga fia.....No. Those are better.
  • His se jub av ivxelen.....This is a day for celebration.
  • Va. Hia jub. At tese hijub.....Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
  • Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat!....Those were the days, my friend!
  • Hos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Hot aka ha igpek?....Who won the race?
  • Hyas uja fi.....Everything ended well.
  • Hyasi uje.....All things come to an end.
  • Hyayenasi vey kyesu.....All sorts of things might happen.
  • Hyos yoka at.....Nothing surprised me.
  • Hyot ta adut hu ako.....Nobody knew who would win.
  • Huaytihu fu pier yefe.....Those females who would like to leave may.
  • Hyet yefe eker hia ifek.....Anyone can play this game.
  • Huyenasi voy afwo.....Such things will not be permitted.
  • Hua twob voy taxe hia toyb.....That man does not remember this woman.
  • Huti yanyexe fi.....Those guys work well together.
  • Huuyti hyaj yubixe tezex.....Such females always attract attention.
  • At jay teataye hiyenasi.....I've seen such things before.
  • Huyenwat voy vabiwu.....A man like that would not be accepted.
  • Hoyenasi weti iyfe xer je ha maj.....What kinds of things do you guys like to do during the day?

Placement of Interrogative Deictic Determiners[edit]

In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, eg.:
  • Hoa ewa oga nyefi bewe et?....Which two small bags belong to you?
In interrogative sentences, the interrogative deictic determiner (question word) often starts out the sentence, as in English.
  • Hos se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Hot et teata aay hijub?....Who(m) did you see first today?
Interrogative deictic determiners can also go at the end of sentence:
  • Eta dyun se hos?....What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?

Number-incorporating Deictic Determiners[edit]

Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:

Number-incorporating Deictic Determiners
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN PRONOMINAL DETERMINER POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
hawa* the only hawas....the only thing
hawasi....the only things
hawat....the only one (person)
hawati....the only ones
hawata....the only person's hawatas....the only one's
hawatasi....the only one's (things)
hyawa* each hyawas....each one hyawat....each person hyawata....each person's hyawatas....each one's
hyawatasi....each one's (things)
hyaewa....both hyaewasi....both (things) hyaewati....both (people) bi hyaewati....both person's has bi hyaewati....both person's
hasi bi hyaewati....both persone's (things)
hyaiwa....all three hyaiwasi....all three (things) hyaiwati....all three (people) hyaiwata....all three person's has bi hyaiwati....all three person's
hasi bi hyaiwati....all three person's (things)
ohyawa....not every ohyawas....not everything ohyawat....not everyone ohyawata....not every person's ohyawatas....not everyone's
ohyawatasi....not everyone's (things)
hyoawa....not a single hyoawas....not a single thing hyoawat....not a single person hyowata....not a single person's hyowatas....not a single person's
hyowatasi....not a single person's (things)
hyeawa....either hyeawas....either one hyeawat....either one (person) hyeawata....either one's hyeawatas....either one's
hyeawatasi....either one's (things)
hyeewa....any two hyeewasi....any two things hyeewati....any two people bi hyeewati....any two person's has bi hyeewati....any two persons'
hasi bi hyeewati....any two persons' (things)
hyeowa....neither hyeowas....neither one hyeowat....neither person hyeawata....neither person's hyeowatas....neither one's
hyeowatasi....neither one's (things)
hyuawa....another hyuawas....another one hyuawat....another hyuawata....another's hyuawatas....another's
hyuawatasi....another's (things)
hyuowa....no other hyuowas....nothing else hyuowat....nobody else hyuowata....no other's hyuowatas....no other's
hyuowatasi....no other's (things)

*Hawa and hyawa are short for haawa and hyaawa, respectively.
Examples using the above number-incorporating deictic determiners:
  • Ohyawat se iva bay eta vaod.....Not everyone is happy with your decision.
  • Hyaewasi yafwe uxer yata efi.....Both (things) can serve our needs.
  • Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at.....Either room will satisfy me.
  • Hyeowas oivlaxo at.....Neither one will dissatisfy me.
Note: Hyua means the other, while hyuawa means another, eg.:
  • At fu hyua til.....I would like the other drink., vs.
  • At fu hyuawa til.....I would like another drink.
Similarly, hya means every, all, while hyawa means each, eg.:
  • Hya dom ayse tebixea suni teaxer.....Every city has interesting things to see.
  • Hya domi ayse tebixuni.....All cities have things of interest.
  • Hyawa dom ayse tebixun.....Each city has something of interest.
Also, ha means the, while hawa means the only, eg.:
  • Hawa twob nazea ata tezex se et.....The only man worth my attention is you.
  • Ha twob hu at gwa ife se et.....The man I most love is you.
By appending y to hawa, we get the adverb haway....only, solely, eg;
  • Haway et nize ata tezex.....Only you deserve my attention..
The singular person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into pronominal determiners by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Hyawata tej se ge glatesa vyel hyutas.....Each one's life is as important as another's.
  • Hyeowata dyun se vyama.....Neither person's name is real.
However, the plural person pronouns in the above chart use the preposition bi (of) to form possessives, eg.:
  • Ha teji bi hyaiwati se kyebukuwa.....The lives of all three are in danger.
The above singular pronominal determiners can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
  • Hyawatas se glatesa.....Each one's is important.
  • Hyeowatas se vyama.....Neither's is real.
The plural pronominal determiners can be nominalized with the use of bi, eg:
  • Hyaiwasi bi huti se kyebukuwa.....All three of theirs' are in danger.
Correlative Number-incorporating Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
  • Hyeawa A ey B....either A or B
  • Hyeowa A oy B....neither A nor B
  • Hyaewa A ay B....both A and B
  • Hawa A, voy B....only A, not B

Adverbial Deictic Determiners[edit]

This tables shows a correlated set of pro-adverbs built through the agglutination of deictic prefixes and catetory stubs. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed pro-verbs relating to other categories.

Adverbial Deictic Determiners
PRO-ADVERBS MANNER
(b)yen
PLACE
(ne)m
TIME
j(ob)
DEGREE
nog ~ gla1
REASON
sav
FREQUENCY
xag
INTERROGATIVE hoyen?
how?, in what way?
hom?
where?
hoj?
when?
honog? ~ hogla?
how?, to what degree?
hosav?
why?
hoxag?2
how often?
DEFINITE hayen
the way, how
ham
the place, where
haj
the time, when
hanog ~ hagla
as, to the degree
hasav (hu)
for the reason (that), because
haxag
as often (...as)
INDEFINITE heyen
somehow, in some way
hem
somewhere
hej
sometime
henog ~ hegla
somewhat
hesav
for some reason
hexag
with some frequency
PROXIMAL hiyen
this way, so
him
here
hij
now
hinog ~ higla
so, this, to this extent
hisav
for this reason, hence
hixag
this often
IMMEDIATE hiiyen
in the following way
hiim
hereby
hiij
here now
hiinog ~ hiigla
to the following extent
hiisav
for the following reason
hiixag
as often as follows
DISTAL huyen
that way, thus
hum
there
huj
then
hunog ~ hugla
so, that, to that extent
husav
for that reason, therefore, so
huxag
that often
INTENSIVE huuyen
in such a way, so, thus
huum
at such a place
huuj
at such a time
huunog ~ huugla
so, to such an extend
huusav
for such a reason
huuxag
so often
NEGATIVE hyoyen
in nowise
hyom
nowhere
hyoj
never
hyonog ~ hyogla
not at all
hyosav
for no reason
hyoxag
never
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayen
totally, in every way
hyam
everywhere
hyaj
always
hyanog ~ hyagla
totally
hyasav
for every reason
hyaxag
always
INDETERMINATE hyeyen
anyway
hyem
anywhere, wherever
hyej
whenever
hyenog ~ hyegla
however, to any degree
hyesav
for whatever reason
hyexag
with whatever frequency
IDENTICAL hyiyen3 (hu)
likewise, as, in the same way (that)
hyim
at the same place
hyij
at the same time
hyinog ~ hyigla;
as, to the same extent
hyisav
for the same reason
hyixag
as often
NON-IDENTICAL hyuyen4
otherwise
hyum
elsewhere
hyuj
some other time
hyunog ~ hyugla
not as
hyusav
for some other reason
hyuxag
not as often

Note 1: -nog and -gla forms are synonymous, insofar as expressions of degree are concerned.
Note 2 hoxag? and other frequency forms can be also expressed as hogla jodi?....how many times.
Note 3 hyi- can be substituted by ge-.
Note 4 hyu- can be substituted by oge-.
The longer, expanded forms of pro-adverbs can be used at any time. For example:
  • At egteato et hejob.....I will see you again sometime.
  • Hosun se eta dyun?....What is your name?
  • Et yeyfe axer hubyen.....You shouldn't act that way.
It should be noted that all of these pro-adverb determiners, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe him.....She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be....at. For example, At tambeseya hum., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tambeseya be hum., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be....at is meant. For example, from where? is expressed as bi hom? Similarly, up until then would be expressed as byu huj.
Here are some examples of how adverbial determiners are used:
  • Hom et tambese?....Where do you live?   <   Et tambese be HOa neM?....You live at what place.)
  • At tame hum.....I live there.
  • Et tame hum hu ha mep uje.....You live where the road ends.
  • Hom weti peye?....Where are you guys going?
  • Et yafe per hyem hu et fu.....You can go anywhere.
  • Bi hom et se?....Where are you from?
  • Hoj et taja?....When were you born?
  • At voy tajaya huj.....I had not been born then.
  • Et yeyfe duder hiiyen.....You should respond in the following way.
  • Ot voy yefe daler huuyen.....One must not talk in such a manner.
  • Et pia hesav.....He left for some reason.
  • Hoyen et iyfe hia vafil?....How do like this wine?
  • Voy se fia axer hiyen.....It is not good to act this way.
  • Hosav et tadsa huunog jwa?....Why did you marry so late?
  • Ha tob pia hyosav.....The man left for no reason.
  • Hwat pia hasav hu it efa per hyum.....The guy left because( ~ [for] the reason that) he needed to go elsewhere.
The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
  • Hoyen it xa hus?....How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be hoa byen...?....In what way...?) (ADVERB OF MANNER)
  • Hoyen et xeye?....How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (ADVERB OF MANNER)
  • Hoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
  • Honog (= Hogla) aga it se?....How big is he?.... (ADVERB OF DEGREE)
  • Huunog (= Huugla) iyfla et se!....How nice you are!.... (ADVERB OF EMPHATIC DEGREE)
The conjunction as is expressed most often using pro-adverbs of manner:
  • Xu hayen hu at de.....Do as I say. = (in) the way that...
  • Xu hyiyen hu (or geyen hu) at xe.....Do as I do. = (in) the same way that...
  • Xu hiiyen:....Do as follows: = (in) this hereby manner...
However, the particle gel (like, as) can be substituted:
  • Xu gel at de.....Do as I say.
Many of the pro-adverb determiners in the above chart can be relativized by adding the relative marker hu after the base form, eg:
  • At teaso et haj hu et puo him.....I will see you when you get here.
  • It xa has hasav hu tosa yefa.....He did it because (for the reason that) he felt compelled.
  • Hyem hu et po, et so ga iva.....Wherever you go, you'll be happier.
See more about this in the section on relative clauses under Verbs.

Quantitative Deictic Determiners[edit]

The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):

Quantitative Deictic Determiners
ADVERBIAL / ADJECTIVAL
DETERMINER
INANIMATE SINGULAR
PRONOUN
INANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
ANIMATE PLURAL
PRONOUN
INTERROGATIVE hogla?....how?/how much?/how many? hoglas?....how much? hoglasi?....how many hoglati?....how many (people)?
DEFINITE hagla....how/as much/as many haglas....as much haglasi....as many haglati....as many (people)
INDEFINITE hegla....somewhat/some/some heglas....some heglasi....some heglati....some (people)
PROXIMAL higla....this/this much/this many higlas....this much higlasi....this many higlati....this many (people)
DISTAL hugla....that/that much/that many huglas....that much huglasi....that many
huyglasi....so many
huglati....that many (people)
EMPHATIC huugla....so very, so much, so many huuglas....so much huuglasi....so many huuglati....so many (people)
NEGATIVE hyogla....not at all/no/no hyoglas....none of it hyoglasi....none of them hyoglati....none
DISTRIBUTIVE hyagla....totally/all/all hyaglas....all of it hyaglasi....all of them hyaglati....all
INDETERMINATE hyegla....however/any/any hyeglas....any of it hyeglasi....any of them hyeglati....any number of them
IDENTICAL hyigla....as/as much/as many, equally hyiglas....the same amount hyiglasi....the same number hyiglati....as many (people)
NON-IDENTICAL hyugla....not as much/not as much/not as many hyuglas....a different amount hyuglasi....a different number of things hyuglati....a different number of people

Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
  • Et deuze huugla fi.....You sing so well.
  • At se hegla booka.....I am somewhat tired.
  • Hogla pati et teata hijub?....How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay hugla tami.....I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe hyiglas vyel et.....She wants the same amount as you.
  • Hoglati yantexe yet?....How many (people) agree with you?
  • Hyoglati yantexe.....None agree.
  • Yit fu heglasi.....They would like some (of them).
  • Et yafe bier hyeglasi et fe.....You can take however many you want.
  • At se huugla booka.....I am so tired.
NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
  • hegla = gle = henog (somewhat, to some degree)
  • hyigla = ge = hyinog (as, equally, to the same degree)
The determiners hogla and huugla can be used as exclamatory adverbs, eg.:
  • Hogla et agsaye!....How you have grown!
  • Hua twob jagsaye huugla!....That man has aged so much!
  • Hia jotul se huugla fiteluza!....This dessert is sooo delicioius!


Pronominal Determiners
For a discussion of pronominal determiners (or possessive adjectives) like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Pronominal Determiners under Pronouns.


Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest. The pronoun 'big one stands for a person or thing of some stature.
In Mirad, pronouns can be:
  • personal
  • deictic
  • reflexive
  • animate
  • inanimate
  • specific
  • generic
  • genderless
  • masculine
  • feminine
  • recprocal
  • emphatic

Personal Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns in Mirad are by nature animate and refer to people and other animate, sentient, or "pretend" creatures, such as dogs, angels, gods, puppets, babies, gods, and monsters.
This chapter deals specifically with personal pronouns and not so much with deictic (demonstrative and indefinite) pronouns like who, those, any, and whatever, treated in detail in the chapter on Determiners.
Personal animate pronouns can be of the following types:
  • specific....Referring to a specific person or group of persons, such as he, you, or me.
  • generic....Referring to "one" in general or "they", people in general
  • reflexive....Referring back to the same person, such as myself, yourself, or themselves.
  • emphatic....Particularizing a person or persons, such as I, myself, or she, herself.
There is a minimal set of personal pronouns that are used very commonly and do not express gender or other complex distinctions. Then there is an optional extended set that makes finer distinction of gender, exclusivity, and duality. The set of distinctions expressed in these two variants are show in the following chart:
"Animate Personal Pronouns"
CATEGORY MINIMAL DISTINCTIONS EXTENDED DISTINCTIONS
PERSON LEVEL 1st
2nd
3rd
1st
2nd
3rd
NUMBER singular
plural
singular
dual
plural
GENDER gender-neutral gender-neutral
male
female
INCLUSIVENESS neutral neutral
inclusive
exclusive
Notice that personal pronouns, and indeed all pronouns, are devoid of distinctions of CASE, such as nominative, objective, dative, etc. as in many languages (including English, in the distinction between I and me, for example). The words for we and us are the same in Mirad. Pronouns do, however, have adjectival (or possessive) forms, such as my or his.
: The chart below shows the minimal personal pronouns, which are gender-neutral.  The distinction of gender, if needed, can be expressed with extended personal pronouns.
"Minimal Personal Pronouns"
PERSON TYPE SINGULAR PLURAL
1st SPECIFIC at....I, me yat....we, us
2nd et....you yet....you, you all
3rd it....he, she, him, her yit....they, them
3rd GENERIC ot....one, they yot....people
3rd REFLEXIVE ut....self yut....selves
The so-called extended personal pronouns are shown in the next chart. In this chart, gender, i.e., whether the pronoun refers to a male, female, or neither, is expressable in the singular forms only. The charts also shows forms that are dual, that is, referring only to two people, a distinction expressable on in the 1st person plural. It also shows whether the the 1st person dual/plural forms are inclusive or exclusive, that is, whether they include or don't include the 1st person. Keep in mind that these pronouns are for maximal expression and typically are not used. The most common distinction is between wit....he/him and iyt....she/her, just as in English and many European languages.
  • Masculine personal pronouns are distinguished by a prepended w.
  • Feminine personal pronouns are distinguished by a y just before the final t.
Gender is not expressed in the plural forms nor in any of the generic or reflexive types.
There are no dual forms except in the 1st person plural (we/us).
Extended Personal Pronouns
PERSON TYPE SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL
1st SPECIFIC at....I/me
wat....I/me [m.]
ayt....I/me [f.]
aet....we/us (you [s.] and I/me) [INCLUSIVE]
ait....we/us (I and one other person [not you]) [EXCLUSIVE]
ayet....we/us (you [pl.] and I/me [INCLUSIVE]
ayit....we/us (I/me and whoever else) [EXCLUSIVE]
2nd et....you
wet....you [m.]
eyt....you [f.]
yet....you, you all
3rd it....he/him/she/her
wit....he/him
iyt....she/her
yit....they, them
3rd GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them, people
3rd REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself yut.......selves
The Mirad third person specific pronoun it can refer to any animate or pseudo-animate creatures such as animals, babies, dolls, angels, gods, monsters". However, Mirad it cannot refer to non-animate things such as tables, ideas, abstractions, etc. A deictic (demonstrative) pronoun is used in such cases, as discussed in the chapter on Determiners.


The generic pronouns ot, yot and the reflexive pronouns ut, yut do not express gender. The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are used as English one and they, people (meaning unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ha yakwas.....One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de van et vyode hoj.....They/People say you never lie.
The gender-neutral third person pronouns it and yit can refer to any sex, but are masculine by default or out of context. In practice iyt (she/her) is the only gendered pronoun used commonly. The others are rarely used. The first person plural pronoun yat can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others." There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
  • Xu at fibun.....Do me a favor.
  • At so dat.....I will be a friend.
  • Von tojbu it.....Don't kill him/her.
  • At ta van iyt upo.....I knew she would come.
  • Fyadilu av ayti.....Pray for us (women).
NOTE: The English inanimate pronoun it, when referring to a thing or abstraction, is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is discussed in the chapter on Determiners.


Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit]

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed by postfixing a u just before the final t. Reflexive personal pronouns are invariable for gender. Translating iut as herself depends on the context.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
FIRST PERSON aut....myself yaut....ourselves
SECOND PERSON eut....yourself yeut....yourselves
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iut....himself/herself yiut....themselves
THIRD PERSON GENERIC out....oneself yout....people themselves

Examples of personal pronoun usage:
  • Wat yafe teater aut be ha sinzyef.....I (a male) can see myself in the mirror.
  • Iyt yubteaxa iut.....She examined herself.
  • Treu eut!....Know thyself.
  • Aet yeyfe tadser.....You and I should get married.
  • Iyt vey tojboiut.....She may kill herself.
  • Ot yefe ifer out.....One must love oneself.
  • Yot glaxag voy ife yout.....People often don't love themselves.
  • Yet ufe yeut.....You (people) hate yourselves.
  • Yet yeyfe yovser yeut.....You people should be ashamed of yourselves.
  • Ayit ufe yet.....We (exclusive of you) hate you.
  • Upu eker bay yat.....Come play with us.
The reflexive pronoun ut....self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
  • tojber....kill uttojber....commit suicide
  • vyixer....clean utvyixer....wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
  • exer....function utexer....function automatically, self-run
  • izber....pilot utizber....auto-pilot, self-drive
  • exut....operator utexut....automaton
  • deber....rule utdebea....autocratic, self-ruling
  • tejdin....biography uttejdin....autobiography
  • fider....praise utfider....boast   (= self-praise)

Emphatic Personal Pronouns[edit]

Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the singular determiner hyit (the very one)or the plural determiner hyiti (the very ones), eg.:
Emphatic Personal Pronouns
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
FIRST PERSON at aut....I myself, me myself yat yaut....we ourselves, us ourselves
SECOND PERSON et eut....you yourself yet yeut....you yourselves
THIRD PERSON it iut....the person him or herself
wit iut....he himself
iyt iut....she herself
yit yiut....they themselves

Note: Gender is not express in personal reflexive pronouns. Only the personal specific pronouns express gender, and then only optionally.

Examples:
  • At aut voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
  • At jateate yet yeut be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you yourselves on that stage.
  • Iyt iut voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.


Reciprocal Personal Pronouns[edit]

The reciprocal pronoun....one another, each other is translated with hyuit, which is a melding of hyut (the other person) and hyit (the same person). This is an invariable pronoun and does not express gender or number.
  • Yat yefe ifer hyuit.....We must love one another.
This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a pronominal determiner by suffixing a, as in hyuita....one another's, mutual, reciprocal:
  • Yat tobweti yefe fiyzaxer hyuita fwasi.....We guys must respect one another's wishes.
Note the following:
  • hyuita....mutual, reciprocal
  • hyuitif....Mutual love
  • huitan....mutuality, reciprocity
  • hyutin....altruism
  • atin....egoism
  • utyena....selfish
  • utifa....egoistic
  • utifat....egoist
  • utufa....self-loathing
  • utin....egotism
  • utina....egotistic
  • utinat....egotist
  • ha at....the ego
  • ha it....the id
  • ha ut....the self
  • ha aybat....the superego
  • ha hyut....the other
  • hyutifa....altruistic
  • hyutifat....altruist
  • hyutufa....xenophobic

Pronominal Determiners[edit]

Pronominal determiners, which can also be referred to as possessive adjectives, are derived from pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the end of the pronoun, as follows:
  • at....I, me    ata....my
  • aut....myself    auta....my own
  • yat....we, us    yata....our
  • yaut....ourselves    yauta....our own
  • iut....himself/herself    iuta....his/her own
Basic Pronominal Determiners
PERSON TYPE SINGULAR PLURAL
1st SPECIFIC ata....my yata....our
2nd eta....your yeta....your
3rd ita....his/her yita....their
3rd GENERIC ota....one's yota....people's
The above forms are gender-neutral and are the most commonly used pronominal determiners. Here are some examples:
  • Ata tej se fia.....My life is good.
  • Yata twed.......Our father...
  • Ota fyadili yeyfe ser dola.....One's prayers should be silent.
  • At voy teata ita dyes.....I did not see his/her book.
Pronominal Determines like "my own, your own...":
Pronominal Determiners Like my own
PERSON TYPE SINGULAR PLURAL
1st SPECIFIC auta....my own yauta....our own
2nd euta....your own yeuta....your own
3rd iuta....his/her own yiuta....their own
3rd GENERIC outa....one\'s own youta....people\'s own
More complex pronominal determiners:

Extended Pronominal Determiners
PERSON TYPE SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL
1st SPECIFIC ata....my
wata....my [m.]
ayta....my [f.]
auta....my own
aeta....our (your and mine) [INCLUSIVE]
aita....our (my and one other person's ) [EXCLUSIVE]
ayeta....our (your [pl.] and mine [INCLUSIVE]
ayita....our (my and whoever else's) [EXCLUSIVE]
yata....our
yauta....our own
2nd eta....your
weta....your [m.]
eyta....your [f.]
yeta....your [pl.]
yeuta....your (pl.) own
3rd ita....his/her
wita....his
iyta....her
yita....their
yiuta....their own
3rd GENERIC ota....one\'s yota....people\'s
3rd REFLEXIVE uta....one's own yuta....people's own
In practice, the only gendered pronominal determiners used in common speech or wita his and iyta her.
The above pronominal determiners an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s....thing possessed, or si....things possessed, as follows:
Sample Substantivized Pronominal Determiners
ATTRIBUTE SINGULAR SUBSTANTIVE PLURAL SUBSTANTIVE
ata....my atas....mine atasi....mine, my things
auta....my own autas....my own autasi....my own (things)
iyta....her iytas....her own iytasi....hers, her things
aeta....our aetas....ours aetasi....ours, our things
wita....his witas....his witasi....his, his things
outa....one's outas....one's own outasi....one's own (things)
All of the above substantivized pronominal determiners can be pluralized by appending the plural suffix -i.
Examples:
  • Yat yefe ovmasber yatasi.....We must protect our own [pl. things].
  • Etasi naze ga vyel atasi.....Yours are worth more than mine.
  • Wet, biku yetasi soni.....You guys, mind your own business.
  • Yat toybeti fe ayser yauta nig.....We gals want to have our own space.

Translating various uses of it in English[edit]

When translating English it referring to animate creatures such as babies, animals, dolls, angels, ghosts, and monsters, the Mirad third person animate personal pronouns it he/she/it, iyt she, or wit he is used, eg:
  • At eke bay ha epet avhas hu at iyfe it / iyt / wit.....I play with the dog because I like it / her / him.
When translating English it referring to an inanimate object or abstraction, a Mirad deictic "thing" determiner like has (the thing), his (this), or hus (that) is used, eg:
  • At teasa ha dyezun ay at iyfa has gla.....I saw the movie and I liked it (= the thing) a lot.
  • Ha mes sa yija oy at voy ta hus.....The door was open but I didn't know it (= that).
The possessive forms of has is hasa....its, for example:
  • At iyfe ha dyes ay at ife hasa abdyun.....I like the book and I love it's (= the thing's) title.
If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it referring to an object or abstraction, then the pronoun hasi is used.
  • Ha sini se via ay at ife hasi.....The pictures are beautiful and I love them.
The possessive form of hasi....they/them is hasia....their, eg.:
  • Ha tefi se via oy hasia naxi se otwa.....The hats are beautiful, but their prices are unknown.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
  • Mamilo.....It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia van et upa.....It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et.....It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se yuka yaprer hia meb.....It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

Referring to Third Persons[edit]

The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
Deictic Determiners Used to Express Third Persons
  THING PERSON FEMALE MALE'....
DEFINITE SINGULAR
PLURAL
POSSESSIVE
has....it/this/the thing
hasi....they/them/these/the things
hasa....its/this/the thing's
hat....the person/he/she/him/her
hati....the people/they/them
hata....the person's/his/her
hayt....she/her
hayti....they/them/the females
hayta....her/the female's
hwat....he/him/the male person
hwati....they/them/the males
hwata....his/the male's
PROXIMAL SINGULAR
PLURAL
POSSESSIVE
his....it/this/this thing
hisi....they/them/these/these things
hisa....its/this/this thing's
hit....this person/he/she/him/her
hiti....these people/they/them
hita....this person's/his/her
hiyt....she/her
hiyti....they/them/these females
hiyta....her/this female's
hwit....he/him/this male person
hwiti....they/them/these males
hwita....his/this male's
DISTAL SINGULAR
PLURAL
POSSESSIVE
hus....it/this/that thing
husi....they/them/these/those things
husa....its/this/these thing's
hut....this person/he/she/him/her
huti....these people/they/them
huta....this person's/his/her
huyt....she/her
huyti....they/them/those females
huyta....her/that female's
hwut....he/him/that male
hwuti....they/them/those males
hwuta....his/that male's
Mirad does not force you to indicate gender in animate pronouns. The gender-neutral forms in the PERSON column are ordinarily sufficient. The forms in the MALE and FEMALE column are optional and used only when a distinction is needed.
Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
  • Huyt voy se tadxwa.....She (that woman) is not married.
  • At hoj teataye hiti.....I have never seen them (these people).
  • Huytiasi se ga aga vyel atasi.....Theirs (= the things of those females) are bigger than mine.
  • Hom et koxa has?....Where did you hide it (the thing)?
  • Hoyen et ijtra it (or: hat)?....How did you meet him (or: the person)?
  • At traye huyt yagjob.....I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
The above pronouns answer the questions hos?....what?, hosi?....what things?, hot?....who(m)?, or hoti?....what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat?....which one?, hoayti?....which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas?....which one/thing?, and hoasi?....which ones/things?
Selective Deictic Pronouns
SELECTIVES THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS
DEFINITE haas....the one haasi....the ones haat....the one haati....the ones
PROXIMAL hias....this one hiasi....these hiat....this one hiati....these
DISTAL huas....that one huasi....those huat....that one huati....those
Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
  • Duven et fu hias ey huas?....Would you like this one or that one?
  • Huayt se haat.....She (that female person) is the one.
  • At iyfe hiasi ga vyel huasi.....I like these more than those.
Compare the following two examples:
  • Hoas et fu? Hias.....Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
  • Hos et fu? His.....What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)


Relative Pronouns
Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Free Relative Clauses.


Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Mirad Grammar/Verbs#Non-finite Forms), such as ayser....to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, but the stem is still the infinitive minus the -er ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
This shows how to determine the stem of a verb listed in the dictionary:
Verb Stems
SIMPLE INFINITIVE VERB STEM INFINITIVE ENDING
ayser....to have ays- -er
poser....to (come to a) stop pos- -er
xer....to do x- -er
xwer....to happen, be done (PASSIVE) xw- -er

Verb Categories[edit]

Morphological Categories[edit]

Verbs are inflected with the following morphological categories:
  • STATES: finite, non-finite
  • TENSES: present, past, future, tenseless1
  • ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, potential
  • VOICES: active, passive, reflexive, reciprocal
  • MOODS: indicative, hypothetical

Note 1: The term "tenseless" means that tense is not marked. For example, in Mirad, Pu! is the imperative of the verb per....to go. It means Go! and in tenseless. The -u ending is a tenseless hypothetical mood marker.

In effect, the PERSON/NUMBER category is not listed above, because this caterory does not affect the morphology of the Mirad verb form itself. The Mirad verb form stays the same for all persons and numbers. That information is contained in the subject pronouns governing the verb. In English, for example, the verb "be" has several different forms in the present tense verb form depending on the person and number (I am, you are, he is, we are, etc.) The following chart shows how the English pattern differs from the corresponding single Mirad verb form se for all persons and numbers:
Verbs Forms Unchanged for Person
PERSON NUMBER ENGLISH
to be
MIRAD
ser
1st SINGULAR I am at se
2nd SINGULAR you are et se
3rd SINGULAR he/she/it is it se
1st PLURAL we are yat se
2nd PLURAL you are yet se
3rd PLURAL they are yit se
This invariability of person/number exists for all tenses.

Lexical Categories[edit]

In addition, verbs can be described in terms of the following opposing lexical categories. By lexical, is meant that verbs having different lexical properties are listed in the dictionary and have nothing to do with conjugation.
Verb Lexical Categories
STATIVE DYNAMIC
ser....to be xer....to do
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
agaser....to grow large agaxer....to magnify
SUBJECT-DIRECTED PATIENT-DIRECTED
bier....to take buer....to give
REFLEXIVE NON-REFLEXIVE
utvyixer....to wash up (wash oneself) vyixer....to wash
INCHOATIVE CAUSATIVE
tujper....fall asleep tujber....put to sleep
AUTONOMOUS DYNAMIC
yijer....to open (by itself) yijber....to (make it) open
RECIPROCAL NON-RECIPROCAL
hyuittujber....to kill one another tujber....to kill
GESTURAL LOCOMOTIVE
baser....to stir, budge paser....to move
SUBJECT-ORIENTED OBJECT-ORIENTED
teetyiker....to be hard of hearing teetyikwer....to be hard to hear

Non-finite Forms[edit]

Non-finite verb forms are
  • not conjugated for person or number
  • cannot form a predicate
  • and do not have a subject.
There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • infinitives: the dictionary lookup form of a verb, ending in -er or sometimes -wer
  • gerunds: verbal nouns, ending in -en
  • participles: verbal adjectives, ending in -a

Infinitives[edit]

Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the active voice simple aspect infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or rarely the passive voice simple aspect infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus the -er or -wer ending is the verb stem.
Infinitive Stems
INFINITIVE STEM ENDING
agser....to grow ags- -er
igxer....to quicken igx- -er
per....to go p- -er
xwer....to happen, be done xw- -er
The infinitive in Mirad is used very much as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two aspects (simple, perfect) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective stems are underlined:
Active and Passive Infinitive Stems
INFINITIVE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE ASPECT igxer....to quicken igxwer....to be quickened
PERFECT ASPECT igxayer....to have quickened igxawer....to have been quickened
: In the above chart, the verb stem is igx- and
  • the infinitive marker is -er, and
  • the simple aspect active voice marker is zero, and
  • the simple aspect passive voice marker is w, and
  • the perfect aspect active voice marker is -ay-, and
  • the past aspect passive voice marker is -aw-.

Intransitive verbs like per to go do not have a passive voice. Also, the passive voice form of a verb will not appear in the dictionary unless it has a special meaning, such as xwer to happen. The perfect infinitives are never listed in the dictionary.

Gerunds[edit]

The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
Gerunds
INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND
agaxer....to magnify agax- agaxen....magnifying, magnification agaxwen....being magnified
ayser....to possess ays- aysen....possessing, possession ayswen....being possessed
saxer....to create, make, form sax- saxen....forming, creation saxwen....being created
Lexicalized gerunds, such as sanxen formation, forming generally appear in the dictionary in the active voice.
Some examples:
  • Ha sanxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi.....The forming (or: formation) of this star took millions of years.
  • Iyta deuzen sa gla via.....Her singing was very beautiful.
  • Popen se jesta yex.....Traveling is hard work.
  • Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti.....Being heard well is important for actors.
  • Teaten se vyatexen......Seeing is believing.

Participles[edit]

Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns and pronouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles are marked by aspect (progressive, perfect, imminent, potential) and voice (active, passive). The template for a participle is "STEM+[e(a)ou]+(w)+a". The first letter of the participial ending is the aspect marker: e for progressive, a for perfect (see note 1 below), o for imminent, or u for potential 2. This is followed by a w if the participle is in the passive voice. The last letter of the ending is the adjectival marker -a.
Here is a table of participles:
Participles
ASPECT VOICE INFINITIVE PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE
PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE deuzer....to sing deuzea....singing ha deuzea pat....the singing bird3
PERFECT ACTIVE pier....to depart pi(a)a....departed ha pia topi....the departed souls
IMMINENT ACTIVE tajber....to give birth tajboa....about to give birth ha tajboa toyb....the woman about to give birth
POTENTIAL ACTIVE tojber....to kill tojbua....with potential to kill tojbua til....a lethal potion
PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE ebdalwer....to be discussed ebdalewa....being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen....the book being discussed
PERFECT PASSIVE yujbwer....to be closed yujb(a)wa....closed ha yujbwa mes....the closed door
IMMINENT PASSIVE osexwer....to be destroyed osexowa....about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam....the house about to be destroyed
POTENTIAL PASSIVE tilwer....to be drunk tiluwa....drinkable tiluwa mil....potable water
Note 1: In passive participles, the perfect aspect vowel a is usually omitted for brevity's sake, unless the verb stem ends in one of the liquid sounds l or r, which would make the pronunciation difficult. For example, the perfect passive participle of xer is xwa but the pefect passive participle of xler is xlawa. In active perfect participles, the double aa is usually reduced to a, as in ha pia topi....the departed souls (rather than ha piaa topi. In poetry, the perfect aspect vowel a can be omitted or retained optionally in the perfect active or passive participle.
Note 2: The potential aspect, represented by the vowel u is much like the conditional in English, but is not considered a tense in Mirad. For example, tojbu means would kill and the participle tojbua means lethal (referring to something that "would/has the potential to kill" ). More about this in a later section.
Note 3: There is another form of the progressive participle that falls in the lexical, rather than morphological category, in that such forms are listed in the dictionary as adjectives. For example, in the phrase The animals bothering our bird feeder..., the participle bothering would be oboxea in Mirad. By inserting the letter y between the verb stem and the participial ending, the participle become an adjective denoting a propensity or habit, as in bothersome (oboxyea). Such participles are invariably in the active voice. Most such adjectives in English end in -ive as in repulsive or -ly as in wiggly or -ous as in circuitous. Such adjectives in Mirad are listed in the dictionary and end in -yea.
Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
  • Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay.....She entered the room singing.
  • Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia.....The speech having been finished, he left.
Also, the above participles can be converted into abstract nouns by suffixing n. Examples:
  • tiluwa....drinkable tiluwan....potability
  • tojbua....lethal tojbuan....lethality
  • mansea....shining he mansean bi iyta deuzen....the brilliance of her singing
  • aakaxyea....inventive aakaxyean....inventiveness
Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for people or living things. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
  • xwa....known xwas....what is known, a fact
  • xwa....known xwasi....facts, information
  • oxwa....unknown oxwas....what is not known, a mystery
  • osexea....destroying osexeas....a destroyer
  • tojbua....lethal tojbuas....something lethal, a lethal thing
  • tojboa....moribund tojboati....people about to die, fatal cases
  • tejea....living tejeat....a living person
  • tejea....living tejeasi....living things
There is a special tenseless, nominalized, animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer, Xant, Xist), which refers to a person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
  • sexut....builder
  • nuut....supplier
  • tojbut....killer
  • ifut....lover
  • akuti....winners
Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat....the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut....the winner.

Finite Forms[edit]

In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • TENSES
  1. present
  2. past
  3. future
  4. tenseless
  • MOODS
  1. indicative
  2. hypothetical
  • ASPECTS
  1. simple
  2. progressive
  3. perfect
  4. imminent
  5. potential
  • VOICES
  1. active
  2. passive
  3. reflexive
  4. reciprocal
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person subject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se....I am, et se....you are, it se....he/she/it is, etc.

Moods[edit]

There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
  • Indicative Mood
The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, future, and tenseless, indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, -o, and -u, respectively.
  • Hypothetical Mood
Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an unrealized situation, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (It is important that you be early.)
  • an imagined if-then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (If I were rich, I would be happy.)

Aspects[edit]

There are five aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
  • the POTENTIAL aspect, i.e. an action potentially happening.
  • The Simple Aspect (default)
Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional. Five tenses can be expressed in the simple aspect, PRESENT, PAST, FUTURE, and what's called TENSELESS, that is, irrespective of time, i.e. unmarked for tense.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (per....to go and ser....to be) with the endings underlined:
Active Voice Conjugation of Per and Ser
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 per VERB #2 ser
INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE At pe. I go At se. I am
INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At pa. I went At sa. I was
INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At po. I will go At so. I will be
HYPOTHETICAL TENSELESS SIMPLE ACTIVE At pu. I would go [CONDITIONAL]
Van yat pu!....Let's go! [HORTATIVE]
Pu tam!....Go home! [IMPERATIVE]
Van hyat pu!....May everyone go! [JUSSIVE]
Se fia van et pu.....
It is well that you go. [SUBJUNCTIVE]
At su.....I would be
Van has su.....Let it be.
Su fia!....Be good!
Van hyat su iva!....May everyone be happy!
Se glatesa van et su jwaa.....It's important that you be early.
  • The Simple Indicative Present Tense
The simple indicative present instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
Examples:
  • At yexe be tam. ....I work at home.
  • Hia tom se nam. ....This building is a store.
  • The Simple Indicative Past Tense
The simple indicative past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time. The simple past contrasts in aspect with the past progressive (I was doing something) or the present perfect (I have done something), or past potential (I would have done something). The simple past is punctual, that is, it describes an event that occurred at a particular point in time.
Examples:
  • Iyt taja be yibmem. ....She was born abroad.
  • At ujba ha dyes ji iwa jwobi. ....I finished the book three hours ago.
  • His kyesa exag hijub.....This happened twice today.
  • The Simple Indicative Future Tense
The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
Examples:
  • Yit tadso zajab.....They are going to get married next year.
  • Hua kaxon ujako. ....That solution will work.
  • The Simple Hypothetical Tenseless Tense
A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
Examples:
  • Upu him!....Come here! (IMPERATIVE)
  • Von upu! ....Don't come! (NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE)
  • Ha edeb fu teater et. ....The king would like to see you. (CONDITIONAL)
  • Ven at su et, at dolu. ....If I were you, I would be quiet. (CONDITIONAL)
  • Van eyt ujaku be eytia yexnadi. ....May all you women succeed in your careers. (HORTATIVE)
  • Van yat ijbu bay fyadil. ....Let's begin with a prayer. (JUSSIVE)
  • Se glatesa van et puu jwa. ....It's important that you arrive early. (SUBJUNCTIVE)
  • Se glatesa von et puu jwo.....It's important that you not arrive late. (NEGATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE)
Hypothetical verb forms ending in -u can be interpreted in various ways, depending on the following syntactical patterns in the sentence:
  • Generally, if a verb form ending in -u begins a sentence and has no subject, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!.
  • If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers van, ven, or von, then it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per.....I would like to go..
  • If the subject of the verb is preceded by ven....if, then it is a CONDITIONAL clause as in Ven at su nasikat.......If I were a rich man..
  • If the subject is preceded by Van....that/let/may or von....don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Van et yagteju.....May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Van yat fyadilu.....Let us pray. or a prohibition like Von tilu his!....Don't drink this!.
  • If the sentence consists merely of a SUBJECT + VERB ending in -u, the meaning is CONDITIONAL, eg.: At voy xu hus.....I would not do that.


Voices[edit]

Mirad has four voices: ACTIVE, PASSIVE, REFLEXIVE and RECIPROCAL.
  • Active Voice
The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
  • Passive Voice
A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
"Contrasting Active and Passive Voice"
TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE ACTIVE
EXAMPLE
PASSIVE PASSIVE
EXAMPLE
INFINITIVE xer
to do
At fe xer fi.
I want to do well.
xwer
to be done
Ese hyos xwer.
There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPLE sexea
constructing
Ha yansyem sexea hia tom...
The firm constructing this building...
sexewa
being constructed
His se sexewa.
This is under construction.
PRESENT xe
do/does
At xe fi be tistam.
I do well in school.
xwe
is done
Huyenasi hoj xwe.
Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPLE xaa
having done
Iyt, xaa hya iyta yex,...
She, having done all her work,...
x(a)wa
done
Hyas se xwa.
Everything is done.
PAST tojba
killed
Hot tojba hwut?
Who killed that guy?
tojbwa
was killed
Hoj it tojbwa?
When was he killed?
HYPOTHETICAL bakxu
heal
Bakxu at!
Heal me!
bakxwu
be healed
Van it bakxwu.
May he be healed.
Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer....to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa.....The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer....to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber....to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobot tajbwa zajub.....The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobot taja zajub.....The child was born yesterday.)
  • Reflexive Voice
A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
  • tojber....to kill uttojber....to kill oneself
  • vyilxer....to wash utvyilxer....to wash up
  • teater....to see utteater....to see oneself
  • yalber....to lift utyalber....to lift oneselfUtyalbu!....Lift yourself up!
  • treer....to know utter....to know oneselfUttyeu!....Know thyself!
  • Reciprocal Voice
A verb is made reciprocal by prefixing the reciprocal pronoun hyuit....one another, for example:
  • tojber....to kill hyuittojber....to kill one another
  • vyilxer....to wash hyuitvyilxer....to wash one another
  • teater....to see hyuitteater....to see one another
Both the reflexive pronoun and reciprocal pronoun can be used as standalone objects. However, the plural form yut is used if the subject is plural, for example:
  • Yit vyilxa uti.....They (f.) washed up. (= washed selves).
  • Ha twobeti dizeuda hyuit.....The boys laughed at one another.
The word hyuit is a portemanteau of hyit....the same one combined with hyut....the other one.


Aspects Revisited[edit]

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple atemporal hypothetical ( = conditional) refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
Simple Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE PRESENT INDICATIVE At xe....I do Has xwe....It is done
SIMPLE PAST INDICATIVE At xa....I did Has xwa....It was done
SIMPLE FUTURE INDICATIVE At xo....I will do Has xwo....It will be done
SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL At xu....I would do Has xwu....It would be done

Note: Absence of tense (ATEMPORAL) + HYPOTHETICAL mood = CONDITIONAL


The Progressive Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
Progressive Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PROGRESSIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE at xeye....I am doing Has xewe....it is being done
PROGRESSIVE PAST INDICATIVE at xeya....I was doing Has xewa....it was being done
PROGRESSIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE at xeyo....I am going to be doing Has xewo....it will be happening
PROGRESSIVE HYPOTHETICAL at xeyu....I would be doing Has xewu....it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
Perfect Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PERFECT PRESENT INDICATIVE At xaye....I have done Has xawe....It has been done
PERFECT PAST INDICATIVE At xaya....I had done Has xawa....It had been done
PERFECT FUTURE INDICATIVE At xayo....I will have done Has xawo....It will have been done
PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL At xayu....I would have done Has xawu....It would have been done

The Imminent Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. Not that only indicative mood imminent tenses are ever used.
Imminent Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
IMMINENT PRESENT INDICATIVE At xoye....I am about to do Has xowe....It is about to be done
IMMINENT PAST INDICATIVE At xoya....I was about to do Has xowa....It was about to be done

The Potential Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice. The future potential and hypothetical potential aspects are never used.
Potential Aspect
ASPECT TENSE MOOD ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
POTENTIAL PRESENT INDICATIVE At xuye....I am to do Has xuwe....It is to be done, it is doable
POTENTIAL PAST INDICATIVE At xuya....I was to do Has xuwa....It was to be done, it was doable

Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit]

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer....to do and its passive xwer....to be done, happen:


Verb Conjugation Chart
STATE MOOD ASPECT TENSE VOICE CONJUGATED FORM TRANSLATION
INFINITIVE SIMPLE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xer
xwer
to do
to be done, to happen
INFINITIVE PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaer
xawer
to have done
to have been done, to have happend
PARTICIPLE PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xea
xewa
doing
being done, happening
PARTICIPLE PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaa
xawa xwa
having done
done, happened
PARTICIPLE IMMINENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoa
xowa
about to do
about to happen
PARTICIPLE POTENTIAL ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xua
xuwa
bound to do
doable
GERUND ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xen
xwen
doing, deed
being done, happening, event
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xe
xwe
does
is done, happens
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xa
xwa
did
was done, happened
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xo
xwo
will do
will be done, will happen
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(CONDITIONAL / IMPERATIVE)
SIMPLE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xu
xwu
would do, do!
would be done, would happen, be done!
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeye
xewe
is doing
is being done, is happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeya
xewa
was doing
was doing, was happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeyo
xewo
will be doing
will be happening
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(= CONDITIONAL)
PROGRESSIVE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xeyu
xewu
would be doing
would be happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaye
xawe
has done
has been done, has happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xaya
xawa
had done
had been done, had happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT FUTURE ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xayo
xawo
will have done
will have been done, will have happened
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL
(= CONDITIONAL)
PERFECT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xayu
xawu
would have done
would have been done, would have happened
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoye
xowe
is about to do
is about to be done, is about to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xoya
xowa
was to be done
was to be done, was to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PRESENT ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xuye
xuwe
is supposed to do
is supposed to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PAST ACTIVE
PASSIVE
xuya
xuwa
was supposed to do
was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen

Predicate Types[edit]

Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to how the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed, There are four predicate types in Mirad:
  • Declarative
  • Interrogative
  • Negative
  • Affirmative
These types can be combined, such as "negative interrogative" or "affirmative declarative", etc.
A simple, non-negative statement is affirmative declarative, such as Ha meir yuzpe ha maar.....The earth goes around the sun.
The following sections discuss non-declarative and non-affirmative predicate types.


Making Predicates Interrogative[edit]

To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duven....Say whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos?....What?, Hot?....Who(m)?, or Hom?....where?. Note that the Du in Duven means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duven...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word ven without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duven is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos?....What? and Hom?....Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
Making Predicates Interrogative
DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Et se tadxwa.....You are married. Duven et se tadxwa?....Are you married? (= Say whether you are married.)
Ha mari se manika.....The stars are bright. Duven ha mari se manika?....Are the stars bright? (= Say whether the stars are bright.)
Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?....Who won?
Iyt aka glas.....She won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?....How much did she win?
It paye.....He has gone. Hom it paye?....Where has he gone?
Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
  • Et tambese ha yubem?....You live in the neighborhood?
The yes-no tag vao can be placed at the end of a declaration to make it a question, eg.:
  • Et tambese ha yubem, vao?....You live in the neighborhood, right?
Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duven usually are answered with va....yes, ve....maybe, or vo....no or their equivalents.
"Yes-or-no Questions"
YES-NO QUESTION ANSWER
Duven eta dyun se John?....Is your name John? Vo, se Bill.....No, it's Bill.
Duven eta apet aka?....Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka.....Yes. Mine won indeed.
Duven et texe van ha maalyen gafiso hijub?....Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve.....Maybe.
Fe per bay at?....Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.....Maybe tomorrow.
Et tadso, vao?....You're going to get married, right? Vey va, vey vo.....Maybe yes, maybe no.

Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit]

The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
Affirming, Doubting, Negative Declarations
  INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION
AFFIRMATIVE va....yes vay....indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe....Yes, I indeed/do/really agree.
DUBITATIVE ve....maybe, perhaps vey....possibly, may... Ve. At vey po.....Maybe. I may/possibly will go.
NEGATIVE vo....no voy....not Vo. At voy su iva.....No. I would not be happy.

Mixing Them Up[edit]

The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
  • Duven et voy se tadxwa?....Aren't you married?
  • Hosav iyt se voy tadxwa?....Why isn't she married?
  • Vey voy mamilo.....It may not rain.
  • At vay voy tadso iyt.....I will certainly not marry her.
  • Et peyo, vao?....You will go, right?
  • Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa.....No. That may indeed be wrong.
  • Et te ha dud, vao?....You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
  • At voy te. ....I don't know.
  • At te voy. ....I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]
Note that vao? is a particle meaning yes or no?, right?, n'est-ce pas?


Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit]

An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the tenseless hypothetical mood ending in -u without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
  • Ipu !....Go away!
  • Tiju !....Wake up!
  • Su fiat !....Be a good person!
Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer van....that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive mood.
  • Van yat fadilu.....Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
  • Van weti aku hia ifek.....May you guys win this game.
  • Van ha edeb yagteju.....Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer von....don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
  • Von (et) dalu at huyen.....Don't (you) speak to me that way.
  • Von yit oku.....May they not lose.
  • Von yat toxu it.....Let's not forget him.

Complementizers[edit]

Van, ven, and von are part of a whole system of complementizers:
Complementizers
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZERS MEANING MIRAD
EXAMPLE
ENGLISH
EQUIVALENT
INTERROGATIVE duven...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duven eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John?
CONDITIONAL ven if, whether Ven et te, du has.
At utdide ven it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless Ohev et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win.
POSITIVE/HORTATIVE van that, so that, let, may At ta van it upo.
Van yat dilo.
Van et su iva.
At xa has van et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let's pray.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE von Don't, let...not, lest Von teaxu at.
Von yat su uva.
At pio von et futipsu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.
RELATIVE hu who, whom, that, which Ha toybi hu ifaye et...
Ha toyb hu et ife.
Koxon hu at yofe onyafxer.
The women who have loved you.
The woman (whom) you love.
A problem (that/which) I cannot solve.

Subjunctive Clauses[edit]

The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer van....that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
  • Ha ideb dila van at tyoibu za it.....The king asked that I kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa van et upu gwa ig.....It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
  • Dirwa van hyat dolu.....It was ordered that everyone be silent.
A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer von....don't, lest.
  • Su bikaya von et pyosu.....Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
The conditional complementizer ven....if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
  • At sexu tam ven at su nasika.....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
  • Hos et xu ven et aysu ga nas?....What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
  • Ha ideb dila at tyoiber za it.....The king asked me to kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig.....It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
  • Hyat dirwa doler.....Everyone was ordered to be silent.
  • Su bikaya voy pyoser.....Be careful not to fall.


If-Then Conditional Clauses[edit]

A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer ven....if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
If-then Conditional Clauses
IF-CLAUSE THEN-CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Ven ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
ot akxe.
one succeeds.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
Ven et ta,
If you knew,
et dola.
you kept quiet.
FUTURE INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
Ven et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
Ven at su nasika,
If I were rich,

Ven et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nusbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.

et testu.
you would understand.
PAST HYPOTHETICAL PAST HYPOTHETICAL
Ven at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."


If/Whether Subordinate Clauses[edit]

Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer ven....whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
If-whether Subordinate Clauses
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
At utdide
I wonder
ven it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
At voy te
I don't know
ven yit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
At voy te
I don't know
ven et ujako.
if / whether you will succeed.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
At utdide
I wonder
ven et yantexu.
if / whether you would agree.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
At voy ta
I didn't know
ven wit se taduwa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE
At dida
I asked
ven iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
PAST INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE
At voy ta
I didn't know
ven it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL
At dida
I asked
ven it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST HYPOTHETICAL
At dida
I asked
ven it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
The negative conditional complementizer ohev....unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
Negative Conditional Complementizer
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Ot voy ujake
One does not succeed
ohev ot yexe jestay.
unless one works hard.
FUTURE INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE
Et voy teato at
You won't see me
ohev et upo.
unless you come (= will come).


Relative Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses are of two types:
  • Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
  • Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.

Bound Relative Clauses[edit]

The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
  • Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jabi, ayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
  • Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
  • Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
  • Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
  • Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
  • Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya oyb it ji gla jabi.....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha toybi hu at deuza av yit fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/yita (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
  • Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb.....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
  • Ata yubati, hu yita tam sa jay ga aga vyel yatas, agaxa yita puram gajod.....Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
  • Ha dyesi hu at dyea (hasi) zamaj sa hyasi fia.....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good.


Free Relative Clauses[edit]

Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
Free Relative Clauses
RELATIVE PRONOUNS MIRAD....ENGLISH EXAMPLE
THING(S) has hu....what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu....what/those which/the things that
hyes hu....whatever/anything that
hyesi hu....whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu....everything that/all that
hyasi hu....all (things) that
hyos hu....nothing (that)
hyosi hu....none of the things (that)
haas hu....which one
haasi hu....which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa.....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futipxa at.....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do.....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza.....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos.....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa.....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da.....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at.....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe.....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe.....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu....who//the person (who)
hati hu....the ones who
hyet hu....whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu....whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu....everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu....all those who
hyot hu....nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu....no ones (that/who)
hata hu....whose
haat hu....which one
haati hu....which ones
Hat hu et teata pia.....The one you saw left.
Hati hu at tye yantexe.....Those (people) I know agree.
At teapo hyet hu at fe.....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata.....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtyea sa fiyena.....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa.....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta.....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena.....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hata hu ifpot his se.....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe.....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe.....I know which ones (people) I like least.
RELATIVE ADVERBS MIRAD ADVERB....ENGLISH ADVERB EXAMPLE
PLACE ham hu....where
hyem hu....wherever
hyam hu....everywhere
hu....bi ham....from where, whence
hu....bu ham....to where, whither
Yat tambese ham hu ha maalyen se yugra.....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po.....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya.....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga.....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba.....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu....when
hyej hu....whenever
hyaj hu....everywhere
Du at haj hu et puo.....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze.....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe.....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu....how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu....however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu....just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus.....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos.....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has.....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu....how, to what extent
hyigla hu....as, to the same degree as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se.....You'll never know how happy I am.
At yofe poper hyigla (~ge) yib hu et yafe.....
I cannot travel as far as you can.
QUANTITY hagla hu....how much, how many
hyegla hu....however much, however many
hyigla hu....as much/many as
Duven et te hagla nas hu it ayse?....Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla tami hu yat sexa.....You guys asked us however many houses we built.
Et nixo hyigla (~ ge) nas hu at xe.....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON hasav hu....why, for what reason
hyesav hu....why ever, for whatever reason
Duven et te hasav hu it xa hus.....Do you know why he did that?
Yat voy teste hyesav hu et xu hus.....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
  • RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu yata mer yuzpe dyunwe ha maar.....The star that our planet goes around is called the sun.
  • NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha maar, hu yata mer yuzpe, se vay haway hea mar.....The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a (= some) star.

Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit]

As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.


Indirect Discourse[edit]

Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer van (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad van complementizer can never be omitted.
  • At ta van et upo.....I knew that you would (= will) come.
  • Ata ted da van it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut.....My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
  • Se vyaa van at gra tele.....It is true that I eat too much.
  • At jada van et puo jwa.....I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
The conditional complementizer ven....if, whether and the negative complementizer von....lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.


Direct Discourse[edit]

Direct discourse works as in English, except that a colon (:) is used instead of a comma. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
  • Iyt da: "At voy fe per."....She said, "I don't want to go."
  • At dida it: "Hot so eta aadezut?".....I asked him, "Who will be your lead actor?"


Transitivity[edit]

Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.


Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit]

Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
Transitive vs. Intransitive
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE
xer....do ser....be
agxer....grow (something) agser....grow (up)
amxer....heat, make hot amser....become hot, heat up
puxer....throw puser....jump
per....go ber....put
aber....put on aper....get on
yaber....raise yaper....rise
poxer....stop (something) poser....(come to a) stop
yuber....bring yuper....approach
yeber....insert yeper....enter
  • At agxe vobi.....I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ha vobi agseye ig.....The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ha pur!....Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ha pur posa.....The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ha mis.....I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ha maar yapaye.....The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].


Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity[edit]

Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer....to sleep vs. tujper....to fall asleep. The transitive forms can be either active or passive.
Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity
INTRANSITIVE STATIC INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC TRANSITIVE ACTIVE TRANSITIVE PASSIVE
Ha mes yija....The door opened. Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open. At yijba ha mes.....I opened the door. Ha mes yijbwa bey yelput.....The door was opened by an intruder
Ha mes yuja.....The door closed. Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned. At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door. Ha mes yeyfe yujbwer ja sumjob.....The door should be closed by bedtime.
Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started. Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately. At ijba ata tyal.....I started my meal. Ha tyal ijbwa jwa.....The meal was started early.
Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended. Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end. A ujba ha dyes.....I finished the book. Ha dyes hyoj ujbwa.....The book never got finished.
Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening. Ha tob tojpa.....The man dropped dead. Hot tojba ha twob?....Who killed the man? Ha twob tojbwa bey ita tayd.....The man was killed by his wife.
Teju.....Live!. Tejpu!.....Come alive!. Yat efe tejber ha twob.....We need to revive the man. Ha twob yofwa tejbwer.....The man could not be revived.
Ha tobot taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Hoj ha tobot tajpo?....When will the baby pop out? Iyt tajba awa twobot zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday. Ha twobot tajbwa jo eymoj.....The baby boy was birthed after midnight.
At tija jwe.....I woke up on time. It voy tijpa.....He did not come to.. At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early. At voy fe tijbwo gra jwa.....I don't want to be woken too early.
At tujeya.....I was sleeping. At tujpeya.....I was falling sleep. At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep.. Ha tobot tujbwo glojo.....The baby will be put to sleep soon.

Reflexive Verbs[edit]

Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye aut.....I am going to kill myself.
  • Treu eut!....Know thyself!
  • It gobla iut bay goblar.....He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer out.....One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber....commit suicide (= self-kill)
  • utboler....support oneself (= self-support)
  • utdider....wonder (= self ask)
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyilxer eut.....You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
  • Et efe utvyilxer.....You need to wash up [= self-wash].


Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit]

Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
Inherent Propositions
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE
per....go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home.
It pa Paris.....He went to Paris.
der....say (to), tell Du at eta dyun.....Tell me your name.
Du at has.....Tell it to me.
peser....wait (for) Pesu at.....Wait for me.
buer....give (to) Buu at hua dyes.....Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu at hus.....Give me that. or Buu hus bu at.....Give that to me. See more about this in the chapter on Syntax.


Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs[edit]

Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer....to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
-axer vs -xer in Transitive Verbs
ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE
-xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaxer
to magnify
agxer
to grow
ana
one
anaxer
to unify
anxer
to unite
yona
apart
yonaxer
to separate
yonxer
to cut
yaga
long
yagaxer
to lengthen
yagxer
to stretch
yuga
slow
yugaxer
to retard
yugxer
to brake
sana
formal
sanaxer
to formalize
sanxer
to form
gea
equal
geaxer
to equalize
gexer
to copy, equate
jaa
prior
jaaxer
to prioritize
jaxer
to prepare
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser....to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
Creating Inchoative Verbs
ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE
-ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC
aga
big
agaser
to get bigger
agser
to grow
ana
one
anaser
to unify
anser
to unite, become united
yona
apart
yonaser
to become separate
yonser
to break


Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:

'....

  • Ansu ey yet yonxwo.....Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag.....I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Hisi agaxo has hu et teate.....These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
  • Hia tobot agseye ig.....This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom.....My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]


Verbs Derived from Nouns[edit]

Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
Verbs Derived from Nouns
NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE
mog....ash mogxer
to incinerate
mogser
to become ashes
yan....collection yanxer
to collect
yanser
to get together
tad....spouse tadxer
to marry
tadser
to get married
yom....ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
yomser
to freeze/become ice
mag....fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
magser
to burn, get burned
uk....void ukxer
to empty
ukser
become empty, empty out


Causative Verbs[edit]

Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
  • At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj.....I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at.....You cannot make me go.
  • It tojbuxa yit.....He had them killed.
  • At efe vyilxuxer ata par.....I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa him avhes.....You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et.....I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at.....You cannot make me sing.
  • At ivteuduxwa.....I was tickled (= made to laugh).
  • Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat.....Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Van het ivasuxu weti.....May someone get you guys to be happy.


Directional Verbs[edit]

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
Directional Verbs
SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED
bier....to take buer....to give
nier....to consume nuer....to supply
nyier....to order nyuer....to deliver
nunier....to buy nunuer....to sell
nazunier....win a prize nazunuer....award a prize
noysier....pay off noysuer....charge
ojbier....borrow ojbuer....lend
tadier....get married taduer....marry off
papier....take flight papuer....send off flying
pipier....set sail pipuer....dock
simbier....take a seat simbuer....offer a seat
tampier....leave home tampuer....arrive home
tamier....settle in tamuer....shelter
nusbier....to buy nisbuer....to sell
telier....to eat teluer....to feed
gonbier....to participate gonbuer....to share
tilier....to drink tiluer....to water, give to drink
teubier....to swallow teubuer....to spit out
teatier....to observe, watch teatuer....to show
taxier....to memorize taxuer....to remind
alier....to breathe in aluer....to breathe out, expire
ilier....to absorb iluer....to leak, soak
ifier....to enjoy ifuer....to please
dier....to ask duer....to suggest
tier....to learn tuer....to inform
pier....to depart puer....to arrive
kebier....to choose kebuer....to distribute
tujier....to fall asleep tujuer....to put to sleep
tojier....to fall dead tojuer....to kill
byier....to originate byuer....to target
mempier....to take off mempuer....to land
sinier....visualize sinuer....display
xier....to result xuer....to cause
yifier....to get up the courage yifuer....to encourage
yafonier....to gain power yafonuer....to empower
trier....to become acquainted with truer....to acquaint
tepizier....to pay attention to tepizuer....to draw attention to


Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per....to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
Verb Prepositional Prefixes
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
ab....on aber....apply aper....get on, mount
ob....off ober....remove oper....get of, dismount
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise
yob....down yober....take down yoper....descend
yub....near yuber....bring near yuper....approach
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....go far away
yeb....in yeber....insert yeper....enter
yeb....in yepuxer....throw in yepuser....jump in
oyeb....out oyeber....expose oyeper....exit
oyeb....out oyepuxer....eject oyepuser....jump out
zyu....round zyuber....rotate zyuper....revolve
zya....throughout zyaber....spread zyaper....tour
av....for avdaler....plead avper....pursue
ov....against ovber....oppose ovper....countervene
yan....together yanber....compose yanper....meet
yon....apart yonber....separate yonper....separate
iz....direct izber....lead izper....head
uz....curved uzber....divert uzper....diverge
yuz....around yuzbexer....surround yuzper....circulate
yiz....beyond yizber....transfer yizper....surpass
The prefix eg-....anew, again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember....to positionegember....to reposition, replace
  • der....to sayegder....to repeat
  • sanxer....to shape, formegsanxer....to reshape, reform
The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer....to build, constructlosaxer....to destroy, deconstruct
  • yonxer....to uniteloyonxer....to disunite
  • xer....to doloxer....to undo
The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
  • nadxer....to alignvyonadxer....to misalign
  • der....to sayvyoder....to misstate, lie
  • utbier....to appropriatevyoutbier....to misappropriate
The prefix yan-....together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer....to operateyanexer....to cooperate
  • tamer....to dwellyantamer....to cohabit
  • napber....to put in orderyannapber....to coordinate
The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
  • teaper....to visitzoyteaper....to revisit
  • uper....to comezoyuper....to return, come back
  • buxer....to pushzoybuxer....to repel, push back
  • puxer....to throwzoypuxer....to reject, throw back, jettison
The prefix az- (from aza....strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
  • yujber....to closeazyujber....to lock
  • der....to sayazder....to emphasize
  • duer....to suggestazduer....to urge
  • dizeuder....to laughazdizeuder....to guffaw
By contrast, the prefix oz- (from oza....weak) is used as a softener, eg.:
  • der....to utterozder....to whisper
  • duer....to suggestozduer....to hint
  • dizeuder....to laughozdizeuder....to chuckle
  • uvteuder....to moanozuvteuder....to whimper
The prefix ja-....before is used as the English prefix pre-, fore-, or ante-, eg.:
  • der....to telljader....to foretell, predict
  • teater....to seejateater....to foresee, preview
  • ter....to knowjater....to presage, have foreknowledge of
  • yever....to judgejayever....to prejudge
  • juder....to datejajuder....to antedate
By contrast, jo-....after is used as the English prefix post-, eg.:
  • juder....to datejojuder....to postdate
  • texer....to thinkjotexer....to reflect on, review
  • der....to sayjoder....to mourn, regret
  • ibler....to obtainjoibler....to inherit
The prefix gra-....too much is used for actions that are excessive, eg.:
  • telier....to eatgratelier....to overeat
  • fer....to wantgrafer....to cover
  • der....to saygrader....to exaggerate
  • daler....to talkgradaler....to yammer

By contrast, the prefix gro-....to little is used for actions that are underdone, eg.:

  • fyinder....to valuegrofyinder....to underestimate
  • mageler....to cookgromageler....to undercook


Modal Verbs[edit]

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.


Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
Principle Modal Auxiliary Verbs
POSITIVE   NEGATIVE
afer....may
ayfer....might
efer....need ofer....may not
oyfer....might not
ifer....love
iyfer....like
fer....want ufer....hate
uyfer....dislike
yafer....can, be able
yayfer....might, could
yefer....must, have to
yeyfer....ought, should
yofer....cannot
yoyfer....could not, might not
yifer....dare   yufer....be afraid
yiver....have a right, be free   yuver....be bound
If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
  • At fe per.....I want to go.
  • At fu per.....I would like to go.
  • Et yafe aker.....You can win.
  • Et yafu aker.....You could win.
  • Yet yefe iper.....You must leave.
  • Yet yefu iper.....You ought to leave.
Post-y-gliding the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
  • At ife et. ....I love you.
  • At iyfe et. ....I like you.
  • Et yefe iper.....You must leave.
  • Et yeyfe iper.....You should leave.
  • Iyt yafe aker.....She can win.
  • Iyt yayfe aker.....She might win.
  • At ufa uda tuz.....I hated that art.
  • At uyfa uda tuz.....I disliked that art.
By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
  • Hua toyb yufxa at.....That woman scared me.
  • Hua toyb yulfxa at.....That woman intimidated me.
  • Hua toyb yurfxa at.....That woman terrorized me.
  • Hia yex efwo.....This work will be necessary.
  • Hia yex elfwo.....This work will be critical.
  • Hia yex erfwo.....This work will be indispensable.
  • Su yifa.....Be brave.
  • Su yilfa.....Be bold.
  • Su yirfa.....Be heroic.
  • Et yuve buer nas.....You are supposed to give money.
  • Et yulve buer nas.....You are bound to give money.
  • Et yurve buer nas.....You are absolutely compelled to give money.
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe oyeper ay ifeker.....You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer.....We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier him.....One is prohibited to smoke here.
  • Mavier him ofwe.....Smoking here is prohibited.
  • At ife dyeer.....I love to read.
  • He et fe yebuper?....Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et edjub.....I would like to visit you some day.
  • It ufaye hyaj teaxwer.....He has always hated being looked at.
  • Duven et iyfe per tilami?....Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa.....I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu.....You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas.....You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay.....You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi.....I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der hyea fuas.....I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Von yufu der has hu et tesde.....Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut.....You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuve kyoejer.....We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit]

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented." The participial adjective yafa....able is subject-oriented and refers to a person, whereas the passived adjective yafwa....possible is patient-oriented and refers to a thing or event. Here is a chart of the principal modal verbs and corresponding participial adjectives with this subject/object-orientation distinction shown:
Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms
MODAL TYPE SUBJECT-ORIENTED SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
VERB ADJECTIVE VERB ADJECTIVE
PERMISSION afer....may afa....allowed afwer....be permitted afwa....permissable
NECESSITY efer....need efa....needful efwer....be necessary efwa....necessary, required
PROHIBITION ofer....be unallowed ofa....prohibited ofwer....be prohibited ofwa....banned
POSSIBILITY yafer....be able yafa....able yafwer....be possible yafwa....possible
OBLIGATION yefer....must yefa....obliged yefwer....be obligatory yefwa....obligatory
DUTY yeyfer....should yeyfa....supposed, duty-bound yeyfwer'....be supposed yeyfwa....due
IMPOSSIBILITY yofer....be unable yofa....unable yofwer....be impossible yofwa....impossible
VOLITION fer....want fa....willing fwer....be desirable fwa....desirable, wanted
LOVE ifer....love ifa....enamored ifwer....be loved ifwa....lovable
HATE ufer....hate ufa....averse ufwer....be hated ufwa....odious
RISK yifer....dare yifa....daring, brave yifwer....be safe yifwa....safe
FEAR yufer....be afraid yufa....afraid yufwer....be a danger yufwa....frightening
JOY iver....enjoy iva....glad ivwer....be a joy ivwa....enjoyable
SORROW uver....be sorry uva....sorry, sad uvwer....be a shame uvwa....regrettable
Examples of subject-oriented forms:
  • At se yafa xer hes.....I am capable of doing anything.
  • Et ofe teater hia dyezun.....You are not allowed/are prohibited to see this film.
  • Duven at afe per hum?....Am I allowed to go there?
  • Yat fu ter eta dyun.....We would like to know your name.
  • Piti ufe beser be mel.....Fish hate to remain on dry land.
  • At ajay ifa dazer.....I once loved to dance.
  • Et se iva, at yife der.....You are beautiful, I dare say.
  • At yeyfa xer has ga ig.....I should have done it sooner.
  • Von yufu; At yupeye.....Fear not; I am coming.
  • Et yefe puer ja eymaj.....You must arrive before noon.
  • Yet yofe daler je ha dezun.....You people must not talk during the performance.
  • Yat yeyfe (= se yeyfa aker.....We should (= are bound/supposed/due) to win.
  • At ive teater et bakser.....I'm glad to see you get better.
  • Su iva.....Be happy.
  • At uvu (= su uva) teater et iper.....I would be sad to see you leave.
Examples of patient-oriented forms:
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him.....It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him.....It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) van yet dolu.....It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser him gajob.....It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder.....It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe van et piu ig.....It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi?....Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo.....More help will be needed.
  • Yurx se ufwa xetyen.....Slavery is an odious practice.
  • Uvwe van wit oka.....It's a shame that he lost.
*Ofawa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.


Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit]

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
afxer....allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer....permit (something to be done)
efxer....require efwaxer....necessitate
ofxer....prohibit ofwaxer....prohibit
yafxer....enable yafwaxer....make possible
yefxer....oblige yefwaxer....make obligatory
yofxer....cripple yofwaxer....disable
yifxer....embolden yifwaxer....make safe
yufxer....intimidate yufwaxer....make frightening
ifxer....please ifwaxer....make pleasant

Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit]

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
Modal Suffixes
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED
Xyafa....able to X, -able Xyafwa....posssible to X
Xyofa....unable to X Xyofwa....impossible to X
Xifa....fond of Xing, Xophile
Xufa....averse to Xing, Xophobic
Xyika....hard of Xing Xyikwa....hard to X
Xyuka....comfortable/easy Xing Xyukwa....easy to X
-Xefa....in need of Xing Xefwa....necessary to X
Xyufa....afraid of Xing Xyufwa....frightening to X
This table shows some of these modal suffixes applied to actual verb and noun stems:
Modals
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa....able to see, sighted teatyafer....be able to see teatyofa....blind teatyofer....be blind
PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa....visible teatyafwer....be visible teatyofwa....invisible teatyofwer....be invisible
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa....able to hear, hearing teetyafer....be able to hear teetyofa....deaf teatyofer....be deaf
PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa....audible teetyafwer....be audible teeyofwa....inaudible teeyofwer....be inaudiable
SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa....able to speak dalyafer....be able to speak dalyofa....mute, dumb dalyofer....be mute, dumb
SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa....patriotic doabifer....be patriotic doabufa....rebellious doabufer....rebel
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa....sensitive tosyafer....be able to feel tosyofa....insensitive tosyofer....be numbed
PATIENT-ORIENTED tayotyafwa....palpable tayotyafwer....be palpable tayotyofwa....numb tayotyofwer....be impalbable, numb
PATIENT-ORIENTED testyukwa....easy to understand testyukwaxer....make easily understood testyikwa....hard to understand testyikwaxer....make hard to understand
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa....thirsty tilefer....be thirsty
SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa....hungry telefer....be hungry
PATIENT-ORIENTED tejefwa....vital tejefwer....be vital

Sensing Verbs[edit]

Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern, as the following chart shows:
Sensing Verbs
teab....eye
teata....visual
teeb....ear
teeta....audial
teib....nose
teita....olfactory
teub....mouth
teuta....gustatory
tayob....skin
tayota....tactile
RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE teater....see teeter....hear teiter....smell teuter....taste tayoter....feel
RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE teatwer....be seen teetwer....be heard teitwer....be smelled teutwer....be tasted tayotwer....be felt
STATIVE teaser....seem teeser....sound teiser....smell teuser....taste tayoser....feel
DYNAMIC/ACTIVE teaxer....look at teexer....listen teixer....sniff teuxer....taste tayoxer....touch
DYNAMIC/PASSIVE teaxwer....be looked at teexwer....be listened to teixwer....be sniffed teuxwer....be tasted tayoxwer....be touched
CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE teatuer....show teetuer....make hear teixuer....make smell teuxuer....offer a taste tayoxuer....make feel
CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE teatuwer....be shown teetuwer....be made to hear teituwer....be made to smell teutuwer....be given a taste tayotuwer....be made to feel
INCHOATIVE/ACTIVE teatier....perceive,
catch sight of
teetier....catch the
sound of
teitier....get a whiff of teutuer....get a taste of tayotier....get the sensation of
INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE teatiwer....be perceived teetiwer....be heard teitiwer....be whiffed teutiwer....be tasted tayotiwer....be felt
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/
STATIVE
teatyofer....be blind teetyofer....be deaf teityofer....be unable to smell teityofer....be unable to taste tayotyofer....be insensitive
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/
STATIVE
teatyofwer....be invisible teetyofwer....be inaudible teityofwer....be undetectable
odorwise
teityofwer....be insipid tayotyofwer....be undetectable
by touch
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofxer....blind teetyofxer....deafen teityofxer....desensitize
to smell
teutyofxer....desensitize to
taste
tayotyofxer....desensitize
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofwaxer....make invisible teetyofwaxer....make inaudible teityofwaxer....make odorless teutyofwaxer....render tasteless tayotyofwaxer....numb
Examples of usage:
  • At teatyofxwa bey ha mani.....I was blinded by the lights.
  • Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea.....The noise was deafening.
  • Hia tit se gla teatiyafa.....This pupil is very perceptive.
  • Hua bekil se teityofwa.....That medecine is odorless (impossible to smell).
  • Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni.....Make the spots invisible.
  • Ha magmeb yonprex tayotyafwa zya ha mir.....The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.


Prepositions[edit]

Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.


Simple Prepositions[edit]

In Mirad, there are single-word and multi-word prepositions. Single-word prepositions are called simple propositions.
Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
Simple Prepositions
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE
SPATIAL
ab....on, upon eb....between ob....off, off of
ayb....over, above eyb....among, amid oyb....under, below
bu....to be....at bi....from, of
byu....as far as, up to   byi....since, starting with
ub....toward   ib....away from
za....in front of ze....at the middle of zo....behind, in back of
zu....(to the) left (of)   zi....(to the) right (of)
zya....throughout zye....through  
TEMPORAL
ja....before je....during, while jo....after
ju....until   ji....since
RELATIONAL
bay....with bey....by boy....without
av....for vyel....than, as, compared to, about ov....against
ay....and ey....or oy....but, except
MATHEMATICAL
gab....plus, +   gob....minus, -
gal....times, × gel....like
ogel....unlike
gol, ÷....divided by
gar....to the power of, ˆ gor....to the minus power of,
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ha dyes se ab ha sem.....The book is on the table.
  • Von pyosu ob ha abtamas!....Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ha pati papa ayb ata tam.....The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ha yagsim.....He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb hut ay at.....Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati.....We live among good people.
  • Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?....What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • His se ifek bi kyen.....This is a game of luck.
  • Duven et sa be hua duzun zomoj?....Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil.....We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis.....She walked up to/as far as the door.
  • Ha twob tojbwa bey goblar.....The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at vyel boy at.....You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ha amar.....Look away from the sun.
  • Von teaxu iz ub ha man.....Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Iyt simpa za at. ....She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb.....You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu has zu ha mis.....Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simpo zi et.....I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ha pat besa ze ha tim.....The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Mil upeye zye ha mes.....Water is coming through the door.
  • His xwo ja zajub. ....This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ha moj.....There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj.....Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub.....I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe xu hes av at.....Please do something for me.
  • Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti.....This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia vyel nas.....Friendship is better than money.
  • Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat soa zojab.....Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat.....They were working against us.
  • Et ay Bob yeyfe ser dati.....You and Bob should be friends.
  • Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
  • Hyat oy hwut ta ha dud.....Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at.....You are not like me.
  • Et se hyagla ogel at.....You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e.....Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u.....Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a.....Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya.....Four squared (42) equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Alya gor e gese u.....The square root (√16) of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the minus power of two...)

Phrasal Prepositions[edit]

Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs[edit]

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
Adverbs Used in Phrasal Prepositions
yub....near yib....far
yuz....around yiz....beyond
iz....directly, straight uz....indirectly, roundabout
yab....up yeb....in
oyeb....out
yob....down
yaz....along yez....flush (with) yoz....perpendicular (to)
zay....forward, ahead zey....across zoy....back
The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bi....near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et.....I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi....far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer.....The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu....up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam.....He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi....up from Su yab bi ha sim.....Get up from the bed.
yab bey....up (by way of) Aat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab.....We will walk up the hill.
yab be....up on Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha abtammmas.....The cat was found up on the roof.
yob bu....down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos.....Run down to the cellar.
yob bi....down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam.....The angel came down from the sky.
yob bey....down (by way of) Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab.....She ran down the hill.
yob be....down on Ha dyes kase yob be ha oybmas.....The book is down on the floor.
yob ab....down on Has kaxwa yob ab eta oybmos.....It was found down on your floor.
yeb be....in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam.....Your mother is in(side) the house.
yeb bu....into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip.....He jumped into the river.
yeb bi....in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem.....Come in from the cold outdoors.
oyeb be....out in/at Ha toboti sa oyeb be ha zodeym.....The children were out in the backyard.
oyeb bi....out from Yepu oyeb bi ha om.....Come in out from the cold.
oyeb bu....out to Aat fu peper oyeb bu ha meim.....We'd like to ride out to the countryside.
yaz bi....along Ha twob tyoyapa yaz bi ha mip.....The man walked along the river.
yez bi....flush with Ha simi se yez bi ha mas.....The chairs are flush with the wall.
yoz bi....perpendicular to Ha mampar pyosa yoz bi ha mel.....The plane fell perpendicular to the ground.
yuz bi....around Ha pati papa yuz bi yata tam.....The birds flew around our house.
yiz bi....beyond, past Et paye yiz bi ha yuznad.....You have gone beyond the perimeter.
iz bu....straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi....right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim.....He came right back from the office.
zay bu....on to, forth to, ahead to Ha naadpar popa zay bu zona doym.....The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi....across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat.....She sat across from us.
zoy bi....back from At se zoy bi ha yexim.....I am back from the office.

Phrasal Prepositions Using Nouns[edit]

The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
Spatial Nouns Built on Prepositions or Adverbs
PREPOSITION OR ADVERB SPATIAL NOUN
ab....on abem....top
abned....upper surface
abmas....roof
eb....between ebem....interstice
ebjob....interval
ebnod....intersection
ebmas....partition
ob....off obem....bottom
obned....lower surface
obmas....foundation
ayb....above aybem....area above
aybmas....ceiling
oyb....below oybem....area below
oybmas....floor
yab....up yabem....upstairs, upper area
yabneg....top level
yob....down yobem....downstairs, lower area
yobneg....bottom level
yeb....in yebem....inside, interior, indoors
yebnig....inner space
oyeb....out yobem....outside, exterior, outdoors
za....in front of zam....front, foreground
zan....face
ze....in the middle of zem....middle
zenod....center, hub
zen....center
zenad....median
zo....behind zom....back, rear, background
zi....right zim....right area
zikum....left side
ziizon....right direction
imer....east
zu....left zum....left area
zukum....left side
zuizon....left direction
umer....west
iz....straight izmep....direct route
iznad....vector
izon....direction
uz....indirectly uzmep....detour
uznad....curve
uzon....deviation
yub....near yubem....vicinity
yubkum....near side
yubaj....recent past
yib....far yibem....distance
yibkum....far side
yibnod....pole
yiboj....distant future
yuz....around yuzem....perifery
yuznad....perimeter
yuznig....environment
yiz....beyond yizem....area beyond
yiznod....extremity
The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
Idiomatic Phrasal Prepositions
be abem bi....at the top of bu abem bi....to the top of bi abem bi....from the top of
be obem bi....at the bottom of bu obem bi....to the bottom of bi obem bi....from the top of
be ebem bi....in the area between bu ebem bi....to the area between bi ebem bi....from the area between
be aybem bi....above, over bu aybem bi....to the area above bi aybem bi....from the area above
be oybem bi....below, under bu oybem bi....to the area below bi oybem bi....from the area below
be eybem bi....amid zye eybem bi....through the midst of bi eybem bi....from the midst of
be zam bi....at the front of bu zam bi....to the front of bi zam bi....from the front of
be zem bi....at the middle of bu zem bi....to the middle of bi zem bi....from the middle of
be zom bi....at the back of bu zom bi....to the back of bi zom bi....from the back of
be zim bi....at the right of bu zim bi....to the right of bi zim bi....from the right of
be zum bi....at the left of bu zum bi....to the left of bi zum bi....from the left of
be yubem bi....in the vicinity of bu yubem bi....to the vicinity of bi yubem bi....from the vicinity of
be yibem bi....at a distance from bey azon bi....by dint of be avon bi....in favor of
be ubem bi....in the direction of bay ux bi....with assistance from be byux bay....in touch with
be yabem bi....in the upper reaches of be vyen bu....in relation to doytaxwa bay....associated with
be yobem bi....in the bottom area of be ned bi....on the level of be mep bu....on the way to, en route
be yebem bi....on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi....on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi....to the exterior of
bey mep bi....by way of, via be kum bi....beside, at the side of be ij bi....at the start of
be uj bi....at the end of bey uxun bi....by means of be kunad bi....at the edge of
be nod bi....at the point of be yebem bi....at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi....at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay....in line with be uznod bi....alongside be tes bi....in the sense of
be teas bi....in the guise of be san bi....in the form of be yanx bi....in conjunction with
be bol bi....in support of be gab bu....in addition to be dyun bi....in the name of
be avson bi....on behalf of be vyeson bi....on the subject of bay yux bi....with the aid of

Separable Verb Prefixes[edit]

Verbal prefixes that formed from prepositions and adverbs can usually be "unpacked", that is, treated as separate words. The following table demonstrates how that works:
Separable Verb Prefixes
yuzper = per yuz....go around, circle Zyulmap yuzpa yata tam. = Zyulmap pa yuz bi yata tam.....The tornado circled/went around our house.
yobnoger = noger yob....scale down Ha yux bi yams yeyfe yobnogwer. = Ha yux bi yams yeyfe nogwer yob.....The use of carbon should be downscaled.
zaybuxer = buxer zay....advance, push forward Aat zaybuxo hia dovyabdren. = Yat buxo hia dovyabdren zay.....We shall advance this legislation.


Conjunctions[edit]

Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. There are two major types of conjunctions, with some minor categories, noted below:
  1. Coordinating Conjunctions
  • Simple Linking Conjunctions, such as and, or, but
  • Correlative Conjunctions, such as either...or, neither...or, both...and
  • Adverbial Coordinating Conjunctions, such as then, also, therefore
  1. Subordinating Conjunctions
  • Complementizing Conjunctions, such as that, if, whether, lest
  • Relative Conjunctions, such as as, when, because, while

Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

Mirad has three types of coordinating conjunctions, as shown in the following charts:
  • Simple Linking Conjunctions
Simple Linking Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
ay....and At oveko ay at ako.....I will compete and I will win.
ey....or Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et.....Be still or I will spank you.
oy....but It yeka oy it oka.....He tried but he lost.
oey....nor At voy tilo oey at telo.....I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.
  • Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions
The following conjunctions come in pairs:
Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
hyaewa...ay both...and At hyaewa dyede ay dre Mirad.....I both read and write Mirad.
hyeawa...ey either...or Et yafe hyeawa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun.....You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
hyoawa...oey neither...nor Yat hyoawa move oey tile.....We neither smoke nor drink.
voy hyawa....oy (gay) not only...but (also) At voy hyawa deuze oy gay at daze.....I not only sing but also I dance.
  • Adverbial Coordinating Conjunctions
Some grammars call these conjunctive adverbs:
Adverbial Coordinating Conjunctions
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
jo hus / joy....then, next, after that Yat deuza, jo hus hyat daza.....We sang, then everyone danced.
je hus / jey....meanwhile Je hus, at ujba hyas.....Meanwhile, I finished everything.
av hus....so, therefore It vuda at, av hus at pia.....He insulted me, so I left.
(gey) ov hus....nevertheless, even so, despite that, yet, however At yexa kyotepay, ov hus, at ujoka.....I work diligently, yet I failed.
gel hus / gelay....likewise, also, similarly At daze. Gel hus, at deuze.....You dance; likewise, I sing.
hyiyen / geyen....in the same way, likewise Yit xa fi; hyiyen, et xo gay fi.....They did well; in the same way, you will too.
ogel hus / ogelay....otherwise, else Du hes, ogel hus, piu.....Say something, otherwise, leave.
gay....also Et yeka; gay, et ujaka!....You tried; also, you succeeded!
be nem (bi hus)....instead (of that) Hyot fida iyt; be nem bi hus, yit fuda iyt.....Nobody praised her; instead, they badmouthed her.
huyen....thus, in that way Tixu jestay; huyen, et ujako.....Study diligently; in that way, you'll succeed.
husav....for that reason, so, therefore At voy ifeyie has; husav, at pio.....I'm not enjoying it, so I will leave.
vray....as a matter of fact, actually, in fact Vray, et se vyasa.....In fact, you're right.
gel jos....consequently, as a consequence It baksa; gel jos, it toja.....He got sick; as a consequence, he died.
gel xin....as a result At voy tixa; gel xin, at okuja.....At didn't study; as a result, I failed.
ga vyel hus....moreover, what's more Mamila. Ga vyel hus, esa mamxeus.....It rained. Moreover, there was thunder.
be hyua duni....in other words At voy da ha vyan; be hyua duni, at vyoda.....It did not tell the truth; in other words, I lied.
jey....meanwhile, in the meantime Ha toboti xeya gla xeus; jey, at jesa tixer.....The children were making a lot of noise; meanwhile, I continued to study.
ovay....on the contrary Ha tam voy se aga; ovay, has se gle oga.....The house is not big; on the contrary, it's rather small.
bi hyua teasgun....on the other hand At voy deuze. Bi byua teagun, at eke duzar.....I don't sing. On the other hand, I play a musical instrument.
gey bay hus....still, even so Voy esa duz, gey bay hus, ha xej sa ifxea.....There was no music. Even so, the event was entertaining.
'ujnay....finally, in the end Unjnay, hyoa fus xwa.....In the end, nothing bad happened.

Subordinating Conjunctions[edit]

Subordinating Conjunctions introduce three types of dependent or subordinate clauses:
1. Adjectival subordinate clauses (also called relative clauses)
  • He is the guy that earned the most this year. The subordinate clause modifies a noun in the main clause. Adjectival clauses are introduced in Mirad by the relative complementizer hu. Relative clauses are discussed in the Relative Clauses section of the chapter on Verbs.
2. Nominal subordinate clauses (also called factive clauses)
  • I knew that she would come. The subordinate clause is the object or complement of a verb in the main clause. Nominal subordinate clauses are introduced by one of the factive complementizers van, ven, or von, depending on whether the subordinate clause is positive, conditional, or negative.
3. Adverbial subordinate clauses (also called circumstantial clauses).
  • Did you see where they went?. The subordinate clause is an adverbial clause modifying a verb in the main clause for time, place, manner, and other circumstances. Adverbial subordinate clauses are introduced by deictic adverbs like where, when, and why plus the relative complementizer hu.
Complementizers
The complementizers above are part of an overall scheme. In the chart below, the six complementizers act:
  • as a clause linker, where the complementizer introduces a clause that is a statement of FACT or CONDITION, or
  • as a sentence introducer, where the complementizer introduces a sentence that is a command/wish, a prohibition, or a yes-no question. Some of these complementizers can act in either or both roles. In actuality, all of the complementizers introduce or link a subordinate clause; it's just that in some cases, the main clause is left unexpressed.
Complementizers
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZER CLAUSE LINKER SENTENCE INTRODUCER
POSITIVE / HORTATIVE van that, the fact that May....(something happen), Let....(something happen)
CONDITIONAL ven if, whether --
NEGATIVE / PROHIBITIVE von lest, that...not Don't
ANTI-CONDITIONAL oven unless --
INTERROGATIVE Duven...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)?
RELATIVE hu that, which, who(m) --
Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
  • At ta van et upo.....I knew that you would come. (FACTIVE)
  • At xa has av van et testu.....I did it so that you would understand.
  • At voy ta ven et upo.....I did not know whether you would come.
  • Ven et te ha dud, du has.....If you know the answer, say it.
  • At yufa von et upu.....I feared lest you might come.
  • At voy upo oven et upo gay.....I will not come unless you come, too.
  • At fe teater ha tob hu xa his.....I want to see the man who did this.
Example of these conjunctions introducing different types of sentences:
  • Van aat fadilu.....Let us pray. (HORTATIVE, i.e., A WISH)
  • Van iit teliu avol!....Let them eat bread.
  • Van ha edeb yagteju.....May the king live long.
  • Duven et te ha dud?....Do you know the answer? (YES/NO QUESTION)
  • Duven et se tadxwa.....Are you are married. (SAY WHETHER...)
  • Von (et) yufu.....Don't (you) be afraid. (PROHIBITIVE, i.e., AN INJUNCTION)
  • Von hus xwu.....Let that not happen.
The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duven (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether... where Say... is the main clause in the imperative mood.
  • Duven et se tadokayt?....Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).
Av van + a predicate in the hypothetical mood expresses a "so that, in order that" clause, eg.:
  • At uzba ata teb av van at yafu teater has hu xowe*.....I turned my head so that I could see what was about to happen.
Using the negative complementizer, von, the above sentence could be rephrased as:
  • At uzba ata teb av von at teatu has hu xowe.....I turned my head so that I wouldn't see what was about to happen.
Since the subject is the same in both clauses, the sentence could be expressed more easily with an infinitive:
  • At uzba ata teb av (~ ov) teater has hu xowe.....I turned my head so as (not) to see what was about to happen.
* xowe means is about to happen/be done. Unlike English, there is no relative sequencing of tenses in conjoined clauses. "I knew she would come." is rendered in Mirad with direct sequences of tenses, i.e. as "I knew that she will come." Also, unlike English, the "that" conjunction cannot be left out: At ta van iyt upo.
  • Conjunctions with van
Conjuntions introducing nominal subordinate clauses consist of a preposition followed by the positive complementizer van, the conditional complementizer ven, or the negative complementizer von. English can use a bare preposition as a conjunction, as in the sentence "He will grow up before you notice it." However, Mirad requires the complementizer, much as in French, where "avant" (before) must be accompanied by "que" when followed by a clause ("Il se grandira avant que tu ne le remarques.") Here is a chart showing the most important of these conjunctions:
Subordinating conjunctions with van
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
ja van....before Du hay ja van et pio.....Say hi before you leave.
je van....while Je van at so him, at xo gle yex av et.....While I'm here, I'll do some work for you.
jo van....after At buo et has jo van et nuso.....I will give it to you after you pay.
ju van....until Aat voy ijo ju van et puo him.....We won't start until you get here.
ji van....since At voy teataya huyenas ji van et sa hum.....I had not seen such a thing since you were there.
gey ven....even if Gey ven et yontexe, at bolo et.....Even if you disagree, I'll support you.
gel ven....as if Aat yeyfe axer gel ven aat teata yod.....We should act as if we saw nothing.
gey ov van....even though Gey ov van ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.....Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it.
ov van....(al)though At po ov van at voy fe.....I'll go, although I don't want to.
av van....so (that) It utifbua av van hyuti teju.....He sacrificed himself so that others might live.
av von....lest, so that...not It utifbua av von hyuti toju.....He sacrificed himself so that others might not die (= lest others might die).
  • Conjunctions with hu
If the conjunction contains a deictic adverb like where, when, how, etc., then the relative complementizer hu is attached, as in the following examples:
Subordinating Conjunctions with hu
CONJUNCTION CIRCUMSTANCE EXAMPLES
haj hu....when
(Lit: the time that...)
TIME Haj hu et pua, ha iv ija.....When you arrived, the fun began.
hyej hu....whenever
(Lit: any time that...)
TIME Hyej hu et dale, at ivteude.
ham hu....where
(Lit: the place that...)
PLACE At voy te ham hu it pa.....I don't know where he went.
hyem hu....'wherever
(Lit: whatever place that...)
PLACE Et yafe per hyem hu et fu.'....You can go wherever you'd like.
hasav hu....why
(Lit: for the thing that...)
CAUSE Duven et te hasav hu it xa his?....Do you know why he did it?
hasav hu....because
(Lit: for the thing that...)
CAUSE It xa has hasav hu it fa teatuer yat hes.....He did it because he wanted to show us something.
hayen hu....how, as
(Lit: the way that...)
MANNER Xu hayen hu et fu van hyuti alxu ub et.....Do as you'd want others to act toward you.
hyegla hu....however much
(Lit: however much that...)
DEGREE Dalu hyegla hu et efo.....Talk however much you need to.

Interjections[edit]

Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
Common Interjections
Va! Yes!
Ve! Maybe!, Perhaps!
Vo!* No!
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, wit voy se tadxwa.....No, he is not married.

Examples:
  • Va. At se otadxwa.....Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadxwa.....Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay.....Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa.....Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo?....Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay.....Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et.....No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe von xu hus.....No! Please don't do that.
  • Et se Amerikama, vao?....You're American, yes or no?
  • Ven va, (van et) xu has.....If so, (let you) do it.
  • Ven vo, von (et) xu has.....If not, don't (you) do it.
Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
Greetings
INITIAL GREETING hay! Hello!, Hi!
VOCATIVE GREETING hey! Hey!, O!, Oh!
TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is...
DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is...
POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hyay! Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!, Hurrah!
SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hyey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!
NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hyoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!
EXPRESSION OF THANKS hway!1 Thanks!
EXPRESSION OF WELCOME hwey! You're welcome!, Please
EXPRESSION OF SORROW hwoy! Sorry!, Excuse me!
EXPRESSION OF FUN hwiy! Whee!, O la la!
EXPRESSION OF PAIN hwuy! Ouch!, Ow!, That hurts!
LAUGHTER hihi Ha ha!, Hee hee
CRYING huhu Boo hoo!, Woe is me!
ADMIRATION waw!2 Wow!, What a show!
DISGUST wow3 Yuck!, Eeoow!, Gross!
1Pronounced like English why. Mirad hw is pronounced like English wh.
2Pronounced like English wow.
3Pronounced like English woe.
Any of the above can be made into verbs with the addition of -der (to utter), eg.:
  • hayder....greet, say hi
  • heyder....address, call out to, wave down
  • hoyder....say goodbye to
  • hyayder....congratulate
  • whayder....thank
  • hwoyder....apologize, excuse oneself, say you're sorry
Examples:
  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Hoyen et xeye?....Hey, John, how are you doing?
  • Hey, Tot!....O, God!
  • Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ha dyen et dila.....Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tobyan.....Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundraf.....Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xawa.....Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy hos at yaka.....There's what I expected.
  • Hyay et!....Good for you!
  • Hyay! Et utnaze his......Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hway! Et sa gla fitipa......Thanks.! You were very kind.
  • At fu hwayder et.....I'd like to congratulate you.
  • Hwey!....You're welcome!
  • Et efe hwoyder at.....You need to apologize to me.
  • Fi. Hwoy.....Ok. I'm sorry.
  • Hyey via imaj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hyey At ta voy van et upo.....Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hyoy at.....Woe is me.
  • Hyoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay.....Pity!. Better luck next time.
  • Hwoy. At yefe hyoder et.....Sorry. I must take leave of you.
  • Hihi! Hus sa gla diza.....Ha ha! That was very funny.
  • Von hihidu.....Don't laugh.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.
Note: The English expression Please can be expressed in various ways:
  • Whey! Yepu.....Please! Come in. (Whey can also mean you're welcome in answer to thank-you.
  • Dilwe von (et) tyoyapu ab ha vaz.'....Please (= it is requested) don't walk on the grass.
  • Dilwe van et yanupu yat.'....Please (= it is requested that) join us.
  • Dilwe!....Please!
  • Xu (at) (ha) fis bi yubeler at hua tyoyafi.....Please (= do (me) (the) favor of) bring me those shoes.


Hybrids[edit]

There is a class of words in Mirad which are called hybrids, i.e. cross-combinations of opposite words that mean something and something else or something or something else. For example, in English, swinging is "rocking BACK-AND-FORTH", or, questions can be of the type "YES-OR-NO". The vowels in these directionals are, for euphonic purposes, ao, eo, or ui. These alternating expressions are often used as adverbs or verbal prefixes. Here is an incomplete list of such expressions, the elements decomposed, and examples of their usage:
Hybrid Expressions
HYBRID DECOMPOSITION EXAMPLES
aob....off-and-on ab....on
ob....off
aoper....get on and off
aober....take on and off
bui....to-and-fro / give-and-take bu....to
bi....from
bu-....give
bi-....take
buinax....round trip fare
buipar....shuttle bus
buier....trade
gao....more-or-less ga....more
go....less
gao....more-or-less
huim....here-and-there hum....there
him....here
huimpoper....travel here and yon
huis....this-and-that hus....that
his....this
huisbier....select between this and that
hyaos....all-or-nothing hyas....everything
hyos....nothing
hyaoson....all-or-nothing matter
hyuit....one another hyut....another
hyit....the same person
hyuita....mutual
hyuitifer....love one another
teoj....life-or/and-death tej....life
toj....death
teoja ebyem....life-and-death situation
ui....east-west i....east
u....west
uimera....east-west

uinab....row
uinada....horizontal

uiz....straight and crooked uz....crooked
iz....straight
uizpaser....careen, stagger
uib....toward and away ub....toward
ib....away
uipeni....comings and goings
uij....stop and start uj....end
ij....beginning
uijbar....on-off switch
uig....fast and slow uga....slow
iga....fast
uigpar....scooter
vao....yes-and-no / yes-or-now va....yes
vo....no
vaoder....decide
vaotexer....wonder
vaodid....yes-or-no question
yuij....open-and-shut yuja....closed
yija....open
yuija....open-and-shut
milyuijar....water faucet
manyuijar....light switch
teabyuijer....blink
yaob....up-and-down yab....up
yob....down
yaobur....elevator (up-and-down machine)
yaopyaser....
jump up and down
aoyeb....in-and-out ayeb1....in
oyeb....out
aoyebar....piston (in-and-out-device
zao....front-and-back za....front
zo....back
zaobaser....rock
zaopaser....swing
zui....left-and-right zu....left
zi....right

zuibaser....wobble
zuipaser....zigzag
1This is a long form of yeb (in) that contrasts with oyeb (out).
Keep in mind that if a hybrid word ends in b, the b assimilates by dropping from per (to go) and ber (to put) words, eg:
  • aob + ber = aober
  • uib + per = uiper


Greetings[edit]

Here are some common greetings:
Common Greetings
MIRAD ENGLISH
Hay! Hello!
Hey! Hey!
Hoy! Bye!
Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici
Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voila
Hyay! Great! / Good for you! / Congratulations!
Hyey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well!
Hyoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!'
Hway!* Thanks!
Hwey! Your're welcome! / That's ok.
Hwoy! Sorry!'
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fimoj! Good evening!
Hoyen et xeye? How are you? (Lit. How are you doing?)
Fi. Ay et? Fine. And you?
Iftaxwo.
Hway.
Thank-you. (Lit. (It) will be fondly remembered.)
Toxu.
Hwey.
You're welcome. (Lit. Forget (it).)
Diwe. Please. (Lit. It is asked.)
Yovobu (at).
Hwoy.
Excuse (me).
Fipop! Bon voyage!
Su valta! Be safe!
Igbaksu! Get well soon!
Yanivtos!
Hway!
Congratulations! (Lit: together-happy-feeling)
Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday!
Yanuvtos!
Hwoy!
My condolences! (Lit: together-sad-feeling)
* Pronounced like English why.


Vocabulary Formation[edit]

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings and functions have been attached to consonants and vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of base words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Vocabulary Formation[edit]

The vocabulary is built on base words, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from base words in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules, which are spelled out below.

Base Words[edit]

Base words are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. Base words are divided into two groups:
  • Group 1:  consisting of nouns
  • Group 2:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, determiners, and verbs.
Base words of the Group 1 (nouns) are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel1 called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:
Base Word Composition
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
p o t tree
Note 1: A bit of a misnomer. The vowel is really one in a range of cardinal numbers from 0 - 9 (a - yu) See Cardinal Numbers). For example, in Group 1 base words, the ordinal is often the vowel o, the zeroth number. Many of the ordinal vowels are just cardinal numbers 0-9 (o-yu).
Base words of Group 2 (everything but nouns) are composed of one or two letters, not including grammatical endings. If one letter, it is a consonant or sometimes a vowel(*). If two letters, they consist of a consonant + vowel combination or a vowel + consonant combination. Here are some examples (the hyphen at the end means that the base word does not stand alone, but is followed in usage by a grammaticatical ending such as -er (verb infinitive) or -a (adjective marker):
Some Examples of Group 2 Base Words
b-....put p-....go
s-....be x-....do
d-....say t-....know
ab....on ob....off
bu....to bi....from
if-....love uf-....hate
fi-....good fu-....bad
va....yes vo....no
vya*-....true vyo-....false
a....one o....zero
* As mentioned above, "vowel" in this case includes those preceded and/or followed by one of the glides y or w. So, for purposes here, ya, ye, yi, yo, yu, wa, and other pre- and post-glided vowels, are considered "vowels".


Consonants and Their Meanings[edit]

The classifier (initial letter) and generic (final letter) in group 1 base words (nouns) are consonants. Also, group 2 base words almost always have one consonant. So, you need to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings
CONSONANT GROUP 1 CLASSIFIER GROUP 1 GENERIC GROUP 2 CLASSIFIER IN NUMBERS
b organ, health organism gesture, position
d society family communicating
f vegetation textile, clothing volition, attributes
g -- measurement quantity, attributes
j time time time
k -- health change, risk, attributes
l -- element, food, liquid -- ten
m nature place, building, furniture, metal temperature, light ml = million
mr = billion
n merchandise -- -- commerce
p animal, vehicle motion movement
r -- tool, machine -- thousand
s form, image, furniture thing being, form, thing hundred
t human, body person, animal intelligence, knowing
v plant, color linen truth, attributes
x -- -- action, doing, making
z -- precious, art spatial, attributes
The following consonants have semantic functions rather than, or in addition to semantic values:
  • l and r:   Liquids used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word, eg.: baer....to lean, baler....to press, barer....to crush;
  • y:   Glide used 1) before a stem vowel to intensify the semantics of a word, eg. voa....negative -> vyoa....false, or 2) after a vowel to deintensify the semantics of a word, eg. ama....hot -> ayma....warm.
  • h:   Used functionally only in certain interjections like hoy....goodbye, conjunctions like ven....if, and determiners like his....this, and has no semantic value.
  • w:   Has no semantic value of its own, but is used only 1) to form the masculine gender of nouns and pronouns, eg. tob....person -> twob....man, or 2) to form the passive voice of verbs, eg. uber....to send -> ubwer....to be sent, or 3) to form a numerical unit marker, eg. awa....one, or 4) sometimes to substitute for y when this letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo....late, instead of jyo.
  • n:   In addition to its semantic values, functions often 1) as a buffer letter, as in ana....only, or 2) as a suffix to derive a nominal abstraction from an adjective, such as fian....goodness from fia....good, or from a verb, such axnen....behaving from axner....to behave.

Vowels and Their Meanings[edit]

Vowels in Mirad have meanings or values of the following types:
  • numeric
  • geo-specific
  • oppositional
  • positional
  • vectorial
  • special
Numeric Vowel Values[edit]
The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-y-glided vowels. These numeric values serve as the "ordinal vowel" in base words. See the section on Vowels.
Numeric Values of Vowels
ORDINAL VOWEL o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
ORDINAL NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
ORDINAL NUMERAL zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
EXAMPLE tob tab teb tib tub tyob
MEANING human body head trunk arm leg
Geo-specific Vowel Values[edit]
Geo-specific Vowel Values
VOWEL MEANING EXAMPLE BASE WORD EXAMPLE BASE WORD EXAMPLE BASE WORD
o outer space, top level mop....orbit mom....outer space mol....nature
a air, gas, sky map....wind mam....sky mal....air
e ground, soil, solid mep....road mem....land mel....soil
i liquid, water, sea mip....river mim....sea mil....water
u underground, mineral, substance mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral
Oppositional Vowel Values[edit]
In Group 2 words:
Oppositional Vowel Values
a    ya intermediate i    yi
positive
negative
e    ye positive
negative
o    yo value u    yu
  • positive a constasts with negative o
  • positive ya contracts with negative yo
  • positive i contracts with negative u
  • positive yi contracts with negative yu
  • e and ye are in-between values
Directional and Positional Vowel Values[edit]
Positional Vowel Values
a
u e i
o
a....on, above, north
e....center, middle, equator
o....off, below, south
i....right, east
u....left, west
Directional and Positional Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words.
Explanation of the Vowel Meanings Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) contain byeer....contain
Special value of certain vowels
The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.

The Meaning of Group 1 Base Words[edit]

The meaning of the base words of Group 1 comes from the combination of the values of the classifier and the generic consonants. The ordinal vowel of those Group 1 base words in the following chart is the letter o, which is also the cardinal number zero, thus, it's the zeroth element of a descending hierarchy or pseudo-hierarchy of terms. Therefore the middle vowel in the following words is called scalar:
Examples:
Group 1 Zeroth-level Scalar Base Words and Meanings of the Consonants
BASE WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT
tob....person t = human b = organism
tod....family " " " d = society
tof....clothing " " " f = textile
tov....lingerie " " " v = linen
tol....nourishment " " " l = food
tom....building " " " m = place
dob....state d = society b = organism
dop....military " " " p = movement
dot....society " " " t = human
dom....city " " " m = place
nom....place n = commercial m = place
nog....degree " " " g = measurement
nof....cloth " " " f = cloth
nov....linen " " " v = linen
nod....point " " " d = communication
job....time j = time b....organism
fob....vegetation f = vegetable b = organism
vob....crop v = plant b = organism
xob....staff x = action " " "
vos....flower " " " s = thing
voz....color " " " z = art, precious
som....furniture s = thing m = place
mos....masonry " " " s = thing
mor....universe " " " r = machine
mol....nature " " " l = substance
pot....animal p = movement t = human, animal
bok....illness b = organ k = health, risk
Other Group 1 nouns, listed in the chart below, have an ordinal vowel which is not scalar or hierchical, but geo-physical, directional, or mnemonic in some way. The consonants, especially the classifier consonant, have meanings like those in the above chart.
Other Group 1 Base Words
d = communication
daz....dance
dez....theater
diz....comedy
duz....music
dyez....cinema
drez....poetry
din....story
dun....word
dyun....name
dyan....sentence
dyes....book
dar....language
dr = write
drof....board
draf....card
dref....paper
drov....cardboard
drav....notebook
drev....page
drar....pencil
drir....typewriter
drur....printer
m = universe
mop....orbit
map....wind
mep....road
mip....river
mup....tunnel
mag....fire
mog....ash
meg....stone
mug....metal
mez....crystal
mak....electricity
mek....powder
mav....flame
mov....smoke
maf....cloud
maj....daytime
moj....night
man....light
mon....dark
n = commerce
naz....value
nas....money
nax....price
nyaz....wealth
nyan....stack
nox....expense
nyox....waste
nex....saving
nyex....storing
nix....earning
nyix....order
nux....pay
nyux....supply
nun....merchandise
nyun....product
nuz....jewel
nem....location
nyem....place
nyeb....box
nab....row
nap....order
j = time
jag....age
s = thing
sag....number
saz....sculpture
san....form
son....thing (abstract)
sin....image
siz....painting
sun....thing (concrete)
syan....kind
syen....style
syin....subject
syun....object
sar....instrument
sir....machine
sor....engine
sor....motor
t = human / intelligence
taz....statue
tez....bust
tuz....art
toz....skin color
tyez....culture
tin....doctrine
tun....science
tyan....class
tyen....trade
tyun....idea
tos....sensation
tes....meaning
tot....god

The Meaning of Group 2 Base Words[edit]

The meaning of Group 2 base word stems comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the ordinal (stem) vowel. The stem does not include adjectival (-a), adverbial (-ay), and verbal inflections (-er, -ser, -xer, etc.), which are shown in a smaller typeface after the stem.
The ordinal (stem vowel) holds oppositional values like positive, intermediary, and negative.
Examples:
Stems of Group 2 Base Words
CLASSIFIER CONSONANT POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE NEGATIVE
j = time ja....before je....during jo....after ji....since ju....until
" " " aj....past ej....present oj....future ij....beginning uj....end
(t = human)* taj....birth tej-....life toj-....death tij....awake state tuj....sleep
" " " jwa....early jwe....on time jwo....late yij....opening yuj....closing
g = measurement ga....more ge....equal go....less gin....point gu-n....angle
" " " aga....big eg....again oga....small iga....fast uga....slow
" " " yaga....long yega....normal yoga....short yiga....hard yuga....soft
" " " gyaa....thick gyea....enough gyo-....thin gyia....solid gyua....fragile
k kaxer....find kexer....seek koxer....hide kia....oblique kua....lateral
" " " aker....win eker....play oker....lose ika....full uka....empty
" " " yaker....expect yeker....try yoker....suprise yika....difficult yuka....easy
" " " kyaa....mobile kyea....haphazard kyoa....fixed kyia....heavy kyua....light
m = nature ama....hot -- oma....cold ima....wet uma....dry
fer....want fia....good fua....bad
" " " fyaa....holy -- fyoa....profane fyia....useful fyua....harmful
" " " yafer....be able yefer....must yofer....cannot yifer....dare yufer....fear
" " " afer....may efer....need ofer....be prohibited ifer....love ufer....hate
v = beauty, veracity va....yes ve....maybe vo....no via....beautiful vua....ugly
" " " av....for eva....neutral ov....against ivaa....happy uva....sad
" " " vyaa....true vyea....relative vyoa....false vyia....clean vyua....dirty
" " " yava....innocent yeva....fair yova....guilty yiva....free yuva....captive
z = (spatial) za....in front of ze....in the middle of zo....in back of zia....right zua....left
" " " zyaa....wide zye....through zyoa....narrow zyia....flat zyua....round
" " " aza....strong eza....moderate oza....weak iza....straight uza....curved
" " " yaza....convex yez....along yoza....concave yiz....beyond yuz....around
b-er....put baxer....agitate be(xer)....at, (hold) boxer....calm bi(er/xer)....from, (take/pull) bu(er/xer)....to, (give/push)
" " " ab(er)....on,(put on) eb(er)....between,(block) ob(er)....off,(take off) ib(er)....away,(receive) ub(er)....toward,(send)
" " " byaser....stand byexer....tap byoser....hang byi(ser)....since,(originate) byu(ser)....up to,(touch)
" " " yab(er)....up,(raise) yeb(er)....in,(enter)
oyeb(er)....out,(exit)
yob(er)....down,(lower) yib(er)....far,(remove) yub(er)....near,(bring)
per....go paser....move peser/xer....wait/trap poser....stop pier/xer....leave/catch puer/xer....arrive/throw
" " " pyaser/xer....jump up/launch pyeser/xer....encounter/strike pyoser/xer....fall/drop pyiser....emanate pyuser....reach
" " " yaper....rise yeper....enter yoper....descend yiper....go far yuper....approach
" " " aper....get on eper....stop oper....get off iper....go away uper....come
ser....be saxer....form sexer....build sin....image suer....provide
" " " aser....become eser....exist oser....cease to be
x-....do xaler....execute xeler....celebrate xoler....fail xiler....undertake xuler....provoke
" " " axer....act exer....function oxer....abstain ixer....effect uxer....cause
" " " yaxer....be busy yexer....work yoxer....be idle yixer....use yuxer....help
ter....know
trer....be familiar with
taxer....remember texer....think toxer....forget tixer....study tuxer....teach
der....say
drer....write
daler....talk deler....state
dyeer....read
doler....silence dier....ask duer....suggest
h- = (deictic) ha(a)....the hea....some hoa....which? hia....this hua....that
" " " hya(a)....all hyea....any hyoa....no hyia....same hyua....other
ay....and ey....or oy....but
yan....together yon....apart
(numbers) a....one e....two o....zero i....three u....four
" " " ya....six ye....seven yo....five yi....eight yu....nine
(prefix) lo-....dis-
lyo-....dis-
* Mixed root. taj/tej/toj instead of yaj/yej/yoj, because the human letter root t is more intuitive.
Note: The opposition (y)a-(y)e-(y)o is a three-way opposition with an intermediary sense, but (y)i-(y)u is two-way, without any intermediary sense.

Table of Arch-morphemic Patterns[edit]

The table below lists most all the arch-morphemes that make up the vocabulary of Mirad represented as formulaic patterns. An arch-morpheme is the zeroth or most representative element of a set of words that share a sequence of ordinal vowels. A formulaic pattern describes that sequence as an arch-morphemic pattern. First, here is an explanation of the formulae use in the table:
  • An uppercase consonant is the classifier of the morpheme. If there are two consonants, then the second is the generic consonant.
  • A superscript lr means "either l or r" (semantic intensifiers).
  • A superscript sx means "either the intransitive verb formant s or the transitive verb formant x.
  • A pair of parentheses means that the letter or letters are included with the rest of the morpheme in only some realizations of that arch-morphemic pattern.
  • A pair of brackets ([ ]) means that the enclosed letters get realized one at a time in sequence.
  • ageo means the 5 geo-specific ordinal vowels (o, a, e, i, and u.
  • ohier means the ordinal vowels with zero at the base.
  • ahier means the ordinal vowels starting with one (a).
  • a3opp means the opposed vowels a, e, o.
  • a2opp means the opposed vowels a and o.
  • i2opp means the opposed vowels i and u.
  • ascal means the scalar vowels with no particular hierarchy.
  • atax means a complex taxonomy with a combination of consonants

and ordinal vowels.

  • y means the glide y.
  • The dash (-) at the end means that a verb infinitive ending -er or something must follow to make the morpheme an independent word. No hyphen means that the morpheme is a complete word as is.
Morpheme Patterns
ARCH-MORPHEME PATTERN MIRAD EXPANSIONS ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS
A
-[aei]b -ab/-eb/-ib leadership stub suffixes
-a3opp -a/-e/-o tense suffixes: past/present/future
a3oppy ay/ey/oy and/or/but
-[aeou]- -ay-/-ey-/-oy-/-uy- aspect infixes: perfect/progressive/imminent/hypothetical
-a2oppy- -ay-/-oy- suffixes: full of/devoid infixes
-a -a adjective suffix
-ay -ay adverb suffix
B
aposdirB ab/eb/ob/ib/ub/yab/yeb/yob/yib/yub prepositions/adverbs: on/between/off/away/toward/up/down/in/far/near
(aposdir)Blr- b-/bl-/ab-/eb-/ob-/ib-/ub-/yab-/yeb-/yob-/yib-/yub-/yabl-/yebl-/yobl-/yibl-/yubl-/yebr- gesture verbs: put/carry/put on/take off/receive/send/raise/lower/take away/bring/haul/contain/down/banish/lock
B([lr)aposdir[lrsx]- bas-/bes-/bos-/bis-/bus-/bax-/bex-/box-/bix-/bux-/bal-/bel-/bol-/bar-/byas-/byes-/byos-/byis-/byus-/byax-/byex-/byox-/byix-/byux-/blax-/blix-/blux-/brax-/brex-/brix/brux- gesture verbs: stir/stay/be calm/retire/spring/budge/hold/quieten/pull/push/press/stand up/stick/stoop/emanate/contact/erect/beat/hang/derive/touch/rouse/drag/drive/shake/uproot/kick
B(lr)a5oppk- bak/bek-/bok/bik/buk/byak/byek/byok/blok-/brok health/treat/sick/care/wound/hygiene/cure/pain/suffer/agony
Ba5oppy bay/bey/boy/bi/be/bu 'prepositions: with/by/without/from/at/to
-yeB -yeb stub suffix for container
D
[D(y)i2opplr)- di-/du-/dil-/dul-/dir-/dur-/dyu- ask/suggest/beg/insist/require/urge/call
D([ry](e/o))- d-/dye-/dr-/dro- say/read/write/erase
D([ry])[aeiu]z daz/dez/diz/duz/dyez/drez dance/theater/comedy/music/cinema/poetry
D([yr])[aeui][ns] din/dyan/dyun/dyes/dras/dres/ word/name/sentence/story/document/note/book
Da3oppl- dal-/del-/dol- talk/declare/be silent
Dogeom dom/dam/dem/dim city/airfield/park/fountain
Dohierm doam/doem/doim township/village/hamlet
Dogeop dop/dap/dep/dip/diep military/air force/army/navy/marine
ahierDogeoplrat dapat/adapat/...edaplat/edaprat... ranks: airman/airman basic/first lieutenant/major general
Dohierb dob/dab/deb/dib/dub state/government/leader/administration/minister
ahierDeb adeb/edeb/ideb/udeb/yodeb/yadeb/yedeb/yideb/yudeb emperor/monarch/prince/duke/marquis/lord/viscount/baron
ahierDob adob/edob/idob/udob/yodob/yadob/yedob/yidob/yudob empire/kingdom/principality/duchy/marquisate/dominion/viscounty/barony
Doohierb doob/doab/doeb/doib/doub nation/homeland/state/county/municipality
Dohiert dot/dat/det/dit/dut society/friend/comrade/citizen/gentle-person
Do- do- stub prefix meaning public/official
Dra3opp[fv] draf/dref/drof/drav/dref/drov card/paper/board/notebook/page/cardboard
Dreux- dreux- pronounce
Dreuz- deuz- sing
-D -d alternate for person stub suffix in rare cases
F
(y)a5oppf- af-/ef-/of-/if-/uf-/yaf-/yef-/yof-/yif-/yuf- modal verbs: may/should/may not/like/hate/can/must/cannot/dare/fear
F(i2opp)- f-/fi-/fu- want/good/bad
Fohierb fob/fab/feb/fib/fub/fyob plant/tree/fruit/trunk/branch/root
Faohierb faob/faab/faib/fayeb/fayob wood/sap/frame/leaf/bark
ataxFab afab/efab/ifab/ufab... fruit and nut trees: apple tree/pear tree/cherry tree/prune tree/apricot tree/peach tree/quince tree...
ataxFab afeb/efeb/ifeb/ufeb/yofeb/yafeb.../alofeb/lafeb/lefeb/lifeb/lufeb/fefeb/fifeb... fruits and nuts: apple/pear/cherry/prune/apricot/peach.../quince/nut/hazlenut/blackberry/orange/mandarin/lemon/grapefruit/date/banana...
Fu[fv] fuf/fuv pipe/nail
Fya2opp- fya-/fyo- holy/profane
Fyi2opp- fyi-/fyu- useful/harmful
G
a3oppG- ag-/eg-/og- big/re-/little
Gi2opp- gi-/gu- point/angle
Ga3opp ga-/ge-/go- more/equal/less
Gla3opp gla-/gle-/glo- much/some/little
Gra3opp gra-/gre-/gro- too/enough/not enough
Gwa3opp gwa-/gwe-/gwo- most/just/least
Gya2opp- gya-/gyo- thick/thin
Gyi2opp- gyi-/gyu- solid/delicate
i2oppG- ig-/ug- fast/slow
ya3oppG- yag-/yeg-/yog- long/medium/short
yi2oppG- yig-/yug- hard/soft
H
Ho5opp ho-/ha-/he-/hi-/hu-/hya-/hye-/hyo-/hye-/hyi-/hyu- determiners: what/the/some/this/that/no/all/any/same/other
Hi2oppy hiy/huy expletives: voici/voila
Hwa3oppy hway/hwey/hwoy expletives: thanks/you're welcome/sorry
Hya3oppy hyay/hyey/hyoy expletives: bravo/what a/boo
Hu hu 'relative complementizer: that/which
I
-i2opp</sup- as in testier grasp vs. testuer explain subject/object-oriented verb formant infix
-i as in tami houses plural noun suffix
J
a5oppJ aj/ej/oj/ij/uj past/present/future/beginning/end
Johiern job/jab/jeb/jib/jub/jwob/jwab/jweb time/year/season/month/day/hour/minute/second
Ja5opp ja/je/jo/ji/ju before/during/after/since/until
JeahierB jeab/jeeb/jeib/jeub seasons: spring/summer/autumn/winter
JoahierB joab/joeb/joib/joub era/period/epoch/age
JiahierB jiab/jieb/jiib/jiub/jiyob/jiyab/jiyeb/jiyib/jiyub/jilob/jilab months: month/January/February/March/April/May/June/July/August/September/October/November/December
JuahierB juab/jueb/juib/juub/juyob/juyab/juyeb/ Days of the week: Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday
Jw[ae]P jwap/jwep moment/instant
Jwa3opp jwa/jwe/jwo early/on time/late
Jwa3oppf- jwaf-/jwef-/jwof- unripe/fresh/stale
Jwa2oppj jwaj/jwoj ancient times/latter days
ta5oppJ taj/tej/toj/tij/tuj birth/life/death/wake/sleep
yi2oppJ yij/yuj open/close
j[ou]d jod/jud occasion/date
ja2opp jag-/jog- old/young
-J -j stub suffix for time
K
[i2oppK- ik-/uk- full/empty
a3oppK- ak-/ek-/ok- win/play/lose
K(y)a3opp- kya-/kye-/kyo- change/haphazard/static
Ka3oppx- kax-/kex-/kox-/kas- find/seek/hide
Ki2opp- ki-/ku- oblique/lateral
Kyi2opp- kyi-/kyu- heavy/light
ya3oppK- yak-/yek-/yok- expect/attempt/surprise
yi2oppK- yik-/yuk- difficult/easy
L
-(y)[aeiu]L- -al/-el/-il/-ul/-yel gas/food/liquid/oil/substance stub suffix
-[fs[aeiu]L- fyel/syel wax/plastic
-L- -l- semantic intensifying infix
Lo- lo- semantic reverser prefix meaning -dis, de-, un-
-L- -l- tens infix
M
(ascal)Mez- mez/amez/emez/imez/umez/yomez/yamez/yemez crystal/diamond/topaz/ruby/emerald/lapis lazuli/amethyst/sapphire
-((y)[aeiu])M -m/-am/-em/-im/-um/-yem stub suffix for place/house/place/room/compartment/space
(y)a2oppM- am-/om-/yam/yom hot/cold/fire/ice
M(y)ageok mak/mek/meik/miek/myek/myeik/muk electricity/powder/paste/sand/putty/mineral
Mageof maf/mef/mif/miaf cloud/brick/fog/mist
Meascalv meav/meev ceramic/pottery
Ma2oppn man/mon light/dark
Ma3oppv mav/mev/mov flame/porcelain/smoke
Ma3oppz- maz-/mez/moz- white/crystal/black
Mogeog mag/meg/mog/mug/maeg fire/stone/ash/metal/coal
ahier(y)maeg amaeg/emaeg/imaeg/eymaeg charcoal/peat/lignite/coke
M(y)ogeol mol/mal/mel/mil/mul/meil/mial nature/air/soil/water/matter/mud/steam
Mogeom mom/mam/mem/mim/mum outer space/sky/land/sea/underground
Mogeop mop/map/mep/mip/mup orbit/wind/road/river/tunnel
Mogeor mor/mar/mer/mir/mur universe/star/planet/world/satellite
Mohiers mos/mas/mes/mis/mus masonry/wall/door/window/stairs
Ma(ahier)f maf/maaf/maef/maif/mauf/mayof/mayaf/mayef/mayif/mayuf/malof cloud/stratus/cumulus/stratocumulus/cumulonimbus/nimbostratus/altostratus/altocumulus/cirrus/cirrostratus/cirrocumulus
Ma(a)r mar/maar star/sun
Mu(a)r mur/muar satellite/moon
Maahierl maal/mael/mail/maul/mayol atmosphere/troposphere/stratosphere/ionosphere/exosphere
Maahierp maap/maep/maip/maup/mayop wind/puff/breeze/gust/gale/typhoon
Meahierr Mear/Meer/Meir/Meur/Meyor/Meyar/Meyer/Meyir planet/Mercury/Venus/Earth/Mars/Jupiter/Uranus/Pluto
Me(ahier)m meam/meem/meim/meom/meum country/region/territory/countryside/zone
Meahierg meag/meeg/meig/meug/meyog/meyag/meyeg/meyig/meyug stone/marble/slate/granite/clay/chalk/limestone/alabaster/china/gypsum
m2oppJ moj/maj day/night
megeo meb/mob/mub mountain/chasm/promontory
Me(y)(ahierb meab/meeb/meib/meub/meyob/meyab mountain/mound/hill/knob/ridge/bump
Me(y)(ahierb moab/moeb/moib/moub/moyob/moyab/moyeb gulf/ravine/cave/ditch/crevice/hole/dimple
Meahierz meaz/meiz/meyaz marble/granite/pastel
Me(ahier)p meap/meip/meup path/lane/trail
Mi(ahier)m miam/miem/miim/mium/miyom/miyam lake/lagoon/marsh/pond/pool/puddle
Mi(ahier)p miap/miep/miip/miup stream/brook/rivulet/tributary
Mo(ahier)v moav/moev smoke/haze
Mo[eu](y)f moef/mouf wrinkle/fold
Mu[fv] muf/muv pole/rod
Mu[gk] mug/muk metal/mineral
(y)i2oppM- im-/um-/yim/yum wet/dry/flood/draught
-Ml- -ml- millions infix
-Mr- -mr- billions infix
-M -m stub suffix for place
N
-(a)N -n/-an abstract quality ending, ex. ifan goodness
-eN -en present participle ending, ex. tyoyapen running
-iN -in stub ending for tin -ism, ex. totin deism
-oN -on abstract noun stub ending for son matter
-uN -un concrete noun stub ending for sun thing
Nohierf nof/naf/nef/nif/nuf/nyof/nyaf/nyef/nyif/nyuf cloth/fabric/knit/fiber/button/knot/mesh/rope/film/bag/package
Ne(ahier)f nef/neaf/neef/neif/neuf/neyof/neyaf/neyef/neyif/ knit/net/lace/braid/stitch/wicker/loop/wale/strip/plait
Noscalv nov/niv/nyov/nyev/nyiv linen/thread/ribbon/bag/string
Naohierf naaf/naef/naif/nauf/nayof/nayaf/nayef/nayif material/drape/canvas/velvet/denim/corduroy/nylon/rayon
N(y)[au][sz] naz/nas/nyaz/nuz value/money/jewel/wealth
Noscalg nog/nag/neg/nig degree/dimension/level/space
Noscald nod/nad/ned/nid point/line/plane/volume
Na5oppx- nax-/nex-/nox-/nix-/nux-/nyax-/nyex-/nyox-/nyix-/nyux- cost/save/spend/earn/pay/accumulate/stock/waste/order/deliver
Na[a](y)[bp] nab/naab/nayb/nap rank/order/file/turn
N(y)e[mbf] nem/nyem/nyeb/nyef place/box/container/bag
O
ohier o/a/e/i/u/yo/ya/ye/yi/yu numerals: 0-9
o- o- semantic reverser prefix: un-, non-, ex. oteatwa unseen
P
(aposdir)P(lr)- p-/ap-/ep-/op-/ip-/up-/yap-/yep-/yop-/yip-/yup-/yapl-/yepl-/yopl-/yipl-/yupl-/yapr-/yepr-/yopr- verbs of motion: go/get on/intervene/get off/leave/come/rise/descend/enter/get away/approach/climb/invade/escape/dive/flee/swoop in on/clamber up/break in/tumble
Plraposdirsx- pas-/pax-/pes-/pex-/pos-/'pox-/pix-/pus-/pux-/plas-/plax-/plex-/plos-/plox-/plix-/plus-/plux-/pras-/prex-/prox-/prix-/prus-/prux- action verbs: move (intr.)/move (tr.)/wait/trap/rest/calm down/catch/jump/throw/quake/shake/beat/dive/dunk/seize/lunge/thrust/tremble/crash/drown/rape/discharge/shoot
ataxP(y)ogeo(l)t pot/pat/pet/pit/pelt/pyot... animal/bird/land animal/fish/insect (and too many to name)
ataxP(y)ogeo(l)d pad-/ped-/pid-... animal noises
Pogeop- pop-/pap-/pep-/pip-/pup- travel/fly/ride/sail/tunnel
P[aiu]r par/pir/pur cart/cycle/vehicle
-P- -p- verb of motion formant
R
-eR -er infinitive suffix
-[aiu]R -ar/-ir/-ur instrument/machine/engine stub suffix
-R- -r- semantic intensifying infix
-R- -r- thousands infix
'S
(a5opp)S- as-/es-/os-/is-/us- intransitive verb formant: be/become/exist/disappear/result/act/operate/effect/cause
Soscaln son/san/sen/sin/sun/syan/syen/syin/syun matter/form/being/image/thing/kind/style/subject/object
-S- -s- hundreds infix
S[ae]sx- sax-/sex-/sas- make/build/evolve
S[aiu]z saz/siz/suz sculpture/painting/work of art
Sohierm furniture/dresser/table/chair/bed
-S -s thing stub suffix'
S[aiu]r sar/sir/sur instrument/machine/engine
T
Tlr(i2opp t-/tr-/ti-/tu- know/recognize/find out/inform/familiarize
T(y)[aeiu]n- tyan/tyen/tin/tun class/profession/doctrine/science
Tohierb tob/tab/teb/tib/tub/tyob human/body/head/trunk/arm/leg
Tohier[fv] tof/taf/tef/tif/tuf/tyof/tov/tav clothing/outfit/hat/jacket/pants
Tohierd tod/tad/ted/tid/tud/tyod/tyed family/spouse/parent/sibling/child/people/kin
Toscall tol/tel/til/tul/tyal nourishment/food/drink/dish/meal
Ta5oppx- tax-/tex-/tox-/tix-/tux- remember/think/forget/study/teach
T[ieo]s- tis-/tes-/tos- learn/mean/feel
Tohiert tot/tat/tet god/angel/priest
Tohierm tom/tam/tem/tim/tum building/house/hall/room/compartment
Tohierp top/tap/tep/tip/tup soul/physique/mind/emotion/member
Taohierb taob/taab/taeb/taib/taub/tayob/tayab/tayeb/tayib/tayub flesh/lymph/muscle/bone/nerve/skin/fat/hair/cartilage/gland
Teahierb teab/teeb/teib/teub/teyob eye/ear/nose/mouth/neck
Teahier[fv] teaf/teef/teif/teuf/teyof/teav/teev/teiv/teuv/teyov head/neck clothing/linen: blinder/earmuff/muffler/muzzle/tie/eye patch/handkerchief/mask/collar
Ti(k)ahierb tiab/tieb/tiib/tiub/tiyob/tiyab/tiyeb/tiyub/tikab/tikeb/tikib/tikub chest/lung/heart/belly/kidney/bladder/testicles/ovary/penis/esophagus/stomach/liver/pancreas/bowels/intestine/anus
Tiahier[fv] tiuf/tiyuf/tiav/tiuv/tiyuf trunk of body clothes: corset/train/shirt/underwear/train
tuahierb tuab/tueb/tuib/tuub/tuyob/tuyab/tuyeb/tuyib/tuyub shoulder/upper arm/elbow/forearm/wrist/hand/fist/palm/finger
Tuhier[fv] tuyaf/tuyov/tuyuf/tuyav glove/cuff/fingerstall, mitten, and other clothes for arms and downward
T(y)3oppz taz/tez/toz/tyez statue/culture/complexion/art/magic
Tyo(ahier)[fv] tyof/tyoif/tyouf/tyoyof/tyoyaf/tyoyef/tyoyif clothes for legs: pants/kneepad/puttee/shoe sole/shoe/knee sock/stocking/sock/thigh length sock/ankle sock
Tyoahierb tyoab/tyoeb/tyoib/tyoub/tyoyob/tyoyab/tyoyeb/tyoyib/tyoyub hip/thigh/knee/tibia/ankle/foot/heel/sole/toe
-T -t person stub suffix
-uT -ut agent suffix
(y)a5oppT at/et/it/ot/ut/yat/yet/yit/yot/yut personal pronouns
V
otaxVab ovob/avob/evob/ivob/uvob/yovob/yavob/yevob/yuvob... grasses, cereals, etc.: cereal/wheat/rye/barley/buckwheat/millet/hop/rape seed/oat...
otaxVeb oveb/aveb/eveb/iveb/uveb,yoveb/yeveb/yiveb/leveb.. legumes: legume/bean/lentil/pea/broad bean/peanut/chickpea/soybean/sugarcane...
otaxVab ovol/avol/bavol/bevol/bivol/buvol/byovol/byavol/favol... edible vegetables: bran/bread/tomato/eggplant/gourd/cucumber/gherkin/artichoke/leek...
ahierhierVos avos/evos/lavos/levos/livos/luvos/lyovos/lyovos/lyavos/lyevos/lyivos... flowers: lily/narcissus/lily of the valley/jonquil/geranium/daisy/luvos/hyacinth/tulip/dahlia/pansy...
(ascal)Voz- avoz-/evoz-/ivoz-/ovoz-/yovoz-/yevoz-/yivoz- colors: white/yellow/red/blank/blue/lilac/purple
a3oppV av/ev/ov for/neutral/against
i2oppV- iv-/uv- happy/sad
yi2oppV yiv-/yuv- free/captive
Va3opp(y) va/ve/vo/vay/vey/voy yes/maybe/no/really/possibly/not
Va3oppn van/ven/von 'complementizers: that/if/lest
Vi2opp- vi-/vu- beautiful/ugly
Vohierb vob/vab/veb/vib/vub crop/grass/tuft/stem/twig
Vya3opp- vya-/vye-/vyo- true/relative/false
Vyi2opp- vyi-/vyu- clean/dirty
ya3oppV- yav-/yev-/yov- innocent/just/guilty
vyab vyab rule
W
-Wa -wa unit numeral suffix
-W- -w- masculinizing infix
-W- -w- passive voice infix
X
Xa5opplr- xa-/xe-/xo-/xi-/xu-/xal-/xel-/xol-/xil-/xul- do/execute/exercise/undergo/result/cause/accomplish/practice/fail/undertake/provoke
(a5opp)Xlr- x-/ax-/ex-/ox-/ix-/ux-/yax-/yex-/yox-/yix-/xler-/yux-/axl-/ixl-/uxl-/yexl-yoxl-/yixl-/yuxl-/axr-/oxr-/yexr-/yixr-/yuxr- do/act/operate/abstain/effect/cause/be busy/work/be idle/use/help/create/proceed/react/influence/labor/resign/hire/serve/carry out/violate/toil/exploit/slave
Xohierb xob/xab/xeb/xib/xub organization/staff/division/subsidiary
X(ej/ag/em/us) xej/xag/xem/xus event/frequency/office/cross
Y
Ya2oppn yan/yon together/apart
-Yen -yen manner stub suffix
Yo- yo- strong semantic negative prefix
-Y- -y- intensifying semantic infix and prefix
-Y- -y- de-intensifying semantic infix and suffix
-Y- -y feminizing infix
Z
Za3opp(y) za/ze/zo/zay/zey/zoy front/middle/behind/ahead/across/back
Zi2opp>sup> zi/zu left/right
Zya3opp- zya-/zye/zyo- wide/through/narrow
a3oppZ- az-/ez-/oz- strong/moderate/weak
ya3oppZ yaz/yez/yoz convex/flush/concave
Zyi2opp- zyi-/zyu- flat/round
i2oppZ- iz/uz straight/curved
yi2oppZ- yiz/yuz beyond/around

Derived Words[edit]

Derived words are formed in accordance with certain simple rules of word-building:
These consist of the following twelve rules:
  1. Compounding
  2. Affixation
  3. Ordinal Vowel Scaling
  4. Overlapping
  5. Adding Ordinal Vowels
  6. Swapping Generic Consonants
  7. Coding scientific vocabulary
  8. Marking Words for Gender
  9. Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
  10. Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels
  11. Deriving Words with a Mnemonic Pattern
  12. Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically


Rule #1: Compounding[edit]

Compound words are obtained through the combination of two or more whole words. In the combining process, the determining word is placed quite simply in front of the word it determines. Compounds consist mainly of noun + noun, but there can be other part-of-speech combinations.
Examples:
Compounding
COMPONENTS COMPOUND
mar....star + tun....science martun....astronomy
mag....fire + meb....mountian magmeb....volcano
dob....state + mem....land dobmem....territory
tul....dish + dras....something written tuldras....menu
sin....picture + dras....something written sindras....desription
tam....house + kyoxer....to fix (in place) tamkyoxer....settle

Rule #2: Affixation[edit]

Prefixes[edit]
All adverbs and prepositions can be used as prefixes:
Adverbs and Prepositions as Prefixes
PREFIX BASE COMPOUND
ja....before per....to go japer....to precede
jo....after per....to go joper....to follow
va....yes der....to say vader....to affirm
jo....after dras....something written jodras....postscript
za....ahead jub....day zajub....tomorrow
yon....apart mel....land yonmel....island
Prepositional prefixes ending in b with verbs per and ber (and their derivations) lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
Assimilation of b and p
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab....up ber....put yaber....raise (NOT: yabber)
yab....up per....go yaper....rise (NOT: yabper)
ab....on ber....put aber....put on, apply
ab....on per....go aper....get on, mount
yob....down ber....put yober....take down
yob....down per....go yoper....descend
ob....off ber....put ober....take off, remove
ob....on per....go oper....get off, dismount
yeb....in bux....a push yebux....impulse
yeb....in pyoser....fall yepyoser....collapse
The two or three first letters of a word can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
Prefixes Built on Words and Word Stubs
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza....weak der....say ozder....whisper
yaga....long der....say yagder....ramble
aja....past der....say ajder....evoke
yoga....short der....say yogder....summarize
tyoyab....foot per....go tyoyaper....walk
dreer....write sar....tool dresar....pencil
tuyob....hand dren....writing tuyodren....manuscript
mam....sky mil....water mamil....rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs. For example, aga + xer can produce agaxer....to magnify or agxer....to grow. Usually, the compound where the adjective suffix has been eclipsed has the more idiomatic meaning.
Commonly used prefixes:
Common Prefixes
PREFIX MEANING BASE WORD PREFIXED WORD
o- un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data....friendly odata....unfriendly
lo- un-, same as o but used where o is not clear
or, to express dis-, meaning to reverse an action.
gla....many
finuer...qualify
logla....rare
disqualify
yo- un-, same as o but more intense dat....friend yodat....enemy
av- pro- fyatin....religion avfyatina....pro-religious
ov- anti-, counter- dropek....war ovdropeka....anti-war
hyas- all-, pan-, omni- tea....aware hyastea....omniscient, all-knowing
ja- before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj....birth jataja....pre-natal
jo- after, post- judrer....to date jojudrer....post-date
yiz- beyond, meta- tapa....physical yiztapa....metaphysical
ey(n)- semi-, hemi-, half- seuz....tone
levelaya....sweet
eyseuz....demi-tone
eylevelaya....semi-sweet
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- jaba....annual
teb....head
ejaba....biennial
enteba....two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- voz....color
zyuk....wheel
invoza....tricolor
inzyun....tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- tyoyab....foot
kum....side
gon....part
untyoyoba....quadriped
unkuma....quadrilateral
ungona....quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular xer....make/do
san....form
anxer....unite
asana....special
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural ser....be/become
san....form
ut....person
yanser....assemble
yasana....general
yauta....common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart xer....make/do
il....liquid
ut....person
yonxer....separate
yoniler....unstick
youta....alone, isolate
eg- re-, again anxer....unite
vader....affirm
eganxer....reunite, egder....repeat
egvader....reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
Comparison of Prefixes Used in English and Mirad
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yo(b)per < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye(b)bixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yebber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder
penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo egxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
Suffixes[edit]
Mirad has semantic stub suffixes, derivational suffixes, and normal semantic suffixes.


Semantic Stub Suffixes
Semantic stub suffixes are generally formed from the last letters of a base word minus the initial consonant. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
Semantic Stub Suffixes
SEMANTIC SUFFIX BASE WORD ORIGIN SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS
-il....liquid, drink mil....water teabil....tear  <  teab....eye
teubil....saliva  <  teub....mouth
tayebil....sweat  <  tayeb....skin
mamil....rain  <  mam....sky
-al....gas mal....air tiebal....breath  <  tieb....lung
-(e)l....food tel....food yapel....pork  <  yapet....swine
taol  <  taob....flesh
fel  <  feb....fruit
-ul....stuff mul....substance vixul....cosmetic  <  vix-....to beautify
bekul....medecine  <  bek....treatment
-yel....oil, gel, wax, pulp yel....oil kafyel....olive oil  <  kaf-....olive
apelatyel....wax  <  apelat....bee
magyel....grease  <  mag....fire
bekyel....salve  <  bek....treatment
megyel....cement  <  meg....stone
yanyel....paste  <  yan....together
-am....house tam....house apatam....chicken coop  <  apat....chicken
apelatam....beehive  <  apelat....bee
melyexam....farmhouse  <  melyex....agriculture
datibam....hostel  <  datib....guest-reception
-(e)m....place nem....place vobyexem....plantation, farm  <  vob....plant + yex....work
vabem....field  <  vab....grass
abem....top, surface  <  ab....above, upper
zem....middle  <  ze(a)....middle
tim....room
-im....room tim....room tulim  <  tul....cuisine
tujim....bedroom  <  tuj....sleep
-um....cell, booth tum....compartment pexum....cage  <  pexer....catch
ilzyapixum....shower stall  <  ilzyapix....shower
-yem....space nyem....enclosure yomyem....icebox  <  yom....ice
-yeb....container nyeb....container zyeb....bottle  <  zye(f)....glass
vosyeb....vase  <  vos....flower
-of....material nof....cloth tof....clothes  <  t-....human
misof....curtain  <  mis....window
faof....wood  <  fa(b)-....tree
tayof....leather  <  tayo(b)....skin
-ov....linen nov....linen teyov....collar  <  teyob....neck
-ar....instrument sar....tool par....cart  <  p-....motion
zyupar....rotor  <  zyup....turn
gobrar....knife  <  gobrar....cut
jwobar....watch  <  jwob....hour
-ir....machine sir....machine drir....typewriter  <  dr-....write
gwobir....clock
-ur....large machine sur....engine purr....car
jwoburr....grandfather clock  <  jwob....hour
-(u)n....thing sun....thing dun....word  <  d-....utter, say
gofrun....piece, scrap  <  gofrer....rip, shread, tear
zyiun....plaque, plate  <  zyia....flat
vyun....spot  <  vyua....dirty
-on....abstract thing son....issue yovon....tort, wrong  <  yov....guilt
yen....manner, kind byen....manner texyen....opinion  <  tex....thought
hiyen....this way, thus  <  hi-....this
esyen....status  <  es-....exist
-in....-ism tin....doctrine totin....theism, religion  <  tot-....god
Kristin....Christianity  <  Krist....Christ
vyisatin....puritanism  <  vysiat....puritan, clean person
otofin....nudism  <  otofa....nude
-uf....cylinder object fuf....pipe manuf....candle  <  man....light
tiibuf....artery  <  tiib....heart
miluf....toilet  <  mil....water
movuf....cheminee  <  mov....smoke
-uv....cylinder object fuf....pipe suv....nail, peg, stud  <  s-....furniture
muv....rod  <  m-....masonry
-ab....government dab....government ditab....democracy  <  dit....citizen
-eb....leader deb....leader xeb....boss  <  x-....do
tameb....master of the house  <  tam....house
-ub....branch tub....arm patub....wing  <  pat....bird
-ad....language -a + d(ar)....language Fransad....French (language)
-uz....jewelry nuz....jewel teyobuz....necklace  <  teyob....neck
teebuz....earring  <  teeb....ear
-u(er)....give buer....give tiebaluer....exhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-i(er)....take bier....take tiebalier....inhale  <  tieb....lung + al....air
-ui(er)....exchange buier....exchange tiebaluier....breathe  <  tieb....lung + al....air


Derviational Suffixes
Mirad has only a few derivational suffixes, i.e. suffixes that change the part of speech.
Derivational Suffixes
DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX FUNCTION BASE WORD --> SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-er NOUN --> VERBAL INFINITIVE sag....count --> sager....to count
-n PRESENT TENSE VERB --> VERBAL NOUN (GERUND)
ADJECTIVE --> ABSTRACT NOUN
yexe....(he/she/...) works --> yexen....working
via....beautiful --> vian....beauty
yuba....near --> yuban....proximity, nearness
-a NOUN --> ADJECTIVE
ACTIVE VERB --> VERBAL ADJECTIVE (PRESENT PARTICIPLE)
PAST PASSIVE VERB --> PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE)
mor....universe --> mora....universal
ake....wins --> akea....winning
teatwa....was seen -->teatwaa (or: teatwa....seen
-yea VERB STEM --> HABITUAL PRESENT PARTICIPLE (ADJECTIVE) zaypas-....progress --> zaypasyea....progressive
-y ADJECTIVE --> ADVERB iga....quick --> igay....quickly
tea-....knowing-->teay....knowingly
-ut VERB STEM --> AGENT NOUN one who Xes, -er ak-....win --> akut ....winner
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
Normal Semantic Suffixes
  • Augmentative Suffixes
Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam....house tamag....mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem....chair semayg....big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet....horse apetyag....nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam....house tamog....hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam....house tamoyg....cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam....house tamyog....shack
-et (a smaller person) twob....man twobet....boy
-es (thing of lesser importance) nas....money nases....change, coin
-ud (child of, offspring) tob....man tobud....infant
  • Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
Semantic Adjectival Suffixes
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-a mor....universe related to, -al, -ic mora....universal
-aya miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekaya....dusty
-oya vyun....spot empty of, -less, -free vyunoya....spotless
-ika miek....dust full of, -ous, -y miekika....dusty
-uka miek....dust empty of, -less, -free miekuka....dust-free
-yea vyod....lie given to doing X, -ive vyodyea....mendacious, given to lying
-yena tat....angel like, -ly, -ic tatyena....angelic
  • Other Semantic Suffixes
Other Semantic Suffixes
SUFFIX BASE WORD DERIVATION
-tun....science, ...ology tej....life tejtun....biology
-tut....-ologist, expert, -ist dar....language dartut....linquist
-tuin....theory tob....mar martuin....astrology
-yan....collection, aggregate fab....tree fabyan....forest
-tyen....trade, -ics sir....machine sirtyen....mechanics
-if....pet name twed....father twedif....papa
ifa....-philic, -loving dyes....book dyesifa....bibliophilic
ifwa....liked by tyod....people tyodifwa....popular
ufa....-phobic, -hating toyb....woman toybufa....misogynous
ufwa....hated by tyod....people tyodufwa....unpopular
yafa....able to tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
yafwa....possible to teat-....see teatyafwa....visible
yofa....unable to teat-....see teatyofa....blind
yofwa....impossible to dye-....read dyeyofwa....illegible
yika....hard of...ing teet-....hear teetyika....hard of hearing
yikwa....hard to teet-....hear teetyikwa....hard to hear
yuka....easy at...ing vatex-....believe vatexyuka....gullible
yukwa....easily...ed test-....understand testyukwa....easily understood
yufa....fearful of, -phobic tot....god totyufa....god-fearing
yufwa....feared hyat....everybody hyatyufwa....feared by all
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
efa....needful of tel....food telefa....hungry
efwa....necessary tej....life tejefa....vital
yefa....requiring, -worthy dud....answer dudyefa....responsible
yefwa....required, -worthy fid-....laud fidyefwa....praiseworthy
afa....authorized to dokebi-....vote dokebiafa....franchised
ofwa....prohibited to movi-....smoke moviofwagonem....no-smoking zone
yiva....free to kebi-....choose kebiyiva....free to choose
yivwa....free to be ...ed kebi-....choose kebiyivwa....optional
yuva....bound tam....house tamyuva....house-bound
ova....resistant, anti- aagdovyab....constitution aagdovyabova....anti-constitutional
ava....in favor of, pro- tyodab....democracy tyodabava....pro-democracy
eva....neutral toos....gender tooseva....gender-neutral

Rule #3: Ordinal Vowel Scaling[edit]

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to base words of the Group 1. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the base word as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
  • First-level Ordinal Scaling
First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m
tob....man mor....universe job....time mos....floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom....building dob....state fob....plant som....furniture
tab....body mar....sun jab....year mas....wall tam....house dab....government fab....tree sam....armoire
teb....head mer....planet jeb....season mes....door tem....hall deb....leader feb....treetop sem....table
tib....trunk mir....earth jib....month mis....window tim....room dib....office fib....tree trunk sim....chair
tub....arm mur....moon jub....day mus....stairs tum....cell dub....minister fub....branch sum....bed
tyob....leg jwob*....hour fyob....root
    jwab*....minute
    jweb*....second
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but the y-glide is replaced by a w-glide for ease of pronunciation.
  • Second-level Ordinal Scaling
A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
Second-level Ordinal Scaling
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b ma...f
mip....river mep....way tub....arm tyob....leg maf....cloud
miap....stream meap....road tuab....shoulder tyoab....hip maaf....stratus
miep....brook meep....path tueb....upper arm tyoeb....thigh maef....cumulus
miip....rivulet meip....trail tuib....elbow tyoib....knee maif....stratocumulus
miup....torrent meup....track tuub....forearm tyoub....shin mauf....cumulonimbus
miyop....trickle tuyob....wrist tyoyob....ankle mayof....nimbostatus
tuyab....hand tyoyab....foot mayaf....altostratus
tuyeb....fist tyoyeb....heel mayef....altocumulus
tuyib....palm tyoyib....sole mayif....cirrus
tuyub....finger tyoyub....toe mayuf....cirrostratus
tulob....fingernail tyolob....toenail malof....cirrocumulus
  • Third-level Ordinal Scaling
A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
Example:
Third-level Ordinal Scaling
...tuyub
tuyub....finger
atuyub....thumb
etuyub....index
ituyub....middle finger
utuyub....ring finger
yotuyub....pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
Summary of Scaling
t...b tob = human being
FIRST-LEVEL tub....arm
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub....finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub....thumb
  • Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
Example:
Prefix Numbering
...dob ...pet ...mer
dob....state pet....animal deb....leader
adob....empire apet....horse adeb....emperor
edob....kingdom epet....bull edeb....king
idob....principality ipet....ass ideb....prince
udob....duchy upet....ram udeb....duke
yodob....marquisate yopet....goat yodeb....marquis
yadob....county yapet....pig yadeb....count
yedob....dominion yepet....dog yedeb....lord

Rule #4: Overlapping[edit]

When combining two words, if the generic (final) consonant of the first word is the same as the classifier (first) consonant of the second word, the generic consonant of the determining word is dropped. This results in overlapping.
Examples:
Overlapping in Compounds
FIRST WORD SECOND WORD PORTMANTEAU
dom....city mep....road domep....boulevard
pat....bird teub....mouth pateub....beak
pat....bird tub....arm patub....wing
teypib....tooth byok....pain teypibyok....toothache

Rule #5: Adding Ordinal Vowels[edit]

When forming a compound word with the words of a same family of terms, if the ordinal vowel is an o, replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
Examples:
  • idob....kingdom -> deb....chief -> ideb....king
  • udob....principality -> deb....chief -> udeb....prince
By contrast, if the two words are already ordered, the vowel of the determinant (first word) is inserted between the ordinal vowel of the determined (second) wordd and the generic (final) consonant:
Examples:
mil....water + mal....air -> mial....vapor, steam


Rule #6: Swapping Generic Consonants[edit]

When the generic (final) consonant of a base word is replaced by that of another base word, the entire family of the latter undergoes the transformation by the new generic consonant.
Example:

tob

 humantof....clothing

nof

 cloth

Swapping Generic Consonants
BASE WORD 1 BASE WORD 2 DERIVED WORD
tob....human nov....linen tov....lingerie
tab....body nof....cloth taf....suit
teb....head nof....cloth tef....hat
tib....trunk nof....cloth tif....vest
tyoyab....foot nof....cloth tyoyaf....shoe
tyoyab....foot nov....linen tyoyav....sock
tuyab....hand nof....cloth tuyaf....glove
doob*....nation nof....cloth doof....flag
taob*....flesh tol....food taol....meat
* This is a derived, not base, word, but the principle holds.

Rule #7: Coding Chemical Elements[edit]

When a group of elements has been classified by a cardinal enumeration following scientific rules, the indicated number replaces the classifier consonant and, with the generic consonant, forms the name of the chemical element.
Coding Chemical Elements
ENGLISH NAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS METAL = fom
GENERIC = m
MIRAD NAME
silver 47 = ulye m ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali m alim
iron 26 = elya m elyam
METALLOID = foms
GENERIC = ms
phosphorus 15 = alyo ms alyoms
arbon 6 = ya ms yams
GAS SUFFIX = al
hydrogen 1 = a ms al amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye ms al yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi ms al yimsal
LIQUID SUFFIX = il
mercury 80 = yilo m il yilomil

Rule #8: Marking Words for Gender[edit]

Words in Mirad are neutral with respect to gender, but specifically masculine or feminine gender can be marked in animate nouns and pronouns with the use of the masculine infix w and the feminine infix y.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically male, precede the ordinal (stem) vowel with w.
  • To make a neutral animate noun or pronoun specifically female, follow the ordinal (stem) vowel with y.
Examples:
Marking Words for Gender
GENDER NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE
tob....human being twob....man toyb....woman
tobet....young person twobet....boy toybet....girl
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
it....he/she/it wit....he iyt....she
apat....cock apwat....rooster apayt....hen
  • Inanimate objects, such as items of clothing, can be "femininized" in a similar way. In such a case, the feminized form refers to an object that is for woman, rather than men, eg.:
Feminizing Nouns
MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED
taf....suit tayf....dress
tyoyav....sock tyoyayv....stockings
tiav....shirt tiav....blouse

Rule #9: Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels[edit]

A series of related words can be derived from a Group 1 base word by replacing the ordinal vowel with one of the following vowels, which have certain specific meanings, usually geographical.
Geo-specific Vowels:
  • o  =  outer space, abstract object, initial stuff
  • a  =  sky, air, gas
  • e  =  land, soil, solid
  • i  =  sea, water, liquid
  • u  =  underground, mineral, concrete object
Examples:
Deriving Words with Geo-specific Vowels
m...p m...m d...p p...t m...l m...r
mop....orbit mom....space dop....military pot....animal mol....nature mor....universe
map....wind mam....sky dap....air force pat....bird mal....air mar....star
mep....road mem....land dep....army pet....land animal mel....soil mer....planet
mip....river mim....sea dip....marine force pit....fish mil....water mir....world
mup....tunnel mum....underground mul....mineral mur....moon
This vowel codification also allows generating other categories of words by infixing, just before the generic (final) consonant, a vowel having the value that is attributed to it in Rule #9. This creates "hybrid" nouns. See the chapter on Hybrids for more on this subject.
Examples:
Hybrid nouns
FIRST-LEVEL DERIVATION + SPECIAL VOWEL SECOND-LEVEL DERIVATION
pet....land animal i....water, sea peit....aquatic mammal
pelt....insect a....air, sky pelat....flying insect
mel....soil i....water, sea meil....mud
mal....air i....water, sea mial....vapor

Rule #10: Deriving Words with Directional and Positional Vowels[edit]

The rule for deriving words with directional and positional vowels starts with the following schema:
Directional and Positional Vowel Values
A
U a

a

ya
ya
I
u e ye i
u e ye i
yu E yi
yu yi

o
o
yo

yo
O
Explanation of the above chart:
  • If the vowel is capitalized, it indicates a positional value. It is used in its lowercase spelling as a prefix in Group I words.
  • The non-capitalized vowels (including y-glides) indicate directional values.
  • If the vowel is underlined, it means that it is placed before the classifier consonant (prefixed) in verbs
  • Otherwise, a normal vowel means that it is placed after the classifier consonant (infixed) in Group 2 words.
Explanation of the Vowel Meanings Chart
A position on, above, north amer....north
a movement (free) on baer....lean
a movement (contact) onto aber....put on
ya movement (free) up, ascend byaer....lift
ya movement (contact) up, get up, set up yaber....raise
O position under, lower, south omer....south
o movement (free) off boer....hang
o movement (contact) on the bottom of, underneath oper....get off
yo movement (free) down pyoser....fall
yo movement (contact) fall yoper....rise
U position left, west umer....west
u movement (free) move toward the center, come uber....send
u movement (contact) reach the center, arrive pyuer....reach
yu movement (free) near, approach yuber....approach
yu movement (contact) near, reach byuser....touch
I position right, east imer....east
i movement (free) from the center out, go away pier....go away
i movement (contact) from the center out, leave iper....leave
yi movement (free) away, go far yiper....go far
yi movement (contact) from afar, originate pyiser....originate
E position center, equator emer....equator
e rest between eb....between
e rest at, stay, hold bexer....hold
ye movement in, into, enter yeper....enter
ye (contact) contain byeer....contain
Special value of certain vowels
The prefixes a- or an- meaning one, sole, singular contrast with
the prefixes ya- or yan- meaning collection, plural.
Also, the prefix yan- meaning together contrasts with yon-....apart.

Rule #11: Deriving Words with Mnemonic Patterns[edit]

Sometimes part of a derived word can serve as a mnemonic pattern for forming other words having some relationship or parallelism in meaning.
For example, eu pattern in the word for mouth, teud can be used to form many other words having an oral, acoustic, vocal, or sound-related meaning:
Mnemonic Pattern Derivation
PATTERN WORD
teub....mouth
CLASSIFIER GENERIC
teud....shout t = human d = communication
teuz....voice t = human z = art
deuz....song d = communication z = art
seuz....tone s = thing z = art
seux....sound s = thing x = action
xeus....noise x = action s = thing
More Mnemonic Pattern Derivations
PATTERN WORD
teab....eye
(t)ea- = see GENERIC
teaper....visit " " " p = go
teader....testify " " " d = say
teaxer....look " " " x = do
teaser....seem " " " s = be
teater....see " " " t = know
keaxer....scan ke- = seek " " x = do
vyaleaxer....check vyal- = certain " " x = do
yoneater....distinguish yon- = apart " " t = know
beaxer....guard be- = hold " " x = do
A syllable of a long compound can be suppressed as long as it does not cause ambiguity or confusion.
Examples:
Shortening Long Compounds
WORD 1 WORD 2 LONG COMPOUND SHORTENED COMPOUND
apet....horse teuder....make a noise *apeteuder apeder....neigh
ipet....donkey teuder....make a noise *ipeteuder ipeder....bray
vafeb....grape il....liquid *vafebil....grape juice vafil....wine
Sometimes, the last syllable of a compound will give birth to a new words whose derivations, through the application of this rule, will not be long.
Examples:
Building on Shortened Compounds
COMPOUND NEW SHORTER WORD
tilabil....breast milk bil....milk
The shorter word bil now gives rise to other compounds:
  • bilyig....cheese
  • bilyigem....cheese factory
  • bilyug....butter
  • bilyugyena....butter-like

Rule #12: Deriving Nuanced Words Phonetically[edit]

Words which follow Rule #12 are those that are connected by a similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances and it is phonetic nuances that govern their formation.
These nuances are obtained by:
  • Addition of a subordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal vowel.
These vowels are:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
Examples:
Creating Nuances with a Doubled Vowel
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nad....line naad....rail
dob....state doob....nation
vyab....rule vyaab....system
vala....safe vaala....sure
  • Post-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of less' intensity:
Deintensification with Post-y-gliding
WORD MITIGATED DERIVATION
ifer....love iyfer....like
iva....happy iyva....glad
zyutom....tower zyutoym....turret
ama....hot ayma....warm
oma....cold oyma....cool
  • Pre-y-gliding the ordinal vowel or subordinal vowel, to produce a nuance of greater intensity:
Intensification with Pre-Y-Gliding
WORD ENHANCED DERIVATION
pot....wild animal pyot....predator animal
pat....bird pyat....bird of prey
tod....family tyod....people
oma....cold yoma....frozen
nuxer....pay nyuxer....deliver


  • Following the ordinal vowel or the generic consonant with the intensifying liquid l or the further intensifying liquid r:
Intensification with L and R
WORD L-INTENSIFIED R-INTENSIFIED
ifer....love ifler....be fond of ifrer....adore
iva....happy ivla....content ivra....enchanted
vaa....affirmative vala....sure vara....evident
aga....big agla....great agra....capital
ga....more gala....multiple gara....exponential
baer....lean on baler....press barer....crush
  • Adding consonants other than l or r as the generic consonant:
Creating Nuances with Other Consonants
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
fua....bad futa....wicked
gea....equal geta....identical
  • Transforming the generic consonant from voiced to unvoiced or vice versa:
Voicing or Devoicing Consonants for Nuance
WORD NUANCED DERIVATION
nab....row nap....order
vyava....just vyafa....precise

Forming Adjectives[edit]

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
Examples:
Deriving Adjectives
NOUN ADJECTIVE
taam....home taama....domestic
doob....nation dooba....national
tej....life teja....vital
tyoyapyaf....ability to walk tyoyapyafa....ambulatory
martun....astronomy martuna....astronomical
PRONOUN ADJECTIVE
at....I, me ata....my
eut....yourself euta....your own
hiyen....this kind hiyena....this kind of
hot?....who? hota?....whose?
GERUND ADJECTIVE
ifeken....recreation ifekena....recreational
VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE)
teje....(he) lives tejea....living
tojo....will die tojoa....moribund, about to die
tojbu....would kill tojbua....lethal
twe....is known twa....known

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
Examples:
Deriving Other Adjectives
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
voz....color vozaya....colorful
futax....resentment futaxaya....resentful
tiibil....blood tiibilaya....bloody
yilf....courage yilfaya....courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
voz....color vozoya....colorless, pale
tajyaf....talent tajyafoya....untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya)
map....wind mapika....windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya)
nas....money nasuka....broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of
tobot....child tobotyena....childish, infantile
tot....god totyena....divine, godly
pit....fish pityena....fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t-....know twa or tawa....known
dal-....speak dalwa or dalawa....spoken, oral
nisbu-....sell nisbuwa....sold
-ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot-....not know otea....ignorant
tej-....live tejea....living, alive
tuj-....die tujea....dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb-....kill tujbyea....murderous
tex-....think texyea....pensive, thoughtful
tox-....forget toxyea....forgetful
ax-....act axyea....active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex-....operate exuwa....operable
tos....feel tosuwa....palpable
tex-....think texuwa....conceivable
tel-....eat teluwa....edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyafa....sightful, able to see
dyed-....read dyedyafa....literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyafwa....visible
tax-....remember taxyafwa....memorable
teet-....hear teetyafwa....audible
tel-....eat telyafwa....edible
-yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyofa....blind
tyoyap-....walk tyoyapyofa....lame
teet-....hear teetyofa....deaf
dal-....speak dalyofa....dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat-....see teatyofwa....invisible
teet-....hear teetyofa....inaudible
tox-....forget toxyofa....unforgetable
dal-....speak dalyofa....unspeakable
-ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
pot....animal potifa....pet-friendly
hyitoob-....same-gender hyitoobifa....homophile
tobot....child tobotifa....pedophile
fitel....food fitelifa....gourmand
doob....nation doobifa....patriotic
-ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE
tob....human tobufa....misanthropic
hyut-....other person hyutufa....xenophobic
toyb-....woman toybufa....misogynist


Adjectival Prefixes[edit]

Negating the Meaning of Adjectives
Examples:
  • vlea....probable ovlea....improbable
  • vyafa....perfect ovyafa....imperfect
  • twa....known otwa....unknown
  • bosa....calm obosa....worried
Note: Occasionally, the prefix lo- is used to avoid ambiguity, as in the following case:
  • fwa....wanted
  • ofwa....prohibited < ofer....to prohibit
  • yofwa....impossible < yofer....to be unable
  • lofwa....unwanted < fer....to want (disambiguated)
The prefix lyo- is more intense for reversing the meaning of an adjective:
  • data....friendly
  • odata....unfriendly
  • lyodata....inimical
  • dota....social
  • odota....unsocial
  • lyodota....savage
Table of Adjective Prefixes
As in English, where the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin, the sense of adjectives in Mirad can also be altered with prefixes. Here are the principal ones:
Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes
MIRAD PREFIX ENGLISH PREFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
o- un-, a(n)-, in-, non- obaka....unhealthy
oyezyebeya....incontinent, oyelpea....non-invasive
ototina....atheist
ov- anti-, counter- ovzuina....anti-leftist
oviztida....counter-intuitive
kovyo- pseudo- kovyotepina....pseudo-intellectual
hyas- all-, pan-, omni- yadtea....all-knowing, omniscient
eg- re- egtajbwa....re-born
vyo- mis- vyoseudwa....mispronounced
eyn- semi-, half- eynlevelaya....semi-sweet
eyntija....half-awake
yiz-, gwa- ultra-, super- gwadoobina....ultra-nationalist
yizmola....supernatural
gro- under-, hypo- grojaga....under-aged
gra- over-, hyper-, uber- graagxwa....overgrown
gratoseya....hypersensitive
gla- multi-, many-, poly- glakuma....multilateral
glatadaya....polygamous
fu- mal-, ill- futeyenxwa....ill-conceived
fusanxwa....malformed
fi- well- fitofabwa....well-dressed
yuyb- quasi- yuybdaba....quasi-governmental
ja- pre-, (a)fore-, pro- jateyenxwa....pre-conceived
jaigdawa....aformentioned
jo- post- jodropeka....post-war

English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison[edit]

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
English and Mirad Adjectival Suffixes Compared
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES
-ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya....colorful, tuzika....skillful
-ous full of -aya, -ika nazika....precious, milaya....aqueous
-filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya....smoke-filled
-y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya....smoky,
-ous of, like -a totina....religious, vyosa....erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena....godly, toybyena....womanly
-like like -yena patyena....bird-like
-ish like -yena tobotyena....childish
-y like -yena fyabyena....fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena....artistic, silyena....acidic
-ic of, related to -a tuna....scientific, , beka....therapeutic
-ical of, related to -a zyunida....spherical, iztexa....logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna....biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina....militarist(ic), nasyanina....capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa....xenophonic, tobyanufa....misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobotifa....pedophilic, tobifa....philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena....bestial
-al of, pertaining to -a teja....vital, amana....thermal
-less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka....lifeless, tobotoya....childless
-free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka....ice-free, vyosoya, error-free

Forming Adverbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-y-gliding the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Examples:
Deriving Adverbs
ADJECTIVE ADVERB
fia....good fiay....well
vyaa....true vyaay....truly
gyua....easy gyuay....easily
iga....quick igay....quickly
auta....personal autay....personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of de-adjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig.....He walks fast.
  • Yit xa has fi.....They did it well.


Special Adverbs[edit]

Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
Here are the principal such adverbs:
Special Adverbs
SPECIAL ADVERB
vay....indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va....yes)
vey....possibly, may, might (cf. ve....maybe)
voy....not (cf. vo....no)
ga....more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gay....also, moreover, further, still
ge....as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
gey....even
go....less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb)
goy....no longer, no more
gla....very
glay....quite, rather, so
gle....so
glo....not very, not so
gra....too
gre....enough, sufficiently, over-
gro....not...enough, inadequately, under-
gwa....most, super-
gwe....average
gwo....least, sub-
The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa.....Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa.....Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yuxrut.....I am not your slave.
The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
  • Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
  • Et peya gra ig.....You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
  • It gra dale.....He talks [=VERB] too much.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
Adverbs Used in Prepositional Phrases
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES
yab....up Ha pat papa yab bu ha mam.....The bird flew up to the sky.
yob....down Teaxu yob bu ha mel.....Look down to the ground.
yub....near Besu yub bi ha mas.....Stay near the wall.
yib....far Ha tobi igpia yib bi ha yovbyokam.....The people ran far from the prison.
ib....away Teaxu ib, diwe.....Look away, please.
ub....this way Tyoyapu ub him.....Walk toward this way.
yeb....in, inward, inside Kyedu hat hu ogja tyoyapa yeb!....Guess who just walked in!
oyeb....out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye ha zames.....He walked out through the front door.
yuz....around Yit daza yuz bi yat.....They danced around us.
yiz....beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz bi hia tistam av yux.....You must look beyond this school for help.
iz....directly, straight Pu iz bu hat.....Go right up to him.
zi....right Uzpu zi!....Turn right!
zu....left Hat uzpa zu.....He turned left.

Pro-adverbs[edit]

There are also adverbial expressions that are formed with deitic prefixes and categorical stubs to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-adverbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Deictic Determiners.

Forming Verbs[edit]

Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.


Forming Verbs from Nouns[edit]

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
Denominal Verb Derivation
NOUN VERB
syag....count syager....to count
tof....clothes tofer....to dress
teud....cry, shout teuder....to cry, shout, exclaim
taj....birth tajer....to be born
tej....life tejer....to live
toj....death tojer....to die
ej....present ejer....to continue
ij....beginning ijer....to begin
uj....end ijer....to end
yuj....sleep tujer....to sleep

Verb Formants[edit]

More often, an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser....to be/become usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer....to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per....to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber....to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefiting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefiting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der....to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • -ter....to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see)
Verb Derivation with Verb Formants
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB FORMANT VERB
yav....innocence der....to say yavder....to acquit
yov....shame, guilt aber....to apply, put on yovaber....to shame, accuse
yov....shame, guilt ober....to remove, take off yovober....to excuse, exculpate
tof....clothes aber....to apply, put on tofaber....to dress, don
tof....clothes ober....to remove, take off tofober....to undress, strip
det....associate ser....to be, become detser....to associate
dat....friend xer....to do, make datxer....to befriend
san....form ser....to be, become sanser....to form (intransitive)
san....form xer....to do, make sanxer....to form (transitive)
tel....food (b)ier....to take telier....to eat, consume
tel....food (b)uer....to give teluer....to feed, nourish
if....pleasure (b)ier....to take ifier....to enjoy
if....pleasure (b)uer....to give ifuer....to please
taj....birth (b)uer....to give tajuer....to give birth
tej....life (b)ier....to take tejier....to come alive
tej....life (b)uer....to give tejuer....to bring to life
toj....death (p)er....to go tojper....to drop dead
toj....death (b)er....to put tojber....to kill
tij....wakefulness (b)ier....to take tijier....to wake up
tij....wakefulness (b)uer....to give tijuer....to awaken
tuj....sleep (b)ier....to take tujier....to fall asleep
tuj....sleep (b)uer....to give tujuer....to put to sleep
tax....memory (b)ier....to take taxier....to recall
tax....memory (b)uer....to give taxuer....to remind
yev....justice der....to say, tell yevder....to judge
vyan....truth der....to say, tell vyander....to tell the truth
vyon....falsehood der....to say, tell vyonder....to tell a lie
il....liquid aker....to gain ilaker....to take on liquid
il....liquid oker....to lose iloker....to leak, lose liquid
il....liquid (b)ier....to take ilier....to soak up
il....liquid (b)uer....to give iluer....to pour, water
il....liquid ikser....to get full ilikser....to be soaked (intransitive)
il....liquid ikxer....to fill up ilikxer....to flood, soak (transitive)
il....liquid ukser....to become empty ilukser....to drain (intransitive)
il....liquid ukxer....to empty ilukxer....to flush (transitive)
il....liquid ser....to be, become ilser....to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il....liquid xer....to do, make ilxer....to liquify, melt (transitive)
il....liquid aber....to apply, put on ilaber....to wash (transitive)
il....liquid aper....to get on ilaper....to float (intransitive)
il....liquid per....to go ilper....to flow (intransitive)
il....liquid zyaber....to spread ilzyaber....to spray, shower (transitive)
il....liquid zyober....to squeeze ilzyober....to squirt (transitive)
il....liquid pyexer....to strike ilpyexer....to splash (with liquid)
il....liquid yujer....to close ilyujer....to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are benefactive or causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser[edit]

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer....to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser....to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
Forming Verbs with Xer and Ser
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aza....strong azaxer....fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser....get strong
oza....week ozaxer....weaken ozaser....grow weaker
kyia....heavy kyiaxer....weigh down kyiaser....grow heavy
kyua....light kyuaxer....lighten, make lighter kyiaser....get lighter
yana....together yanaxer....bring together yanaser....get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
Comparing Full and Stub Adjectives in Verb Formation
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
aga....big agaxer....magnify agaser....get big
agxer....grow agxer....grow up, mature
iga....fast igaxer....accelerate igaser....speed up
igxer....rush igser....hurry up
baka....healthy bakaxer....make healthy bakaser....get healthy
bakxer....heal bakser....heal
sana....formal sanaxer....formalize sanaser....become formal
sanxer....form, shape sanser....form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per[edit]

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber....to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per....to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
Verb Derivation with Ber and Per
PREPOSITON
BASE
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB
ab....on aber....apply, put on aper....mount, get on
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene
ob....off ober....remove, take off oper....dismount, get off
ib....away iber....receive iper....leave
ub....toward uber....send uper....come
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise
yeb....in
oyeb....out
yeber....insert
oyeber....take out
yeper....enter
oyeper....exit
yob....down yober....lower yoper....descend
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....move away
yub....near yuber....bring yuper....approach
zay....forward zayber....advance zayper....advance, go forward
zey....across zeyber....take across, transfer zeyper....cross, go over, transit
zoy....back zoyber....set back, return zoyper....retreat, go back, return
iz....straight izber....guide izper....aim for
uz....crooked uzber....divert uzper....turn, diverge
yiz....beyond yizber....take beyond yizper....pass by
yuz....around yuzber....take around yuzper....go around
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
Creating More Elaborate Verbs
GESTURE VERB GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB MOTION VERB
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE
ber....put
beer....have
byeer....keep
beler....
carry
bexer....
hold
per....go
baer....lean on baler....press
yanbaler....compress
yobaler....depress, suppress
yuzbaler....hug
zoybaler....repress
barer....crush
baser....gesticulate baxer....make a gesture
abaxer....caress, pat
paser....move paxer....move
byaser....stand up byaxer....set up, erect pyaser....jump up pyaxer....shoot, launch
blaser....budge blaxer....rouse
ablaxer....massage
plaser....get excited plaxer....excite
aplaxer....sweep
braser....shake braxer....shake
abraxer....rub
apraxer....brush
beser....stay bexer....hold
zoybexer....restrain
yobexer....detain, hold down
peser....wait pexer....trap
byeser....behave byexer....hit pyeser....run into, bump into pyexer....strike, knock
yonpyexer....break
yopyexer....knock down
yanpyexer....fight
apyexer....attack
ovpyexer....offend
kunpyexer....sideswipe
tuyapyexer....slap
bleser....adhere blexer....retain plexer....pound, beat
aplexer....assault
yonplexer....shatter, burst
yanpreser....implode
yonpreser....explode
prexer....blast, bomb
boser....calm down
boyser....rest
boxer....quieten, quell poser....stop
poyser....pause
poxer....stop
byoser....hang byoxer....hang pyoser....fall
yonpyoser....decay
pyoxer....drop, throw down
yopyoxer....topple
biser....originate bixer....pull
yanbixer....contract
yonbixer....distract
yubixer....attract
yibixer....distract
oyebixer....extract
yebixer....push in
pixer....catch
bliser....spring blixer....yank plixer....snag, capture
yiplixer....abduct
buser....be destined buxer....push, drive
zyobuxer....squeeze
yebuxer....expel
abuxer....impose
apuser....assault puxer....throw, thrust
byuser....bump into byuxer....touch
yanbyuxer....contact
pyuser....run into pyuxer....crash
bluser....swoop bluxer....shove pluser....lunge, pounce pluxer....thrust
zyapluxer....splatter
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
Baxer Verbs
PREFIX VERB
baxer....gesture, make a bodily motion
ab....on abaxer....caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz....straight izbaxer....point
teb....head tebaxer....nod
va....yes vatebaxer....nod yes
vo....no votebaxer....nod no
ve....maybe vetebaxer....shrug
tuyab....hand tuyabaxer....wave
tub....arm tubaxer....flail, swing
teubab....tongue teubabaxer....lick
teab....eye teubaxer....wink
patub....wing patubaxer....flap
tiyub....tail tiyubaxer....wag
baser....gesticulate
ig-....fast igbaser....jerk
zay....forward igzaybaser....lurch
zoy....back zoybaser....recoil
yob....down yobaser....bow, bend down
ku-....side kubaser....slide
ig-....fast igkubaser....slip
iz....straight + uz....curved uizbaser....sway, swagger, swish
zi....right + zu....left zuibaser....wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative Verbs[edit]

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by prefixing the syllable eig-. The prefix eig is a hybrid of eg- (again) and ig- (fast). Here are some examples:
The Eig- Frequentative Prefix
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB
paser....move eigpaser....shake, shudder
pyaser....jump eigpyaser....bounce
paper....fly eigpaper....flutter, flit
braser....shake eigbraser....shudder, quiver, vibrate
teupixer....bite eigteupixer....nibble
ilzyaber....spray eigilzyaber....sprinkle
pyexer....beat eigpyexer....batter, whip

Forming Hybrid Words with Alternating Components[edit]

Expressions with alternating components like back-and-forth, up-and-down, etc. are formed in a peculiar, hybrid way. The following table shows this formation and how such words can be used, especially as prefixes on verbs:
Hybrid Words
ALTERNATING COMPONENTS HYBRID EXPRESSION EXAMPLES
yab....up + yob....down yao(b)-....up-and-down yaoper....fluctuate, yaopuser....bounce
zay....forth + zoy....back zayo(b)-....back-and-forth zayobaser....swing
a-....up, north, skyward + o-....down, south ao-....vertical aonada....vertical, aomera....north-south
za....forth + zo....back zao(b)-....front-back/north-to-south zaobaser....rock
bu....to + bi....from bui-....to-and-from buipar....shuttle, buipop....round-trip
ab....on + ob....off ao(b)-....on-and-off aoper....get on and off
yuj-....closed + yij-....open yuij-....open-and-shut yuijbar....switch, igyuijer....blink
uj-....stop + ij-....start uij-....stop-and-start uijparpan....stop-and-go traffic
(a)yeb....in + oyeb....out aoye(b)-....in-and-out igaoyeper....run in-and-out
yub....near + yib....far yui(b)-....near-and-far yuipoper....travel near-and-far
ub....toward + ib....away ui(b)-....toward-and-away uipen....coming and going
hum....there + him....here huim....here-and-there huimkexer....search high-and-low (here-and-there)
hus....that + his....this huis....this-and-that huisyexer....do odd jobs, work at this-or-that
hyut....other person + hyit....same person hyuit....one another hyuitifer....love one another, hyuita....mutual, reciprocal
Here are some more examples:
More Hybrids
HYBRID WORD ENGLISH GLOSS ALTERNATING COMPONENTS
aogsen fluctuation (in size) ag- (big) + og- (little) + s- (become) + -en (-ing)
aonada vertical a- (up/north) + o- (down/south) + nad (line) + -a (adj.)
aopuys hop-on-hop-off a(p)- (on) + o(p)- (off) + puys- (hop)
buien trading, swapping bu- (give) + bi- (trake) + -en (-ing)
buip traffic bu- (to) + bi- (from) + p- (go)
buixar pump bux- (push) + bix (pull) + -ar (instrument)
buixek tug-o-war bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + ek (play)
buixnyem drawer bux- (push) + bix- (pull) + nyem (box)
byaosen teetering, stumbling byas- (stand) + byos- (fall) + -en (-ing)
diep marine force dip (sea force) + dep (land force)
duid q&a, interview dud (answer) + did (question)
eigpyexer batter, whip eg- (again) + ig- (fast) + pyexer (to hit)
gao more-or-less ga (more) + go (less)
glaojo sooner or later gla (very) + glo (slightly) + jo (after)
huimkexer search here and there hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -m (place) + kex (search) + -er (inf.)
huis this-and-that hu- (that) + hi- (this) + -s (thing)
hyuit one another hyu- (other) + hyi- (same) + -t (person)
kyaopen fluctuation kya- (mobile) + kyo (static) + -pen (going)
maluier breathe mal- (air) + u- (let out) + i- (take in) -er (inf.)
maojyex double-shift work maj (day) + moj (night) + yex (work)
maonig flicker man (light) + mon (dark) + ig- (fast)
maoza black&white/gray maza (white) + moza (black)
meil mud mel (soil) + mil (water)
memuiben import-exports mem (country) + ub- (send) + ib- (receive) + -en (-ing)
mial vapor mil (water) + mal (air)
mieg reef mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -g (stone)
miek sand mi- (sea) + me- (land) + -k (rocky substance)
miem swamp mim (sea) + mem (land)
mimpuin dock mim (sea) + pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place)
mimpyaos surf mim (sea) + pyas- (surge) + pyos- (sink)
mimuip tide mim (sea) + up- (come) + ip- (go)
peit amphibian pet (land animal) + pit (sea creature)
puim kiss-and-ride zone pu- (arrive) + pi- (depart) + -m (place)
puixek baseball pux- (pitch) + pix- (catch) + ek (play)
teabyuij blink teab (eye) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open)
tuijea nodding off tuj- (sleep) + tij (wake) -ea (-ing)
uijdal stutter uj- (finish) + ij- (start) + dal (speech)
uipeni comings & goings up- (come) + ip (go) + -en (-ing) + -i (pl.)
uiza serpentine, snaky uza (crooked) + iza (straight)
vao? yes or no? va (yes) + vo (no)
vaod decision va (yes) + vo (no) + d- (say)
yaobar elevator yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + -ar (instrument)
yaobyuijar piston yab- (raise) + yob- (lower) + yuj- (close) + yij- (open ) + -ar (instrument)
yaoplas oscillation yap- (up) + yop- (down) + plas (shake)
yaopsim seesaw yap- (ascend) + yop- (descend) + sim (seat)
yaopus bounce ya(b)- (up) + yo(b)- (down) + pus (jump)
yaovdut juror yav- (innocent) + yov- (guilty) + d- (say) + -ut (agent)
yaoza uneven, bumpy, serrated yaza (convex) + yoza (concave)
yaozgoblar saw yaz (protrusion ) + yoz (indentation) + gobl- (cut) + -ar (instrument)
yaozil wave yaz (swell) + yoz (trough) + -il (liquid)
yuibteabar bifocals yub (near) + yib (far) + teab (eye) + -ar (instrument)
yuijar valve, switch yuj- (close) + yij- (open) + -ar (instrument)
zaobelur ferry za- (forth) + zo (back) + bel- (carry) + -ur (vehicle)
zaobyexar swatter, bat za (forth) + zo (back) + byex- (strike) + -ar (instrument)
zaodal dialog za- (forth) + zo (back) + dal (speech)
zaogoblar saw za (forth) + zo (back) + gobl (cut) + -ar (instrument)
zaokyax alternation za (forth) + zo (back) + kyax (change)
zaopasen swinging za- (forth) + zo- (back) + pasen (moving)
zaopsim swing or rocker zap- (go forth) + zap (go back) + sim (seat)
zuibasen wiggling zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bas- (move bodily) + -en (-ing)
zuibayx wag zu- (left) + zi- (right) + bayx- (slight body move)
zuibyoxea dangling zu (left) + zi (right) + byox- (hang down) + -ea (-ing)
zuiyafa ambidextrous zu- (left) + zi- (right) + yafa (capable)
zyaobas throb zya- (wide) + zyo- (narrow) + bas (bodily movement)


Word Families[edit]

The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub....mouth:
"Mnemonic Family"
seux....sound
xeus....noise
xeuz....tune
teuz....voice
deuz....song
seuz....tone
deus....accent
Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
Analogy and Mnemonics
teb....head deb....leader xeb....boss feb....treetop
tub....limb dub....minister xub....subsidiary fub....branch vub....twig patub....wing petub....paw pitub....fin
teub....mouth pateub....beak peteub....muzzle
tayeb....hair patayeb....feather pitayeb....scale fayeb....leaf vosayeb....petal potayeb....mane
tayob....skin tayof....leather petayob....hide fayob....bark vayob....peel
tyob....leg fyob....root vyob....plant root
tib....trunk fib....tree trunk vib....stem
tulob....nail petulob....claw fulob....thorn defulob....needle mulob....pin, prick
tiibuf....artery fuf....pipe muf....stick, rod movuf....cheminee fauf....log manuf....candle
til....drink teabil....tear teubil....saliva dril....ink mil....water mamil....rain tayobil....sweat bil....milk


The xer (Do) Family[edit]

The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this base word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).


Core Words[edit]

This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
Xer Family Core Words
axer....act exer....function oxer....abstain ixer....effect uxer....cause
axler....perform exler....operate oxler....fail ixler....react uxler....influence
axrer....execute uxrer....provoke
axner....behave
xaer....execute xeer....exercise xoer....undergo, submit xier....result xuer....affect
xaler....accomplish xeler....practice xoler....fail xiler....undertake xuler....achieve
yexer....work yoxer....be idle yixer....use yuxer....help
yexler....labor yoxler....resign
yoxluer....fire
yixler....hire, employ yuxler....serve
yexrer....toil yixrer....exploit yuxrer....slave
yuxruer....enslave

Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes[edit]

Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
Prefixing Xer Words
PREFIX  +  BASE DERIVATION
ana....single  +  xer....make anaxer....unify
an-....one-  +  xer....make anxer....unite
yan....together  +  exer....operate yanexer....cooperate
yan....together  +  yexer....work yanyexer....collaborate
yon....apart  +  xer....make yonxer....split
ge....equal  +  xer....make gexer....copy
ja....before  +  xer....make jaxer....prepare
je....while  +  xer....do jexer....continue
ig-....fast  +  xer....do igxer....rush
ug-....slow  +  xer....do ugxer....delay
oj....future  +  xer....do ojxer....plan
eg-....re-  +  xer....do egxer....redo
sa(n)....shape  +  xer....make saxer....create
se(n)....being  +  xer....make sexer....build
lo-....un-  +  sexer....build losexer....destroy
mel....soil  +  yexer....work melyexer....plough
tea(b)....eye  +  xer....do teaxer....look
o-....un-  +  yirxer....hire oyirxer....fire
mag....fire  +  xer....cause magxer....burn
yuf....fear  +  xer....cause yufxer....frighten
dofun....crime  +  xer....do dofunxer....commit a crime
gra....too much  +  xer....do graxer....exaggerate
eg-....re-  +  axer....act egaxer....react
fu-....bad  +  axner....behave fuaxner....misbehave

Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

Unlimited transitive verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
Building Verbs from Adjectives
ADJECTIVE VERB
aga....big agaxer....magnify
goa....lesser goaxer....diminish
fia....good fiaxer....improve
jwoa....late jwoaxer....retard
uva....sad uvaxer....sadden
via....beautiful viaxer....beautify
ebdooba....international ebdoobaxer....internationalize
Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
The passive of xer, xwer....to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
  • Hoj hus xwa?....When did that happen?
  • At uvaxwa haj hu at teata ha tobud.....I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.

Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms[edit]

The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
  • xer deuz....to perform a song
  • xer ifpop....to take a cruise
  • xer ebdid....to conduct an interview
  • xer yagigpek....to run a marathon
  • xer dazun....to do a dance number
  • xer dezekgon....to play a role
  • xer dovyabdras....to enact a piece of legislation


The ser (Be) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
Summary:
Core Ser Verbs
aser....become eser....exist, there to be oser....cease to be iser....start out user....end up

Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
Stative Verbs
ADJECTIVE STATIVE VERB
aga....big agaser....get big
aga....big agser....grow
uza....curved uzaser....curve, bend, bow
kyaa....mobile kyaser....change, vary
mayna....clear maynaser....clear up
iga....fast igaser....become fast, accelerate
iga....fast igser....rush, hurry
Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
  • It agxe vafyabi.....He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Vafyabi voy agse fiay him.....Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
  • His kyaxa yata teji.....This changed our lives.
  • Yata teji kyasa hujub.....Our lives changed on that day.
  • Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi.....The winds bent the trees.
  • Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag.....The trees bowed during the storm.
  • Von igxu at.....Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Igsu!....Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)

Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns[edit]

The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives
NOUN STATIVE VERB
meg....stone megser....petrify, become rock
abnod....peak abnodser....peak, climax
mus....scale, stair musser....escalate
yom....ice yomser....freeze
maf....cloud mafser....cloud over
il....liquid ilser....liquefy, melt

The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families[edit]

The base words ber....to put and per....to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.


Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels[edit]

Building Verbs with Positional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels
PREFIX TRANSITIVE
GESTURE
INTRANSITIVE
MOTION
PREFIX TRANSITIVE
GESTURE
INTRANSITIVE
MOTION
ab....on aber....put on aper....get on baer....lean paer....stand
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise byaer....lift pyaer....jump
ob....off ober....remove oper....dismount boer....hold up poer....hang
yob....down yober....lower yoper....descend byoer....hang pyoer....fall
ub....toward uber....send uper....come bu....to buer....give puer....arrive
ib....away iber....receive iper....go away bi....from bier....take pier....leave
yub....near yuber....bring yuper....approach byu....up to byuer....touch pyuer....reach
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....move far away byi....since byier....emanate pyier....originate
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene yeb....in
oyeb....out
yeber....inject
oyeber....eject
yeper....enter
oyeper....exit
za....front zaber....advance zaper....advance zay....forward zayber....promote zayper....proceed
zo....behind zober....put behind zoper....follow zoy....back zoyber....put back zayper....return
ze....middle zeber....balance zeper....mediate zey....across zeyber....transfer zeyper....cross
zu....left zuber....put to the left zuper....go left uz....curve uzber....deviate uzper....turn
zi....right ziber....put to the right ziper....go right iz....straight ziber....guide izper....head
zya....all over zyaber....spread zyaper....tour zye....through zyeber....pass through zyeper....pass through
zyu....round zyuber....rotate zyuper....roll yuz....around yuzber....turn yuzper....circulate
yiz....beyond yizber....take beyond yizper....surpass zyag....stretched out zyagber....stretch zyagper....stretch out
ja....before jaber....prepare japer....precede aj....past ajber....pass ajper....pass
jo....after jober....delay joper....follow oj....future ojber....postpone ojper....wait?
je....during jeber....continue jeper....continue ej....present ejber....present ejper....present oneself
yan....together yanber....assemble yanper....join bay....with bayber....impart bayper....accompany
yon....apart yonber....take apart yonper....separate boy....without boyber....deprive boyper....go without
kia....oblique kiber....bend kiper....slant ika....full ikber....fill ikper....become full
kua....lateral kuber....set aside kuper....avoid uka....empty ukber....empty ukper....become empty

Using Ber and Per to Form Dynamic Verbs[edit]

Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic counterparts end in -ber for transitive verbs and in -per for intransitive verbs. There is a table showing this:
Using Ber and Per with J Verbs
STATIVE-INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-TRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-INTRANSITIVE
tojer....die tojber....kill tojper....drop dead
tajer....be born tajber....give birth (to), bear tajper....spring up
tejer....live tejber....bring to life tejper....come to life
tijer....be awake tijber....awaken tijper....wake up
tujer....sleep tujber....put to sleep tujper....fall asleep
ijer....begin ijber....begin (something) ijper....start up
ujer....end ujber....finish, put an end to ujper....come to an end
yijer....open up yijber....open up (something) yijper....come open
yujer....close yujber....close, bring to a close yujper....come to a close

The der (Say) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
Der Core Words
daler....speak
dar....language
dares....dialect
der....say
deler....
state
doler....be silent dier....ask
dider....question
diler....request
direr....demand
duer....suggest
duder....answer
duler....urge
durer....instigate
drer....write
drar....pencil
drir....typewriter
drur....printer
dodrur....press
droer....erase
dyeer....read
dyes....book
dyeder....dictate
deser....pronounce din....story dun....word
dyun....name
dyan....sentence
draf....card
drav....notebook
dref....paper
drev....page
drof....board
drov....cardboard
dyuf....sheet
dyuv....page
daz....dance dez....theater
dyez....cinema
drez....poetry
diz....comedy duz....music
deuz....song

Verbs of Communication[edit]

Many verbs of communication are created by prefixing elements to der (to say, tell) as in the following chart:
Building Verbs of Communication with Der
va....yes vader....affirm
vo....no voder....deny
ve....maybe veder....guess
vyaa....true vyader....swear
vyoa....false vyoder....lie
fyaa....holy fyader....bless
fyoa....profane fyoder....curse
oza....weak ozder....hint
eg....re- egder....repeat
ve....maybe + yova....guilty veyovder....indict
va....yes + yova....guility vayovder....convict
ja....before jader....predict
vao....yes/no vaoder....decide
yev....justice yevder....judge
fia....good fider....praise
fua....bad fuder....disparage
af....permission afder....authorize
of....prohibition ofder....ban
naz....value nazder....evaluate
yov....guilt yovder....blame
zyaa....wide zyader....broadcast
yaga....long yagder....elaborate
vyoa....wrong + via....beautiful vyovider....flatter
vyea....relative vyeder....relate
va....yes + oj....future vaojder....promise
ut....self + fia....good utfider....boast
uv....sorrow + tax....memory uvtaxder....regret
tes....meaning tesder....mean
ov....against ovder....object
kyia....heavy kyider....emphasize
jwa....early jwader....warn
ja....before + vo....no javoder....preclude
yuj....close yujder....conclude
ja....before + nap....order janapder....preordain
hyay....hurrah hyayder....congratulate
hyey....thanks hyeyder....thank
gra....too much grader....exaggerate
diz....comedy dizder....joke
dre-....write dreder....spell
eb....between ebder....communicate
eb....between + di-....ask ebdider....interview
eb....between + tes....meaning ebtesder....interpret
eb....between + tex....thought ebtexder....decide
ek-....play ekder....pretend

Animal Sounds[edit]

Animal noise verbs are created by replacing the final -t of an animal name with der:
Building Animal Sound Verbs
yepet....dog yepeder....bark
yipet....cat yipeder....mew
epeyt....cow epeyder....moo
epat....duck epader....quack
ipat....turkey ipader....gobble

Speaking in Languages[edit]

Names of languages can be formed by replacing the final -m of the country name with -d. Then, the verb meaning to say in x language or speak in x language can be formed by adding -der or -daler, eg:
Language Speaking Verbs
Anglam....England Anglad English Anglader....say in English Angladaler....speak in English
Fransam....France Fransad....French (language) Fransader....say in French Fransadaler....speak French
The name of the language discussed in this book is Mirad, which comes from mira, meaning global, world. Thus, say in Mirad is Mirader and speak Mirad is Miradaler. A speaker of Mirad is a Miradut or Miradalut. Duven et Mirade?....Do you speak Mirad?. Hey Miraduti, ansu!....Hey, speakers of Mirad, unite!
Examples:
  • Duven et Miradale?....Do you speak Mirad?
  • Diwe Engladu has.....Please say it in English.
  • Voy ese gaj gla Latinaduti.....There are no longer many Latin-speakers.
Note: Latinadalut can be shortened to Latinadut.
Similarly, to write in Mirad and to read in Mirad would be Miradrer and Miradyeer, respectively.

Communication Arts[edit]

Words for various communication art forms begin d- and end in -z, eg:
Communications Art Words with D-Z
daz....dance
vidaz....ballet
dazun....a dance dazut....dancer
vidazuyt....ballerina
dazutyan....dance troupe
dazim....ballroom
vidazim....ballet studio
dez....theater dezun....a play dezut....stage actor
dezutyan....cast
dezam....theater
dezyem....stage
dezmisof....curtain
diz....comedy dizun....a sketch dizut....comedian
dizutyan....comedy cast
dizam....comedy club
dizyem....stage
drez....poetry drezun....a poem drezut....poet drezim....poetry salon
duz....music
duzdinag....opera
duzdinog....operetta, musical
duzun....a musical piece duzut....musician
duzutyan....orchestra
duzam....music arena
duzdinagam....opera house
duzar....musical instrument
dyez....cinema dyezun....a movie dyezut....screen actor
dyezutyan....cast
dyezam....movie theater
dyezim....movie salon
deuz....song deuzun....a song deuzut....singer deuzam....auditorium
dyezmis....screen

The ter (Know) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental states and activities like knowing, thinking, feeling, etc.:

Core Words[edit]

tep....mind, intellect
teptija....conscious
teptuja....unconscious
tepaza....smart
tepoza....stupid
tepiga....witty
tepsin....imagination
top....soul
toptun....psychology
tip....sentiment
tipaga....generous
tigoga....stingy
tipifa....kind
tipufa....mean
tipyija....tolerant
tipyiva....liberal
tipyiga....stern
tipyuga....lenient
taxer....remember
taxier....memorize
taxuer....remind
texer....think
vatexer....believe
vatexuer....persuade
vetexer....suspect
votexer....doubt
votexuer....dissuade
vyatex....reason

ter....know
oter....ignore
ten....knowledge
twas....datum

trer1....recognize
tyier....get acquainted
tyuer....acquaint

tez....culture
tyez....magic
ten....knowledge
tyen....technique
tyenyan....technology
trenier....train (oneself)
trenuer....train

teyen....idea
teyentun....philosophy
teyenyan....ideology
teyenier....conceptualize
toxer....forget tixer....study tuxer....teach
tayoter....feelteser....mean
tesier....infer
tesuer....imply
tester....understand
tesder....explain
testier....realize
testun....semantics
toser....feel tier....learn
tin....doctrine
iztis....intuition
vyatis....wisdom
tuer....inform
tun....science
tuin....theory
tuz....art


1. Note that trer....recognize, know, be familiar with is used instead of ter....know when referring to a person, much like Fr. connaître....be familiar with (a person) vs. savoir....know (a fact, how to), eg. It voy te van at tre it.....He doesn't know that I know him.

Ologies[edit]

Suffixing -tun....science to words forms many -ology terms. An -ologist is rendered with -tut, eg:
Ologies
tep....mind teptun....psychology teptut....psychologist
tieb....lung tiebtun....pneumology tiebtut....pneumologist
toj....death tejtun....thanatology tejtut....thanatologist
pat....bird pattun....ornithology pattut....ornithologist
pit....fish pittun....ichthyology pittut....ichthyologist
pot....animal pottun....zoology pottut....zoologist
mul....matter multun....chemistry ("materiology?") multut....chemist
ko-....hidden, dren....writing kodrentun....cryptology kodrentut....cryptologist
Some -ology words in English refer to theories or pseudo-science and are translated into Mirad with the ending -tuin:
-Tuin Suffix Words
mar....star martuin....astrology (cf. martun....astronomy) martuit....astrologist
sag....number sagtuin....numerology (cf. sagtun....mathematics) sagtuit....numerologist
nif....string niftuin....string theory niftuit....string theoretician

Ism's[edit]

Words in English referring to doctrines, dogmas, or -isms are translated into Mirad with the ending -tin, eg:
Ism Words
dot....society dotin....socialism
Buda....Buddha Budatin....Bhuddism
gwa....most, fis....good thing gwafistin....optimism
vyaa....true vyatin....orthodoxy, truism
an-....one, fyaat....god anfyaatin....monotheism

Schools[edit]

The general word for school is tistam (house of learning). The various levels of schools are translated with this word scalarized numerically.
Schools
atistam primary school
etistam secondary school, high school, lycee
itistam college
utistam university
The word pre-school, kindergarten is represented with jatitam (lit. pre-school), while post-graduate school is rendered with joutitam (lit. pre-university).
Some other, related terms:
  • enjab itistam....two-year college
  • dovyap tistam....law school
  • yexyen tistam....trade school, vocational school
  • zetistam....middle school
  • tutam....academy
  • tiut....pupil
  • tixut....student
  • tixutyan....student body
  • tuxut....teacher
  • tuut....educator
  • tuen....education
  • tut....professor, scholar
  • tit....disciple, learner
  • titameb....principal
  • ititameb....dean
  • tuxutyan....faculty
  • tuxim....lecture hall, classroom
  • tixim....study hall
  • tityan....class
  • tisun....lesson
  • tisundyes....lesson book
  • aa tinag....first grade
  • ea tinag....second grade

The job (Time) Family[edit]

Here are the most important words derived from job....time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to a point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning frequency, translated by jod in Mirad.


Calendar Time Units[edit]

Calendar Time Units
TIME SEASONS MONTHS DAYS OF THE WEEK
job....time jeab....spring jiab....January juab....Monday
jab....year jeeb....summer jieb....February jueb....Tuesday
jeb....season jeib....autumn jiib....March juib....Wednesday
jib....month jeub....winter jiub....April juub....Thursday
jub....day jiyob....May juyob....Friday
jwob* hour jiyab....June yuyab....Saturday
jwab* minute
jwap....moment
jiyeb....July juyeb....Sunday
jweb* second
jwep....instant
jiyib....August
jiyub....September
jilob....October
jilab....November
jileb....December
OTHER
yejub....week sojab....century rojab....millennium
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.

Times of Day[edit]

Times of Day
DAY / NIGHT PERIODS
maj....daytime majij....dawn
jwamaj....morning
zemaj....noon
jazemaj (JaZ.)....ante-meridian, AM
jozemaj (JoZ.)....afternoon, postmeridian, PM
jwomaj....late day
majuj....dusk, twilight
moj....night jwamoj....evening
jwomoj....late night
zemoj....midnight
jozemoj....after midnight
Note: jub day is a general word referring to the whole 24-hour cycle without reference to morning or night. Maj refers to the daylight hours and moj to the darkness hours.
Examples of usage:
  • At teato et zajub jwamaj.....I will see you tomorrow morning.
  • Yat teapa iyt zojub jozemaj.....We visited her yesterday afternoon.
  • Ha maar yope be majuj.....The sun sets at dusk.
  • Mamila zojub jwamoj.....It rained yesterday evening.
  • At tijpe be majij.....I wake up at dawn.

Clock Time[edit]

The following examples show how to express clock time:
  • Se hojab?....What time is it?
  • Se alo jwabi JaZ (=jazemaj).....It is ten o'clock A.M.
  • Se uwa jwabi JoZ (=jozemaj).....It is four o'clock P.M.
  • Se yawa jwabi gab ilo.....It is six thirty. (= plus thirty)
  • Se alo (jwebi) ji yiwa.....It is ten (minutes) til eight. (or:)
  • Se yiwa (jwabi) gab alo..... " " "
  • Se uyn ji awa.....It is a quarter past ( = since) one.
  • Se uyn ju ewa.....It is a quarter til ( = until) two.
  • Se go jo ewa.....It is a little past ( = after) two.
  • Se jubay uwa jwabi.....It is almost 4 o'clock.
  • Se gwe zemaj.....It is exactly (= just) noon.
  • Se go yiz zemoj.....It was slightly past (= beyond) midnight.
  • At so hum ojo ale jwebi.....I'll be there in (= not-after) twelve minutes.
  • Su him jwa / jwe!....Be here early / on time!
  • Von su jwo!....Don't be late!

General Time Words[edit]

General Time Words
GENERAL TIME WORDS EXAMPLES
job....time job bi uvan....a time of sadness
Job pape.....Time flies.
jod....time, instance, occasion awa jod....once
ewa jodi....two times
gajod...again, another time
xag....frequency Hoxag?....How often?
glaxag....very often
hyoxag....never
jud....date Be hoa jud?....On what date?
be ga jwoa jud....at a later date
jag....age Et se hojaga?....How old are you?
At se ulo jaga.....I am forty years old.

Scalar Time Periods[edit]

Scalar Time Periods
SCALAR TIME PERIODS
joob....eon
joab....era
joeb....period
joib....epoch
joub....age
joyob....chron
joyab....term

Some Parallel Time Terms[edit]

Parallel Time Words
taj....birth aj....past ajna....former, old ajoba....ancient ja....before jay....already jana....previous jaga....old jwa....early jwana....pre-mature
tej....life ej....present ejna....new ejoba....modern je....during jey....meanwhile jena....current jwe....on time jwena....mature, ripe
toj....death oj....future ojna....imminent ojoba....futuristic jo....after joy....afterwards jona....next joga....young jwo....late jwona....stale
tij....wakefulness ij....beginning ijna....initial ijob....early times ji....since jiga....fresh, vibrant
tuj....sleep uj....end ujna....final ujob....latter days ju....until juga....tired, jaded

Time, Frequency, and Age Questions[edit]

Time, Frequency, and Age Questions
WHEN HOW OFTEN HOW OLD
hoj?....when? hoxag....how often? hojaga?....how old?
haj hu....when haxag hu....as often as hajaga hu....as old as
hej....sometime hexag....sometimes hejaga....of a certain age
hij....now hixag....this often hijaga....this old
huj....then huxag....that often hujaga....that old
huuj....at such a time huuxag....so often huujaga....so old
hyoj....never hyoxag....not once glejaga....rather old
hyaj....always hyaxag....at all times grajaga....too old
hyej....anytime hyexag....however often grojaga....under-aged
hyij (vyel)....at the same time (as) gexag (vyel)....as often (as) gejaga (vyel)....of the same age (as)
hyuj (vyel)....some other time (than) ogexag (vyel)....not as often (as) ogejaga (vyel)....not as old (as)
be jodi....at times awa jod....once awa (jab) jaga....one year old
be hujobi....in those times ewa jodi....twice ewa (jabi) jaga....two years old
byu jobuj....forever gla jodi....many time alo (jabi) jaga....ten years old
byi huj....since then aloni bi jodi....hundreds of times gajaga (vyel)....older (than)
How old are you? is expressed as Hojaga se et?. A typical response is At se ali (jabi) jaga.....I am thirteen (years old). If the quantity of time is months, than the answer would be like the following: Iyt sa ewa jibi (jaga).....She was two months (old).

Age Classes[edit]

Age Classes
GENDER-NONSPECIFIC (MALE) FEMALE
awajag(w)at....one-year-old (boy) awajagayt....one-year-old girl
alojag(w)at....ten-year-old (boy) alojagayt....ten-year-old girl
jog(w)at....youngster, youth, (boy) jogayt....girl, damsel
gwajog(w)at....youngest person/(boy) gwajogayt....youngest girl
gojag(w)at....younger person/(boy), cadet gojagayt....younger girl
aloyjag(w)at....teenager, (teenaged boy) aloyjagayt....teenaged girl
grajog(w)at....minor, (under-aged boy) grajogayt....minor female, girl too young
grojag(w)at / jwot....minor, immature person/(boy) grojagayt / jwoyt....minor girl
grejagseat / jwet....adolescent (boy) grejagseayt / jweyt....adolescent (girl)
grejag(w)at / jwat....adult male, (boy of age) grejagayt / jwayt....adult female, girl of age
zejag(w)at....middle-aged person/(man) zejagayt....middle-aged female/woman
gajag(w)at....older person/(man), elder, superior gajagayt....older female/woman, elder, superior
grajag(w)at....over-aged person/(man), person/(man too old) grajagayt....over-aged female/woman, woman too old
jayg(w)at....youngish individual, youngish (man) jaygayt....youngish female, youngish woman
yilojag(w)at....octogenarian yilojagayt....octogenarian woman, woman in her eighties
yulojag(w)at....nonagenarian yulojagayt....nonagenarian woman, woman in her nineties
asojag(w)at....centenarian asojagayt....centenarian woman, 100-year-old woman
jag(w)at....oldster, veteran, old person, (old man), elder jagayt....old woman, old lady
jayg(w)at....oldish person jaygayt....oldish woman
gwajag(w)at....oldest/senior-most/eldest person/(man) gwajagayt....oldest/senior-most/eldest woman
gwojag(w)at....the least young person/(man) gwojagayt....the least young woman

The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families[edit]

The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.

Core Words[edit]

Core Words
...AG WORDS N...[BPD] WORDS
ag....size nod....point
sag....number nad....line
syag....count ned....plane
syaag....calculation nid....volume
nog....degree nab....rank
nag....measure nap....order
neg....level naab....organization
nig....space naap....system
jag....age nyap....rule
xag....frequency nyed....grid
yag....length


Shapes[edit]

Summary:
Shapes
zyus....circle
zyuys....oval
zyunid....sphere
zyuk....wheel
unizgun....rectangle
ungekun....square
ungun....quadrangle
unoizgun....rhombus
ingun....triangle
yoongun....pentagon
ginid....cone
yagunid....cube
inguginid....pyramid
fufnid....cylinder
amezsan....diamond
tosan....cross
uznad....arc
ilpsan....wave
gunsan....wedge
maarsan....star shape

The tom (Building), em (Place) Families[edit]

The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.

Core Words[edit]

Place Words
FULL WORDS STUBS
tom....building, nem....place -em....general (usu. open) place
tam....house, nam....store -am....indoor place, building
tem....hall, nyem....box -yem....enclosed space
tim....room -im....room
tum....cell -um....cell, booth, stall
nyeb....container
syeb....can
zyeb....bottle
-yeb....container

Common Spaces with -(e)m[edit]

The words in the following table refer to spaces or open places:
-EM Words
PLACE ROOT
abem....top ab....on
obem....bottom ob....base
ebem....interval eb....between
oyebem....outdoors oyeb....out
yebem....indoors yeb....in
yubem....vicinity yub....'near
yibem....distance yib....far
yabem....upstairs yab....up
yobem....downstairs yob....down
hom?....where? ho-....which
zem....middle ze-....middle
zam....front za....before
zom....back zo....after
kum....side kua....lateral
kim....slope kia....diagonal
byim....source byi....since
byum....destination byu....up to
bem....position be....at
dem....park d(o)-....social
dopekem....battleground dopek....battle
melyexem....farm mel....soil + yex....work
goynem....sector goyn....cut
ijem....origin ij....start
kosem....hideout kos-....hide
kyosem....settlement kyos-....stay
mem....country m-....natural things
mimpuem....dock mim....sea + pu-....arrive
obdobem....colony ob....off + dob....regime
apem....wharf ap-....embark
sexem....construction site sex....construction
tojmelukem....cemetery toj....death + mel....soil + uk....vacuum
tom....building to-....human
ujem....terminus uj....end
vobem....planation vob....plant
xem....office x-....do
yomkiparem....ice skating rink yom....ice + kipar +skate

Common Places with -am[edit]

These words refer to houses and buildings:
-AM Words
BUILDING ROOT
nam....shop n-....commercial
aajasnam....antique store aajas....antique
apelatam....beehive apelat....bee
apetigpekam....(horse) racetrack apet....horse + ig-....fast + pek....competition
tam....house t-....human
bektam....hospice bek....treatment
bextam....castle bex-....keep
bekilnam....pharmacy bekil....medecine + nam....store
saxam....factory sax-....make
bilunsaxam....dairy bil....milk + -un....product + sax-....make
datibam....hotel dat....friend + ib-....receive
tistam....school tis....learn
doyevam....court do-....public + yev....justice
doptam....barracks dop....military
dresam....bureau dres-....write
bokam....hospital bok....sickness
mamparam....hangar mam....sky + par....vehicle
mogxam....crematorium mog....ash + x-....make
posam....station pos-....stop
taolgoblam....butcher shop taol....meat + gobl-....cleave
tilam....bar til-....drink
yibdubam....embassy yib....far + dub....minister

Common Containers and Enclosed Spaces with -yem[edit]

-YEM Words
CONTAINER ROOT
apetyem....corral apet....horse
nyem....box n-....commercial
syem....institution s-....exist
milpyem....swimming pool milp-....swim
nunyem....package nun....merchandise
ponyem....suitcase po-....travel
tebnyem....skull teb....head
tuyabyem....pocket tuyab....hand
vabijyem....pod vabij....seed
tyem....residence t-....human
tobijyem....ovary tobij....embryo
tojnyem....casket toj....death
ukyem....slot uk-....empty
myem....plot of ground m-....natural things
magilyem....fuel tank magil....fuel
koyem....shelter ko-....hide

Common Rooms with -(t)im[edit]

These words describe type of rooms (tim):
-IM Words
ROOM ROOT
tim....room t-....human
aybmostim....attic ayb-....upper + mos....floor
oybmostim....basement oyb-....lower + mos....floor
ebmostim....mezzanine eb....between + mos....floor
avoliim....pantry avol....bread
apetim....stall apet....horse
beaxim....ward beax-....watch
azla bikim....intensive care unit azla....intensive + bik....care
belunim....cargo bay belun....cargo
biktim....clinic bik....care
datibim....lobby dat....friend + ib-....receive
dyezim....screening room dyez....cinema
doebdalim....conference room do-....public + eb....between + dal-....speak
ebtim....corridor eb....between
fyadilim....chapel fya-....holy + dil....request
dokebidim....voting booth do-....public + kebi-....choice
fyatim....sanctuary fya-....holy
milufim....toilet mil....water + -uf....pipe
movim....smoking den mov....smoke
novim....linen closet nov....linen
saxim....studio sax-....create
sumtim....bedroom sum....bed
teexutim....auditorium teexut....listener
tulim....dining room tul....cuisine
vaobim....hayloft vaob....hay
vyakexim....laboratory vyakex....test
zatim....antechamber za....front
zyutim....rotunda zyu-....round
yexim....office yex-....work

Locative Deictic Adverbs[edit]

The locative deictic adverbs (or pro-adverbs) use the -m suffix of place, eg:
Locative Deictic Adverbs
hom?....where?
ham hu....the place where, where
hem....somewhere
him....here
hiim....the following place
hum....there
huum....such a place
hyom....nowhere
hyam....everywhere
hyem....anywhere, wherever
hyim1....(at) the same place
hyum1....elsewhere, somewhere else
Note 1: Also gem.
Note 2: Also ogem.

The a (One) yan (Together) Families[edit]

The stems in this family are based on a....one, and yan....together and their opposites, o....zero and yon....apart.

Core Words[edit]

A-O Contrasts
SINGLE NULL
a-....one o-....zero, un-
awa....one owa....zero
an-....uni-, mono- on-....non-
yan-....together, con- yon-....apart, dis-
hya-....all hyo-....none
-aya....-ful -oya....-less
ay....and oy....but

Collective Nouns[edit]

The suffix -yan is used to form collective nouns. Here are some examples:
Collective Nouns with -YAN
SINGLETON COLLECTION
fab....tree fabyan....forest
vyab....rule vyabyan....regimen, system
vos....flower vosyan....bouquet
uzun....ring uzunyan....chain
ut....person utyan....group
toom....apartment toomyan....apartment complex
teyen....idea teyenyan....ideology
tyen....technique tyenyan....technology
tixut....student tixutyan....student body
tit....pupil tityan....class
telar....eating utensil telaryan....cutlery
sir....machine siryan....machinery
pat....bird patyan....flock
An extension of yan is nyan, meaning stack, pile, accumulation, crowd, and so is a bit more intensive:
Collective Nouns with -NYAN
SINGLETON COLLECTION
pet....land animal petnyan....herd
ut....person utnyan....crowd
dit....citizen ditnyan....populace
taib....bone taibnyan....skeleton
yaut....public persona yautnyan....commune
dun....word dunnyan....list
vaob....hay vaobnyan....haystack
The following confusing terms should be kept distinct:
Collective Words
NOUN VERB
aud....individual, person auda....personal
aut....myself auta....my own
anut....private individual anuta....private
utyan....group utyana....collective
audyan....people audyana....popular
audyanin....populism audyanina....populist
audyandab....republic, democracy audyandaba....republican, democratic
yaut....ourselves yauta'....our own
yaud....constituent, commoner yauda....common, collective, public
yaudyan....community, constituency, public yaudyana....communitarian
yaudnyan....commune, collective yaudnyana....communal, collective
yaudin....communism yaudina....communist
dityan....citizenry, population dityana....of the citizenry, populational
ditnyan....populace ditnyana....popular
ditnyanin....populism ditnyanina....populist
yanav....party (political) yanava....partisan
yaniv....party (fun) yaniva....festive
yanut....associate yanuta....general, public
yanutyan....association yanutyana....associational

The tob (Human) Family[edit]

The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism, body, or organ or p, having to do with the non-corporeal aspects of man, such as mind and emotion.

Core Words[edit]

T-B Core Words
-B -P
tob....human, man top....soul, psyche
tab....body tap....physique
teb....head tep....mind
tib....trunk tip....sentiment, emotion
tub....arm tup....limb
tyob....leg


All the names of the parts of the body are derived from these core words in a hiearchical fashion using stem vowel scalarization, as can be seen from the sample chart below of the body parts relating to arm and leg (not the parallelism):
Parts of the Body
tub
arm
tuab
shoulder
tueb
upper arm
tuib
elbow
tuub
forearm
tuyob
wrist
tuyab
hand
tuyeb
fist
tuyib
palm
tuyub
finger
tulob
fingernail
tyob
leg
tyoab
hip
tyoeb
thigh
tyoib
knee
tyoub
tibia
tyoyob
ankle
tyoyab
foot
tyoyeb
heel
tyoyib
sole
tyoyub
toe
tyolob
toenail

Bodily Functions and Gestures[edit]

The following chart shows how gestural and bodily movements and functions are derived from body parts:

ORGANISMGESTURES, MOVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS
tob....human
twob....man
toyb....woman
tobser....become human, tobxer....humanize, tobtojber....murder
tobij....embryo tobijier....conceive, tobijuer....impregnate, tobijer....ovulate, tobijbeler....gestate
tab....body tabazaxer....work out, tabmelukxer....entomb, tabteaxer....autopsy
tayeb....hair tayebarer....comb, tayeboker....go bald, tayefarer....brush, tayeborber....shave, tayelber....shampoo, tayevarer....mop
tayob....skin tayobiler....sweat, tayobober....flay, tayoboser....itch, tayoser....feel like, tayoter....feel, tayoxer....palpate, tayobdriler....tattoo, tayotyofxer....numb
teb....head
tebabun....scalp
tebzan....face
tebabunober....scalp, tebbaxer....nod, tebober....decapitate, tebzaner....face
teab....eye
teababun....eyelid
teabyeb....eyelash
teabil....tear
teaser....seem, teater....see, teatyofxer....blind, teaxer....look, teaxuer....show, teazuer....amaze, teabizer....aim, teaper....visit, teabyujiger....blink
teababuner....blink
teababyexer....bat an eyelash
teabiler....tear up
teeb....ear teeter....hear, teeser....sound like, teeper....attend, teeder....rumor, teeyofxer....deafen, teexer....listen
teib....nose teiter....smell, teiser....smell like, teitier....take a whiff of, teituer....reek, teixer....smell, teseuxer....snore, teizber....perfume, teipulxer....sneeze, teibalier....sniff, teibalegier....sniffle, teibiler....run at the nose, teibukxer....blow the nose
teub....mouth
teubil....saliva
teubsin....expression
deuz....song
seux....sound
seuz....tone
teuz....voice
toleuz....taste
teuv....mask
teuf....muzzle
teubier....swallow, yijteuber....yawn, teuser....taste like, teuter....taste, teutier....sample, teutuer....offer a taste, teuxer....taste, teuder....shout, ivteuder....laugh, uvteuder....groan, ivteuber....smile, uvteuber....frown,vyoivteuder....mock, ufteuber....scowl, uvseuxer....grumble
teubiler....salivate, teubiloker....drool, teubilokeger....dribble, teubiloyeber....expectorate, teubilpuxer....spew, teubiluer....spit, teubilier....slurp
teubsiner....grimace
deuzer....sing, yandeuzer....harmonize, yagdeuzer....chant
seuxer....ring seuxder pronounce, voyseuxder....mispronounce
zoyteuzer....echo, uvseuzer....sigh
teuzuer....vote, teuzier....poll, teuzibarer....telephone
toleuser....taste like, toleuter....taste, toleuxer....savor, fitoleuser....taste good, futoleuser....taste bad
teuvuer....mask
teufuer....muzzle
teubab....tongue teubaxer....wag the tongue, teubabaxer....lick
teubib....gum teubixer....chew, teubixeger....ruminate
teupib....tooth teupixer....bite, teupixeger....nibble, yebteupixer....crunch
teubob....lip teuboxer....kiss, teuboxeger....smooch, teubobaxer....smack the lips
teyob....neck teyobabaxer....neck, teyopixer....collar, teyozyober....choke , teyopyoxer....hang
tib....trunk tibuzer....bow
tibuj....tail
tibuf....train
tibujbarxer....wag
tibufer....trail
tieb....lung
tiebal....breath
tiebbok....cold
tiexer....breath, tiebyujber....suffocate, teibukxer....cough
tiebalier....inhale, tiebaluer....exhale, tiebaloker....belch
tiebbokier....catch a cold
tiib....heart
tiibil....blood

tiibiler....bleed tiibiloker bleed out, tiibilglalser....clot, tiibilier....suck blood, tiibiluer....let blood
tikeb....stomach
tikebil....chyme
tikebier....digest, tikebukxer....vomit
tikyeb....anus
tikyebal....flatulence
tikyebil....feces

tikyebaler....fart
tikyebiler....defecate
tikyob....bowels tikyobier....ingest, tikyobober....disembowel
tub....arm yantubier....embrace, tubbaxer....wave
tuyab....hand tuyaxer....handle, tuyaber....handle, tuyabalxer....shake hand, tuyabexer....manipulate, tuyabier....grab, tuyabirer....wrestle, tuyasiuner....wave, tuyabuer....hand out, tuyadrer....write out longhand, tuyapixer....clasp tuyapyexer clap
tuyeb....fist tuyepeker....fistfight, tuyebalxer....shake one's....fist, tuyepyelxuer....pound, tuyepyexer....box
tuyib....palm tuyibabaxer....pat, tuyibaber....palm, tuyibuer....palm off, tuyipyexer....slap
tuyob....wrist tuyoxer....wave
tuyub....finger tuyubarxer....wag one's....finger, tuyubifeker....fiddle, tuyubizder....point out, tuyuibeaxer....indicate, tuyugiber....poke, tuyupyexer....tap, tuyuxer....palpate
tulob....fingernail
paltulob....claw
tuloxer....scratch, tuloxefer....itch
patuloxer....claw, patulober....grip
tyoib....knee tyoixer....kneel, tyoiper....crawl
tyoyab....foot tyoyabarer....stomp, tyoyakyeper....hobble, tyoyapyexer....kick
tyoyeb....heel tyoyeber....spurn
tyoyib....sole tyoyiber....supplant
tyoyub....toe tyoyubaxeger....wiggle one's....toe, tyoyuzyuper....pirouette

The bak (Health) Family[edit]

Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:

Core Words[edit]

B-K Words
NOUNS VERBS
bak....health
baak....hygiene
bakser....heal (intr.), bakxer....heal (tr.)
bek....treatment
byek....cure
bekier....get treated, bekuer....treat,
byekser....be cured, byekxer....cure
bok....illness
book....fatigue
bokser....get sick, bokxer....sicken
bookser....grow tired, bokxer....tire out
bik....care bikier....take care, bikuer....care for
buk....injury
bruk....mutilation
bukser....be injured, bukxer....injure
brukser....be mutilated, brukxer....mutilate
byok....pain
blok....suffering
brok....torture
byoker....ache, byokuer....inflict pain
bloker....suffer, blokuer....inflict suffering
broker....agonize, brokuer....torture

The tod (Family) Family[edit]

Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.

Core Words[edit]

Notice that kinship terms are gender-neutral unless there is a w before the root syllable vowel (indicating male-specific) or a y following the root syllable vowel (indicating female-specific).
T-D Words
tod....family MALE FEMALE
tad....spouse twad....husband tayd....wife
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
tid....sibling twid....brother tiyd....sister
tud....child twud....son tuyd....daughter

Genealogical Prefixes[edit]

Prefixes or word elements used to modify the above core words:
Genealogical Prefixes
to-....god- (as in godson)
ta-....-in-law, through marriage
te-....father's
ti-....sibling's
tu-....child's
taj-....birth-, real
otaj-, ifbi-....foster, adopted
ij-....first, original
aj-....ex-, former
ej-....current, step-, half-
oj-....future, -to-be
aa....first
ea....second
yiba....distant
aa yiba....first-removed
ea yiba....second-removed
ota-....out-of-wedlock, bastard
oyted-....orphan(ed), without parents
oytad-....unmarried, without spouse
oytud-....childless, without child, barren
tiibil-....blood-

Kinship Terms[edit]

Kinship Terms Formed from the Above Core Words and Prefixed Elements
Kinship Terms
GENDER-NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE
tad....spouse
ajtad....ex-spouse
ijtad....first spouse
ejtad....current spouse, step spouse
ojtad....spouse-to-be, fiance
oytadat....bachelor
twad....husband
ajtwad....ex-husband
ijtwad....first husband
ejtwad....current husband, step husband
ojtwad....husband-to-be, fiance
oytwadat....bachelor
tayd....wife
ajtayd....ex-wife
ijtayd....first wife
ejtayd....current wife, step-wife
ojtayd....wife-to-be, fiancee
oytadayt....spinster
ted....parent
tajted....birth parent
ejted....step parent, foster parent
ojted....parent-to-be
teted....grand-parent
teteted....great-grandparent
tated....parent-in-law
toted....godparent
oytedat....orphan
twed....father
tajtwed....birth father
ejtwed....step-father, foster father
ojtwed....father-to-be
tetwed....grand-father
tetetwed....great-grandfather
tatwed....father-in-law
totwed....godfather
oytwedat....male orphan
teyd....mother
tajteyd....birth mother
ejteyd....stepmother, foster mother
ojted....mother-to-be
teteyd....grandmother
teteteyd....great-grandmother
tateyd....mother-in-law
toteyd....godmother
oytedayt....female orphan
tid....sibling
ejtid....step-sibling
tatid....sibling-in-law
tetid....parent's sibling
tetetid....great parent's sibling
twid....brother
ejtwid....step-brother
tatwid....brother-in-law
tetwid....uncle
tetetwid....great uncle
tiyd....sister
ejtiyd....stepsister
tatiyd....sister-in-law
tetiyd....aunt
tetetiyd....great aunt
tud....child
tatud....child-in-law
ijtud....first-born child
ejtud....stepchild
otada tud....bastard child
titud....sibling's child
totud....godchild
tutud....grandchild
titutud....sibling's grandchild
tetitud....cousin
aa tetitud....first cousin
ea tetitud....second cousin
aa yiba tetitud....cousin first removed
twud....son
tatwud....son-in-law
ijtwud....first-born son
ejtwud....stepson
otada twud....bastard son
titud....nephew
totwud....godson
tutwud....grandson
titutwud....grandnewphew
tetitwud....cousin
aa tetitwud....first male cousin
ea tetitwud....second male cousin
aa yiba tetitwud....male cousin first removed
tuyd....daughter
tatuyd....daughter-in-law
ijtuyd....first-born-daughter
ejtuyd....stepdaughter
otada tuyd....bastard daughter
tituyd....niece
totuyd....goddaughter
tutuyd....granddaughter
titutuyd....grandniece
tetituyd....(female) cousin
aa tetituyd....first female cousin
ea tetituyd....second female cousin
aa yiba tetituyd....female cousin first removed
Suffixed -if gives you affectionate equivalents:
  • twadif....hubby
  • taydif....darling wife, wifey-poo
  • twedif....daddy, papa
  • teydif....mommy, mama
  • twidif....bro
  • tiydif....sis
  • twudif....sonny, kid
  • tuydif....darling daughter
Other terms:
  • todat....relative, sib
  • tiibil todat....blood relative
  • todatan....kinship
  • todatyan....kinfolk, clan
  • todeb....pater familias
  • todeyb....mater familias
  • otatud....bastard, bastard son, bastard child
  • otatuyd....bastard daughter
  • oytetwud....orphan, orphan son
  • oytetuyd....orphan daughter
  • oytwadat....bachelor, unmarried man'
  • oytadayt....spinster, unmarried woman, bachelorette
  • oytudayt....childless woman
  • glatidat....person with many siblings
  • oytidat....person with no siblings
  • tadat....in-law
  • otajted, ifbited....foster parent, adopting parent
  • otajtud, ifbitud....foster child, adopted child
  • otajteder, ifbiteder....foster, adopt
  • otajtedwa, ifbitedwa....adopted
  • teder....parent, raise
  • tadier....get married, take on a spouse
  • taduer....marry, preside over a marriage
  • todtun....genealogy
  • tood....ethnos, tribe, clan, race
  • toodtun....folklore
  • tooddin....folk story
  • toos....gender, sex
  • hyitoosifa....homosexual
  • hyutoosifa....heterosexual
  • entoosifa....bisexual
  • hyatoosifa....pansexual
  • hyotoosifa....asexual
  • hyitoosa tadan....same-sex marriage
  • tadyan....married couple
  • jwaa tadien....shotgun wedding
  • tyod....people, folk

The dot (Society) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.

Core Words[edit]

D-T Core Words
dot....society
dat....friend
dwat....male friend
dayt....female friend
det....comrade, mate
dwet....boyfriend
deyt....girlfriend
dit....citizen
dut....gentleperson
dwut....gentleman, sir, lord
duyt....lady, madame
dout....bourgeois
The prefix do- can be used to form words that are public in nature, eg:
The Do- prefix
COMBINED FORM SUFFIX
dovyab....law vyab....rule
doyev....justice yev-....just
doyov....crime yov....shame
doyiv....(civil) right yiv....license
dobien....coup d'etat bien....taking
dodres....bulletin dres....document
dokex....(public) inquiry kex....search
doval....public safety val....safety
dovaldib....police dib....administration
dotojben....execution tojben....putting to death
dosyag....census syag....count
dodrur....press drur....printer

The tof (Clothes) and nof (Textile)[edit]

The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof....cloth and nov....lingerie. The words have to do with clothing. Post-y-gliding the semantic stem vowel produces something that relates to women. Pre-w-gliding the semantic stem vowel produces something that relates specifically to men.
Summary:
Forming Words for Clothes
BODY PART CLOTHING ITEM FOR WOMEN
tob....man tof....clothing toyf....female outfit
tab....body taf....suit tayf....dress
teb....head tef....hat teyf....woman's hat
teyob....neck teyof....necktie
tuab....shoulder tuaf....shawl
tib....trunk tif....vest
zetib....waist zetif....belt
tiab....chest tiav....shirt tiayv....blouse
tilab....breast tilayv....bra
tiub....belly tiuv....undershorts tiuyv....panties
tuyab....hand tuyaf....glove
tyob....leg tyof....pants tyoyf....skirt
The nof family words begin with n meaning commercial and end in f meaning textile. Here is a summary:
BASIC WORD
DERIVATIVES
nof textile, tissue
nov....linen
nofir....loom, nofxer....weave
nofyank....stitch, nofyanker....sew, nofyankut....seamster
nofyonk....rip, nofyonker....rip, nofyonkar....scissors, shears
nofyuj....pleat, nofyujber....fold
nofzyiar....iron, nofzyiarer....iron
novyan....lingerie, novim....linen closet
misof curtain, obmasof carpet yebof sack
favof....cotton, favoyf....cotton wool
fevof....flax
fivof....hemp
fuvof....jute
tayof....leather
naf....material, cloth, fabric
naaf....drape
naef....canvas
naif....velvet
nauf....veil
nayaf....cordoroy

nef....knit
neof....stitch
neaf....net, mesh, web
neef....lace
neif....braid
neuf....wicker
neyof....loop
neyaf....wale
neyef....strip, band
neyif....plait
nayuf....lattice
nefxer....knit, neofxer....stitch, neifxer....braid neyofxer....loop
nefar....knitting needle
nefiaf....sweater
vinef....embroidery
yotayef....goat's hair, wool
tayef....bristle
utayef....wool
zyef....pane of glass, zyev....glass
nyef bag, sack
yebeaf....mesh bag
yebeuf....wicker basket
nif....yarn, fiber
niv....thread
niyf....filament, string
niif....twine
nifur....spinner, nifxer....spin, nifun....spider's web
nifar....needle
nivar....pin
mugnif....wire
apeyetif....silk
nuf button
nufyujber button
nufyijber unbutton
nufzyeg buttonhole
nufag....knob
nyaf....knot
nyafer....tie, onyafer....untie, unravel
mugnyaf....clasp, buckle
nyef....bag, sack
zotibnyef....backpack
tolnyef....grocery bag
yignyef....basket
nyif....rope
mugnyif....cable
nyifog....lace, cord
nyuf....package
nyufag....crate

The mos (Floor) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
Summary:
M-S Core Words
MASONRY BASE WORD DERIVATIVES
mos....floor omos....ground floor
amos....first floor
abmos....attic
ebmos....mezzanine
obmos....basement
mas....wall abmas....roof
aybmas....ceiling
obmas....foundation
oybmas....floor
masof ....carpet
abzamas....balcony
obzamas....porch
ebmas....partition
mes....door zames....front door
zomes....back door
mesnufag....door knob
mesyuznad....door frame
mestuyar....door handle
mis....window miszyef....window pane
eymis....shutter
misof....curtain
mus....stairs musnog....step, stair rung
musim....starwell
magmus....fire escape
musabnod ....climax
muys....ladder
pasmus....escalator

The som (Furniture) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
Summary:
S-M Core Words
FURNITURE BASE WORD DERIVATIVES
som....furniture somber....furnish
somxut....carpenter
milsom....sink
milufsom ....toilet
maksom....appliance
mansom....light fixture
somyan....furnishings
milamsom....water heater
malomsom....air-conditioner
sam....armoire, chest telarsam....china cabinet
telsam....cupboard
tovsam....chest of drawers
samnyem....drawer
avolsom....pantry
sem....table semof....table cloth
tilsem....bar
yagsem....countertop
yuzsem....round table
dresem....desk
dalsem....pulpit
tabsem....bier
fyasem....altar
tularsem....buffet
dyedsem....lectern
syagsem....counter (cashier stand)
sim....chair zaopsim....rocking chair
yagyugsim....couch
zyupsim....swivel chair
eynsim....stool
edebsim....throne
yagyigsim....bench
tobotsim....high chair
apetsim....saddle
fyadilsim....pew
maksim.....electric chair
teadutsim....witness box
tujyagsim....sleep sofa
zopsim....recliner
yigsim....hard chair
agsim....arm chair
simber....to seat
simper....to sit
sum....bed suam....cushion
suaym....pillow
suav....pillow case
suem....mattress
suev....sheet
suef....blanket
absuef....bedspread
obsuev....liner
suim....box spring
summuf....bedpost
eonsum....twin bed
eynsum....day bed
igsum....cot
suym ....couch
nyanxwa sum....bunk bed
milsum....waterbed
tabsum....sleeping bag
pyoxwa sum....hammock
malsum....airbed
summanar....bed lamp
sumber....put to bed
sumper....go to bed

The sar (Tool) and par (Vehicle) Family[edit]

The base words having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile. Specific tools and machines are created by appending one of the stub suffixes to the stem of the word that describes what the tool or machine does. For example, makijar, meaning electrical switch, starter is composed of mak (electricity) and ij- (start).
Summary:
Stub Suffixes for Tools and Machines
STANDALONE WORD STUB SUFFIX MEANING
sar -ar instrument, tool, device (default)
sir -ir apparatus, hand-driven machine
sor -or machine, powered machine
sur -ur motor, engine
Note: the stub suffixes other than -ar (the default) are used only to distinguish words like bicycle and motorcycle or needle and loom, etc.

Vehicles[edit]

Vehicle words end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument, unless there is a need for further distinction, in which case, the ending may be -ir, -or, or -ur.
Vehicles
VEHICLES
par....cart
pir....carriage
pur....car
mampur....airplane
mempur....automobile, car
mimpar....boat
mimpir....motorboat
mimpur....ship
mumpur....subway
mompur....spaceship
kyinpar....dolly
kyinpir....cart, wagon
anzyukyinpir....wheelbarrow
kyinpur....truck
naadpur....train
yaudpur....bus
enzyukpar....bicycle
enzyukpir....scooter
enzyukpor....motorcycle
inzyukpar....tricycle
kipar....skate
kipir....sled
kipur....sleigh

Tools and Machines[edit]

Tools and Machines
TOOLS AND MACHINES
drar....pencil
drir....typewriter
drur....printer
dodrur....press
syagar....calculator
syagir....computer
vyixar....brush
vyixir....sweeper
vyixur....vacuum cleaner

The tol (Food) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
Summary:
T-L Core Words
WORD DERIVATIVES
tol....nutrition tolnam....grocery store
toltun....dietetics
tolvyaab....diet
toluer....feed
toyl....nutrition
toyles....nutrient
toyluer....nourish
tolsam....food buffet
toleus....taste
toleusgab....relish
tolmek....spice
tolsyeb....casserole
tel....food telier....eat
teluer....feed
telam....restaurant
telar....fork
telyeb....plate
telefa....hungry
telifut....gourmet
gratelut....glutton
teltun....gastronomy
oteliwas....leftover
til-....drink tilsem....bar
tilier....drink
tilef....thirst
tilgronag....drought
gratilut....drunk
tilyeb....glass
tilar....spoon
tilarog....teaspoon
tilarag....ladle
tilsyeb....cup
teilsyeb....soup bowl
kyitilsyeb....mug, stein
tul....dish jatul....appetizer
jotul....dessert
agtul....main dish, entree
ogtul....tapa
igtul....snack
atulyan....first course
etulyan....
second course
tular....
dish
tularsam....
china cabinet
tularvyixar....
dishwasher
tuler....
dine
tamtuler....
dine at home
tulur....
stove
tultuna....
culinary
tulxeb....
chef
tulxim....
kitchen
tulim....
dining room
tulagim....
banquet hall
vitultun....
gastronomy
tuldras....
menu
tulyuxut....
waiter
tulyeb....
platter
tyal....meal atyal....breakfast
etyal....lunch
ityal....dinner
utyal....supper
etyalier....have lunch
etyaluer....serve lunch
tyalag....banquet
vabemtyal....picnic
yomxwa tyal....frozen dinner
Drink, Food, Liquids
STUB EXAMPLES
-il....liquid, drink teil....soup
til....beverage
bil....milk
mil....water
gyalevil....syrup
aybil....cream
bilyig....cheese
bilyug....butter
mekil....gruel
gyalevabil....pudding
taobiil....gravy
tuil....sauce
tuilyeb....saucer
fil....alcohol
vafil....wine
vafiltun....oenology
grafiliut....alcoholic
filxer....ferment
filvyunober....distill
levafil....liquour
teabil....tear
teubil....saliva
ilyeb....bottle
yavil....beer
magiler....boil
dril....ink
ilneyeb....tank, reservoir
ilsyeb....carafe, beaker, flask
apelatil....honey
bavuil....ketchup
-yal....juice sefyal....coffee
safyal....tea
vafyal....grape juice
-el....food level....sugar
yapel....pork
vipel....venison
eopel....beef
mageler....cook
movelwa....smoked
ummagelar....oven
elsyeb....pot, pan
-yel....gel, oil dofyel....chocolate
megyel....cement
myel....plastic
tayel....shampoo
tulyel....cooking oil
magyel....fuel
yugyel....rubber
fyel....wax
magyeler....fry
magyelsyeb....frying pan
leveyel....jam, confiture
yiglevyel....candy
kafyel....olive oil
gevyel....corn oil
tulyel....cooking oil
gavyel....sunflower oil
-eil....soup teil....soup
yagteil....stew
-ol....food avol....bread
taol....meat
umleavol....biscuit
sifyol....pepper
mimol....salt
ovol....bran
zyuavol....roll
zyiavol....flatbread, pita
yuzavol....wrap, gyro, taco
uzavol....twist, croissant
ebavol....sandwich
toleusgabol....condiment
leavol....pasta
-ul....substance mul....matter
bekul....medecine
bukul....poison
zemul....yolk
vemul....neutron
vamul....proton
vomul....electron
gwomul....atom
vyul....slime
zemul....nucleus

The mor (universe) and mom (outer space) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m....nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc. The stem vowel indicates whether the term applies to the sky, ground, water, etc.
Summary:
M-R Core Words
mor....universe mom....cosmos mol....nature mop....orbit moj....evening
mon....darkness
mof....nebula
mov....smoke
mok....dark matter
mog....ash
mob....abyss
mar....star
maar....sun
mam....sky mal....air map....wind maj....day
man....light
maf....cloud
mav....flame
mak....electricty
mag....fire
mer....planet
meir....earth
mem....land mel....soil mep....road mef....brick
mev....porcelain
mek....dust
meg....rock
mez....gem
meb....mountain
mir....world mim....sea mil....water mip....river
mur....satellite
muar....moon
mum....underground mul....matter mup....tunnel muk....mineral
mug....metal
mub....cave, pit
A few important derivations:
  • maar....sun  ("number one star")
  • maarnaap....solar system  (the "sun system")
  • maaryap....sunrise  ("sun rise")
  • maaryop....sunset  ("sun descent")
  • maarnad....sunbeam  ("sun line")
  • maarmap....solar wind  ("sun wind")
  • maarman....sunlight  ("sun light")
  • muar....moon   ("number one satellite)
  • muarned....lunar surface   ("moon surface")
  • muarmoyb....lunar crater   ("moon depression")
  • Meir....Earth   ("third planet from the sun"
  • meirtun....geology   ("earthscience"
  • meirzyunad....earth's axis   ("earth turn line"
  • meirmop....earth's orbit   ("earth's orbit"
  • marmaf....galaxy   ("star cloud")
  • Amarmaf....Milky Way   ("number one galaxy, i.e. star cloud")
  • maryan....constellation   ("collection of stars")
  • marmeg....comet   ("star rock")
  • mommeg....meteor   ("space rock")
  • mammeg....meteorite   ("sky rock")
The following are vehicles and derivatives that are specific to one of the above physical spheres:
Vehicles Specific to Various Spheres
mompur....spaceship momper....travel through space momput....cosmonaut, astronaut
mampur....airplane mamper....fly mamput....flyer, pilot
mempur....automobile memper....ride, drive memput....rider, driver
mimpur....ship
obmimpar....submarine
mimper....sail, navigate mimput....sailor, navigator
obmimput....submariner
mumpur....subway mumper....tunnel, go by metro mumput....metro rider
Note: marpur = starship and muarpur = lunar module


Names of the Planets[edit]

Here are the names of the planets in our solar system. Notice that Earth is the "third planet" from the sun.
Planets
mer....planet
Mear....Mercury
Meer....Venus
Meir....Earth (i = three)
Meur....Mars
Meyor....Jupiter
Meyar....Saturn
Meyer....Uranus
Meyir....Pluto

Polar Directions[edit]

Polar Directions
DIRECTIONS mer....planet
a....up amer....north amera....northern
o....down omer....south omera....southern
i....right imer....east imera....eastern, oriental
u....left umer....west umera....western, occidental
Compass points can be hybrids of the above:
  • aomera izon....north-south direction
  • uimera domep....east-west street
  • aumera zyemep....northwest passage
  • oimera tez....southeast culture
Related terms:
  • amernod....north pole (nod = point)
  • omernod....south pole
  • aomernad....longitude (ao = north-south, nad = line)
  • uimernad....latitude (ui = east-west)
  • emernad....equator (e = middle)
  • oybemernada....tropical, Torrid (oyb = below)
  • merzyun....globe, sphere (planet-ball)
  • eymerzyun....hemisphere (half-planet-ball)
The same directional prefixes are used in the following words:
  • aonab....column (up-down row, y-axis)
  • uinab....row (left-right row, x-axis)
  • aonada....vertical ) (nad = line)
  • uinada....horiztonal

Types of Clouds[edit]

Types of Clouds
maf....cloud
maaf....stratus
maef....nimbostratus
maif....cumulus
mauf....cumulonimbus
mayof....stratocumulus
mayaf....allocumulus
mayef....allostratus
mayif....cirrocumulus
mayuf....cirrostratus
malof....cirrus

Types of Roads and Paths[edit]

Types of Roads
mep....way, road, route
    zeymep....bridge, crossing
    aybmep....overpass, bridge
    oybmep....underpass
    zyemep....tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
    kumep....side path
    zomep....back way
    ebmep....aisle
    tyoyamep....sidewalk, walkway
    omep....impasse
    gunmep....dogleg
    dinmep....plot
    pomep....itinerary
    eynmep....half-way
    homep?....which way?
    yilpmep....escape route
    yexmep....career
    yuzmep....circuit
    tyenmep....career
    puxmep....trajectory
    vyamep....right way
    vyomep....wrong way
    musmep....stairway
    izmep....direct route, straight path, vector
    yebmep....entryway, entrance
    oyebmep....exit, way out
    mummep....subway
    mammep....air route
    elyamep....railroad, railway
    mimmep....sealane
domep....street
    agdomep....highway
    aagdomep....main street
    zyadomep....broadway
    igdomep....expressway
    uzmep....byway, detour
    yuzdomep....beltway, loop
    zyudomep....roundabout, circle, rotary
    ebdomep....
alley
    anizona domep....
one-way street
meap....avenue
meep....boulevard
meip....lane
    zimeip....right lane
    zumeip....left lane
    zemeip....median, middle lane
    anmeip....single lane
    enmeip....double lane
meup....trail
    mebmeup....mountain trail
meyp....path
    tyoyameyp....footpath

Types of Stones, Gems, etc.[edit]

Types of Stones
STONE GEM OTHER EARTH SUBSTANCES
meg .... stone mez .... gem mek .... dust
meag .... marble amez .... diamond miek .... sand
meeg ....slate emez .... topaz myek .... powder
meig ....gramote imez .... ruby mel .... soil
meug ....clay vamez .... emerald meil .... mud
meyag ....chalk yamez .... amethyst megil .... cement
meyeg ....limestone yomez .... sapphire myel .... plastic
meyig ....alabaster mil .... water
meyog .... china mial .... vapor
meyug .... gypsum miil .... dew
melag .... adobe mimol .... salt
meleg .... terra cotta mamil .... rain
melig .... marl mal .... air
melug .... kaolin mayl .... gas
melyag .... feldspar magil .... petroleum
melyeg .... petunse mug .... metal
melyig .... silica muk .... mineral
melyog .... pegmatite mul .... matter
melyug .... flint mag .... fire
mieg .... coral mog .... ash
mav .... flame
mov .... smoke

Thermal Conditions[edit]

Thermal Conditions
am....heat ama .... hot ayma ....warm
om....cold oma .... cold oyma ....cool
im....moisture ima .... wet iyma ....humid
um....draught uma .... dry uyma ....arid
yom....ice yoma .... frozen yoyma ....chilly
yam....fire yama .... burning yayma....fiery
Note: aoma = lukewarm.

Weather Phenomena[edit]

Weather Phenomena
maalbyen ....weather (atmosphere + mood)
mamil ....rain
mamyom ....sleet
mamyoym ....snow
yoym ....frost
yom ....ice
mial ....steam
miil ....dew
maf ....cloud
miaf ....fog
mapil ....storm, windstorm
xeusmapil ....thunderstorm
mapilag ....tempest
mimuzlun ....hurricane
imera mimuzlun ....typhoon
map ....wind
maap ....puff
maep ....breeze
maip ....gust
maup ....gale
mayop ....typhoon
mapuzlun ....tornado, twister, cyclone
mammanig (or) mammak ....lightning
mamxeus ....thunder
mamiluz ....rainbow
jibim ....monsoon
graim ....flood, deluge


Atmospheric Layers[edit]

Atmospheric Layers
mal ....air
maal ....atmosphere
mael ....troposphere
mail ....stratosphere
maul ....ionosphere
mayol ....exosphere


Rivers and Streams[edit]

Rivers and Streams
mip ....river
miap ....stream
miep ....brook
miip ....rivulet
miup ....tributary
miyop ....creek
miyap ....rill
mipuj ....estuary
mipkum ....river bank


Bodies of Water[edit]

Bodies of Water
mim ....sea
mimag ....ocean
miam ....lake
miem ....lagoon
miim ....pond
mium ....pool, basin
miumog ....puddle
immem ....swamp
ebmim ....strait
zyomip ....canal

Land Features[edit]

Land Features
mem ....land
meam ....region
meem ....territory
meim ....countryside
meum ....zone, district
meyom ....tract, parcel, acre
meb ....mountain
meyb ....mount
meab ....hill
meeb ....knob
meib ....mound
meub ....ridge
meyob ....bump
mimeib ... cape
yabmimeib ....promontory, headland, bluff
zyimeb ....plateau
magmeb ....volcano
mub ....chasm, precipice, cliff
muab ....gulf, gulch
mueb ....ravine, valley, dale
muib ....cave
muyob ....ditch
mimuib ....cove
mimkum ....beach, seaside, coast
uzmimkum ....bay
zyimem ....plain
ummem ....desert
immem ....wetland, swamp
zomem ....hinterland
zyamem ....prairie
memsin ....landscape
yonmel ....island
eynyonmel ....peninsula
yanmel ....continent
zyoebmel ....isthmus
yijmem ....field, meadow

Different Worlds[edit]

Different Worlds
mir ....world, realm, domain
jomir....here-after, after-world, metasphere
fyajomir....heaven, paradise
ebjomir....limbo
zejomir....purgatory
fyojomir....hell
yizmir....world beyond, spirit world
yizmirat....spirit, sprite
fyamir....sacred world, paradise
fyamirat....angel
fyomir....wicked world, hell
fyomirat....demon
obmir....nether world
komir....secret realms
Totmir....Heaven

The pot (Animal) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with the letter p, denoting movement, and end in the letter t, denoting a living creature. Thus, the words have to do with animals. The ordinal vowel indicates the terrain: land, air, water, or a combination of these. If the vowel is pre-y-glided, then the animal is wild or predatory.
Summary:
Animal Core Words
AIR pat....bird
pyat....predatory bird
piat....aquatic bird
LAND (WILD) pot....animal
pyot....predatory animal
piot....semi-aquatic
LAND (DOMESTIC) pet....land animal
pyet....reptile
pelt....insect
pelat....flying insect
piyet....batrachian
payet....flying reptile
peyet....worm
WATER pit....fish
pyit....predatory fish
piit....crustacean
pyeit....mollusk
peit....marine mammal

Chart of Principal Animals[edit]

Chart of Principal Animals
LAND
(WILD)
LAND
(DOMESTIC)
AIR WATER
pot....WILD ANIMAL
gapot....elephant
gepot....rhinoceros
gipot....zebra
kapot....squirrel
kepot....polecat
kipot....badger
kupot....otter
kyapot....beaver
kyepot....ermine
kyipot....raccoon
kyopot....weasel
kyupot....ferret
klapot....rat
sapot....hedgehog
sepot....porcupine
sipot....mole
supot....skunk
vapot....hart
vepot....reindeer
vipot....deer
vupot....chamois
vyapot....antelope
vyepot....gazelle
vyipot....elk, moose
vyupot....buck
yupot....wild rabbit
yuapot....hare
zapot....tortoise
pyot....PREDATORY ANIMAL
apyot....lion
epyot....tiger
ipyot....leopard
iapyot....jaguar
iepyot....puma
iipyot....panther
iupyot....lynx
upyot....wolf
yopyot....fox
yapyot....wild boar
yepyot....hyena
yeapyot....jackal
bepyot....bear
dapyot....kangaroo
fapyot....orangutan, ape
fepyot....monkey
fipyot....gorilla
fupyot....bonobo
fyopyot....chimpanzee
fyapyot....gibbon
fyepyot....lemur
piot....semi-aquatic
gapiot....hippopotamus
zapiot....turtle
pet....DOMESTIC ANIMAL
apet....horse
epet....bull
ipet....ass
upet....ram
yopet....goat
yapet....hog
yepet....dog
yipet....cat
yupet....rabbit
fapet....camel
fepet....dromedary
fipet....giraffe
lapet....llama
lepet....yak
klapet....mouse
pyet....REPTILE
apyet....lizard
epyet....caiman
ipyet....crocodile
upyet....aligator
yopyet....iguana
fapyet....grass snake
fepyet....slug
fipyet....leech
kepyet....gecko
lopyet....snake
lapyet....boa
lepyet....cobra
lipyet....viper
vapyet....snail
piyet....BATRACHIAN
apiyet....toad
epiyet....frog
ipiyet....tree frog
payet....FLYING REPTILE
apayet....bat
peyet....WORM
apeyet....silkworm
epeyet....flatworm
ipeyet....tapeworm
upeyet....fluke
bapeyet....threadworm
bepeyet....roundworm
bipeyet....hookworm
dapeyet....earthworm
depeyet....bristle worm
pelt....INSECT
apelt....spider
fapelt....ant
fepelt....cockroach
fipelt....termite
gapelt....weevil
gepelt....mite
kapelt....louse
kepelt....flea
kipelt....bug
kopelt....vermin
kupelt....earwig
lapelt....scorpion
lepelt....caterpillar
lipelt....lice
lupelt....bedbug
rapelt....centipede
repelt....millipede
pat....BIRD
apat....cock
epat....duck
ipat....turkey
upat....goose
yapat....pigeon
bapat....thrush
bepat....warbler
bipat....sparrow
dapat....parrot
depat....parakeet
fapat....raven
fepat....crow
gapat....ostrich
gepat....peacock
gipat....peafowl
fipat....magpie
kapat....stork
vapat....nightingale
vepat....yellow canary
vipat....canary
vupat....chaffinch
vyapat....robin
vyepat....bluebird
vyopat....blackbird
zapat....swallow
zepat....swift
sapat....partridge
sepat....quail
sipat....woodcock
supat....lark
syopat....pheasant
syapat....black grouse
syepat....woodpecker
pyat....BIRD OF PREY bird
apyat....eagle
epyat....vulture
ipyat....kite
upyat....buzzard
yopyat....sparrowhawk
yapyat....falcon
lapyat....owl
lepyat....screech owl
pelat....FLYING INSECT
apelat....bee
epelat....wasp
ipelat....horsefly, gadfly
upelat....fly
yopelat....mosquito
yapelat....gnat
gapelat....moth
gopelat....butterfly
lapelat....may bug
lepelat....beetle
tapelat....cicada
tepelat....cricket
tipelat....grasshopper
topelat....dragonfly
tupelat....firefly
vapelat....bumble bee
vepelat....sweat bee
vipelat....hornet
piat....AQUATIC BIRD
japiat....cormorant
jepiat....gull
kapiat....heron
kepiat....crane
kipiat....flamingo
sapiat....swan
tapiat....penguin
pit....FISH
apit....trout
epit....perch
ipit....pike
upit....carp
yopit....tench
yapit....gudgeon, stud
yepit....stickleback
yipit....whiting
fapit....shad
fepit....bluegill
fipit....catfish
fupit....bass
gapit....minnow
gepit....perch
lapit....ray, skate
lepit....turbot
lipit....salmon
lupit....sole
sapit....herring
sepit....barbel
sipit....anchovy
supit....gilt-head, sea bream
syopit....sardine
syapit....hake
vapit....eel
vepit....seahorse
pyit....PREDATOR SEA CREATURE
ipyit....sperm whale
yapyit....swordfish
yepyit....tuna
yipyit....sturgeon
yupyit....cod
bapyit....jellyfish
piit....CRUSTACEAN
apiit....lobster
epiit....crayfish
ipiit....scampi
upiit....craw fish
yopiit....prawn
yapiit....shrimp
lapiit....crab
lepiit....squid
peit....MARINE MAMMAL
apeit....whale
epeit....seal
ipeit....sea lion, otary
upeit....manatee
yopeit....walrus
yapeit....platypus
yepeit....dolphin
yipeit....vaquita
bapeit....shark
bepeit....dolphin
bipeit....porpoise
bupeit....otter
pyeit....MOLLUSK
apyeit....oyster
epyeit....mussel
ipyeit....clam
upyeit....octopus

Animal Sounds[edit]

The animal noise verbs are formed by replacing the final t of the animal's name to der (communicate, utter), as in the chart below. If the noise is particularly "noisy", the verb teuder (scream) can be used instead of der.
Animal Sounds
ANIMAL SOUND VERB
apet....horse apeder....neigh, whinny
epet....bull epeder....bellow
eopetob....veal eopetoder....bleat
eopet....ox eopeder....low, moo, bellow
epeyt....cow epeyder....moo
ipet....ass ipeder....bray, hehaw
lapet....llama lapeder....growl
upet....sheep upeder....bleat
yopet....goat yopeder....bray
yapet....hog yapeder....grunt, snort, oink
yepet....dog yepeder....bark (yepeteuder....yelp)
yepyot....wolf yepyoder....howl
yopyot....fox yopyoder....yelp
yipet....cat yipeder....mew, purr, meow
yipyot....tiger yipyoder....growl
yupet....rabbit yupeder....drum
kapet....squirrel kapeder....squeak
kyipet....raccoon kyipeder....chitter
klapet....mouse klapeder....squeak
eplet....koala epleder....wail
apyot....lion rapyoder....roar
yepyot....hyena yepyoder....laugh
yeapyot....jackal yeapyoder....howl
bapyot....ape tapyoder....gibber
bepyot....bear tepyoder....growl
gapot....elephant gapeder....trumpet
vepot....reindeer vepoder....bellow
vyipot....moose vyipoder....bellow
fapet....camel fapeder....grunt
fipet....giraffe fipeder....bleat
kepyet....gecko kepyeder....go to-key, make a gecko noise
lepyet....cobra lepyeder....hiss
apayet....bat apayeder....screech
epiyet....frog epiyeder....rivet, make a frog noise
apelat....bee apelader....buzz
lepelat....beetle lepelader....drone
tepelat....cricket tepelader....chirp
pat....bird pader....chirp, tweet, coo, sing
apat....rooster apader....crow, cockadoodle-doo
apayt....hen apayder....cluck
apatog....chicken apatoder....cheep
epat....duck epader....quack
ipat....turkey ipader....gobble
yapat....pigeon yapader....coo
apyat....eagle apyader....squawk
epyat....vulture epyader....scream
fapat....raven fapader....croak
fepat....crow fepader....craw
fipat....chatter fipader....chatter
fupat....hoot fupader....hoot
fyipat....jay fyipader....chatter
gapat....ostrich gapader....bleep
sapiat....swan sapiader....cry
zapat....swallow zapader....squeal
tapat....parrot tapader....parrot
vapat....nightingale vapader....pipe
fepat....warbler fepader....warble
tapiat....penguin tapiader....honk
yapeit....platypus yapeider....chitter
yopeit....walrus yopeider....groan
bipeit....porpoise bipeider....whistle

Animal Habitats[edit]

By suffixing the final t of the animal name with tam....house, you get corresponding animal's living quarters:
Animal Habitats
ANIMAL LIVING SPACE
apet....horse apetam....stable
epet....ox epetam....cowshed
yapet....pig yapetam....pigpen, pigsty
yepet....dog yepetam....doghouse
apyot....lion apyotam....den, lion's den
fapelt....ant fapeltam....anthill
apelat....bee apelatam....beehive
pat....bird patam....nest, bird's nest
apat....hen apatam....henhouse, chicken coop
bepyot....bear bepyotam....lair
pyot....wild animal pyotam....cage

Animal Meats[edit]

By changing the final letter of the animal's name to an l, you get the meat eaten from that animal:
Animal Meats
ANIMAL MEAT
eopet....ox eopel....beef
vipet....deer vipel....venison
yapet....hog yapel....pork
yapetyoab....hog's thigh yapetyoal....ham
uopet....sheep uopel....mutton
eopetob....calf eopetol....veal
vapyet....snail vapyel....escargot

Animal Groupings[edit]

By adding yan....aggregate or nyan....crowd to the name of an animal, you get the animal grouping:
Animal Groupings
ANIMAL GROUPING
pat....bird patyan....flock
eopet....ox eopetyan....cattle
pit....fish pityan....school
pelt....insect peltyan....swarm
apat....cock apatyan....poultry
pot....animal potnyan....herd
yopet....goat yopetyan....goatherd

Animals' Babies and Diminutives[edit]

The baby of an animal ends in ud, which is a stub suffix for tud....offspring, child:
Animals' Babies
ANIMAL BABY
apet....horse apetud....foal
pat....bird patud....chick
apet....horse apetud....foal
eopet....ox eopetud....calf
yepet....dog yepetud....pup
yipet....cat yipetud....kitten
apat....cock apatud....chick
apyat....eagle apyatud....eaglet
upat....goose upatud....gosling
upet....ram upetud....lamb
yopet....goat yopetud....kid
To create an animal pet name, add the suffix if
Animal Pet Names
ANIMAL PET
yepet....dog yepetif....puppy
yipet....cat yipetif....kitten
apat....cock apatif....chickadee
Other size suffixes can be appended as well:
Animal Diminutives and Augmentatives
ANIMAL SIZE-VARIANT
yepet....dog yepetog....doggy
yepet....dog yepetayg....cur
yepet....dog yepetag....hound
upetud....lamb upetotog....lambkin
yapet....hog yapetog....piggy

Animal-derived Adjectives[edit]

Here is a chart showing the adjectives used to refer to animals:
Animal Adjectives
ANIMAL NOUN ADJECTIVE
apet....horse apeta....equine
eopet....ox eopeta....bovine
upet....ram upeta....ovine
yapet....hog yapeta....porcine
yepet....dog yepeta....canine
yipet....cat yipeta....feline
upyot....wolf upyota....lupine
pyet....reptile pyeta....reptilian
pat....bird pata....avian
Various Other Words Derived from Animals:
Various Animal Derviations
ANIMAL NAME DERIVED WORD
apet....horse apetsim....saddle
apetyoyafut....blacksmith
apetyoyaper....trot
apetpar....carriage
apetapekam....hippodrome
fizapetaput....knight
dopapetaput....mounted trooper
apelat....bee apelatyel....wax
apelatil....honey
apelatam....hive
apelatyan....swarm
pat....bird patij....egg
patam....nest
patijber....hatch
patijsana....oval
pit....fish pitpexar....lure
pitgrunen....angling
pitpixut....fisherman
pittun....ichthyology
pitsana....pisciform
pituil....fish sauce
pitub....fin
pitaib....fishbone
piteab....fisheye
piteob....jowl
pitieb....gill
pitoyb....mermaid

Animals' Hair[edit]

The hair of an animal ends in tayeb....hair:
Animal Hair
ANIMAL HAIR
pat....bird patayeb....feather
apet....horse apetayeb....horsehair, mane
yipet....cat yipetayeb....fur
fapet....camel fapetayeb....camelhair
pit....fish pitayeb....scale
upat....goose upatayeb....down, goose down
bepyot....bear bepyotayeb....fuzz
uopet....sheep uopetayeb....wool, fleece

Gendered Counterparts of Animals[edit]

The word for the female counterpart of an animal is created by post-y-glided (i.e. adding a y to) the ordinal (last) vowel of the male animal's adult name:
Female Counterparts of Animals
ANIMAL FEMALE
epet....ox epeyt....cow
apet....horse apeyt....mare
ipet....ass ipeyt....she-ass
yopet....goat yopeyt....nanny goat
yapet....hog yapeyt....sow
yepet....dog yepeyt....bitch
apyot....lion apyoyt....lioness
upyot....wolf upyoyt....wolverine
yopyot....fox yopyoyt....vixen
gapot....elephant gapoyt....cow elephant
vipot....buck vipeyt....deer
apat....cock apayt....hen
yupet....rabbit yupeyt....doe rabbit
upet....ram upeyt....ewe
To form the male-specific gender of an animal, place a w before the ordinal vowel:
Male Counterparts of Animals
ANIMAL MALE
epet....ox epwet....bull
apet....horse apwet....stallion
apet....cock apwet....rooster
yupet....rabbit yupwet....buck rabbit
ipet....ass ipwet....(he-)mule
bepyot....bear bepyowt*....papa bear
1 If the animal name ends in -pyot, -pyat, -pyit, or pyet, post-w-glide the final vowel.
To form the gelded or neutered form of an animal, place an o before the p:
Gelded Counterparts of Animals
ANIMAL MALE
epet....bovine eopet....steer
apet....horse aopet....gelding
upet....ram uopet....sheep

Interesting Parallels in Animal Vocabulary[edit]

Parallels in Animal Vocabulary
teub....mouth pateub....beak, bill poteub....mug mimeub....bay
teib....nose poteib....snout gapeteib....elephant trunk meib....promontory tilabeib....nipple fapemeib....camel hump seib....marquee, ledge
tayeb....hair patayeb....feather pitayeb....scale petayeb....fur fayeb....leaf vosayeb....petal uopetayeb....wool, fleece
tulob....nail patulob....claw apelatulob....stinger defulob....pine needle fulob....prick vulob....thorn yomulob....icicle
tyoyab....foot apetyoyab....hoof potyoyab....paw meboyab....foothills fyoyab....stump vyoyab....stub
tayob....skin potayob....hide piitayob....shell mayob....crust fayob....bark vayob....peel patijayob....eggshell
tub....arm patub....wing pitub....fin potub....paw mapatub....fan zyupatub....propeller

The fob (Vegetation)and vob (Plant) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with f for vegetation or v for plant and end in b for organism. These words have to do with trees, fruits, nuts, vegetables, plants, grasses, and grains, as shown in this chart:
Summary:
Fob and Vob Core Words
TREES, FRUITS, VEGETABLES PLANTS, GRAINS, LEGUMES
fob....vegetable vob....plant
fab....tree vab....grass
feb....fruit, nut veb....tuft
veeb....seed
veeyb....grain
fib....trunk vib....stem
fub....branch vub....twig
fayeb....leaf vayeb....bud
fyob....root vyob....tendril

The vol (Edible Vegetable), vos (Flower), and voz (Color Family[edit]

Summary:
Vo[lsz] Words
vol....edible vegetable
vos....flower
voz....color


Colors (voz)[edit]

The names of common colors in Mirad are mnemonically based on flowers and other natural products that have distinctive colors. In the summary chart below, the mnemonic origin is given for each color term.
Summary:
Color Words
COLOR MNEMONIC ORIGIN
voz....color vos....flower
ovoza....plain, blank o....zero
avoza....white avos....lily
evoza....yellow evos....narcissus
ivoza....red ivos....poppy
uvoza....pink uvos....rose
yovoza....blue yovos....blueberry
yavoza....mauve yavos....hydrangea
yevoza....lilac yevos....lilac
yivoza....violet, purple yivos....violet
lafeza....orange lafeb....orange
vaza....green vab....grass
moza....black mon....dark
maza....white man....light
maoza....gray man + mon
meza....brown mel....soil
The common colors consist of a mnemonic stub for a flower, plant, fruit, or other natural item exhibiting most vividly the color in question, followed by the suffix -za (reminiscent of voz....color, itself reminiscent of vos....flower), eg. va- (from vab....grass) + z = vaza....green.
The most exotic or rare colors can be expressed by the numerical position in the alphabetized Wikipedia list of colors + -za. For example, the color Alabama Crimson is the tenth color in that list when alphabetized, so it's name is aloza.
A color referring to one's skin or race is suffixed with -ata-, eg. mozata....black-skinned, black, while the person of that skin color ends in -at, eg. mazat....white person, a white. A person of mixed color is a eyvozat ('ey-....half). A non-white is expressed with omazat.
A color referring to one's hair is a combination of toz, preceded by the first vowel of the color, eg. i from ivoza....red + toz yields itoza....auburn, red-headed.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is post-y-glided, then the meaning is the lighter version of the color, eg. ivoyza....light red.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is pre-y-glided, then the meaning is the darker or deeper version of the color, eg. ivyoza....deep red.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is doubled, then the meaning is the brighter version of the color, eg. ivooza....bright red.
  • If the syllable yen is inserted between the stem and the adjectival ending a, then the meaning is -ish, eg. avozyena....reddish.
  • If the color word is preceded by gwa, it is of maximum intensity, eg. gwaivoza....as red as can be.

The tuz (Art) Family[edit]

This family includes words having to do with the arts, such as theater, sculpture, music, poetry, etc. Word stems ending in -z refer to something that is precious or artful. Stems with eu are mnemonic for teub....mouth and refer to sound, singing, noises, etc.
Summary:
Artsy Words
THE ARTS
tuz....art
taz....statue
tez....culture
tyez....magic
teyz....cult
toz....complexion
tuyatuz....handicrafts
tuyz....artisanship
siz....painting
saz....sculpture
voz....color
daz....dance
dez....theater
diz....comedy, circus
duz....music
dyez....cinema
drez....poetry
teuz....voice
deuz....song
seux....sound
xeus....noise
seuz....tone

The dob (State) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family start with d for society and end with b for organization.
Summary:
D-B Core Words
dob....state, regime
dab....government
deb....leader
dib....administration
dub....minister


Regimes and Rulers[edit]

Regimes and Rulers
REGIME=dob GENDER-NEUTRAL RULER=deb MALE FULE=dweb FEMALE RULER=deyb
adob....empire adeb....emperor adweb....emperor adeyb....empress
edob....kingdom edeb....monarch edweb....king edeyb....queen
idob....principality ideb....prince idweb....prince ideyb....princess
udob....duchy udeb....duke udweb....duke udeyb....duchess
yodob....marquisate yodeb....marquis yodweb....marquis yodeyb....marquise
yadob....count yadeb....count yadweb....count yadeyb....countess
yedob....domain yedeb....lord yedweb....lord yedeyb....lady, dominatrix
yidob....barony yideb....baron yidweb....baron yideyb....baroness
alodob....tribe, chiefdom, clan alodeb....chief, tribal chief, chieftain alodweb....male chief alodeyb....chieftaine
obdobem....colony obdeb....governor obdweb....governor obdeyb....governess


City Entitites[edit]

City Entities
dom....city
debdom....capital
mimdom....port
domab....municipality
domeb....mayor
yuzdom....suburb
dommas....city wall
yizdom....outskirts
odom....countryside
zedom....downtown
domgon....district
domep....street
domyem....plaza
domunkun....city block
dam....airfield
dem....park
deym....garden
domdeym....square
dim....fountain

Governments and Leaders[edit]

Governments and Leaders
GOVERNMENT=dab LEADER=deb
ditdab....republic ditdeb....president
tyodab....democracy tyodeb....president
andab....autocracy andeb....autocrat
anadab....dictatorship anadeb....dictator
nyazdab....plutocracy nyazdeb....plutocrat
yabdab....aristocracy yabdeb....aristocrat
totdab....theocracy totdeb....theocrat
abdab....dominion abdeb....overlord, master
obdab....protectorate, subject state obdeb....protector, subjugator
yibdab....colony yibdeb....colonial master
memyuvdab....fiefdom memyuvdeb....feudal lord


Regional Administrations[edit]

Regional Administrations
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
doob....nation
doab....fatherland
doeb....state, Bund
doib....county
domem....province, state
domeam....department, county, prefecture
domeem....sub-prefecture
domeim....canton
domeum....commune

The nas (Money) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family all begin with n for merchandise. All the words have to do with money, business, trade, and merchandise.
Summary:
Money Core Words
MONEY NOUNS MONEY VERBS
nas....money
nax....price
nayx....cost
naz....value, worth
nasyig....cash
nasmug....coin
nases....change
nasgon....stock
nastun....finance
donastun....economy
nasyan....capital
nasdrev....paper money
nasdref....check
nasam....bank
nasak....windfall
nasok....deficit
naxer....cost
nasbuer....allocate
nasaker....profit
naseker....gamble
nasyefer....owe
nasyefier ....borrow
nasyefuer....lend
naxter....appreciate
nazer....be worth
nazder....assess
nazbuer....reward
nasyiguer....cash
nex....savings
nexak....interest
nexer....save
neuner....reserve
nix....income, revenue
yexnix....salary
tutnix....honorarium
jonix....debt
nixak....profit
dobnix....pension
dotnix....welfare
jabnix....annuity
nixgab....dividend
nixer....earn
nizer....deserve
nier....consume
nixbuer....sell
jobnier....rent
nixbuer...sell
nux....payment, outlay
yovnux....penalty
nuxyef....duty
jonux....credit
yufnux....blackmail
dobnux....tax
nuz....award
nuxgax....pay raise
nuxer....pay
nuzuer....award
nuer....supply
jobnuxer....lease
nuxbier....buy
nox....expenditure
finox....thrift
noz....jewelry
noxer....spend
funoxer....waste
nun....product
nunyan....merchandise
nunsag....inventory
nunek....negotiation
nundel....ad
nundyun....brand
nunem....market
n(un)am....shop
nunut....merchant
nunyeb....package
nuneker....deal
nunier....buy
nunuer....sell
nunuier....trade
namper....shop
nundeler....advertise
nunsager....inventory
nunyember....package
nyan....stack
nyandras....list
nyaz....wealth
nyaser....accumulate
nyaxer....stack
nyen....stores, stock
nyeb....container
nyem....box, case
nyef....bag, sack
nyeyf....purse
yignyef....basket
nyexer....stock
nyember....box up
nyix....order
nyixdref....order form
nyixut....client, customer
nyixer....demand, order
nyox....waste nyoxer....waste
nyux....delivery
nyuxun....cargo, freight, shipment
nyuxdref....receipt
nyuxpur....delivery truck
nyuxer....supply, deliver, ship

The dop (Military) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d....social and end in p....mobile and have to do with the military and war.
Summary:
D-P Words
MILITARY SOME DERIVATIONS
dop....military dopeb....commander of the armed forces
dopof....uniform
dopnab....military rank
dopbier....conquer
dopizper....march
dopyaf....military power
dopar....weapon
doparobel....armistice
dopek....combat
dopekem....battleground
dopekut....combat soldier
odopeker....defend
dopembier....deploy
dopektof....battle attire
dropek....war
dropekut....warrier
dropekpos....armistice
dopteud....battle cry
dopdeuz....battle hymn
dopnad....battle line
dopepem....battle station
dopzanad....battlefront
ditdoyp....militia
dopyena....militant
dap....air force dapeb....air force commander
dapat....airman
dapur....fighter jet
dep....ground force, army depeb....army commander
depet....enlisted soldier
depur....tank
dip....navy dipeb....navy commander
dipat....ensign
oybdipur....submarine
dipur....battleship
adipur....aircraft carrier
edipur....dreadnaught
idipur....frigate
udipur....destroyer
yadipur....corvette
yedipur....gunboat
yodipur....cruiser
diep....marine diepeb....marine commander
diepat....marine soldier
dieput....ambphibious warship

Weapons[edit]

Weapons
WEAPONS
dopar....weapon
doparier....take up arms
doparuer....arm
adopar....gun
tuyab adopar....handgun, pistol
zyup adopar....revolver
edopar....rifle
idopar....shotgun
udopar....musket
dopir....artillery
adopir....cannon
edopir....bazooka
idopir....howitzer
dopur....machine gun
dopyonar....bayonet
zyidopyonar....sword
mimdopyonar....cutlass
zyadopyonar....battle-ax
dopuz-izmuf....bow-and-arrow


Ranks[edit]

Military Ranks
ARMY
dep
NAVY
dip
AIR FORCE
dap
MARINE FORCE
diep
depat....soldier dipat....ensign dapat....airman diepat....private
adepat....private adipat....seaman recruit adapat....airman basic adiepat....private
edepat....private 2 edipat....seaman apprentice edapat....airman ediepat....private 1st class
idepat....private first class idipat....seaman idapat....airman first class idiepat....lance corporal
udepat....army specialist udipat....petty officer 3rd class udapat....senior airman udiepat....corporal
.... yodipat....petty officer 2nd class yodapat....staff sergeant yodiepat....sergeant
.... yadipat....petty officer 3rd class yadapat....technical sergeant yadiepat....staff sergeant
.... yedipat....chief petty officer obyedapat....master sergeant yediepat....gunnery sergeant
.... .... abyedapat....master sergeant with diamond ....
.... yidipat....senior chief petty officer obyidapat....senior master sergeant yidiepat....master sergeant
.... .... abyidapat....senior master sergeant with diamond ....
.... obyudipat....master chief petty officer obyudapat....chief master sergeant yudiepat....first sergeant
.... ebyudipat....fleet master chief petty officer .... alodiepat....master gunnery sergeant
.... abyudipat....master chief petty officer of the navy abyudapat....chief master sergeant with diamond aladiepat....sergeant major
adeplat....warrant officer adiplat....ensign adaplat....2nd lieutenant adieplat....warrant officer
edeplat....chief warrant officer 2 ediplat....lieutenant junior grade edaplat....1st lieutenant edieplat....chief warrant officer 2
ideplat....chief warrant officer 3 idiplat....lieutenant idaplat....captain idieplat....chief warrant officer 3
udeplat....chief warrant officer 4 udiplat....lieutenant commander udaplat....major udieplat....chief warrant officer 4
yodeplat....chief warrant officer 5 yodiplat....commander yodaplat....lieutenant colonel yodieplat....chief warrant officer 5
yadeplat....second lieutenant yadiplat....captain yadaplat....colonel yadieplat....second lieutenant
yedeplat....first lieutenant .... .... yedieplat....first lieutenant
yideplat....captain yidiplat....ensign .... yidieplat....captain
yudeplat....major .... .... yudieplat....major
adeprat....brigadier general adiprat....rear admiral lower half adaprat....brigadier general adieprat....lieutenant general
edeprat....major general ediprat....rear admiral upper half edaprat....major general edieprat....colonel
ideprat....lieutenant general idiprat....vice admiral idaprat....lieutenant general idieprat....brigadier general
udeprat....4 star general udiprat....commandant udaprat....general air force chief of staff udieprat....major general
yodeprat....5-star general yodiprat....fleet admiral yodaprat....general of the AF yodieprat....lieutenant general
.... .... .... yadieprat....general

The ab (On), yab (Up) Family[edit]

Summary:
AB Family
ab