Mirad Grammar/Numbers
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 Numbers (or more technically, numerals) are scalar words used to count and quantify things and people. They are words used to vocalize numbers, the symbols themselves. For example the numeral two is used for the number 2.
Cardinal Numbers[edit  edit source]
 The cardinal numbers are words used in counting and reciting numerals such as telephone numbers, social security numbers, and zip codes, and in arithmetic. They are also used as the socalled "ordinal" stem vowels of words that relate to one another in a scalar, hierarchical, or some other ontological relationship. See this in the chapter on Vocabulary Formation.
Units[edit  edit source]
 The unit cardinal numbers are formed from the simple and preyglided vowels.
Units 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
 Ata yibdalar sag se 7038426190 (pronounced: yeoiyiueyaayuo).....My telephone number is....
 At tambese 114 (pronounced: aau) Maple Street.
 E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.
Decades[edit  edit source]
 The decade formant l is used to form the decades. Followed by o....zero, we have the base decade numbers. These can be used for number recitation, arithmetic, and as numeric adjectives followed by plural nouns:
Decades with the l Formant 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
 By changing the o....zero in lo to other cardinal unit numerals, the numerals within decades can be generated as follows:
Decadal Counting ala....11 ela....21 ila....31 ula....41 yola....51 yala....61 yela....71 yila....81 yula....91 ale....12 ele....22 ile....32 ule....42 yole....52 yale....62 yele....72 yile....82 yule....92 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... alyu....19 elyu....29 ilyu....39 ulyu....49 yolyu....59 yalyu....69 yelyu....79 yilyu....89 yulyu....99
 At ayse alo dati.....I have ten friends.
 It yafe sagder byu alyo.....He can count up to fifteen.
 Yulyu gob alo gese yilyu.....Ninetynine minus ten equals eightynine.
Hundreds[edit  edit source]
 By adding the hundreds formant s, you get the hundreds:
Hundreds with the s Formant 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
 All the numerals inbetween the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending with the units and decades:
 asa....101
 asale....112
 usyulyu....599
 All the numerals inbetween the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending with the units and decades:
Thousands[edit  edit source]
 The thousands are generated with the formant r:

 Note: The number categories starting with the thousands on up end in o and are separated from the rest of a number by a space.
Thousands 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 aro ero iro uro yoro yaro yero yiro yuro
 aro....1,000
 aro a....1,001
 ero isi....2,300
 yoro yasula....5,641
Millions[edit  edit source]
 The millions are generated with the formant ml:
Millions with the ml Formant 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 8,000,000 9,000,000 amlo emlo imlo umlo yomlo yamlo yemlo yimlo yumlo
 emlo yala....2,000,051
 umlo esu....4,000,204
 yumlo usyoro isyala....9,405,361
Billions[edit  edit source]
 The billions are generated with the formant mr;
Billions 1,000,000,000 2,000,000,000 3,000,000,000 4,000,000,000 5,000,000,000 6,000,000,000 7,000,000,000 8,000,000,000 9,000,000,000 amro emro imro umro yomro yamro yemro yimro yumro
 In numbers ending in ro (thousand), mlo (million), and mro (billion), these numbers keep the o and are separated by a space from the other elements of the number.
 imro emlo yoro asyula....three billion, two million, five thousand, one hundred fifty one
 iro asyulyo....3,195
 yamlo asyulyo....6,000,195
 alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele....10,075,186,922
Trillions etc.[edit  edit source]
 The trillions are generated with the word garale, which means 10 to the positive power of 12 or 10^{10}.
 The trillionths are generated with the word gorale, which means 10 to the negative power of 12 or 10^{10}.
 These numbers do not combine with surrounding numbers.
 iwa garale aoti....three trillion people
 eso garale pati....two hundred trillion birds
 Even higher numbers are shown in the Number Chart later in this chapter.
Numeric Determiners[edit  edit source]
 Numeric Determiners are adjectives based on numbers that modify a following noun.
Integers[edit  edit source]
 The unit numeric integer determiners, which are used to quantify nouns, consist of the cardinal units followed by the unit formant wa. The noun following the numeric determiner is plural if the number is greater than one. The wa formant is used on unit numerals when they are standalone, not when they are part of a larger number. In contrast with English usage, "zero" is followed by a singular noun (zero box vs. zero boxes. Think of it as not a single box).
Standalone Unit Numeric Determiners owa tam awa tam ewa tami iwa tami uwa tami yowa tami yawa tami yewa tami yiwa tami yuwa tami no/zero houses one house two houses three houses four houses five houses six houses seven houses eight houses nine houses
 If a unit number is used in forming larger numbers like 13 or 204, no wa is used.
 In a sequence of noun modifiers, the numerical determiner goes in the same place as in English, eg:
 Ata iwa gajaga twidi bese bay at.....My three older brothers live with me.
 Hia uwa tomi losexwo.....These four buildings will be destroyed.
 At fu ewa ey iwa gouni.....I would like two or three pieces.
 In a sequence of noun modifiers, the numerical determiner goes in the same place as in English, eg:
 The numeric determiners beyond the units do NOT take the wa suffix. For example, ala tami....eleven houses.
Numeric Determiners modifying a singular or plural noun Mirad English Wa Behavior Pluralization Behavior owa tam no houses, zero houses The numeral is a unit,
so wa is suffixed.The numeral is less than 2,
so the noun is singular.awa tam one house, a house " " ewa tami two houses " The numeral is greater than 2,
so the noun is plural.iwa tami three houses " " uwa tami four houses " " yowa tami five houses " " yawa tami six houses " " yewa tami seven houses " " yiwa tami eight houses " " yuwa tami nine houses " " alo tami ten houses The numeral is not a unit
so no wa is suffixed." ase tami a hundred two houses " " ero iwa tami two thousand three houses The numeral i is a unit,
so wa is suffixed." iro alo tami three thousand ten houses The numeral alo is not a unit,
so wa is not suffixed."
 Numeric determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun....thing or suni....things. The t ending is short for aot....person or aoti....persons. For example:
 Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas. (singular inanimate pronoun)....You have one house. I have one too.
 At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay ewasi (plural inanimate pronoun).....I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
 Esa asoti yeb be ha duzam. (plural animate pronoun).... There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
 Yat yefe kebier awoyt bi huti. (singular animate female pronoun)....We must choose one female person from those people.
Ordinals[edit  edit source]
 Ordinal numeric determiners (= ordinals) like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numerals by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal numeral. A variation of this is with the word nap (order) inserted:
Ordinal Numeric Determiners Cardinal Numeral Ordinal Numeric Determiner Variation with nap (order) o....zero oa....zeroth onapa....zeroth a....one aa....first anapa....first e....two ea....second enapa....second i....three ia....third inapa....third alo....ten aloa....tenth alonapa....tenth asu....104 asua....104th asunapa....104th garale....trillion garalea....trillionth garalenapa....trillionth
 There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
 ijna....initial, first, original
 ujna....last, final
 ajna....past, ex, former, old, previous
 ojna....future, upcoming
 ejna....current, new, present
 jana....previous, last, foregoing
 jona....next, following
 zana....next
 zona....previous, last
 Ordinal determiners and adjectives can be converted to adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Ordinal Adverbs ADJECTIVE ADVERB aa....first aay....firstly anapa....first anapay....primarily ea....second eay....secondly ujna....last ujnay....finally
 Ordinal determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. Neutralgender animate pronouns can be made specifically masculine or feminine by changing at to wat for the former, and to ayt for the latter:
 ha aas....the first thing
 ha aat....the first person
 ha aati....the first people
 hua aayt....that first female
 ha enapas....the second thing
 ewat....another guy
 ha ujnati so ha ijnati....the last shall be first
 Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal determiner>  <ordinal determiner>  <cardinal numerical determiner>  <adjective>
 hua uwa aga tami....those four big houses
 ha aa alo oga tami....the first ten little houses
 ata anapa ewa oga tudi....my first two little children
Note: Ordinal numeric determiners are not to be confused with ordinal vowels, which are used to derive scalar iterations of nouns. Cardinal numbers are used in the latter case, eg.:
 dob....state (1st level)
 dab....government (2nd level derivative)
 deb....leader (3rd level derivative)
 dib....administration (4th " " )
 dub....minister (5th " " )
Fractions[edit  edit source]
 Fractional numeric determiners ( = fractions) like half and quarter are formed by adding yn for those functioning as nouns, yna for adjectives, ynay for adverbs, or yn for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
CARDINAL NUMERAL  FRACTION AS NOUN  AS ADJECTIVE  AS ADVERB  AS PREFIX  AS VERB 

o....zero  oyn....a void, vacuum, null  oyna....null, nil    oyn....devoid of  oynxer....annihilate, nullify 
a....one  ayn....whole  ayna....entire, whole  aynay....entirely  ayn....holo, whole, all  aynxer....integrate 
e....two  eyn....a half  eyna....half  eynay....halfway  eyn....half, semi, hemi, demi  eynxer....halve 
i....three  iyn....a third  iyna....third  iynay....by a third  iyn....terci  iynxer....cut in third 
u....four  uyn....a quarter  uyna....quarter  uynay....quarterly  uyn....quadri  uynxer....quarter 
alo....ten  aloyn....a tenth  aloyna....tenth  aloynay....by a tenth  aloyn....deci  aloynxer....decimate 
aso....hundred  asoyn....hundredth, percent  asoyna....hundredth  asoynay....by a hundredth  asoyn....centi  asoynxer....cut by a hundred 
 Here are some examples:
 His uxo ha oynxen bi yata mir.....This will cause the anihilation of our world.
 Ha ayna mir te ayv et.....The whole world knows about you.
 Has se gas vyel ha ayn bi hasa goni.....It is more than the whole of its parts.
 Ferad se ayndyana dalzeyn.....French is a holophrastic language.
 Et yafe bier eyn bi has.....You can take half of it.
 Yat yefo eynxer eta yexnix.....We will have to halve your salary.
 Hus sa eynvyan.....That was a halftruth.
 Eso eynzyunida dropek.....There is going to be a hemispheric war.
 Duven his se eynutexea dopar?....Is this a semiautomatic weapon?
 Iynxu hua ableyavol.....Cut that pie in thirds.
 It yeyfe bixwer ay uynxwer.....He should be drawn and quartered.
 Hia nas se aloyn bi hos yat aysa zojab.....This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
 Ha dep aloynxwu.....The army would be decimated.
 Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan baksa.....Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
 Hia tom se anay asoyn ge aga vyel hua tom.....This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
 Hwut se oyntofa.....That guy is naked.
 The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
 Et so aynay dudyefa av eta xeyni.....You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
 Iyt eynay tikabeloka.....She almost (= halfway) threw up.
 Pronominalizations like half of it, a third of them:
 Eynas sa fia.....Half of it was good.
 Eynasi sa fua.....Half of them (things) were bad.
 Esa uwa tobi se hua fukyes. Eynati toja.....There were four people in that accident. Half (of them) died.
 Iynati bi yet se vyaka.....A third of you are right.
 Uynati bi yat yantexe.....A quarter of us agree.
 Alo asoyni bi hia dyesi fyunxwa.....Ten percent of these books were ruined.
Multiples[edit  edit source]
 Multiplicative numeric determiners ( = multiples) like double, triple can be formed by adding on to the respective cardinal numeral if the numeral is monosyllabic, otherwise just n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, n is often dropped.
Multiplicative Numeric Determiners CARDINAL NUMERAL MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERBMAKER o....zero oon....null oona....nil on....zero onxer....cancel, zero out a....one aon....single aona....single aonay....singly an....uni/mono anxer....unify e....two eon....twosome, double eona....double eonay....doubly en....di/bi enxer....double i....three ion....threesome, triplet iona....triple ionay....triply in....tri inxer....triple u....four uon....quartet uona....quadruple uonay....quadruply un....quadri/tetra unxer....quadruple yo....five yoon....quintet yoona....quintuple yoonay....quintuply yoon*....quinti/penta yoonxer*....quintuple ya....six yaon....sextet yaona....sextuple yaonay....sextuply yaon*....sexi/hexa yaonxer*....sextuple alo....ten alon....decade alona....decadic alonay....by a multiple of ten alon....deca alonxer....multiply by ten aso....hundred ason....hundredfold asona....hundredfold asonay....by a hundredfold ason....hecato asonxer....multiply by a hundred
 * An extra o is added to these prefixes to avoid ambiguity with yan meaning together and yon meaning apart.
 The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
 Aleoni bi pati yizpapa.....Dozens of birds flew by.
 By adding the suffix at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people. The na in some of these words can be omitted, thereby simplifying the words:
 aonat or aot ....solo, single, person
 aonatser of aotser....become single, become a person
 aonawat....singleton
 eonat or eot....duo, pair, twosome, couple
 eotxer....to copulate
 eontajat....twin
 ionat or iot....trio, threesome, trinity
 iotxer....to do a threesome
 Ionatin....Trinitarianism
 iontajati....triplets
 uonat or uot ....quartet, foursome
 uontajat....quadruplet
 yoonat or yoot....quintet, group of five people
 yoontajati....quintuplets
 yoonati....quintets
 By adding the suffix un instead of on, we get the following:
 aun....unit
 auna....unitary, individual
 aunser....unite
 aunyan....series
 aunyana....serial
 eun....pair
 euna....even, paired, binary
 oleuna....odd, nonbinary, uneven, unpaired
 oleunat....odd man out
 eunxer....even out
 Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
 Yat naptyopa be eo(na)ti yez bi ha mep.....We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
 Asonati upo bay yat bu hia ovdal.....Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
 Hia ivxel xwe enjabay.....This celebration happens biennially.
 Iyt se untupokyat.....She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
 Diwe sagu ha auni.....Please count the units.
 Yet gafisa aronay!....You all have improved a thousandfold!
 Tob se entyoyaba sat.....Man is a bipedal creature.
 Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in on in the numbers below ten is shortened to n in common words:
 anzyuk....monocycle
 enzyuk....bicycle
 ingun....triangle
 ungun....quadrangle
 yoongon....pentagon
 yaongon....hexagon
 Note: The prefixes for penta/quinti and hexa/sext must keep the on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon....apart and yan....together. This rule does not apply to numbers inside chemical names and formulas (See Coding Chemical Elements).
 yoongona....quintipartite BUT: yonper....separate, go apart
 yaongun....hexagon BUT: yanuper....meet, come together
Number Chart[edit  edit source]
 The following chart shows numbers in Mirad as symbols, adjectives, pronouns, prefixes, and verbs:
MULTIPLE  FRACTION  

SYMBOL  ADJECTIVE  NOUN  PREFIX^{1}  VERB  SYMBOL  NOUN  PREFIX  VERB 
0  owa zero 
oon nonentity, null oot nobody 
on zero 
onxer nullify 
1/0  oyn zeroth 
oyn nihil 
oynxer anihilate 
1  awa one aa first ana single, lone 
aon unit aot solo, individual 
an uni, mono 
anxer unify 
1/1  ayn whole 
ayn holo 
aynxer integrate 
2  ewa two ea second ena dual ensuana binary 
eon double eot duo, pair, couple eontajat twin 
en bi, di 
enxer double eotxer copulate 
1/2  eyn half 
eyn semi 
eyxner halve 
3  iwa three ia third insuana ternary 
ion triple iot trio, threesome iontajat triplet 
in tri 
inxer triple 
1/3  iyn third 
iyn terci 
iynxer split into three 
4  uwa four ua fourth 
uon quadruple uot quartet, foursome uontajat quadruplet 
un tetra 
unxer quadruple 
1/4  uyn fourth uynjab quarter 
uyn quadri 
uynxer quarter 
5  yowa five yoa fifth 
yoon quintuple yoot quintet yoontajat quintuplet 
yoon^{2} penta 
yoonxer quintuple 
1/5  yoyn fifth 
yoyn quint 
yoynxer cut in fifths 
6  yawa six yaa sixth 
yaon sextuple yaot sextet yaontajat sextuplet 
yaon^{3} hecto 
yaonxer sextuple 
1/6  yayn sixth 
yayn hexi 
yaynxer cut in sixths 
7  yewa seven yea seventh 
yeon septuple yeot septet yeontajat septuplet yejub week 
yen hepto 
yenxer mult seven 
1/7  yeyn seventh 
yeyn hepti 
yeyxner cut in sevenths 
8  yiwa eight yia eighth 
yion octuple yiot octet yiontajat octuplet 
yin octo 
yinxer mult eight 
1/8  yiyn eighth 
yiyn octi 
yiynxer cut in eighths 
9  yuwa nine yua ninth 
yuon nonuple yuot set of nine yuontajat nonuplet 
yun nona 
yunxer mult nine 
1/9  yuyn nineth 
yuyn novi 
yuynxer cut in ninths 
10  alo ten aloa tenth alosuana decimal 
alon tenfold alojab...decade 
alon deca 
alonxer increase by a factor of ten 
1/10  aloyn tenth 
aloyn deci 
aloynxer decimate 
100 10^{4} 
aso hundred asoa hundredth 
ason hundredfold asojab century 
ason heca 
asonxer increase a hundredfold 
1/100 10^{2} 
asoyn hundredth percentage cent 
asoy centi 
asoynxer divide by a hundred 
1,000 10^{3} 
aro thousand aroa thousanth 
aron thousandfold arojab millennium 
aron kilo 
aronxer divide by a thousand 
1/1000 10^{3} 
aroyn thousandth 
aroy milli 
aroynxer 
1,000,000 10^{6} 
amlo million amloa millionth 
amlon millionfold 
amlon mega 
amlonxer multiply by a million 
10^{6}  amloyn millionth goryan 
amloyn micro 
amloynxer divide by a million 
10^{9}  amro billion amroa billionth 
amron billionfold 
amron giga 
amronxer multiply by a billion 
10^{9}  amroyn nano 
amroynxer divide by a billion 

10^{12}  garale^{3} trillion garalea trillianth 
garalen trillionfold 
garalen tera 
10^{12}  goralen pico 
goralen trillionth 

10^{15}  garalyo quadrillion garalyoa quadrillionth 
garalyon quadrillionfold 
garalyon peta 
10^{15}  garalyon femto 
goralyon quadrillionth 

10^{18}  garalyi quintillion garlyia quintillionth 
garalyin quintillionfold 
garalyin exa 
10^{18}  goralyin atto 
goralyin quintillianth 

10^{21}  garela sextillion garelaa sextillionth 
garelan sextillionfold 
garelan zetta 
10^{21}  gorelan zepto 
gorelan sextillionth 

10^{24}  garele septillion garelea septillionth 
garelen eptillionfold 
garelen yotta 
10^{24}  gorelen yocto 
gorelen septillionth 

10^{27}  garelye octillion garelyea octillionth 
garelyen ctillionfold 
garelyen ronna 
10^{27}  gorelyen ronto 
gorelyen octillionth 

10^{30}  garilo nonillion gariloa nonillionth 
garilon nonillionfold 
garlion quetta 
10^{30}  gorilon quecto 
gorilon nonillionth 
 Note 1: Sometimes the final n on the numeric prefix is dropped, especially as an ordinal vowel in scalar words, eg. anapa
first, atistam
elementary school.  Note 2: An extra o is inserted into this prefix to distinguish it from yon
dis, apart  Note 3: An extra o is inserted into this prefix to distinguish it from yan
con, together  Note 4: Garale is short for alo gar ale
ten tothepowerof 12. By the same token, gorale is short for alo gor ale
ten tothepowerofminus 12
 Note 1: Sometimes the final n on the numeric prefix is dropped, especially as an ordinal vowel in scalar words, eg. anapa
Metric Units[edit  edit source]
 Mirad uses the International System of Units (SI) for rendering measurement units. These symbols are pronounced as if you were spelling each letter out (see the alphabet. Bear in mind that majuscules (uppercase letters are prefaced with the word ag (big). Similarly, Greek letters are rendered by their Greek names (ω = omega, Ω = Omega). The measurement unit names are followed by nak (measurement unit).
SI base units ENGLISH
UNIT
NAMESYMBOLIC
ABBREVIATIONQUANTITY
UNITMIRAD
PRONUNCIATIONsecond s time sonak meter m length minak kilogram kg mass kigenak ampere A electric current aganak kelvin K thermodynamic temperature agkinak Mole mol amount of substance miolinak candela cd luminous intensity cadanak
 The hyphen in the above "spelled out" words ensure that each syllable gets even stress.
 Here are SI derived units with special names and symbols:
SI derived units with special names and symbols ENGLISH
NAMESYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATIONQUANTITY
UNITMIRAD
PRONUNCIATIONradian rad plane angle roadanak steradian sr solid angle soronak hertz Hz frequency aghezunak newton N force, weight agninak pascal Pa pressure, stress agpoanak joule J energy agjinak watt W power agwunak coulomb C electric charge agcanak volt V electrical potential difference agvunak farad F capacitance agfenak ohm Ω electrical resistance Omeganak Siemens S electrical conductance agsonak Weber Wb magnetic flux agwubanak tesla T magnetic flux density agtonak henry H inductance aghenak degree Celsius °C temperature nogagcanak lumen lm luminous flux liminak lux lx illuminance lixuak becquerel Bq radioactivity agbakonak gray Gy absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) aggeyunak sievert Sv equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation) agsovunak katal kat catalytic activity kiatonak byte b 8 bits of information banak
 Also, here are some nonSI units that are very convenient and acceptable:
Convenient nonSI units ENGLISH
NAMESYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATIONQUANTITY
UNITMIRAD
PRONUNCIATIONlitre L volume aglonak or litr(i) hectare ha area heanak or hektar(i) ton t area tonak or ton(i) decibel dB loudness daagbanak or decibel(i)
 The following chart shows how in Mirad to pronounce coherent derived unit formulae in terms of base units. Note that the backslash means per or divided by and is pronounced gol. The symbol x means times and is pronounced gal. The superscript number is a power and is pronounced gar plus the number (with wa, if a unit number). The negative superscript number is pronounced gor plus the number (again, with wa if a unit number). See Arithmetical Expressions for further information on these terms.
Examples of coherent derived units in terms of base units NAME SYMBOLIC
FORMULADERIVED
QUANTITYTYPICAL
SYMBOLMIRAD
PRONUNCIATIONsquare meter m^{2} area A minakgarewa cubic meter m^{3} volume V minakgariwa meter per second m/s speed, velocity v minakgolsonak meter per second squared m/s^{2} acceleration a minakgolsonakgarewa reciprocal meter m^{−1} wavenumber σ, ṽ minakgorawa vergence (optics) V, 1/f kilogram per cubic meter kg/m^{3} density ρ kigenakgolminakgariwa kilogram per square meter kg/m^{2} surface density ρ_{A} kigenakgolminakgarewa cubic meter per kilogram m^{3}/kg specific volume v minakgariwagolkinakge ampere per square meter A/m^{2} current density j aganakgolminakgarewa ampere per meter A/m magnetic field strength H aganakgolminak mole per cubic meter mol/m^{3} concentration c minolinakgolminakgariwa kilogram per cubic meter kg/m^{3} mass concentration ρ, γ kinakgegolminakgariwa candela per square meter cd/m^{2} luminance L_{v} canakdagolminakgarewa
 The SI has a whole list of prefixes that act as multipliers (macro) or dividers (micro) of the above and other measurement units. For example, a kilometer is a meter times a 1,000 (macro unit), whereas a millimeter is a meter divided by a 1,000 (micro unit). Sagon means byte, so garalesagon is terabyte. This breaks down to 10^{12} bytes. Here is a table showing the Mirad macro and micro prefixes:
Scalar Metrics MACRO MICRO BASE
10US/UK NAME MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL BASE
10(US/UK NAME) MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL 1 one an *... mono, uni 1/1 whole ayn....holo, uni 2 two en....bi 1/2 half eyn....demi, di 3 three in....tri 1/3 third iyn....terci 4 four un....tetra 1/4 fourth uyn....quadri 5 five yoon *....penta 1/5 fifth yoyn....quinti 6 six yaon....hexa 1/6 sixth yayn....sexti 7 seven yeon....hepta 1/7 seventh yeyn....septi 8 eight yion....octo 1/8 eighth yiyn....octi 9 nine yuon....nona 1/9 ninth yuyn....novi 10 ten alo....deca da 1/10 tenth aloy....deci d 10^{2} hundred aso....hecto ** h 10^{2} hundredth asoy....centi c 10^{3} thousand amso....kilo k 10^{3} thousandth) amsoy....milli m 10^{6} million amlo....mega M 10^{6} millionth amloy....micro r 10^{9} billion /milliard amro....giga G 10^{9} billionth/ milliardth amroy....nano n 10^{12} trillion /billion garale....tera T 10^{12} trillionth / billionth) gorale....pico p 10^{15} quadrillion)/ billiard garalyo....peta P 10^{15} quadrillionth) / billiardth goralyo....femto f 10^{18} quintillion / trillion garalyu....exa E 10^{18} quintillionth)/ trillionth goralyu....atto a 10^{21} sextillion)/ trilliard garela....zetta Z 10^{21} sextillionth / trilliardth gorela....zepto z 10^{24} septillion)/ quadrillion garelu....yotta Y 10^{27} septillionth / quadrillionth gorelu....yocto y
 *Note: The n or on can sometimes be omitted in macroprefixation, especially where there is no ambiguity. The n (but NOT the yn) in the micro prefixes can also sometimes be omitted.
 **Note: The gar (to a plus power) and gor (to a minus power) forms are alternatives for the numeric prefixes beyond 100. For example, billion (10^{9}) could be expressed as garyu(ten) to the 9th power, while billionth could be expressed by goryu ((ten) to the minus 9th power). The prefix garya is composed of the positive exponential operator gar (to the power of), followed by the number 6. The prefix gorale is composed of the negative exponential operator gor (to the root of), followed by the number 12.
The macro and micro values can also be represented with abbreviated symbols, which can be pronounced in Mirad as spelled out alphabetics. Greek letter are rendered by their names in Greek. Upper case equivalents are preceded with ag. Here is a table showing grams:
Kg Metrics With Abbreviated Symbols MACRO MICRO SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION dag (decagram) daagenak (decigram) dagenak hg (hectogram) hegenak cg (centigram) cagenak kg (kilogram) kogenak mg (milligram) migenak Mg (macrogram) agmigenak μg (microgram) mugenak Gg (gigagram) aggegenak ng (nanogram) nigenak Tg (teragram) agtogenak pg (picagram) pogenak Pg ( petagram) agpogenak fg (femtogram) fegenak Eg (exagram) agegenak ag (attogram) agenak Zg (zettagram) agzegenak zg (zeptogram) zegenak Yg (yottagram) agyugenak yg (yoctogram) yugenak
 The squared and cubed representations of the above are followed by gar e (squared) and gar i (cubed), respectively:
 10 kg2....(pronounced as:) alo kogenaki gar e
 12 mm3....(pronounced as:) ale miminaki gar i
Expressing Frequency[edit  edit source]
 There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
 Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
 Using xag meaning frequency
 Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
Frequentative Determiners "JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING duhogla jodi? duhoxag? how often?, how many times? hogla jodi hoxag how often, how frequently hagla jodi haxag the frequency hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions higla jodi hixag this often, this many times hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times huugla jodi huuxag so often, so many times hyogla jodi hyoxag never hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times ga jodi gaxag (vyel) more often (than) ge jodi gexag (vyel) as many times (as), as often (as) go jodi goxag (vyel) less often (than) gla jodi glaxag many times, often gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom gra jodi graxag too often gre jodi grexag often enough gro jodi groxag too seldom gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible owa jod oxag never, at no time, zero times awa jod axag once, one time awa ga jod ga axag again, once more ewa jodi exag twice, two times iwa jodi ixag thrice, three times alo jodi aloxag ten times
 Examples:
 Duhoxag et pe ha tayegoblam?....How often do you go to the barber shop?
 Duhogla jodi et akaye hia ekun?....How many times have you won this game?
 At teataye hua dyezun iwa ey uwa jodi.....I have seen that film three or four times.
 At teataye is huugla jodi (or: huuxag) van at bokseye.....I have seen it so many times that I am getting sick.
 Hus xwaye gaxag vyel et te.....That has happened more often than you know.
Mathematical Expressions[edit  edit source]
 Mathematical vocabulary is based mostly on deriviatives of the degree word ga....more.
Chart of Mathmatical Components[edit  edit source]
 The following chart shows mathematical operator verbs and derived terms:
VERB  OPERATION  PATIENT  SUBJECT  OPERATOR  SIGN  RESULT 

gaber add 
gaben addition 
gabwas addend, summand 
gabus augend 
gab plus + 
gabsiyn plus sign 
gabix sum 
galer multiply 
galen multiplication 
galwas multiplicand 
galus multiplier factor 
gal times x 
galsiyn times sign 
galix product 
garer raise to the power of 
garen exponentiation 
garwas base 
garus exponent 
gar raised to the power of 
garsiyn exponent sign 
garix power 
gazer logarithmize 
gazen logarithmization 
gazwas base 
gazus antilogarithm 
gaz log 
gazix logarithm  
gober subtract 
goben subtraction 
gobwas subtrahend 
gobus minuend 
gob minus  
gobsiyn minus sign 
gobix difference 
goler divide 
golen division fraction 
golwas dividend' numerator' 
golus divisor denominator 
gol divided by ÷ 
golsiyn division sign 
golix quotient 
gorer derive the nth root of 
goren root extraction 
gorwas radicand 
gorus degree 
gor the nth root of √ 
gorsiyn radical sign 
gorix root 
geser equal 
gesen equation 
gexwas thing being equated 
gexus equator 
ge equal to = 
gesiyn equal sign 
gesix equation results 
How to Verbalize Math Expressions[edit  edit source]
 1 + 1 = 2.....A gab a gese e.
 3  1 = 2.....I gob a gese e.
 2 x 4 = 8.....E gal u gese yi.
 10 % 2 = 5.....Alo gol e gese yu.
 5^{2} = 25.....Yo gar e gese elyu.
 2^{3} = 8.....E gar i gese yi.
 4 √2 = 2 = 2.....U gor e gese e.
 log_{10} 1000 = 3.....Aro gaz alo gese i.
 Note 1: gese (equals) can be substituted with se (is), eg.:
 E gab e se u.....Two plus two is four.
 Note 2: If numbers are used as numeric adjectives, the units take the suffix wa, eg.:
 Ewa lafebi gab awa afeb gese vavol.....Two oranges plus one apple equals a salad.
 Examples of mathematical expressions:
 E gab e gese u.....Two plus two equals four.
 E gal i gese ya.....Two times three equals six.
 I gar e gese yu.....Three to the second power equals nine.
 E gob e gese o.....Two minus two equals zero.
 Yu gol i gese i.....Nine divided by three equals three.
 Yu gor i gese i.....Nine cubed equals three.
 Aso gor e gese alo.....One hundred squared equals ten.
 Aro gaz alo gese i.....Log_{10}(1000) = 3. (= Logarithm of a thousand to base ten equals three)
Decimal Expressions[edit  edit source]
 Decimal expressions like 2.5 use the word nod....point as in English.
 Hia bavol kyinse ga vyel 10.8 (alo nod yiwa) kigenaki.....This tomato weighs more than 10.8 (ten point eight) kilograms.
Calendar and Time Expressions[edit  edit source]
 The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:
Basic Calendar Units[edit  edit source]
 Time is divided using the following basic terms:
Calendar Units MIRAD ENGLISH job time jab year jeb season jib month jub day jwob* hour jwab* minute jweb* second
 Note: These would ordinarily be jyob, jyab, and jyeb respectively, but the w glide is much easier to pronounce after the letter j, and is therefore substituted.
Other Calendar Units[edit  edit source]
 Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical stubs to some of the time units above:
Other Calendar Units MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA rojab millenium year x 1,000 sojab century year x 100 lojab decade year x 10 eynjab half year year x 1/2 uynjab quarter year x 1/4 yajib semester month x 6 yejub week day x 7 yejubuj weekend day x 7 end eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
 This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
Day Pointers MIRAD ENGLISH hijub
hia yejub
hijabtoday
this week
this yearzojub
zoyejub
zajabyesterday
last week
last yearzajub
zayejub
zajabtomorrow
next week
next yearhujub
huyejub
hujabthat day
that week
that yearjazojub
ja ewa yejubi
jazojabthe day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before lastjozajub
jo ewa yejubi
jozajabthe day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after nextDuhajub? Which day? hyajub every day hyejub any day hejub someday hejubi some days
Seasons of the Year[edit  edit source]
 Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
Seasons of the Year MIRAD ENGLISH jeab spring jeeb summer jeib autumn, Fall jeub winter
 Examples of usage:
 be jeab....in spring
 ja jeeb....before summer
 ju jeib....until autumn
 ji jeub....since winter
 je ha jeb....during the season
 ub ha uj bi jeeb....toward the end of summer
 eb jeab ay jeeb....between spring and summer
 jeeba gemoj....vernal equinox
 jeiba fayebi....autumn leaves
 jeba til....seasonal drink
 jeubyena jebmalyen....wintry climate
 jeabyena malyen....springlike weather
 jeuben....hibernation
 hijeab....this season
 zajeab....next season
 zojeab....last season
 hyajeab....every season
Months of the Year[edit  edit source]
 Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
Months of the Year MIRAD ENGLISH jiab January jieb February jiib March jiub April jiyob May jiyab June jiyeb July jiyib August jiyub September jilob October jilab November jileb December
 Some expressions using the months:
 be jilob....in October
 ja jiyab....before June
 lojo zajiyeb....by next July (lojo = not after)
 hijib....this month
 zojib....last month
 zajib....next month
 bijibbujiba jobnis....monthtomonth rent
 jibay....monthly
 jibi joy....months later
 jiba sindryen....monthly magazine
 hujiba jobnis....that month's rent
 hya ionjib....every trimester
 jiber....menstruate
 byi zojilob....since last October
 ub zejib....toward midmonth
Days of the Week[edit  edit source]
 Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
Days of the Week MIRAD ENGLISH juab Monday jueb Tuesday juib Wednesday juub Thursday juyob Friday juyab Saturday juyeb Sunday
 Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
Day Expressions MIRAD ENGLISH Duhojub? Which day? hojub hu... the day that... hejub someday hijub today hujub that day hyijub (on) the same day hyajub every day hyejub any day zajub yesterday zojub tomorrow ha jajub
be ha jana jubthe day before, (on) the previous day ha jojub
be ha jona jubthe day before, (on) the previous day jazojub the day before yesterday jozajub the day after tomorrow hya ea jub every other/second day hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday yejub week hiyejeb this week yejubuj weekend yexjub (or) zeyejub weekday enyejuba(y) biweekly zoyejub last week
 Examples of Usage:
 (be) juyob....on Friday
 ju juib....until Wednesday
 ji zojub....since yesterday
 lojo jubuj....by [Lit: not after] day's end
 jo zajub....after tomorrow
 je ha jub....during the day
 bi juab bu juub....from Monday to Friday
 yejubuja ponpop....a weekend getaway
Parts of the Day[edit  edit source]
 Here are the principal parts of a day:
DAYTIME  NIGHTTIME 

maj....daytime, day  moj....nighttime, night 
bi maj....A.M.  bi moj....P.M. 
jamajij....predawn  jamojij....predusk 
majij....daybreak, dawn  mojij....dusk 
amaryap....sunrise, sunup  amaryop....sunset, sundown 
jwamaj....morning zajwamaj....tomorrow morning hijwamaj....this morning zojwamaj....yesterday morning hujwamaj....that morning hyajwamaj....every morning 
jwamoj....evening zajwamoj....tomorrow evening hijwamoj....this evening zojwamoj....yesterday evening hujwamoj....that evening hyajwamoj....every evening 
zemaj....noon  zemoj....midnight 
jozemaj....afternoon  jozemoj....after midnight 
majuj....day's end  jwomoj....late night 
 Examples of Usage:
 At tijpa ja majij.....I woke up before dawn.
 At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa jozemaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
 It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
 Be gwa jwamoji, at teaxe sinibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.
Expressing Dates[edit  edit source]
 The following is a how a date (jud) is normally expressed:
 be juab, 11 jieb 2018 joK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
 A date like 2018 can be expressed as twenty eighteen (elo alyi) or two thousand eighteen (ero alyi).
 The day in the above expression is pronounced ala.
 The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
 The acronym for B.C. is jaK, short for ja Krist (before Christ).
 The acronym for A.D. is joK, short for jo Krist (after Christ).
 Other date expressions follow:
 be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
 ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
 eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (emso awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
 hyaje hua alojab....throughout that decade
 At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
 Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
 Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab.....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.
Telling Time[edit  edit source]
 Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
 Times of the day are expressed in the 24hour European system, or what might be called by Americans "military clock time." So, 3PM in U.S. parlance should be expressed in Mirad as 15 hours (ulo jwobi), which is the same as 15:00 or 15 hundred hours.
 The usual timeofday question is Se duhojwob?....What time is it? [Lit: is whathour?]
 The typical answer is in the format Se alo (jwobi) yuwa. (Lit: (It) is ten hours five). The use of jwobi is optional, but if jwobi is modified by awa....one, then the singular form jwob is used.
 Here are some typical answers:
 Se awa jwob.....It is one o'clock AM [Lit: It is one hour.]
 Se ewa jwobi.....It is two o'clock AM [Lit: It is two hours.]
 Se ale jwobi.....It is twelve o'clock AM.
 Se alyu jwobi elo.....It is 15:30 (3:30 PM).
 Se eli jwobi ali.....It is 23:13 (11:13 PM).
 Se elu jwobi.....It is 24:00 (12 PM).
 The words jwob and jwobi can be abbreviated as j..
 be elo j.....At 8:00 PM
 The designation AM and PM can be used but are not necessary in the 24hour clock system:
 bi maj....(AM)
 bi moj.... (PM)
 Se vyavay 15:10 (= alu alo).....It is exactly 7:10 P.M.. [Lit: It is exactly fifteen ten.]
 Et sa jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes. [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
 Has ijo yuz 21:30 (= ela jwobi ilo).....It will begin around 10:30 PM.
 Puu him lojo jwoa vyel 15:00 j.....Get here no later than 3 PM.
 Ha yuzpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
 Ha jwobar izeade^{1} 17:00.....The clock says [Lit. indicates] 5 PM.
 Yit pua be 3 j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
 Note 1: izeade (indicates) can be substituted with de (says).
 Note the following clock time idioms:
Clock Idioms MIRAD ENGLISH jwa early jwe on time jwo late Se vyavay elo j. It is exactly 8 PM. yub bi zemaj around noon ub zemoj toward midnight lojo jwebi within [= notafter] seconds alo jwabi ja hij ten minutes ago [= before now] lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock AM. jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour Hia pop efxe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: necessitates) 2 1/2 hours. ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock. je ha jana 12 jwabi for/during/over the last 12 minutes ja ojo 10 j. before / by 10 AM. lojo 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours. jo 10 j. after 10 o'clock AM. At saye him ji 2 jwobi. I have been here for 2 hours.
Expressing Age[edit  edit source]
 Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
 The typical question is:
 Et se duhojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. whataged)
 A typical answer is:
 At se eli (jabi) (jaga).....I am twentythree (years old).
 The word jaga can be left understood, as well as the word jabi....years:
 At se ilo.....I am thirty.
 Here is a list of important age expressions and categories:
 duhojaga?....how old?
 hojoga....of which age
 hajaga....of the age
 hejaga....of some age
 hijaga....this old
 hujaga....that old
 huujaga....so old
 hyajaga....of every age
 hyejaga....of any age
 hyijaga / gejaga....of the same age, as old
 hyujaga / ogejaga....of a different age
 zejaga .... middleaged
 jaga....old
 jayga....oldish
 joga....young
 joyga .... youngish
 gle jaga....rather old, oldish
 gla jaga....very old
 gra jaga....too old, superaged
 gro jaga....underaged, minor
 ge jaga....as old, of the same age
 awa (jab) jaga....one year old
 ewa (jabi) jaga....two years old
 alo (jabi) jaga....ten years old
 ga jaga vyel et....older than you
 ga joga vyel at....younger than me
 ge joga vyel iyt....as young as her
 ha gwa jagat bi ata tidetyan....the youngest of my siblings
 gajagat .... an elder
 grojagat....a minor
 alojagat....a tenyearold
 aloynjagat....a teenager
 jagat .... old person, elder, senior
 jagwat .... old man
 jagayt .... old woman
 jogat....a youth
 jogwat....a boy
 jogayt....a girl
 grejat....an adult, someone of age
 jagseat....an adolescent
 jagsyat/agsyat....a grownup
 yilojagat....an octogenarian
 asojagat....a centenarian
 tud .... child, offspring
 twud .... male child, son
 tuyd .... female child, daughter
 tudet .... baby, infant
 tobet .... youth, young person
 twobet .... boy, young man
 toybet .... girl, young woman, maiden
 Some other examples of usage:
 Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
 At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
 His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
 Gawaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
 At se ga jaga vyel ha yazmeli.....I am as old as the hills.
 Teaxu ata gwa joga tud.....Look at my youngest child.
 Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our oneyearold.
 Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.
 Agsu!....Grow up!
 Note the difference:
 agaser....to get bigger
 agser....to grow
Currency Nomenclature[edit  edit source]
 The ISO abbreviation for the currency expressions from various countries of the world are used to form the Mirad equivalents. The lowercase ISO code abbreviation for a particular country's denomination is spelled out in Mirad alphabetics and then the letter n is suffixed (mnemonic for nas....money). Then, since a monetary unit can be considered a proper noun, the first letter is capitalized, eg.:
 The ISO code abbreviation for "U.S. dollar" is "USD".
 Lowercase is "usd"
 Spelled out in Mirad alphabetics is u so da.
 This, with n suffixed, results in usodan.
 Finally, the first letter is capitalized, giving Usodan.
 Pluralized, Usodan becomes Usodani (= U.S. dollars).
 The Euro is therefore Euron.
 The Thai baht is Toheban.
 The Russian ruble is Rouban.
 The ISO codes can be found at List of circulating currencies. A portion of that file is replicated here:
English Currency Name  Currency symbol 
ISO code  Mirad Name 

Jordanian dinar  JD  JOD  Jiodan 
Moroccan dirham  DH  MAD  Miadan 
Australian dollar  $  AUD  Audan 
Bitcoin  ₿  (BTK?)  Batokin 
Brunei dollar  $  BND  Banidan 
Eastern Caribbean dollar  $  XCD  Xucadan 
Hong Kong dollar  $  HKD  Hekidan 
New Zealand dollar  $  NZD  Nizudan 
Singapore dollar  $  SGD  Sogedan 
United States dollar  $  USD  Usodan 
Armenian dram  ֏  AMD  Amidan 
Euro  €  EUR  Euron 
Central African CFA franc  Fr  XAF  Xuafen 
CFP franc  Fr  XPF  Xupofen 
Swiss franc  Fr  CFN  Cufenin 
West African CFA franc  Fr  XOF  Xuofen 
Netherlands Antillean guilder  ƒ  ANG  Anigen 
Danish krone  kr  DKK  Dakikin 
Turkish lira  ₺  TRY  Toroyun 
Mauritanian ouguiya  UM  MRU  Miroun 
Sterling  £  GBP  Gebapon 
Saint Helena pound  £  SHP  Sohepon 
South African rand  R  ZAR  Zuaron 
Russian rouble  ₽  RUB  Rouban 
Indian rupee  ₹  INR  Iniron 
Israeli new shekel  ₪  ILS  Ilison 
 The hundredth fractional unit for most currencies can be converted into Mirad by appending the word asoyn to the end of the Mirad name of the currency.
 For example:
 The American cent is Usodanasoyn.
 The Euro cent is Euronasoyn.
 The British penny is Gebaponasoyn.
 In context, all of the above can be abbreviated to asoyn.
 The symbol used for each currency can also be taken from the Wikipedia table referenced above. The symbol precedes the number and a comma is used for the thousand breaker and a period is used for the decimal breaker. For example:
 Five point six Euros ==> Yowa nod yawa Euroni ==> €5.6
 Two thousand nine dollars ==> Emro yuwa Usodani ==> $2,009
 Note: : The bitcoin has no ISO code, so it is arbitrarily translated into Mirad as Batokin (for BTK). Its billionth fractional unit is called a satoshi and is translated into Mirad as Batokinamroyn.
 Other monetary vocabulary:
 nas....money
 nasa....monetary
 nasyen....currency
 nases....change
 nasmug....coin
 syagnas....cash
 syagnasuer....to cash
 ejnux....debit, cash
 ojnux....credit
 nasyef....debt
 ojbier....to borrow
 ojbuer....to lend
 drefnas....paper money
 nasdrev....bill, note, banknote
 alo Usodan nasdrev....ten dollar bill
 nax....price
 nayx....cost
 namper....to shop
 nusbier....to buy
 nisbuer....to sell
 nun....merchandise, product
 nuer....to supply
 nuxer....to pay
 nyuxer....to deliver
 nier....to demand
 nixer....to earn
 nyixer....to order
 nexer....to save
 nyexer....to stock
 noxer....to spend
 nyoxer....to waste
 kyaxler nas....convert money
 nasokrer....go bankrupt
 nasam....bank
 nuien....trade
 nuiem....market
 nam....store