Mirad Grammar/Word Families

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Word Families[edit]

The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub....mouth:
"Mnemonic Family"
seux....sound
xeus....noise
xeuz....tune
teuz....voice
deuz....song
seuz....tone
deus....accent
Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
Analogy and Mnemonics
teb....head deb....leader xeb....boss feb....treetop
tub....limb dub....minister xub....subsidiary fub....branch vub....twig patub....wing petub....paw pitub....fin
teub....mouth pateub....beak peteub....muzzle
tayeb....hair patayeb....feather pitayeb....scale fayeb....leaf vosayeb....petal potayeb....mane
tayob....skin tayof....leather petayob....hide fayob....bark vayob....peel
tyob....leg fyob....root vyob....plant root
tib....trunk fib....tree trunk vib....stem
tulob....nail petulob....claw fulob....thorn defulob....needle mulob....pin, prick
tiibuf....artery fuf....pipe muf....stick, rod movuf....cheminee fauf....log manuf....candle
til....drink teabil....tear teubil....saliva dril....ink mil....water mamil....rain tayobil....sweat bil....milk


The xer (Do) Family[edit]

The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this base word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).


Core Words[edit]

This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
Xer Family Core Words
axer....act exer....function oxer....abstain ixer....effect uxer....cause
axler....perform exler....operate oxler....fail ixler....react uxler....influence
axrer....execute uxrer....provoke
axner....behave
xaer....execute xeer....exercise xoer....undergo, submit xier....result xuer....affect
xaler....accomplish xeler....practice xoler....fail xiler....undertake xuler....achieve
yexer....work yoxer....be idle yixer....use yuxer....help
yexler....labor yoxler....resign
yoxluer....fire
yixler....hire, employ yuxler....serve
yexrer....toil yixrer....exploit yuxrer....slave
yuxruer....enslave

Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes[edit]

Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
Prefixing Xer Words
PREFIX  +  BASE DERIVATION
ana....single  +  xer....make anaxer....unify
an-....one-  +  xer....make anxer....unite
yan....together  +  exer....operate yanexer....cooperate
yan....together  +  yexer....work yanyexer....collaborate
yon....apart  +  xer....make yonxer....split
ge....equal  +  xer....make gexer....copy
ja....before  +  xer....make jaxer....prepare
je....while  +  xer....do jexer....continue
ig-....fast  +  xer....do igxer....rush
ug-....slow  +  xer....do ugxer....delay
oj....future  +  xer....do ojxer....plan
eg-....re-  +  xer....do egxer....redo
sa(n)....shape  +  xer....make saxer....create
se(n)....being  +  xer....make sexer....build
lo-....un-  +  sexer....build losexer....destroy
mel....soil  +  yexer....work melyexer....plough
tea(b)....eye  +  xer....do teaxer....look
o-....un-  +  yirxer....hire oyirxer....fire
mag....fire  +  xer....cause magxer....burn
yuf....fear  +  xer....cause yufxer....frighten
dofun....crime  +  xer....do dofunxer....commit a crime
gra....too much  +  xer....do graxer....exaggerate
eg-....re-  +  axer....act egaxer....react
fu-....bad  +  axner....behave fuaxner....misbehave

Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

Unlimited transitive verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
Building Verbs from Adjectives
ADJECTIVE VERB
aga....big agaxer....magnify
goa....lesser goaxer....diminish
fia....good fiaxer....improve
jwoa....late jwoaxer....retard
uva....sad uvaxer....sadden
via....beautiful viaxer....beautify
ebdooba....international ebdoobaxer....internationalize
Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
The passive of xer, xwer....to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
  • Hoj hus xwa?....When did that happen?
  • At uvaxwa haj hu at teata ha tobud.....I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.

Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms[edit]

The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
  • xer deuz....to perform a song
  • xer ifpop....to take a cruise
  • xer ebdid....to conduct an interview
  • xer yagigpek....to run a marathon
  • xer dazun....to do a dance number
  • xer dezekgon....to play a role
  • xer dovyabdras....to enact a piece of legislation


The ser (Be) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
Summary:
Core Ser Verbs
aser....become eser....exist, there to be oser....cease to be iser....start out user....end up

Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
Stative Verbs
ADJECTIVE STATIVE VERB
aga....big agaser....get big
aga....big agser....grow
uza....curved uzaser....curve, bend, bow
kyaa....mobile kyaser....change, vary
mayna....clear maynaser....clear up
iga....fast igaser....become fast, accelerate
iga....fast igser....rush, hurry
Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
  • It agxe vafyabi.....He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Vafyabi voy agse fiay him.....Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
  • His kyaxa yata teji.....This changed our lives.
  • Yata teji kyasa hujub.....Our lives changed on that day.
  • Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi.....The winds bent the trees.
  • Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag.....The trees bowed during the storm.
  • Von igxu at.....Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Igsu!....Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)

Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns[edit]

The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives
NOUN STATIVE VERB
meg....stone megser....petrify, become rock
abnod....peak abnodser....peak, climax
mus....scale, stair musser....escalate
yom....ice yomser....freeze
maf....cloud mafser....cloud over
il....liquid ilser....liquefy, melt

The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families[edit]

The base words ber....to put and per....to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.


Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels[edit]

Building Verbs with Positional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels
PREFIX TRANSITIVE
GESTURE
INTRANSITIVE
MOTION
PREFIX TRANSITIVE
GESTURE
INTRANSITIVE
MOTION
ab....on aber....put on aper....get on baer....lean paer....stand
yab....up yaber....raise yaper....rise byaer....lift pyaer....jump
ob....off ober....remove oper....dismount boer....hold up poer....hang
yob....down yober....lower yoper....descend byoer....hang pyoer....fall
ub....toward uber....send uper....come bu....to buer....give puer....arrive
ib....away iber....receive iper....go away bi....from bier....take pier....leave
yub....near yuber....bring yuper....approach byu....up to byuer....touch pyuer....reach
yib....far yiber....take away yiper....move far away byi....since byier....emanate pyier....originate
eb....between eber....block eper....intervene yeb....in
oyeb....out
yeber....inject
oyeber....eject
yeper....enter
oyeper....exit
za....front zaber....advance zaper....advance zay....forward zayber....promote zayper....proceed
zo....behind zober....put behind zoper....follow zoy....back zoyber....put back zayper....return
ze....middle zeber....balance zeper....mediate zey....across zeyber....transfer zeyper....cross
zu....left zuber....put to the left zuper....go left uz....curve uzber....deviate uzper....turn
zi....right ziber....put to the right ziper....go right iz....straight ziber....guide izper....head
zya....all over zyaber....spread zyaper....tour zye....through zyeber....pass through zyeper....pass through
zyu....round zyuber....rotate zyuper....roll yuz....around yuzber....turn yuzper....circulate
yiz....beyond yizber....take beyond yizper....surpass zyag....stretched out zyagber....stretch zyagper....stretch out
ja....before jaber....prepare japer....precede aj....past ajber....pass ajper....pass
jo....after jober....delay joper....follow oj....future ojber....postpone ojper....wait?
je....during jeber....continue jeper....continue ej....present ejber....present ejper....present oneself
yan....together yanber....assemble yanper....join bay....with bayber....impart bayper....accompany
yon....apart yonber....take apart yonper....separate boy....without boyber....deprive boyper....go without
kia....oblique kiber....bend kiper....slant ika....full ikber....fill ikper....become full
kua....lateral kuber....set aside kuper....avoid uka....empty ukber....empty ukper....become empty

Using Ber and Per to Form Dynamic Verbs[edit]

Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic counterparts end in -ber for transitive verbs and in -per for intransitive verbs. There is a table showing this:
Using Ber and Per with J Verbs
STATIVE-INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-TRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-INTRANSITIVE
tojer....die tojber....kill tojper....drop dead
tajer....be born tajber....give birth (to), bear tajper....spring up
tejer....live tejber....bring to life tejper....come to life
tijer....be awake tijber....awaken tijper....wake up
tujer....sleep tujber....put to sleep tujper....fall asleep
ijer....begin ijber....begin (something) ijper....start up
ujer....end ujber....finish, put an end to ujper....come to an end
yijer....open up yijber....open up (something) yijper....come open
yujer....close yujber....close, bring to a close yujper....come to a close

The der (Say) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
Der Core Words
daler....speak
dar....language
dares....dialect
der....say
deler....
state
doler....be silent dier....ask
dider....question
diler....request
direr....demand
duer....suggest
duder....answer
duler....urge
durer....instigate
drer....write
drar....pencil
drir....typewriter
drur....printer
dodrur....press
droer....erase
dyeer....read
dyes....book
dyeder....dictate
deser....pronounce din....story dun....word
dyun....name
dyan....sentence
draf....card
drav....notebook
dref....paper
drev....page
drof....board
drov....cardboard
dyuf....sheet
dyuv....page
daz....dance dez....theater
dyez....cinema
drez....poetry
diz....comedy duz....music
deuz....song

Verbs of Communication[edit]

Many verbs of communication are created by prefixing elements to der (to say, tell) as in the following chart:
Building Verbs of Communication with Der
va....yes vader....affirm
vo....no voder....deny
ve....maybe veder....guess
vyaa....true vyader....swear
vyoa....false vyoder....lie
fyaa....holy fyader....bless
fyoa....profane fyoder....curse
oza....weak ozder....hint
eg....re- egder....repeat
ve....maybe + yova....guilty veyovder....indict
va....yes + yova....guility vayovder....convict
ja....before jader....predict
vao....yes/no vaoder....decide
yev....justice yevder....judge
fia....good fider....praise
fua....bad fuder....disparage
af....permission afder....authorize
of....prohibition ofder....ban
naz....value nazder....evaluate
yov....guilt yovder....blame
zyaa....wide zyader....broadcast
yaga....long yagder....elaborate
vyoa....wrong + via....beautiful vyovider....flatter
vyea....relative vyeder....relate
va....yes + oj....future vaojder....promise
ut....self + fia....good utfider....boast
uv....sorrow + tax....memory uvtaxder....regret
tes....meaning tesder....mean
ov....against ovder....object
kyia....heavy kyider....emphasize
jwa....early jwader....warn
ja....before + vo....no javoder....preclude
yuj....close yujder....conclude
ja....before + nap....order janapder....preordain
hyay....hurrah hyayder....congratulate
hyey....thanks hyeyder....thank
gra....too much grader....exaggerate
diz....comedy dizder....joke
dre-....write dreder....spell
eb....between ebder....communicate
eb....between + di-....ask ebdider....interview
eb....between + tes....meaning ebtesder....interpret
eb....between + tex....thought ebtexder....decide
ek-....play ekder....pretend

Animal Sounds[edit]

Animal noise verbs are created by replacing the final -t of an animal name with der:
Building Animal Sound Verbs
yepet....dog yepeder....bark
yipet....cat yipeder....mew
epeyt....cow epeyder....moo
epat....duck epader....quack
ipat....turkey ipader....gobble

Speaking in Languages[edit]

Names of languages can be formed by replacing the final -m of the country name with -d. Then, the verb meaning to say in x language or speak in x language can be formed by adding -der or -daler, eg:
Language Speaking Verbs
Anglam....England Anglad English Anglader....say in English Angladaler....speak in English
Fransam....France Fransad....French (language) Fransader....say in French Fransadaler....speak French
The name of the language discussed in this book is Mirad, which comes from mira, meaning global, world. Thus, say in Mirad is Mirader and speak Mirad is Miradaler. A speaker of Mirad is a Miradut or Miradalut. Duven et Mirade?....Do you speak Mirad?. Hey Miraduti, ansu!....Hey, speakers of Mirad, unite!
Examples:
  • Duven et Miradale?....Do you speak Mirad?
  • Diwe Engladu has.....Please say it in English.
  • Voy ese gaj gla Latinaduti.....There are no longer many Latin-speakers.
Note: Latinadalut can be shortened to Latinadut.
Similarly, to write in Mirad and to read in Mirad would be Miradrer and Miradyeer, respectively.

Communication Arts[edit]

Words for various communication art forms begin d- and end in -z, eg:
Communications Art Words with D-Z
daz....dance
vidaz....ballet
dazun....a dance dazut....dancer
vidazuyt....ballerina
dazutyan....dance troupe
dazim....ballroom
vidazim....ballet studio
dez....theater dezun....a play dezut....stage actor
dezutyan....cast
dezam....theater
dezyem....stage
dezmisof....curtain
diz....comedy dizun....a sketch dizut....comedian
dizutyan....comedy cast
dizam....comedy club
dizyem....stage
drez....poetry drezun....a poem drezut....poet drezim....poetry salon
duz....music
duzdinag....opera
duzdinog....operetta, musical
duzun....a musical piece duzut....musician
duzutyan....orchestra
duzam....music arena
duzdinagam....opera house
duzar....musical instrument
dyez....cinema dyezun....a movie dyezut....screen actor
dyezutyan....cast
dyezam....movie theater
dyezim....movie salon
deuz....song deuzun....a song deuzut....singer deuzam....auditorium
dyezmis....screen

The ter (Know) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental states and activities like knowing, thinking, feeling, etc.:

Core Words[edit]

tep....mind, intellect
teptija....conscious
teptuja....unconscious
tepaza....smart
tepoza....stupid
tepiga....witty
tepsin....imagination
top....soul
toptun....psychology
tip....sentiment
tipaga....generous
tigoga....stingy
tipifa....kind
tipufa....mean
tipyija....tolerant
tipyiva....liberal
tipyiga....stern
tipyuga....lenient
taxer....remember
taxier....memorize
taxuer....remind
texer....think
vatexer....believe
vatexuer....persuade
vetexer....suspect
votexer....doubt
votexuer....dissuade
vyatex....reason

ter....know
oter....ignore
ten....knowledge
twas....datum

trer1....recognize
tyier....get acquainted
tyuer....acquaint

tez....culture
tyez....magic
ten....knowledge
tyen....technique
tyenyan....technology
trenier....train (oneself)
trenuer....train

teyen....idea
teyentun....philosophy
teyenyan....ideology
teyenier....conceptualize
toxer....forget tixer....study tuxer....teach
tayoter....feelteser....mean
tesier....infer
tesuer....imply
tester....understand
tesder....explain
testier....realize
testun....semantics
toser....feel tier....learn
tin....doctrine
iztis....intuition
vyatis....wisdom
tuer....inform
tun....science
tuin....theory
tuz....art


1. Note that trer....recognize, know, be familiar with is used instead of ter....know when referring to a person, much like Fr. connaître....be familiar with (a person) vs. savoir....know (a fact, how to), eg. It voy te van at tre it.....He doesn't know that I know him.

Ologies[edit]

Suffixing -tun....science to words forms many -ology terms. An -ologist is rendered with -tut, eg:
Ologies
tep....mind teptun....psychology teptut....psychologist
tieb....lung tiebtun....pneumology tiebtut....pneumologist
toj....death tejtun....thanatology tejtut....thanatologist
pat....bird pattun....ornithology pattut....ornithologist
pit....fish pittun....ichthyology pittut....ichthyologist
pot....animal pottun....zoology pottut....zoologist
mul....matter multun....chemistry ("materiology?") multut....chemist
ko-....hidden, dren....writing kodrentun....cryptology kodrentut....cryptologist
Some -ology words in English refer to theories or pseudo-science and are translated into Mirad with the ending -tuin:
-Tuin Suffix Words
mar....star martuin....astrology (cf. martun....astronomy) martuit....astrologist
sag....number sagtuin....numerology (cf. sagtun....mathematics) sagtuit....numerologist
nif....string niftuin....string theory niftuit....string theoretician

Ism's[edit]

Words in English referring to doctrines, dogmas, or -isms are translated into Mirad with the ending -tin, eg:
Ism Words
dot....society dotin....socialism
Buda....Buddha Budatin....Bhuddism
gwa....most, fis....good thing gwafistin....optimism
vyaa....true vyatin....orthodoxy, truism
an-....one, fyaat....god anfyaatin....monotheism

Schools[edit]

The general word for school is tistam (house of learning). The various levels of schools are translated with this word scalarized numerically.
Schools
atistam primary school
etistam secondary school, high school, lycee
itistam college
utistam university
The word pre-school, kindergarten is represented with jatitam (lit. pre-school), while post-graduate school is rendered with joutitam (lit. pre-university).
Some other, related terms:
  • enjab itistam....two-year college
  • dovyap tistam....law school
  • yexyen tistam....trade school, vocational school
  • zetistam....middle school
  • tutam....academy
  • tiut....pupil
  • tixut....student
  • tixutyan....student body
  • tuxut....teacher
  • tuut....educator
  • tuen....education
  • tut....professor, scholar
  • tit....disciple, learner
  • titameb....principal
  • ititameb....dean
  • tuxutyan....faculty
  • tuxim....lecture hall, classroom
  • tixim....study hall
  • tityan....class
  • tisun....lesson
  • tisundyes....lesson book
  • aa tinag....first grade
  • ea tinag....second grade

The job (Time) Family[edit]

Here are the most important words derived from job....time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to a point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning frequency, translated by jod in Mirad.


Calendar Time Units[edit]

Calendar Time Units
TIME SEASONS MONTHS DAYS OF THE WEEK
job....time jeab....spring jiab....January juab....Monday
jab....year jeeb....summer jieb....February jueb....Tuesday
jeb....season jeib....autumn jiib....March juib....Wednesday
jib....month jeub....winter jiub....April juub....Thursday
jub....day jiyob....May juyob....Friday
jwob* hour jiyab....June yuyab....Saturday
jwab* minute
jwap....moment
jiyeb....July juyeb....Sunday
jweb* second
jwep....instant
jiyib....August
jiyub....September
jilob....October
jilab....November
jileb....December
OTHER
yejub....week sojab....century rojab....millennium
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.

Times of Day[edit]

Times of Day
DAY / NIGHT PERIODS
maj....daytime majij....dawn
jwamaj....morning
zemaj....noon
jazemaj (JaZ.)....ante-meridian, AM
jozemaj (JoZ.)....afternoon, postmeridian, PM
jwomaj....late day
majuj....dusk, twilight
moj....night jwamoj....evening
jwomoj....late night
zemoj....midnight
jozemoj....after midnight
Note: jub day is a general word referring to the whole 24-hour cycle without reference to morning or night. Maj refers to the daylight hours and moj to the darkness hours.
Examples of usage:
  • At teato et zajub jwamaj.....I will see you tomorrow morning.
  • Yat teapa iyt zojub jozemaj.....We visited her yesterday afternoon.
  • Ha maar yope be majuj.....The sun sets at dusk.
  • Mamila zojub jwamoj.....It rained yesterday evening.
  • At tijpe be majij.....I wake up at dawn.

Clock Time[edit]

The following examples show how to express clock time:
  • Se hojab?....What time is it?
  • Se alo jwabi JaZ (=jazemaj).....It is ten o'clock A.M.
  • Se uwa jwabi JoZ (=jozemaj).....It is four o'clock P.M.
  • Se yawa jwabi gab ilo.....It is six thirty. (= plus thirty)
  • Se alo (jwebi) ji yiwa.....It is ten (minutes) til eight. (or:)
  • Se yiwa (jwabi) gab alo..... " " "
  • Se uyn ji awa.....It is a quarter past ( = since) one.
  • Se uyn ju ewa.....It is a quarter til ( = until) two.
  • Se go jo ewa.....It is a little past ( = after) two.
  • Se jubay uwa jwabi.....It is almost 4 o'clock.
  • Se gwe zemaj.....It is exactly (= just) noon.
  • Se go yiz zemoj.....It was slightly past (= beyond) midnight.
  • At so hum ojo ale jwebi.....I'll be there in (= not-after) twelve minutes.
  • Su him jwa / jwe!....Be here early / on time!
  • Von su jwo!....Don't be late!

General Time Words[edit]

General Time Words
GENERAL TIME WORDS EXAMPLES
job....time job bi uvan....a time of sadness
Job pape.....Time flies.
jod....time, instance, occasion awa jod....once
ewa jodi....two times
gajod...again, another time
xag....frequency Hoxag?....How often?
glaxag....very often
hyoxag....never
jud....date Be hoa jud?....On what date?
be ga jwoa jud....at a later date
jag....age Et se hojaga?....How old are you?
At se ulo jaga.....I am forty years old.

Scalar Time Periods[edit]

Scalar Time Periods
SCALAR TIME PERIODS
joob....eon
joab....era
joeb....period
joib....epoch
joub....age
joyob....chron
joyab....term

Some Parallel Time Terms[edit]

Parallel Time Words
taj....birth aj....past ajna....former, old ajoba....ancient ja....before jay....already jana....previous jaga....old jwa....early jwana....pre-mature
tej....life ej....present ejna....new ejoba....modern je....during jey....meanwhile jena....current jwe....on time jwena....mature, ripe
toj....death oj....future ojna....imminent ojoba....futuristic jo....after joy....afterwards jona....next joga....young jwo....late jwona....stale
tij....wakefulness ij....beginning ijna....initial ijob....early times ji....since jiga....fresh, vibrant
tuj....sleep uj....end ujna....final ujob....latter days ju....until juga....tired, jaded

Time, Frequency, and Age Questions[edit]

Time, Frequency, and Age Questions
WHEN HOW OFTEN HOW OLD
hoj?....when? hoxag....how often? hojaga?....how old?
haj hu....when haxag hu....as often as hajaga hu....as old as
hej....sometime hexag....sometimes hejaga....of a certain age
hij....now hixag....this often hijaga....this old
huj....then huxag....that often hujaga....that old
huuj....at such a time huuxag....so often huujaga....so old
hyoj....never hyoxag....not once glejaga....rather old
hyaj....always hyaxag....at all times grajaga....too old
hyej....anytime hyexag....however often grojaga....under-aged
hyij (vyel)....at the same time (as) gexag (vyel)....as often (as) gejaga (vyel)....of the same age (as)
hyuj (vyel)....some other time (than) ogexag (vyel)....not as often (as) ogejaga (vyel)....not as old (as)
be jodi....at times awa jod....once awa (jab) jaga....one year old
be hujobi....in those times ewa jodi....twice ewa (jabi) jaga....two years old
byu jobuj....forever gla jodi....many time alo (jabi) jaga....ten years old
byi huj....since then aloni bi jodi....hundreds of times gajaga (vyel)....older (than)
How old are you? is expressed as Hojaga se et?. A typical response is At se ali (jabi) jaga.....I am thirteen (years old). If the quantity of time is months, than the answer would be like the following: Iyt sa ewa jibi (jaga).....She was two months (old).

Age Classes[edit]

Age Classes
GENDER-NONSPECIFIC (MALE) FEMALE
awajag(w)at....one-year-old (boy) awajagayt....one-year-old girl
alojag(w)at....ten-year-old (boy) alojagayt....ten-year-old girl
jog(w)at....youngster, youth, (boy) jogayt....girl, damsel
gwajog(w)at....youngest person/(boy) gwajogayt....youngest girl
gojag(w)at....younger person/(boy), cadet gojagayt....younger girl
aloyjag(w)at....teenager, (teenaged boy) aloyjagayt....teenaged girl
grajog(w)at....minor, (under-aged boy) grajogayt....minor female, girl too young
grojag(w)at / jwot....minor, immature person/(boy) grojagayt / jwoyt....minor girl
grejagseat / jwet....adolescent (boy) grejagseayt / jweyt....adolescent (girl)
grejag(w)at / jwat....adult male, (boy of age) grejagayt / jwayt....adult female, girl of age
zejag(w)at....middle-aged person/(man) zejagayt....middle-aged female/woman
gajag(w)at....older person/(man), elder, superior gajagayt....older female/woman, elder, superior
grajag(w)at....over-aged person/(man), person/(man too old) grajagayt....over-aged female/woman, woman too old
jayg(w)at....youngish individual, youngish (man) jaygayt....youngish female, youngish woman
yilojag(w)at....octogenarian yilojagayt....octogenarian woman, woman in her eighties
yulojag(w)at....nonagenarian yulojagayt....nonagenarian woman, woman in her nineties
asojag(w)at....centenarian asojagayt....centenarian woman, 100-year-old woman
jag(w)at....oldster, veteran, old person, (old man), elder jagayt....old woman, old lady
jayg(w)at....oldish person jaygayt....oldish woman
gwajag(w)at....oldest/senior-most/eldest person/(man) gwajagayt....oldest/senior-most/eldest woman
gwojag(w)at....the least young person/(man) gwojagayt....the least young woman

The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families[edit]

The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.

Core Words[edit]

Core Words
...AG WORDS N...[BPD] WORDS
ag....size nod....point
sag....number nad....line
syag....count ned....plane
syaag....calculation nid....volume
nog....degree nab....rank
nag....measure nap....order
neg....level naab....organization
nig....space naap....system
jag....age nyap....rule
xag....frequency nyed....grid
yag....length


Shapes[edit]

Summary:
Shapes
zyus....circle
zyuys....oval
zyunid....sphere
zyuk....wheel
unizgun....rectangle
ungekun....square
ungun....quadrangle
unoizgun....rhombus
ingun....triangle
yoongun....pentagon
ginid....cone
yagunid....cube
inguginid....pyramid
fufnid....cylinder
amezsan....diamond
tosan....cross
uznad....arc
ilpsan....wave
gunsan....wedge
maarsan....star shape

The tom (Building), em (Place) Families[edit]

The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.

Core Words[edit]

Place Words
FULL WORDS STUBS
tom....building, nem....place -em....general (usu. open) place
tam....house, nam....store -am....indoor place, building
tem....hall, nyem....box -yem....enclosed space
tim....room -im....room
tum....cell -um....cell, booth, stall
nyeb....container
syeb....can
zyeb....bottle
-yeb....container

Common Spaces with -(e)m[edit]

The words in the following table refer to spaces or open places:
-EM Words
PLACE ROOT
abem....top ab....on
obem....bottom ob....base
ebem....interval eb....between
oyebem....outdoors oyeb....out
yebem....indoors yeb....in
yubem....vicinity yub....'near
yibem....distance yib....far
yabem....upstairs yab....up
yobem....downstairs yob....down
hom?....where? ho-....which
zem....middle ze-....middle
zam....front za....before
zom....back zo....after
kum....side kua....lateral
kim....slope kia....diagonal
byim....source byi....since
byum....destination byu....up to
bem....position be....at
dem....park d(o)-....social
dopekem....battleground dopek....battle
melyexem....farm mel....soil + yex....work
goynem....sector goyn....cut
ijem....origin ij....start
kosem....hideout kos-....hide
kyosem....settlement kyos-....stay
mem....country m-....natural things
mimpuem....dock mim....sea + pu-....arrive
obdobem....colony ob....off + dob....regime
apem....wharf ap-....embark
sexem....construction site sex....construction
tojmelukem....cemetery toj....death + mel....soil + uk....vacuum
tom....building to-....human
ujem....terminus uj....end
vobem....planation vob....plant
xem....office x-....do
yomkiparem....ice skating rink yom....ice + kipar +skate

Common Places with -am[edit]

These words refer to houses and buildings:
-AM Words
BUILDING ROOT
nam....shop n-....commercial
aajasnam....antique store aajas....antique
apelatam....beehive apelat....bee
apetigpekam....(horse) racetrack apet....horse + ig-....fast + pek....competition
tam....house t-....human
bektam....hospice bek....treatment
bextam....castle bex-....keep
bekilnam....pharmacy bekil....medecine + nam....store
saxam....factory sax-....make
bilunsaxam....dairy bil....milk + -un....product + sax-....make
datibam....hotel dat....friend + ib-....receive
tistam....school tis....learn
doyevam....court do-....public + yev....justice
doptam....barracks dop....military
dresam....bureau dres-....write
bokam....hospital bok....sickness
mamparam....hangar mam....sky + par....vehicle
mogxam....crematorium mog....ash + x-....make
posam....station pos-....stop
taolgoblam....butcher shop taol....meat + gobl-....cleave
tilam....bar til-....drink
yibdubam....embassy yib....far + dub....minister

Common Containers and Enclosed Spaces with -yem[edit]

-YEM Words
CONTAINER ROOT
apetyem....corral apet....horse
nyem....box n-....commercial
syem....institution s-....exist
milpyem....swimming pool milp-....swim
nunyem....package nun....merchandise
ponyem....suitcase po-....travel
tebnyem....skull teb....head
tuyabyem....pocket tuyab....hand
vabijyem....pod vabij....seed
tyem....residence t-....human
tobijyem....ovary tobij....embryo
tojnyem....casket toj....death
ukyem....slot uk-....empty
myem....plot of ground m-....natural things
magilyem....fuel tank magil....fuel
koyem....shelter ko-....hide

Common Rooms with -(t)im[edit]

These words describe type of rooms (tim):
-IM Words
ROOM ROOT
tim....room t-....human
aybmostim....attic ayb-....upper + mos....floor
oybmostim....basement oyb-....lower + mos....floor
ebmostim....mezzanine eb....between + mos....floor
avoliim....pantry avol....bread
apetim....stall apet....horse
beaxim....ward beax-....watch
azla bikim....intensive care unit azla....intensive + bik....care
belunim....cargo bay belun....cargo
biktim....clinic bik....care
datibim....lobby dat....friend + ib-....receive
dyezim....screening room dyez....cinema
doebdalim....conference room do-....public + eb....between + dal-....speak
ebtim....corridor eb....between
fyadilim....chapel fya-....holy + dil....request
dokebidim....voting booth do-....public + kebi-....choice
fyatim....sanctuary fya-....holy
milufim....toilet mil....water + -uf....pipe
movim....smoking den mov....smoke
novim....linen closet nov....linen
saxim....studio sax-....create
sumtim....bedroom sum....bed
teexutim....auditorium teexut....listener
tulim....dining room tul....cuisine
vaobim....hayloft vaob....hay
vyakexim....laboratory vyakex....test
zatim....antechamber za....front
zyutim....rotunda zyu-....round
yexim....office yex-....work

Locative Deictic Adverbs[edit]

The locative deictic adverbs (or pro-adverbs) use the -m suffix of place, eg:
Locative Deictic Adverbs
hom?....where?
ham hu....the place where, where
hem....somewhere
him....here
hiim....the following place
hum....there
huum....such a place
hyom....nowhere
hyam....everywhere
hyem....anywhere, wherever
hyim1....(at) the same place
hyum1....elsewhere, somewhere else
Note 1: Also gem.
Note 2: Also ogem.

The a (One) yan (Together) Families[edit]

The stems in this family are based on a....one, and yan....together and their opposites, o....zero and yon....apart.

Core Words[edit]

A-O Contrasts
SINGLE NULL
a-....one o-....zero, un-
awa....one owa....zero
an-....uni-, mono- on-....non-
yan-....together, con- yon-....apart, dis-
hya-....all hyo-....none
-aya....-ful -oya....-less
ay....and oy....but

Collective Nouns[edit]

The suffix -yan is used to form collective nouns. Here are some examples:
Collective Nouns with -YAN
SINGLETON COLLECTION
fab....tree fabyan....forest
vyab....rule vyabyan....regimen, system
vos....flower vosyan....bouquet
uzun....ring uzunyan....chain
ut....person utyan....group
toom....apartment toomyan....apartment complex
teyen....idea teyenyan....ideology
tyen....technique tyenyan....technology
tixut....student tixutyan....student body
tit....pupil tityan....class
telar....eating utensil telaryan....cutlery
sir....machine siryan....machinery
pat....bird patyan....flock
An extension of yan is nyan, meaning stack, pile, accumulation, crowd, and so is a bit more intensive:
Collective Nouns with -NYAN
SINGLETON COLLECTION
pet....land animal petnyan....herd
ut....person utnyan....crowd
dit....citizen ditnyan....populace
taib....bone taibnyan....skeleton
yaut....public persona yautnyan....commune
dun....word dunnyan....list
vaob....hay vaobnyan....haystack
The following confusing terms should be kept distinct:
Collective Words
NOUN VERB
aud....individual, person auda....personal
aut....myself auta....my own
anut....private individual anuta....private
utyan....group utyana....collective
audyan....people audyana....popular
audyanin....populism audyanina....populist
audyandab....republic, democracy audyandaba....republican, democratic
yaut....ourselves yauta'....our own
yaud....constituent, commoner yauda....common, collective, public
yaudyan....community, constituency, public yaudyana....communitarian
yaudnyan....commune, collective yaudnyana....communal, collective
yaudin....communism yaudina....communist
dityan....citizenry, population dityana....of the citizenry, populational
ditnyan....populace ditnyana....popular
ditnyanin....populism ditnyanina....populist
yanav....party (political) yanava....partisan
yaniv....party (fun) yaniva....festive
yanut....associate yanuta....general, public
yanutyan....association yanutyana....associational

The tob (Human) Family[edit]

The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism, body, or organ or p, having to do with the non-corporeal aspects of man, such as mind and emotion.

Core Words[edit]

T-B Core Words
-B -P
tob....human, man top....soul, psyche
tab....body tap....physique
teb....head tep....mind
tib....trunk tip....sentiment, emotion
tub....arm tup....limb
tyob....leg


All the names of the parts of the body are derived from these core words in a hiearchical fashion using stem vowel scalarization, as can be seen from the sample chart below of the body parts relating to arm and leg (not the parallelism):
Parts of the Body
tub
arm
tuab
shoulder
tueb
upper arm
tuib
elbow
tuub
forearm
tuyob
wrist
tuyab
hand
tuyeb
fist
tuyib
palm
tuyub
finger
tulob
fingernail
tyob
leg
tyoab
hip
tyoeb
thigh
tyoib
knee
tyoub
tibia
tyoyob
ankle
tyoyab
foot
tyoyeb
heel
tyoyib
sole
tyoyub
toe
tyolob
toenail

Bodily Functions and Gestures[edit]

The following chart shows how gestural and bodily movements and functions are derived from body parts:

ORGANISMGESTURES, MOVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS
tob....human
twob....man
toyb....woman
tobser....become human, tobxer....humanize, tobtojber....murder
tobij....embryo tobijier....conceive, tobijuer....impregnate, tobijer....ovulate, tobijbeler....gestate
tab....body tabazaxer....work out, tabmelukxer....entomb, tabteaxer....autopsy
tayeb....hair tayebarer....comb, tayeboker....go bald, tayefarer....brush, tayeborber....shave, tayelber....shampoo, tayevarer....mop
tayob....skin tayobiler....sweat, tayobober....flay, tayoboser....itch, tayoser....feel like, tayoter....feel, tayoxer....palpate, tayobdriler....tattoo, tayotyofxer....numb
teb....head
tebabun....scalp
tebzan....face
tebabunober....scalp, tebbaxer....nod, tebober....decapitate, tebzaner....face
teab....eye
teababun....eyelid
teabyeb....eyelash
teabil....tear
teaser....seem, teater....see, teatyofxer....blind, teaxer....look, teaxuer....show, teazuer....amaze, teabizer....aim, teaper....visit, teabyujiger....blink
teababuner....blink
teababyexer....bat an eyelash
teabiler....tear up
teeb....ear teeter....hear, teeser....sound like, teeper....attend, teeder....rumor, teeyofxer....deafen, teexer....listen
teib....nose teiter....smell, teiser....smell like, teitier....take a whiff of, teituer....reek, teixer....smell, teseuxer....snore, teizber....perfume, teipulxer....sneeze, teibalier....sniff, teibalegier....sniffle, teibiler....run at the nose, teibukxer....blow the nose
teub....mouth
teubil....saliva
teubsin....expression
deuz....song
seux....sound
seuz....tone
teuz....voice
toleuz....taste
teuv....mask
teuf....muzzle
teubier....swallow, yijteuber....yawn, teuser....taste like, teuter....taste, teutier....sample, teutuer....offer a taste, teuxer....taste, teuder....shout, ivteuder....laugh, uvteuder....groan, ivteuber....smile, uvteuber....frown,vyoivteuder....mock, ufteuber....scowl, uvseuxer....grumble
teubiler....salivate, teubiloker....drool, teubilokeger....dribble, teubiloyeber....expectorate, teubilpuxer....spew, teubiluer....spit, teubilier....slurp
teubsiner....grimace
deuzer....sing, yandeuzer....harmonize, yagdeuzer....chant
seuxer....ring seuxder pronounce, voyseuxder....mispronounce
zoyteuzer....echo, uvseuzer....sigh
teuzuer....vote, teuzier....poll, teuzibarer....telephone
toleuser....taste like, toleuter....taste, toleuxer....savor, fitoleuser....taste good, futoleuser....taste bad
teuvuer....mask
teufuer....muzzle
teubab....tongue teubaxer....wag the tongue, teubabaxer....lick
teubib....gum teubixer....chew, teubixeger....ruminate
teupib....tooth teupixer....bite, teupixeger....nibble, yebteupixer....crunch
teubob....lip teuboxer....kiss, teuboxeger....smooch, teubobaxer....smack the lips
teyob....neck teyobabaxer....neck, teyopixer....collar, teyozyober....choke , teyopyoxer....hang
tib....trunk tibuzer....bow
tibuj....tail
tibuf....train
tibujbarxer....wag
tibufer....trail
tieb....lung
tiebal....breath
tiebbok....cold
tiexer....breath, tiebyujber....suffocate, teibukxer....cough
tiebalier....inhale, tiebaluer....exhale, tiebaloker....belch
tiebbokier....catch a cold
tiib....heart
tiibil....blood

tiibiler....bleed tiibiloker bleed out, tiibilglalser....clot, tiibilier....suck blood, tiibiluer....let blood
tikeb....stomach
tikebil....chyme
tikebier....digest, tikebukxer....vomit
tikyeb....anus
tikyebal....flatulence
tikyebil....feces

tikyebaler....fart
tikyebiler....defecate
tikyob....bowels tikyobier....ingest, tikyobober....disembowel
tub....arm yantubier....embrace, tubbaxer....wave
tuyab....hand tuyaxer....handle, tuyaber....handle, tuyabalxer....shake hand, tuyabexer....manipulate, tuyabier....grab, tuyabirer....wrestle, tuyasiuner....wave, tuyabuer....hand out, tuyadrer....write out longhand, tuyapixer....clasp tuyapyexer clap
tuyeb....fist tuyepeker....fistfight, tuyebalxer....shake one's....fist, tuyepyelxuer....pound, tuyepyexer....box
tuyib....palm tuyibabaxer....pat, tuyibaber....palm, tuyibuer....palm off, tuyipyexer....slap
tuyob....wrist tuyoxer....wave
tuyub....finger tuyubarxer....wag one's....finger, tuyubifeker....fiddle, tuyubizder....point out, tuyuibeaxer....indicate, tuyugiber....poke, tuyupyexer....tap, tuyuxer....palpate
tulob....fingernail
paltulob....claw
tuloxer....scratch, tuloxefer....itch
patuloxer....claw, patulober....grip
tyoib....knee tyoixer....kneel, tyoiper....crawl
tyoyab....foot tyoyabarer....stomp, tyoyakyeper....hobble, tyoyapyexer....kick
tyoyeb....heel tyoyeber....spurn
tyoyib....sole tyoyiber....supplant
tyoyub....toe tyoyubaxeger....wiggle one's....toe, tyoyuzyuper....pirouette

The bak (Health) Family[edit]

Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:

Core Words[edit]

B-K Words
NOUNS VERBS
bak....health
baak....hygiene
bakser....heal (intr.), bakxer....heal (tr.)
bek....treatment
byek....cure
bekier....get treated, bekuer....treat,
byekser....be cured, byekxer....cure
bok....illness
book....fatigue
bokser....get sick, bokxer....sicken
bookser....grow tired, bokxer....tire out
bik....care bikier....take care, bikuer....care for
buk....injury
bruk....mutilation
bukser....be injured, bukxer....injure
brukser....be mutilated, brukxer....mutilate
byok....pain
blok....suffering
brok....torture
byoker....ache, byokuer....inflict pain
bloker....suffer, blokuer....inflict suffering
broker....agonize, brokuer....torture

The tod (Family) Family[edit]

Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.

Core Words[edit]

Notice that kinship terms are gender-neutral unless there is a w before the root syllable vowel (indicating male-specific) or a y following the root syllable vowel (indicating female-specific).
T-D Words
tod....family MALE FEMALE
tad....spouse twad....husband tayd....wife
ted....parent twed....father teyd....mother
tid....sibling twid....brother tiyd....sister
tud....child twud....son tuyd....daughter

Genealogical Prefixes[edit]

Prefixes or word elements used to modify the above core words:
Genealogical Prefixes
to-....god- (as in godson)
ta-....-in-law, through marriage
te-....father's
ti-....sibling's
tu-....child's
taj-....birth-, real
otaj-, ifbi-....foster, adopted
ij-....first, original
aj-....ex-, former
ej-....current, step-, half-
oj-....future, -to-be
aa....first
ea....second
yiba....distant
aa yiba....first-removed
ea yiba....second-removed
ota-....out-of-wedlock, bastard
oyted-....orphan(ed), without parents
oytad-....unmarried, without spouse
oytud-....childless, without child, barren
tiibil-....blood-

Kinship Terms[edit]

Kinship Terms Formed from the Above Core Words and Prefixed Elements
Kinship Terms
GENDER-NEUTRAL MALE FEMALE
tad....spouse
ajtad....ex-spouse
ijtad....first spouse
ejtad....current spouse, step spouse
ojtad....spouse-to-be, fiance
oytadat....bachelor
twad....husband
ajtwad....ex-husband
ijtwad....first husband
ejtwad....current husband, step husband
ojtwad....husband-to-be, fiance
oytwadat....bachelor
tayd....wife
ajtayd....ex-wife
ijtayd....first wife
ejtayd....current wife, step-wife
ojtayd....wife-to-be, fiancee
oytadayt....spinster
ted....parent
tajted....birth parent
ejted....step parent, foster parent
ojted....parent-to-be
teted....grand-parent
teteted....great-grandparent
tated....parent-in-law
toted....godparent
oytedat....orphan
twed....father
tajtwed....birth father
ejtwed....step-father, foster father
ojtwed....father-to-be
tetwed....grand-father
tetetwed....great-grandfather
tatwed....father-in-law
totwed....godfather
oytwedat....male orphan
teyd....mother
tajteyd....birth mother
ejteyd....stepmother, foster mother
ojted....mother-to-be
teteyd....grandmother
teteteyd....great-grandmother
tateyd....mother-in-law
toteyd....godmother
oytedayt....female orphan
tid....sibling
ejtid....step-sibling
tatid....sibling-in-law
tetid....parent's sibling
tetetid....great parent's sibling
twid....brother
ejtwid....step-brother
tatwid....brother-in-law
tetwid....uncle
tetetwid....great uncle
tiyd....sister
ejtiyd....stepsister
tatiyd....sister-in-law
tetiyd....aunt
tetetiyd....great aunt
tud....child
tatud....child-in-law
ijtud....first-born child
ejtud....stepchild
otada tud....bastard child
titud....sibling's child
totud....godchild
tutud....grandchild
titutud....sibling's grandchild
tetitud....cousin
aa tetitud....first cousin
ea tetitud....second cousin
aa yiba tetitud....cousin first removed
twud....son
tatwud....son-in-law
ijtwud....first-born son
ejtwud....stepson
otada twud....bastard son
titud....nephew
totwud....godson
tutwud....grandson
titutwud....grandnewphew
tetitwud....cousin
aa tetitwud....first male cousin
ea tetitwud....second male cousin
aa yiba tetitwud....male cousin first removed
tuyd....daughter
tatuyd....daughter-in-law
ijtuyd....first-born-daughter
ejtuyd....stepdaughter
otada tuyd....bastard daughter
tituyd....niece
totuyd....goddaughter
tutuyd....granddaughter
titutuyd....grandniece
tetituyd....(female) cousin
aa tetituyd....first female cousin
ea tetituyd....second female cousin
aa yiba tetituyd....female cousin first removed
Suffixed -if gives you affectionate equivalents:
  • twadif....hubby
  • taydif....darling wife, wifey-poo
  • twedif....daddy, papa
  • teydif....mommy, mama
  • twidif....bro
  • tiydif....sis
  • twudif....sonny, kid
  • tuydif....darling daughter
Other terms:
  • todat....relative, sib
  • tiibil todat....blood relative
  • todatan....kinship
  • todatyan....kinfolk, clan
  • todeb....pater familias
  • todeyb....mater familias
  • otatud....bastard, bastard son, bastard child
  • otatuyd....bastard daughter
  • oytetwud....orphan, orphan son
  • oytetuyd....orphan daughter
  • oytwadat....bachelor, unmarried man'
  • oytadayt....spinster, unmarried woman, bachelorette
  • oytudayt....childless woman
  • glatidat....person with many siblings
  • oytidat....person with no siblings
  • tadat....in-law
  • otajted, ifbited....foster parent, adopting parent
  • otajtud, ifbitud....foster child, adopted child
  • otajteder, ifbiteder....foster, adopt
  • otajtedwa, ifbitedwa....adopted
  • teder....parent, raise
  • tadier....get married, take on a spouse
  • taduer....marry, preside over a marriage
  • todtun....genealogy
  • tood....ethnos, tribe, clan, race
  • toodtun....folklore
  • tooddin....folk story
  • toos....gender, sex
  • hyitoosifa....homosexual
  • hyutoosifa....heterosexual
  • entoosifa....bisexual
  • hyatoosifa....pansexual
  • hyotoosifa....asexual
  • hyitoosa tadan....same-sex marriage
  • tadyan....married couple
  • jwaa tadien....shotgun wedding
  • tyod....people, folk

The dot (Society) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.

Core Words[edit]

D-T Core Words
dot....society
dat....friend
dwat....male friend
dayt....female friend
det....comrade, mate
dwet....boyfriend
deyt....girlfriend
dit....citizen
dut....gentleperson
dwut....gentleman, sir, lord
duyt....lady, madame
dout....bourgeois
The prefix do- can be used to form words that are public in nature, eg:
The Do- prefix
COMBINED FORM SUFFIX
dovyab....law vyab....rule
doyev....justice yev-....just
doyov....crime yov....shame
doyiv....(civil) right yiv....license
dobien....coup d'etat bien....taking
dodres....bulletin dres....document
dokex....(public) inquiry kex....search
doval....public safety val....safety
dovaldib....police dib....administration
dotojben....execution tojben....putting to death
dosyag....census syag....count
dodrur....press drur....printer

The tof (Clothes) and nof (Textile)[edit]

The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof....cloth and nov....lingerie. The words have to do with clothing. Post-y-gliding the semantic stem vowel produces something that relates to women. Pre-w-gliding the semantic stem vowel produces something that relates specifically to men.
Summary:
Forming Words for Clothes
BODY PART CLOTHING ITEM FOR WOMEN
tob....man tof....clothing toyf....female outfit
tab....body taf....suit tayf....dress
teb....head tef....hat teyf....woman's hat
teyob....neck teyof....necktie
tuab....shoulder tuaf....shawl
tib....trunk tif....vest
zetib....waist zetif....belt
tiab....chest tiav....shirt tiayv....blouse
tilab....breast tilayv....bra
tiub....belly tiuv....undershorts tiuyv....panties
tuyab....hand tuyaf....glove
tyob....leg tyof....pants tyoyf....skirt
The nof family words begin with n meaning commercial and end in f meaning textile. Here is a summary:
BASIC WORD
DERIVATIVES
nof textile, tissue
nov....linen
nofir....loom, nofxer....weave
nofyank....stitch, nofyanker....sew, nofyankut....seamster
nofyonk....rip, nofyonker....rip, nofyonkar....scissors, shears
nofyuj....pleat, nofyujber....fold
nofzyiar....iron, nofzyiarer....iron
novyan....lingerie, novim....linen closet
misof curtain, obmasof carpet yebof sack
favof....cotton, favoyf....cotton wool
fevof....flax
fivof....hemp
fuvof....jute
tayof....leather
naf....material, cloth, fabric
naaf....drape
naef....canvas
naif....velvet
nauf....veil
nayaf....cordoroy

nef....knit
neof....stitch
neaf....net, mesh, web
neef....lace
neif....braid
neuf....wicker
neyof....loop
neyaf....wale
neyef....strip, band
neyif....plait
nayuf....lattice
nefxer....knit, neofxer....stitch, neifxer....braid neyofxer....loop
nefar....knitting needle
nefiaf....sweater
vinef....embroidery
yotayef....goat's hair, wool
tayef....bristle
utayef....wool
zyef....pane of glass, zyev....glass
nyef bag, sack
yebeaf....mesh bag
yebeuf....wicker basket
nif....yarn, fiber
niv....thread
niyf....filament, string
niif....twine
nifur....spinner, nifxer....spin, nifun....spider's web
nifar....needle
nivar....pin
mugnif....wire
apeyetif....silk
nuf button
nufyujber button
nufyijber unbutton
nufzyeg buttonhole
nufag....knob
nyaf....knot
nyafer....tie, onyafer....untie, unravel
mugnyaf....clasp, buckle
nyef....bag, sack
zotibnyef....backpack
tolnyef....grocery bag
yignyef....basket
nyif....rope
mugnyif....cable
nyifog....lace, cord
nyuf....package
nyufag....crate

The mos (Floor) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
Summary:
M-S Core Words
MASONRY BASE WORD DERIVATIVES
mos....floor omos....ground floor
amos....first floor
abmos....attic
ebmos....mezzanine
obmos....basement
mas....wall abmas....roof
aybmas....ceiling
obmas....foundation
oybmas....floor
masof ....carpet
abzamas....balcony
obzamas....porch
ebmas....partition
mes....door zames....front door
zomes....back door
mesnufag....door knob
mesyuznad....door frame
mestuyar....door handle
mis....window miszyef....window pane
eymis....shutter
misof....curtain
mus....stairs musnog....step, stair rung
musim....starwell
magmus....fire escape
musabnod ....climax
muys....ladder
pasmus....escalator

The som (Furniture) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
Summary:
S-M Core Words
FURNITURE BASE WORD DERIVATIVES
som....furniture somber....furnish
somxut....carpenter
milsom....sink
milufsom ....toilet
maksom....appliance
mansom....light fixture
somyan....furnishings
milamsom....water heater
malomsom....air-conditioner
sam....armoire, chest telarsam....china cabinet
telsam....cupboard
tovsam....chest of drawers
samnyem....drawer
avolsom....pantry
sem....table semof....table cloth
tilsem....bar
yagsem....countertop
yuzsem....round table
dresem....desk
dalsem....pulpit
tabsem....bier
fyasem....altar
tularsem....buffet
dyedsem....lectern
syagsem....counter (cashier stand)
sim....chair zaopsim....rocking chair
yagyugsim....couch
zyupsim....swivel chair
eynsim....stool
edebsim....throne
yagyigsim....bench
tobotsim....high chair
apetsim....saddle
fyadilsim....pew
maksim.....electric chair
teadutsim....witness box
tujyagsim....sleep sofa
zopsim....recliner
yigsim....hard chair
agsim....arm chair
simber....to seat
simper....to sit
sum....bed suam....cushion
suaym....pillow
suav....pillow case
suem....mattress
suev....sheet
suef....blanket
absuef....bedspread
obsuev....liner
suim....box spring
summuf....bedpost
eonsum....twin bed
eynsum....day bed
igsum....cot
suym ....couch
nyanxwa sum....bunk bed
milsum....waterbed
tabsum....sleeping bag
pyoxwa sum....hammock
malsum....airbed
summanar....bed lamp
sumber....put to bed
sumper....go to bed

The sar (Tool) and par (Vehicle) Family[edit]

The base words having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile. Specific tools and machines are created by appending one of the stub suffixes to the stem of the word that describes what the tool or machine does. For example, makijar, meaning electrical switch, starter is composed of mak (electricity) and ij- (start).
Summary:
Stub Suffixes for Tools and Machines
STANDALONE WORD STUB SUFFIX MEANING
sar -ar instrument, tool, device (default)
sir -ir apparatus, hand-driven machine
sor -or machine, powered machine
sur -ur motor, engine
Note: the stub suffixes other than -ar (the default) are used only to distinguish words like bicycle and motorcycle or needle and loom, etc.

Vehicles[edit]

Vehicle words end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument, unless there is a need for further distinction, in which case, the ending may be -ir, -or, or -ur.
Vehicles
VEHICLES
par....cart
pir....carriage
pur....car
mampur....airplane
mempur....automobile, car
mimpar....boat
mimpir....motorboat
mimpur....ship
mumpur....subway
mompur....spaceship
kyinpar....dolly
kyinpir....cart, wagon
anzyukyinpir....wheelbarrow
kyinpur....truck
naadpur....train
yaudpur....bus
enzyukpar....bicycle
enzyukpir....scooter
enzyukpor....motorcycle
inzyukpar....tricycle
kipar....skate
kipir....sled
kipur....sleigh

Tools and Machines[edit]

Tools and Machines
TOOLS AND MACHINES
drar....pencil
drir....typewriter
drur....printer
dodrur....press
syagar....calculator
syagir....computer
vyixar....brush
vyixir....sweeper
vyixur....vacuum cleaner

The tol (Food) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
Summary:
T-L Core Words
WORD DERIVATIVES
tol....nutrition tolnam....grocery store
toltun....dietetics
tolvyaab....diet
toluer....feed
toyl....nutrition
toyles....nutrient
toyluer....nourish
tolsam....food buffet
toleus....taste
toleusgab....relish
tolmek....spice
tolsyeb....casserole
tel....food telier....eat
teluer....feed
telam....restaurant
telar....fork
telyeb....plate
telefa....hungry
telifut....gourmet
gratelut....glutton
teltun....gastronomy
oteliwas....leftover
til-....drink tilsem....bar
tilier....drink
tilef....thirst
tilgronag....drought
gratilut....drunk
tilyeb....glass
tilar....spoon
tilarog....teaspoon
tilarag....ladle
tilsyeb....cup
teilsyeb....soup bowl
kyitilsyeb....mug, stein
tul....dish jatul....appetizer
jotul....dessert
agtul....main dish, entree
ogtul....tapa
igtul....snack
atulyan....first course
etulyan....
second course
tular....
dish
tularsam....
china cabinet
tularvyixar....
dishwasher
tuler....
dine
tamtuler....
dine at home
tulur....
stove
tultuna....
culinary
tulxeb....
chef
tulxim....
kitchen
tulim....
dining room
tulagim....
banquet hall
vitultun....
gastronomy
tuldras....
menu
tulyuxut....
waiter
tulyeb....
platter
tyal....meal atyal....breakfast
etyal....lunch
ityal....dinner
utyal....supper
etyalier....have lunch
etyaluer....serve lunch
tyalag....banquet
vabemtyal....picnic
yomxwa tyal....frozen dinner
Drink, Food, Liquids
STUB EXAMPLES
-il....liquid, drink teil....soup
til....beverage
bil....milk
mil....water
gyalevil....syrup
aybil....cream
bilyig....cheese
bilyug....butter
mekil....gruel
gyalevabil....pudding
taobiil....gravy
tuil....sauce
tuilyeb....saucer
fil....alcohol
vafil....wine
vafiltun....oenology
grafiliut....alcoholic
filxer....ferment
filvyunober....distill
levafil....liquour
teabil....tear
teubil....saliva
ilyeb....bottle
yavil....beer
magiler....boil
dril....ink
ilneyeb....tank, reservoir
ilsyeb....carafe, beaker, flask
apelatil....honey
bavuil....ketchup
-yal....juice sefyal....coffee
safyal....tea
vafyal....grape juice
-el....food level....sugar
yapel....pork
vipel....venison
eopel....beef
mageler....cook
movelwa....smoked
ummagelar....oven
elsyeb....pot, pan
-yel....gel, oil dofyel....chocolate
megyel....cement
myel....plastic
tayel....shampoo
tulyel....cooking oil
magyel....fuel
yugyel....rubber
fyel....wax
magyeler....fry
magyelsyeb....frying pan
leveyel....jam, confiture
yiglevyel....candy
kafyel....olive oil
gevyel....corn oil
tulyel....cooking oil
gavyel....sunflower oil
-eil....soup teil....soup
yagteil....stew
-ol....food avol....bread
taol....meat
umleavol....biscuit
sifyol....pepper
mimol....salt
ovol....bran
zyuavol....roll
zyiavol....flatbread, pita
yuzavol....wrap, gyro, taco
uzavol....twist, croissant
ebavol....sandwich
toleusgabol....condiment
leavol....pasta
-ul....substance mul....matter
bekul....medecine
bukul....poison
zemul....yolk
vemul....neutron
vamul....proton
vomul....electron
gwomul....atom
vyul....slime
zemul....nucleus

The mor (universe) and mom (outer space) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m....nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc. The stem vowel indicates whether the term applies to the sky, ground, water, etc.
Summary:
M-R Core Words
mor....universe mom....cosmos mol....nature mop....orbit moj....evening
mon....darkness
mof....nebula
mov....smoke
mok....dark matter
mog....ash
mob....abyss
mar....star
maar....sun
mam....sky mal....air map....wind maj....day
man....light
maf....cloud
mav....flame
mak....electricty
mag....fire
mer....planet
meir....earth
mem....land mel....soil mep....road mef....brick
mev....porcelain
mek....dust
meg....rock
mez....gem
meb....mountain
mir....world mim....sea mil....water mip....river
mur....satellite
muar....moon
mum....underground mul....matter mup....tunnel muk....mineral
mug....metal
mub....cave, pit
A few important derivations:
  • maar....sun  ("number one star")
  • maarnaap....solar system  (the "sun system")
  • maaryap....sunrise  ("sun rise")
  • maaryop....sunset  ("sun descent")
  • maarnad....sunbeam  ("sun line")
  • maarmap....solar wind  ("sun wind")
  • maarman....sunlight  ("sun light")
  • muar....moon   ("number one satellite)
  • muarned....lunar surface   ("moon surface")
  • muarmoyb....lunar crater   ("moon depression")
  • Meir....Earth   ("third planet from the sun"
  • meirtun....geology   ("earthscience"
  • meirzyunad....earth's axis   ("earth turn line"
  • meirmop....earth's orbit   ("earth's orbit"
  • marmaf....galaxy   ("star cloud")
  • Amarmaf....Milky Way   ("number one galaxy, i.e. star cloud")
  • maryan....constellation   ("collection of stars")
  • marmeg....comet   ("star rock")
  • mommeg....meteor   ("space rock")
  • mammeg....meteorite   ("sky rock")
The following are vehicles and derivatives that are specific to one of the above physical spheres:
Vehicles Specific to Various Spheres
mompur....spaceship momper....travel through space momput....cosmonaut, astronaut
mampur....airplane mamper....fly mamput....flyer, pilot
mempur....automobile memper....ride, drive memput....rider, driver
mimpur....ship
obmimpar....submarine
mimper....sail, navigate mimput....sailor, navigator
obmimput....submariner
mumpur....subway mumper....tunnel, go by metro mumput....metro rider
Note: marpur = starship and muarpur = lunar module


Names of the Planets[edit]

Here are the names of the planets in our solar system. Notice that Earth is the "third planet" from the sun.
Planets
mer....planet
Mear....Mercury
Meer....Venus
Meir....Earth (i = three)
Meur....Mars
Meyor....Jupiter
Meyar....Saturn
Meyer....Uranus
Meyir....Pluto

Polar Directions[edit]

Polar Directions
DIRECTIONS mer....planet
a....up amer....north amera....northern
o....down omer....south omera....southern
i....right imer....east imera....eastern, oriental
u....left umer....west umera....western, occidental
Compass points can be hybrids of the above:
  • aomera izon....north-south direction
  • uimera domep....east-west street
  • aumera zyemep....northwest passage
  • oimera tez....southeast culture
Related terms:
  • amernod....north pole (nod = point)
  • omernod....south pole
  • aomernad....longitude (ao = north-south, nad = line)
  • uimernad....latitude (ui = east-west)
  • emernad....equator (e = middle)
  • oybemernada....tropical, Torrid (oyb = below)
  • merzyun....globe, sphere (planet-ball)
  • eymerzyun....hemisphere (half-planet-ball)
The same directional prefixes are used in the following words:
  • aonab....column (up-down row, y-axis)
  • uinab....row (left-right row, x-axis)
  • aonada....vertical ) (nad = line)
  • uinada....horiztonal

Types of Clouds[edit]

Types of Clouds
maf....cloud
maaf....stratus
maef....nimbostratus
maif....cumulus
mauf....cumulonimbus
mayof....stratocumulus
mayaf....allocumulus
mayef....allostratus
mayif....cirrocumulus
mayuf....cirrostratus
malof....cirrus

Types of Roads and Paths[edit]

Types of Roads
mep....way, road, route
    zeymep....bridge, crossing
    aybmep....overpass, bridge
    oybmep....underpass
    zyemep....tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
    kumep....side path
    zomep....back way
    ebmep....aisle
    tyoyamep....sidewalk, walkway
    omep....impasse
    gunmep....dogleg
    dinmep....plot
    pomep....itinerary
    eynmep....half-way
    homep?....which way?
    yilpmep....escape route
    yexmep....career
    yuzmep....circuit
    tyenmep....career
    puxmep....trajectory
    vyamep....right way
    vyomep....wrong way
    musmep....stairway
    izmep....direct route, straight path, vector
    yebmep....entryway, entrance
    oyebmep....exit, way out
    mummep....subway
    mammep....air route
    elyamep....railroad, railway
    mimmep....sealane
domep....street
    agdomep....highway
    aagdomep....main street
    zyadomep....broadway
    igdomep....expressway
    uzmep....byway, detour
    yuzdomep....beltway, loop
    zyudomep....roundabout, circle, rotary
    ebdomep....
alley
    anizona domep....
one-way street
meap....avenue
meep....boulevard
meip....lane
    zimeip....right lane
    zumeip....left lane
    zemeip....median, middle lane
    anmeip....single lane
    enmeip....double lane
meup....trail
    mebmeup....mountain trail
meyp....path
    tyoyameyp....footpath

Types of Stones, Gems, etc.[edit]

Types of Stones
STONE GEM OTHER EARTH SUBSTANCES
meg .... stone mez .... gem mek .... dust
meag .... marble amez .... diamond miek .... sand
meeg ....slate emez .... topaz myek .... powder
meig ....gramote imez .... ruby mel .... soil
meug ....clay vamez .... emerald meil .... mud
meyag ....chalk yamez .... amethyst megil .... cement
meyeg ....limestone yomez .... sapphire myel .... plastic
meyig ....alabaster mil .... water
meyog .... china mial .... vapor
meyug .... gypsum miil .... dew
melag .... adobe mimol .... salt
meleg .... terra cotta mamil .... rain
melig .... marl mal .... air
melug .... kaolin mayl .... gas
melyag .... feldspar magil .... petroleum
melyeg .... petunse mug .... metal
melyig .... silica muk .... mineral
melyog .... pegmatite mul .... matter
melyug .... flint mag .... fire
mieg .... coral mog .... ash
mav .... flame
mov .... smoke

Thermal Conditions[edit]

Thermal Conditions
am....heat ama .... hot ayma ....warm
om....cold oma .... cold oyma ....cool
im....moisture ima .... wet iyma ....humid
um....draught uma .... dry uyma ....arid
yom....ice yoma .... frozen yoyma ....chilly
yam....fire yama .... burning yayma....fiery
Note: aoma = lukewarm.

Weather Phenomena[edit]

Weather Phenomena
maalbyen ....weather (atmosphere + mood)
mamil ....rain
mamyom ....sleet
mamyoym ....snow
yoym ....frost
yom ....ice
mial ....steam
miil ....dew
maf ....cloud
miaf ....fog
mapil ....storm, windstorm
xeusmapil ....thunderstorm
mapilag ....tempest
mimuzlun ....hurricane
imera mimuzlun ....typhoon
map ....wind
maap ....puff
maep ....breeze
maip ....gust
maup ....gale
mayop ....typhoon
mapuzlun ....tornado, twister, cyclone
mammanig (or) mammak ....lightning
mamxeus ....thunder
mamiluz ....rainbow
jibim ....monsoon
graim ....flood, deluge


Atmospheric Layers[edit]

Atmospheric Layers
mal ....air
maal ....atmosphere
mael ....troposphere
mail ....stratosphere
maul ....ionosphere
mayol ....exosphere


Rivers and Streams[edit]

Rivers and Streams
mip ....river
miap ....stream
miep ....brook
miip ....rivulet
miup ....tributary
miyop ....creek
miyap ....rill
mipuj ....estuary
mipkum ....river bank


Bodies of Water[edit]

Bodies of Water
mim ....sea
mimag ....ocean
miam ....lake
miem ....lagoon
miim ....pond
mium ....pool, basin
miumog ....puddle
immem ....swamp
ebmim ....strait
zyomip ....canal

Land Features[edit]

Land Features
mem ....land
meam ....region
meem ....territory
meim ....countryside
meum ....zone, district
meyom ....tract, parcel, acre
meb ....mountain
meyb ....mount
meab ....hill
meeb ....knob
meib ....mound
meub ....ridge
meyob ....bump
mimeib ... cape
yabmimeib ....promontory, headland, bluff
zyimeb ....plateau
magmeb ....volcano
mub ....chasm, precipice, cliff
muab ....gulf, gulch
mueb ....ravine, valley, dale
muib ....cave
muyob ....ditch
mimuib ....cove
mimkum ....beach, seaside, coast
uzmimkum ....bay
zyimem ....plain
ummem ....desert
immem ....wetland, swamp
zomem ....hinterland
zyamem ....prairie
memsin ....landscape
yonmel ....island
eynyonmel ....peninsula
yanmel ....continent
zyoebmel ....isthmus
yijmem ....field, meadow

Different Worlds[edit]

Different Worlds
mir ....world, realm, domain
jomir....here-after, after-world, metasphere
fyajomir....heaven, paradise
ebjomir....limbo
zejomir....purgatory
fyojomir....hell
yizmir....world beyond, spirit world
yizmirat....spirit, sprite
fyamir....sacred world, paradise
fyamirat....angel
fyomir....wicked world, hell
fyomirat....demon
obmir....nether world
komir....secret realms
Totmir....Heaven

The pot (Animal) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with the letter p, denoting movement, and end in the letter t, denoting a living creature. Thus, the words have to do with animals. The ordinal vowel indicates the terrain: land, air, water, or a combination of these. If the vowel is pre-y-glided, then the animal is wild or predatory.
Summary:
Animal Core Words
AIR pat....bird
pyat....predatory bird
piat....aquatic bird
LAND (WILD) pot....animal
pyot....predatory animal
piot....semi-aquatic
LAND (DOMESTIC) pet....land animal
pyet....reptile
pelt....insect
pelat....flying insect
piyet....batrachian
payet....flying reptile
peyet....worm
WATER pit....fish
pyit....predatory fish
piit....crustacean
pyeit....mollusk
peit....marine mammal

Chart of Principal Animals[edit]

Chart of Principal Animals
LAND
(WILD)
LAND
(DOMESTIC)
AIR WATER
pot....WILD ANIMAL
gapot....elephant
gepot....rhinoceros
gipot....zebra
kapot....squirrel
kepot....polecat
kipot....badger
kupot....otter
kyapot....beaver
kyepot....ermine
kyipot....raccoon
kyopot....weasel
kyupot....ferret
klapot....rat
sapot....hedgehog
sepot....porcupine
sipot....mole
supot....skunk
vapot....hart
vepot....reindeer
vipot....deer
vupot....chamois
vyapot....antelope
vyepot....gazelle
vyipot....elk, moose
vyupot....buck
yupot....wild rabbit
yuapot....hare
zapot....tortoise
pyot....PREDATORY ANIMAL
apyot....lion
epyot....tiger
ipyot....leopard
iapyot....jaguar
iepyot....puma
iipyot....panther
iupyot....lynx
upyot....wolf
yopyot....fox
yapyot....wild boar
yepyot....hyena
yeapyot....jackal
bepyot....bear
dapyot....kangaroo
fapyot....orangutan, ape
fepyot....monkey
fipyot....gorilla
fupyot....bonobo
fyopyot....chimpanzee
fyapyot....gibbon
fyepyot....lemur
piot....semi-aquatic
gapiot....hippopotamus
zapiot....turtle
pet....DOMESTIC ANIMAL
apet....horse
epet....bull
ipet....ass
upet....ram
yopet....goat
yapet....hog
yepet....dog
yipet....cat
yupet....rabbit
fapet....camel
fepet....dromedary
fipet....giraffe
lapet....llama
lepet....yak
klapet....mouse
pyet....REPTILE
apyet....lizard
epyet....caiman
ipyet....crocodile
upyet....aligator
yopyet....iguana
fapyet....grass snake
fepyet....slug
fipyet....leech
kepyet....gecko
lopyet....snake
lapyet....boa
lepyet....cobra
lipyet....viper
vapyet....snail
piyet....BATRACHIAN
apiyet....toad
epiyet....frog
ipiyet....tree frog
payet....FLYING REPTILE
apayet....bat
peyet....WORM
apeyet....silkworm
epeyet....flatworm
ipeyet....tapeworm
upeyet....fluke
bapeyet....threadworm
bepeyet....roundworm
bipeyet....hookworm
dapeyet....earthworm
depeyet....bristle worm
pelt....INSECT
apelt....spider
fapelt....ant
fepelt....cockroach
fipelt....termite
gapelt....weevil
gepelt....mite
kapelt....louse
kepelt....flea
kipelt....bug
kopelt....vermin
kupelt....earwig
lapelt....scorpion
lepelt....caterpillar
lipelt....lice
lupelt....bedbug
rapelt....centipede
repelt....millipede
pat....BIRD
apat....cock
epat....duck
ipat....turkey
upat....goose
yapat....pigeon
bapat....thrush
bepat....warbler
bipat....sparrow
dapat....parrot
depat....parakeet
fapat....raven
fepat....crow
gapat....ostrich
gepat....peacock
gipat....peafowl
fipat....magpie
kapat....stork
vapat....nightingale
vepat....yellow canary
vipat....canary
vupat....chaffinch
vyapat....robin
vyepat....bluebird
vyopat....blackbird
zapat....swallow
zepat....swift
sapat....partridge
sepat....quail
sipat....woodcock
supat....lark
syopat....pheasant
syapat....black grouse
syepat....woodpecker
pyat....BIRD OF PREY bird
apyat....eagle
epyat....vulture
ipyat....kite
upyat....buzzard
yopyat....sparrowhawk
yapyat....falcon
lapyat....owl
lepyat....screech owl
pelat....FLYING INSECT
apelat....bee
epelat....wasp
ipelat....horsefly, gadfly
upelat....fly
yopelat....mosquito
yapelat....gnat
gapelat....moth
gopelat....butterfly
lapelat....may bug
lepelat....beetle
tapelat....cicada
tepelat....cricket
tipelat....grasshopper
topelat....dragonfly
tupelat....firefly
vapelat....bumble bee
vepelat....sweat bee
vipelat....hornet
piat....AQUATIC BIRD
japiat....cormorant
jepiat....gull
kapiat....heron
kepiat....crane
kipiat....flamingo
sapiat....swan
tapiat....penguin
pit....FISH
apit....trout
epit....perch
ipit....pike
upit....carp
yopit....tench
yapit....gudgeon, stud
yepit....stickleback
yipit....whiting
fapit....shad
fepit....bluegill
fipit....catfish
fupit....bass
gapit....minnow
gepit....perch
lapit....ray, skate
lepit....turbot
lipit....salmon
lupit....sole
sapit....herring
sepit....barbel
sipit....anchovy
supit....gilt-head, sea bream
syopit....sardine
syapit....hake
vapit....eel
vepit....seahorse
pyit....PREDATOR SEA CREATURE
ipyit....sperm whale
yapyit....swordfish
yepyit....tuna
yipyit....sturgeon
yupyit....cod
bapyit....jellyfish
piit....CRUSTACEAN
apiit....lobster
epiit....crayfish
ipiit....scampi
upiit....craw fish
yopiit....prawn
yapiit....shrimp
lapiit....crab
lepiit....squid
peit....MARINE MAMMAL
apeit....whale
epeit....seal
ipeit....sea lion, otary
upeit....manatee
yopeit....walrus
yapeit....platypus
yepeit....dolphin
yipeit....vaquita
bapeit....shark
bepeit....dolphin
bipeit....porpoise
bupeit....otter
pyeit....MOLLUSK
apyeit....oyster
epyeit....mussel
ipyeit....clam
upyeit....octopus

Animal Sounds[edit]

The animal noise verbs are formed by replacing the final t of the animal's name to der (communicate, utter), as in the chart below. If the noise is particularly "noisy", the verb teuder (scream) can be used instead of der.
Animal Sounds
ANIMAL SOUND VERB
apet....horse apeder....neigh, whinny
epet....bull epeder....bellow
eopetob....veal eopetoder....bleat
eopet....ox eopeder....low, moo, bellow
epeyt....cow epeyder....moo
ipet....ass ipeder....bray, hehaw
lapet....llama lapeder....growl
upet....sheep upeder....bleat
yopet....goat yopeder....bray
yapet....hog yapeder....grunt, snort, oink
yepet....dog yepeder....bark (yepeteuder....yelp)
yepyot....wolf yepyoder....howl
yopyot....fox yopyoder....yelp
yipet....cat yipeder....mew, purr, meow
yipyot....tiger yipyoder....growl
yupet....rabbit yupeder....drum
kapet....squirrel kapeder....squeak
kyipet....raccoon kyipeder....chitter
klapet....mouse klapeder....squeak
eplet....koala epleder....wail
apyot....lion rapyoder....roar
yepyot....hyena yepyoder....laugh
yeapyot....jackal yeapyoder....howl
bapyot....ape tapyoder....gibber
bepyot....bear tepyoder....growl
gapot....elephant gapeder....trumpet
vepot....reindeer vepoder....bellow
vyipot....moose vyipoder....bellow
fapet....camel fapeder....grunt
fipet....giraffe fipeder....bleat
kepyet....gecko kepyeder....go to-key, make a gecko noise
lepyet....cobra lepyeder....hiss
apayet....bat apayeder....screech
epiyet....frog epiyeder....rivet, make a frog noise
apelat....bee apelader....buzz
lepelat....beetle lepelader....drone
tepelat....cricket tepelader....chirp
pat....bird pader....chirp, tweet, coo, sing
apat....rooster apader....crow, cockadoodle-doo
apayt....hen apayder....cluck
apatog....chicken apatoder....cheep
epat....duck epader....quack
ipat....turkey ipader....gobble
yapat....pigeon yapader....coo
apyat....eagle apyader....squawk
epyat....vulture epyader....scream
fapat....raven fapader....croak
fepat....crow fepader....craw
fipat....chatter fipader....chatter
fupat....hoot fupader....hoot
fyipat....jay fyipader....chatter
gapat....ostrich gapader....bleep
sapiat....swan sapiader....cry
zapat....swallow zapader....squeal
tapat....parrot tapader....parrot
vapat....nightingale vapader....pipe
fepat....warbler fepader....warble
tapiat....penguin tapiader....honk
yapeit....platypus yapeider....chitter
yopeit....walrus yopeider....groan
bipeit....porpoise bipeider....whistle

Animal Habitats[edit]

By suffixing the final t of the animal name with tam....house, you get corresponding animal's living quarters:
Animal Habitats
ANIMAL LIVING SPACE
apet....horse apetam....stable
epet....ox epetam....cowshed
yapet....pig yapetam....pigpen, pigsty
yepet....dog yepetam....doghouse
apyot....lion apyotam....den, lion's den
fapelt....ant fapeltam....anthill
apelat....bee apelatam....beehive
pat....bird patam....nest, bird's nest
apat....hen apatam....henhouse, chicken coop
bepyot....bear bepyotam....lair
pyot....wild animal pyotam....cage

Animal Meats[edit]

By changing the final letter of the animal's name to an l, you get the meat eaten from that animal:
Animal Meats
ANIMAL MEAT
eopet....ox eopel....beef
vipet....deer vipel....venison
yapet....hog yapel....pork
yapetyoab....hog's thigh yapetyoal....ham
uopet....sheep uopel....mutton
eopetob....calf eopetol....veal
vapyet....snail vapyel....escargot

Animal Groupings[edit]

By adding yan....aggregate or nyan....crowd to the name of an animal, you get the animal grouping:
Animal Groupings
ANIMAL GROUPING
pat....bird patyan....flock
eopet....ox eopetyan....cattle
pit....fish pityan....school
pelt....insect peltyan....swarm
apat....cock apatyan....poultry
pot....animal potnyan....herd
yopet....goat yopetyan....goatherd

Animals' Babies and Diminutives[edit]

The baby of an animal ends in ud, which is a stub suffix for tud....offspring, child:
Animals' Babies
ANIMAL BABY
apet....horse apetud....foal
pat....bird patud....chick
apet....horse apetud....foal
eopet....ox eopetud....calf
yepet....dog yepetud....pup
yipet....cat yipetud....kitten
apat....cock apatud....chick
apyat....eagle apyatud....eaglet
upat....goose upatud....gosling
upet....ram upetud....lamb
yopet....goat yopetud....kid
To create an animal pet name, add the suffix if
Animal Pet Names
ANIMAL PET
yepet....dog yepetif....puppy
yipet....cat yipetif....kitten
apat....cock apatif....chickadee
Other size suffixes can be appended as well:
Animal Diminutives and Augmentatives
ANIMAL SIZE-VARIANT
yepet....dog yepetog....doggy
yepet....dog yepetayg....cur
yepet....dog yepetag....hound
upetud....lamb upetotog....lambkin
yapet....hog yapetog....piggy

Animal-derived Adjectives[edit]

Here is a chart showing the adjectives used to refer to animals:
Animal Adjectives
ANIMAL NOUN ADJECTIVE
apet....horse apeta....equine
eopet....ox eopeta....bovine
upet....ram upeta....ovine
yapet....hog yapeta....porcine
yepet....dog yepeta....canine
yipet....cat yipeta....feline
upyot....wolf upyota....lupine
pyet....reptile pyeta....reptilian
pat....bird pata....avian
Various Other Words Derived from Animals:
Various Animal Derviations
ANIMAL NAME DERIVED WORD
apet....horse apetsim....saddle
apetyoyafut....blacksmith
apetyoyaper....trot
apetpar....carriage
apetapekam....hippodrome
fizapetaput....knight
dopapetaput....mounted trooper
apelat....bee apelatyel....wax
apelatil....honey
apelatam....hive
apelatyan....swarm
pat....bird patij....egg
patam....nest
patijber....hatch
patijsana....oval
pit....fish pitpexar....lure
pitgrunen....angling
pitpixut....fisherman
pittun....ichthyology
pitsana....pisciform
pituil....fish sauce
pitub....fin
pitaib....fishbone
piteab....fisheye
piteob....jowl
pitieb....gill
pitoyb....mermaid

Animals' Hair[edit]

The hair of an animal ends in tayeb....hair:
Animal Hair
ANIMAL HAIR
pat....bird patayeb....feather
apet....horse apetayeb....horsehair, mane
yipet....cat yipetayeb....fur
fapet....camel fapetayeb....camelhair
pit....fish pitayeb....scale
upat....goose upatayeb....down, goose down
bepyot....bear bepyotayeb....fuzz
uopet....sheep uopetayeb....wool, fleece

Gendered Counterparts of Animals[edit]

The word for the female counterpart of an animal is created by post-y-glided (i.e. adding a y to) the ordinal (last) vowel of the male animal's adult name:
Female Counterparts of Animals
ANIMAL FEMALE
epet....ox epeyt....cow
apet....horse apeyt....mare
ipet....ass ipeyt....she-ass
yopet....goat yopeyt....nanny goat
yapet....hog yapeyt....sow
yepet....dog yepeyt....bitch
apyot....lion apyoyt....lioness
upyot....wolf upyoyt....wolverine
yopyot....fox yopyoyt....vixen
gapot....elephant gapoyt....cow elephant
vipot....buck vipeyt....deer
apat....cock apayt....hen
yupet....rabbit yupeyt....doe rabbit
upet....ram upeyt....ewe
To form the male-specific gender of an animal, place a w before the ordinal vowel:
Male Counterparts of Animals
ANIMAL MALE
epet....ox epwet....bull
apet....horse apwet....stallion
apet....cock apwet....rooster
yupet....rabbit yupwet....buck rabbit
ipet....ass ipwet....(he-)mule
bepyot....bear bepyowt*....papa bear
1 If the animal name ends in -pyot, -pyat, -pyit, or pyet, post-w-glide the final vowel.
To form the gelded or neutered form of an animal, place an o before the p:
Gelded Counterparts of Animals
ANIMAL MALE
epet....bovine eopet....steer
apet....horse aopet....gelding
upet....ram uopet....sheep

Interesting Parallels in Animal Vocabulary[edit]

Parallels in Animal Vocabulary
teub....mouth pateub....beak, bill poteub....mug mimeub....bay
teib....nose poteib....snout gapeteib....elephant trunk meib....promontory tilabeib....nipple fapemeib....camel hump seib....marquee, ledge
tayeb....hair patayeb....feather pitayeb....scale petayeb....fur fayeb....leaf vosayeb....petal uopetayeb....wool, fleece
tulob....nail patulob....claw apelatulob....stinger defulob....pine needle fulob....prick vulob....thorn yomulob....icicle
tyoyab....foot apetyoyab....hoof potyoyab....paw meboyab....foothills fyoyab....stump vyoyab....stub
tayob....skin potayob....hide piitayob....shell mayob....crust fayob....bark vayob....peel patijayob....eggshell
tub....arm patub....wing pitub....fin potub....paw mapatub....fan zyupatub....propeller

The fob (Vegetation)and vob (Plant) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with f for vegetation or v for plant and end in b for organism. These words have to do with trees, fruits, nuts, vegetables, plants, grasses, and grains, as shown in this chart:
Summary:
Fob and Vob Core Words
TREES, FRUITS, VEGETABLES PLANTS, GRAINS, LEGUMES
fob....vegetable vob....plant
fab....tree vab....grass
feb....fruit, nut veb....tuft
veeb....seed
veeyb....grain
fib....trunk vib....stem
fub....branch vub....twig
fayeb....leaf vayeb....bud
fyob....root vyob....tendril

The vol (Edible Vegetable), vos (Flower), and voz (Color Family[edit]

Summary:
Vo[lsz] Words
vol....edible vegetable
vos....flower
voz....color


Colors (voz)[edit]

The names of common colors in Mirad are mnemonically based on flowers and other natural products that have distinctive colors. In the summary chart below, the mnemonic origin is given for each color term.
Summary:
Color Words
COLOR MNEMONIC ORIGIN
voz....color vos....flower
ovoza....plain, blank o....zero
avoza....white avos....lily
evoza....yellow evos....narcissus
ivoza....red ivos....poppy
uvoza....pink uvos....rose
yovoza....blue yovos....blueberry
yavoza....mauve yavos....hydrangea
yevoza....lilac yevos....lilac
yivoza....violet, purple yivos....violet
lafeza....orange lafeb....orange
vaza....green vab....grass
moza....black mon....dark
maza....white man....light
maoza....gray man + mon
meza....brown mel....soil
The common colors consist of a mnemonic stub for a flower, plant, fruit, or other natural item exhibiting most vividly the color in question, followed by the suffix -za (reminiscent of voz....color, itself reminiscent of vos....flower), eg. va- (from vab....grass) + z = vaza....green.
The most exotic or rare colors can be expressed by the numerical position in the alphabetized Wikipedia list of colors + -za. For example, the color Alabama Crimson is the tenth color in that list when alphabetized, so it's name is aloza.
A color referring to one's skin or race is suffixed with -ata-, eg. mozata....black-skinned, black, while the person of that skin color ends in -at, eg. mazat....white person, a white. A person of mixed color is a eyvozat ('ey-....half). A non-white is expressed with omazat.
A color referring to one's hair is a combination of toz, preceded by the first vowel of the color, eg. i from ivoza....red + toz yields itoza....auburn, red-headed.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is post-y-glided, then the meaning is the lighter version of the color, eg. ivoyza....light red.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is pre-y-glided, then the meaning is the darker or deeper version of the color, eg. ivyoza....deep red.
  • If the stem vowel of the color term is doubled, then the meaning is the brighter version of the color, eg. ivooza....bright red.
  • If the syllable yen is inserted between the stem and the adjectival ending a, then the meaning is -ish, eg. avozyena....reddish.
  • If the color word is preceded by gwa, it is of maximum intensity, eg. gwaivoza....as red as can be.

The tuz (Art) Family[edit]

This family includes words having to do with the arts, such as theater, sculpture, music, poetry, etc. Word stems ending in -z refer to something that is precious or artful. Stems with eu are mnemonic for teub....mouth and refer to sound, singing, noises, etc.
Summary:
Artsy Words
THE ARTS
tuz....art
taz....statue
tez....culture
tyez....magic
teyz....cult
toz....complexion
tuyatuz....handicrafts
tuyz....artisanship
siz....painting
saz....sculpture
voz....color
daz....dance
dez....theater
diz....comedy, circus
duz....music
dyez....cinema
drez....poetry
teuz....voice
deuz....song
seux....sound
xeus....noise
seuz....tone

The dob (State) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family start with d for society and end with b for organization.
Summary:
D-B Core Words
dob....state, regime
dab....government
deb....leader
dib....administration
dub....minister


Regimes and Rulers[edit]

Regimes and Rulers
REGIME=dob GENDER-NEUTRAL RULER=deb MALE FULE=dweb FEMALE RULER=deyb
adob....empire adeb....emperor adweb....emperor adeyb....empress
edob....kingdom edeb....monarch edweb....king edeyb....queen
idob....principality ideb....prince idweb....prince ideyb....princess
udob....duchy udeb....duke udweb....duke udeyb....duchess
yodob....marquisate yodeb....marquis yodweb....marquis yodeyb....marquise
yadob....count yadeb....count yadweb....count yadeyb....countess
yedob....domain yedeb....lord yedweb....lord yedeyb....lady, dominatrix
yidob....barony yideb....baron yidweb....baron yideyb....baroness
alodob....tribe, chiefdom, clan alodeb....chief, tribal chief, chieftain alodweb....male chief alodeyb....chieftaine
obdobem....colony obdeb....governor obdweb....governor obdeyb....governess


City Entitites[edit]

City Entities
dom....city
debdom....capital
mimdom....port
domab....municipality
domeb....mayor
yuzdom....suburb
dommas....city wall
yizdom....outskirts
odom....countryside
zedom....downtown
domgon....district
domep....street
domyem....plaza
domunkun....city block
dam....airfield
dem....park
deym....garden
domdeym....square
dim....fountain

Governments and Leaders[edit]

Governments and Leaders
GOVERNMENT=dab LEADER=deb
ditdab....republic ditdeb....president
tyodab....democracy tyodeb....president
andab....autocracy andeb....autocrat
anadab....dictatorship anadeb....dictator
nyazdab....plutocracy nyazdeb....plutocrat
yabdab....aristocracy yabdeb....aristocrat
totdab....theocracy totdeb....theocrat
abdab....dominion abdeb....overlord, master
obdab....protectorate, subject state obdeb....protector, subjugator
yibdab....colony yibdeb....colonial master
memyuvdab....fiefdom memyuvdeb....feudal lord


Regional Administrations[edit]

Regional Administrations
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
doob....nation
doab....fatherland
doeb....state, Bund
doib....county
domem....province, state
domeam....department, county, prefecture
domeem....sub-prefecture
domeim....canton
domeum....commune

The nas (Money) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family all begin with n for merchandise. All the words have to do with money, business, trade, and merchandise.
Summary:
Money Core Words
MONEY NOUNS MONEY VERBS
nas....money
nax....price
nayx....cost
naz....value, worth
nasyig....cash
nasmug....coin
nases....change
nasgon....stock
nastun....finance
donastun....economy
nasyan....capital
nasdrev....paper money
nasdref....check
nasam....bank
nasak....windfall
nasok....deficit
naxer....cost
nasbuer....allocate
nasaker....profit
naseker....gamble
nasyefer....owe
nasyefier ....borrow
nasyefuer....lend
naxter....appreciate
nazer....be worth
nazder....assess
nazbuer....reward
nasyiguer....cash
nex....savings
nexak....interest
nexer....save
neuner....reserve
nix....income, revenue
yexnix....salary
tutnix....honorarium
jonix....debt
nixak....profit
dobnix....pension
dotnix....welfare
jabnix....annuity
nixgab....dividend
nixer....earn
nizer....deserve
nier....consume
nixbuer....sell
jobnier....rent
nixbuer...sell
nux....payment, outlay
yovnux....penalty
nuxyef....duty
jonux....credit
yufnux....blackmail
dobnux....tax
nuz....award
nuxgax....pay raise
nuxer....pay
nuzuer....award
nuer....supply
jobnuxer....lease
nuxbier....buy
nox....expenditure
finox....thrift
noz....jewelry
noxer....spend
funoxer....waste
nun....product
nunyan....merchandise
nunsag....inventory
nunek....negotiation
nundel....ad
nundyun....brand
nunem....market
n(un)am....shop
nunut....merchant
nunyeb....package
nuneker....deal
nunier....buy
nunuer....sell
nunuier....trade
namper....shop
nundeler....advertise
nunsager....inventory
nunyember....package
nyan....stack
nyandras....list
nyaz....wealth
nyaser....accumulate
nyaxer....stack
nyen....stores, stock
nyeb....container
nyem....box, case
nyef....bag, sack
nyeyf....purse
yignyef....basket
nyexer....stock
nyember....box up
nyix....order
nyixdref....order form
nyixut....client, customer
nyixer....demand, order
nyox....waste nyoxer....waste
nyux....delivery
nyuxun....cargo, freight, shipment
nyuxdref....receipt
nyuxpur....delivery truck
nyuxer....supply, deliver, ship

The dop (Military) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d....social and end in p....mobile and have to do with the military and war.
Summary:
D-P Words
MILITARY SOME DERIVATIONS
dop....military dopeb....commander of the armed forces
dopof....uniform
dopnab....military rank
dopbier....conquer
dopizper....march
dopyaf....military power
dopar....weapon
doparobel....armistice
dopek....combat
dopekem....battleground
dopekut....combat soldier
odopeker....defend
dopembier....deploy
dopektof....battle attire
dropek....war
dropekut....warrier
dropekpos....armistice
dopteud....battle cry
dopdeuz....battle hymn
dopnad....battle line
dopepem....battle station
dopzanad....battlefront
ditdoyp....militia
dopyena....militant
dap....air force dapeb....air force commander
dapat....airman
dapur....fighter jet
dep....ground force, army depeb....army commander
depet....enlisted soldier
depur....tank
dip....navy dipeb....navy commander
dipat....ensign
oybdipur....submarine
dipur....battleship
adipur....aircraft carrier
edipur....dreadnaught
idipur....frigate
udipur....destroyer
yadipur....corvette
yedipur....gunboat
yodipur....cruiser
diep....marine diepeb....marine commander
diepat....marine soldier
dieput....ambphibious warship

Weapons[edit]

Weapons
WEAPONS
dopar....weapon
doparier....take up arms
doparuer....arm
adopar....gun
tuyab adopar....handgun, pistol
zyup adopar....revolver
edopar....rifle
idopar....shotgun
udopar....musket
dopir....artillery
adopir....cannon
edopir....bazooka
idopir....howitzer
dopur....machine gun
dopyonar....bayonet
zyidopyonar....sword
mimdopyonar....cutlass
zyadopyonar....battle-ax
dopuz-izmuf....bow-and-arrow


Ranks[edit]

Military Ranks
ARMY
dep
NAVY
dip
AIR FORCE
dap
MARINE FORCE
diep
depat....soldier dipat....ensign dapat....airman diepat....private
adepat....private adipat....seaman recruit adapat....airman basic adiepat....private
edepat....private 2 edipat....seaman apprentice edapat....airman ediepat....private 1st class
idepat....private first class idipat....seaman idapat....airman first class idiepat....lance corporal
udepat....army specialist udipat....petty officer 3rd class udapat....senior airman udiepat....corporal
.... yodipat....petty officer 2nd class yodapat....staff sergeant yodiepat....sergeant
.... yadipat....petty officer 3rd class yadapat....technical sergeant yadiepat....staff sergeant
.... yedipat....chief petty officer obyedapat....master sergeant yediepat....gunnery sergeant
.... .... abyedapat....master sergeant with diamond ....
.... yidipat....senior chief petty officer obyidapat....senior master sergeant yidiepat....master sergeant
.... .... abyidapat....senior master sergeant with diamond ....
.... obyudipat....master chief petty officer obyudapat....chief master sergeant yudiepat....first sergeant
.... ebyudipat....fleet master chief petty officer .... alodiepat....master gunnery sergeant
.... abyudipat....master chief petty officer of the navy abyudapat....chief master sergeant with diamond aladiepat....sergeant major
adeplat....warrant officer adiplat....ensign adaplat....2nd lieutenant adieplat....warrant officer
edeplat....chief warrant officer 2 ediplat....lieutenant junior grade edaplat....1st lieutenant edieplat....chief warrant officer 2
ideplat....chief warrant officer 3 idiplat....lieutenant idaplat....captain idieplat....chief warrant officer 3
udeplat....chief warrant officer 4 udiplat....lieutenant commander udaplat....major udieplat....chief warrant officer 4
yodeplat....chief warrant officer 5 yodiplat....commander yodaplat....lieutenant colonel yodieplat....chief warrant officer 5
yadeplat....second lieutenant yadiplat....captain yadaplat....colonel yadieplat....second lieutenant
yedeplat....first lieutenant .... .... yedieplat....first lieutenant
yideplat....captain yidiplat....ensign .... yidieplat....captain
yudeplat....major .... .... yudieplat....major
adeprat....brigadier general adiprat....rear admiral lower half adaprat....brigadier general adieprat....lieutenant general
edeprat....major general ediprat....rear admiral upper half edaprat....major general edieprat....colonel
ideprat....lieutenant general idiprat....vice admiral idaprat....lieutenant general idieprat....brigadier general
udeprat....4 star general udiprat....commandant udaprat....general air force chief of staff udieprat....major general
yodeprat....5-star general yodiprat....fleet admiral yodaprat....general of the AF yodieprat....lieutenant general
.... .... .... yadieprat....general

The ab (On), yab (Up) Family[edit]

Summary:
AB Family
ab....on
ayb....over
aber....put on
aper....get on
aba....superior
abem....top
ayb....above
eb....between
eyb....among
eber....block
eper....intervene
eba....in-between
ebem....interval
eyb....among
ob....off
oyb....under
ober....remove
oper....get off
oba....inferior
obem....bottom
oyb....below
yab....up
yaber....raise
yaper....rise
yaba....high
yabaga....tall
yaboga....short
yabem....upstairs
yeb....in
yeber....put in
yeper....get in
yeba....inner
yebaga....deep inside
yeboga....a little way in
yebem....interior
yob....down
yober....lower
yoper....descend
yoba....low
yobaga....deep
yoboga....shallow
yobem....downstairs
oyeb....out
oyeber....put out
oyeper....get out
oyeba....outer
oyebem....exterior

The af (Permission), yaf (Ability) Family[edit]

Summary:
AF Family
afer....may
afa....allowed
afwa....permissable
afxer....allow
efer....need
efa....in need of
efwa....necessary
efxer....necessitate
ofer....be prohibited
ofa....not allowed
ofwa....prohibited
ofxer....prohibit
yafer....can
yafa....able
yafwa....possible
yafxer....enable
yefer....must
yefa....obliged
yefwa....obligatory
yefxer....oblige
yofer....cannot
yofa....unable
yofwa....impossible
yofxer....incapacite

The aga (Big), yaga (Long) Family[edit]

Summary:
AGA/YAGA Family
aga....big
agan....size
agaxer....magnify
agser....grow
ega....normal
egan....normalcy
egaxer....normalize
 
oga....little
ogan....smallness
ogaxer....minimize
ogser....shrink
yaga....long
yagan....length
yagaxer....lengthen
yagser....stretch
yoga....short
yogan....shortness
yogaxer....abbreviate
yogser....contract

The aj (Past), taj (Birth) Family[edit]

Summary:
AJ/TAJ Family
aj....past
ajna....old
ajyena....old-fashioned
ej....present
ejna....new
ejyena....modern
oj....future
ojna....to-be
ojyena....futuristic
taj....birth
tajer....be born
tajber....give birth
taja....natal
tej....life
tejer....live
tejber....bring to life
teja....vital
toj....death
tojer....die
tojber....kill
toja....mortal

The ak- (Win), yak- (Expect) Family[edit]

Summary:
AK/YAK Family
aker....win
akut....winner
akun....win
akler....defeat
akrer....triumph
akuj....success
akbun....award
nasak....windfall
aknas....profit
eker....play, risk
ekut....player
ekun....game
ifek....play
dopek....battle
dropek....war
tapek....sport
nasek....gamble
yanek....competition
ovek....contest
dalovek....debate
dunek....pun
oker....lose
okut....loser
okun....loss
okuj....failure
tejok....loss of life
nasok....bankrupty
oknas....deficit
yaker....expect
fiyak....hope
fuyak....despair
fiyakuer....inspire
fuyakuer....discourage
yeker....try
finyeker....test
aayeker....experiment
yekuer....challenge
fuyekuer....tempt
yekun....goal
doyevyek....trial
yoker....be surprised
yokdun....exclamation
yokxeus....sudden noise, boom
yoktoj....sudden death
yokay....unexpectedly

The av (For), yav- (Innocent) Family[edit]

Summary:
AV/YAV Family
av....for
ava....favorable
avan....behalf, behest
avon....asset, advantage
avun....favor, benefit
avder....advocate
avejter....represent
yanav....party
eva....neutral
evan....neutrality
evder....equivocate
evxer....neutralize
ov....against
ova....contrary
ovon....liability, handicap, disadvantage
ovun....obstacle
yanov....opposition
yava....innocent
yavder....acquit
yeva....fair
yevder....judge
doyevan....justice
doyevon....court case
doyevam....court
finyevut....critic
yova....guilty
yovder....indict, accuse
vayovder....convict
doyov....crime
yovbyok....penalty
yovbyokam....prison
yovober....pardon

The az- (Strong), yaz- (Convex) Family[edit]

Summary:
AZ Family
aza....strong
azla....intense
azra....violent
azaxer....strenghten
azon....power
eza....moderate
ezaxer....moderate
oza....weak
ozta....tired
ozaxer....weaken
YAZ Family
yaza....convex yeza....flush yoza....concave
yaz....mound
memyaz...bluff
mimyaz....surf
milyaz....wave
mimolyaz....saltdome
nedyaz....bump
yagyaz....ridge
tayeyaz....pimple
melyaz....tomb
tayobyaz....tumor
yez....along, flush with
memyez....plain
mimolyez....salt flat
obyez....platform
yoz....depression
memyoz....valley
nedyoz....dip
yagyoz....groove
kuyoz....cave
melyoz....pit

The fya- (Holy) Family[edit]

Summary:
FYA Family
fyaa....holy fyoa....profane
fyamir....heaven fyomir....hell
fyax....sacrament fyox....sacrilege
fyaz....grace fyoz....disgrace
fyaxin....religion
fyaxam....church
fyadab....church hierarchy
fyadeb....church elder, clergyman
afyadeb....pope
efyadeb....cardinal
ifyadeb....archbishop
obifyadeb....bishop
ufyadeb....parish priest
obufydeb....deacon
fyatob....saint fyotob....demon
fyavyad....oath
fyavatex....faith
fyatez....hieromancy fyotez....witchcraft
fyatezmuv....wand
fyadresiyn....hieroglyph
fyatead....gospel, testament
fyad....blessing fyod....curse
fyasin....icon
fyasyun....idol
fyaifrer....worship
fyadil....prayer
fyapop....crusade
fyamilber....baptize
fyaojdut....prophet
fyaxel....ritual, mass fyoxel....occult
fyaxyel....holy unction
fyamil....holy water
fyateaz....miracle fyoteaz....pox
fyasem....altar
fyasim....throne
fyakosin....mysticism
fyakosut....hermit
fyajub....feast day
fyadyes....bible
fyadrenyan....scriptures
fyadun....benediction
fyadot....religious order
fyaantinat....monk
fyabuler....consecrate
fyabyena....moral
fyadal....sermon
fyadalsem....pulpit
fyadalzyabin....evangelism

The fi- (Good), fyi- (Useful) Family[edit]

Summary:
"FI Family"
fia....good
fila....delightful
fira....excellent
fiva ....ok
fiza....honorable
fizta....noble
fizda....honest
firza....ideal
firxa....perfect
flia....superb
fria....glorious
fua....bad
fusa....flawed
fula....malignant
fura....wicked
fuza....dishonorable
fuzta....ignoble
fuzda....dishonest
flua....horrible
fin....virtue
dofin....morality
fun....vice
dofun....crime
fider....praise fuder....malign
"FYI Family"
fyia....useful
fyin....value
fyiz....award
fyiyz....reward
fyis....benefit
fyix....favor
fyua....harmful
fyun....harm
fyuz....punishment
fyul....toxin

The ga (More) Family[edit]

Summary:
GA Family
ga....more
gay....also
gaj....still
gaxer....increase
gaber....add
galer....multiply
gorer....exponentiate
gan....whole
ge....as
gey....even
gel....as
gexer....equalize
geber....equate
gedrer....copy
gegon....equity
geder....quote
gelder....echo
gelxer....imitate
geltxer....identify
geyla....similar
go....less
goy....except
goj....no longer
goxer....decrease
gober....subtract
goler....divide
golber....cut
gon....part
gla....much, many, very
glan....quantity
glagon....plurality
glal....cluster
glatwa....famous
hogla?....how much?
gle....some, rather glo....little, few, slightly
gra....too much, too
gran....excess
gre....enough
glander....quantify
gro....too little, not enough
gwa....most
gwafua....worst
gwaika....perfect
gwaifer...prefer
gwamor....macrocosm
gwe....just gwo....least
gwomul....atom
gwos....particle
gwosteaxar....microscope

The gi- (Sharp), gyi- (Solid) Family[edit]

Summary:
GI Family
gia....sharp
gin....point
grin....blade
giber....poke
ginod....peak
gixer....sharpen
ogia....dull
gua....angular
gun....angle
grun....hook
gum....corner
ungun....quadrangle
ingun....triangle
unizgun....rectangle
yagunid....cube
mepgun....fork in the road
GYI Family
gyia....solid
gyila....firm
gyita....robust
gyitef....helmet
gyitepa....tough-minded
gyixer...solidify
gyua....fragile
gyula....supple
gyusa....delicate
gyuta....frail
gyubyen....comfort
gyutelam....delicatessen

The if (Pleasure), yif (Courage) Family[edit]

Summary:
"IF/YIF Family"
ifer....love
ifon....love
ifwa....beloved
doabifa....patriotic
ufer....hate
ufon....hate
ufwa....odious
toybufa....misogynous
yifa....brave
yifla....valiant
yifran....heroism
yifer....dare
yufa....afraid
yufla....horrible
yufran....terror
yufer....fear
milyufa....hydrophobic

The ig- (Fast), yig- (Hard) Family[edit]

IG Family
iga....fast
igar....accelerator
igper....run
uga....slow
ugar....brake
ugper....amble
YIG Family
yiga....hard
yigla....rude
yigra....violent
yigta....tense
yigza....sharp, sour
yigsa....rigid
yigfa....rough
yigaza....bitter
bilyig....cheese
yuga....soft
yugla....polite
yugra....gentle
yugta....lax
yugza....mild, sweet
yugsa....supple, flexible
yugfa....smooth
yugsra....elastic
bilyug....butter

The ij (Beginning), yij (Opening), tij (Awakening) Family[edit]

Summary:
IJ Family
ijer....begin
ijper....start up
ijber....start up
ijna....initial
ijar....on switch
ijem....origin
vabij....seed
tabij....embryo
patij....
egg
texij....
concept
milij....
spring
manij....
glimmer
majij....
dawn
mojij....
dusk
ujer....end
ujper....come to an end
ujber....bring to an end
ujna....final
ujar....off switch
ujem....destination
kyeuj....fate
dinuj....denouement
mepuj....deadend
jobuj....eternity
YIJ Family
yijer....open
yijper....come open
yijber....open up
yijar....key
yujer....close
yujper....come to a close
yujber....bring to a close
yujar....lock
TIJ Family
tijer....be awake
tijper....wake up
tijber....waken
tijtepa....conscious
tujer....sleep
tujper....fall asleep
tujber....put to sleep
tujtepa....unconscious

The ik- (Full), yik- (Difficult) Family[edit]

Summary:
IK Family
ika....full
iliker....flood
ikber....fill
ikxer....complete
melik....dirt pile
ikza....rich
ikla....crowded
ikra....saturated
ikfia....perfect
uka....empty
iluker....drain
ukber....empty
ukxer....void
meluk....hole
uknig....vacuum
ukun....gap
ukla....hollow
uktoser....miss
ukza....poor
ukyem....blank
The prefixes -ika (-ful) and -uka (-less) can form many adjectives, such as:
  • tejika....lively
  • tuilika....saucy
  • tesika....meaningful
  • tezuka....cultureless
  • tayebuka....hairless
  • maruka....starless
YIK Family
yika....difficult
yikla....complicated
yikom....hardship
yikson....problem
yikun....hindrance
yuka....easy
yukla....simple
yukom....comfort
yukson....easy matter
yukun....convenience
Forms of -yik- and -yuk- can be suffixed to verb stems as a modal meaning hard to and easy to, respectively:
  • testyikwa....hard to understand
  • teetyika....hard of hearing
  • dudyikwa....hard to answer, enigmatic
  • teatyiker....have a hard time seeing
  • pesyuka....patient (easy to wait)
  • vatexyuka....gullible (easy to believe)
  • testyukwa....comprehensible (easy to understand)
  • datxyuker....find it easy to make friends

The iv- (Happy), yiv- (Free) Family[edit]

Summary:
IV Family
iva....happy
ivla....glad, content
ivra....excited, thrilled
iv....fun
ivtax....gratitude
ivder....cheer
ivteuber....smile
ivdeuxer....laugh
ivseuz....sigh of relief
yaniv....party
yanivtosder....congratulate
ivek....game, play
ivuj....happy ending
uva....sad
uvla....disappointed
uvra....morose, dejected
uv....sorrow
uvtax....regret
uvder....complain
uvteuber....frown
uvdeuxer....moan
uvseuz....sigh of sorrow
yanuv....dirge
yanuvtosder....commiserate
uvdin....tragedy
uvuj....sad ending
YIV Family
yiva....free
yivina....liberal
yivtexa....libertarian
doyiv....right
yivdras....license
yuva....bound, captive
yuvla....subject
yuvrat....slave
doyuv....duty
yuv....bond
nasyuv....debt
oyuvan....independence
yuvar....chain

The iz (Straight), yiz (Beyond) Family[edit]

Summary:
IZ Family
iza....straight
izber....direct, steer
izper....go straight, head for
izmep....straight shot, beeline
izon....direction
iznad....vector straight line
iznod....target
izteser....denote
iztex....logic
iztesten....intuition
izgun....right angle
izeaxer....indicate, point out
izyen....maneuver
iztin....orthodoxy
izbeb....pilot, driver
uza....curved....
uzber....turn
uzper....deviate, curve
uzmep....detour
uznad....curve
uznod....turning point
uzteser....connote
uztex....irrationality
uzun....ring
uzyus....spriral, coil
uzabmas....arch
uzmem....bay
ulz....twist
mapulz....tornado
uzfuv....screw
tuyobuz....bracelet
tuyubuz....ring
teebuz....earing
teibuz....nosering
teyobuz....necklace
tiabuz....broche
tilabuz....tit ring, nipple ring
eybtuabuz....epaulette
mamiluz....rainbow
dopuz....bow, arch, bow-and-arrow
YIZ Family
yiz....beyond
yiza....ulterior
yizper....surpass
yiznod....extremity
yiztapa....metaphysical
yizmola....supernatural
yizoga....ultra-small
yizyivoza....ultraviolet
yiztoba....superhuman
yizmeira....extra-terrestrial
yuz....around
yuza....circular
yuzper....circulate
yuzmep....periphery
sinyuz....frame
nidyuz....envelope
yuznad....border
yuzmas....fence
yuznag....girth
yuzmimper....circumnavigate
yuzkof....blanket, wrap
yuznof....bandage
yuzdom....suburb
yuzem....environment
yuzbexer....hug

The ja (Before), jwa (Early) Family[edit]

Summary:
JA Family
ja....before
jaa....anterior
jana....previous
jater....presage
japer....precede
jader....predict
jafyunder....warn
jaovber....prevent
jaxer....prepare
jatuer....train
jabikier....take precautions
jaexdrer....plan
jateaxer....preview
jateaser....foresee
janapder....preordain
janap....priority
jay....already
jatex....forethought
je....during
jea....on-going
jena....current
jes....course
jeser....continue
jey....on and on, forth
jo....after
joa....posterior
jona....next
joxwas....aftermath
joper....follow
joteaxer....review
joiber....inherit
joigper....pursue
jouper....succeed
joy....afterwards, then, next
jois....after-effect
jotul....dessert
jotej....afterlife
jotex....afterthought
ji....since
ji huj....since then
ju....until
ju hij....until now
JWA Family
jwa....early
jwaa....pre-mature
jwapuer....arrive early
jwaxer....preempt
jwaber....prepare
jwatuer....warn
jwayeker....experiment
jwadrer....draft
jwayivxer....parole
jwe....on time
jwea....ready, timely, ripe
jwepuer....arrive on time
jwexer....prepare
jweder....prompt
jwo....late
jwoa....tardy, mature, stale
jwopuer....arrive late
jwoxer....delay
jwovosut....late-bloomer
jwoxer....retard

The ka- (Find), kya- (Change) Family[edit]

Summary:
KA Family
kaxer....find
kaxun....trove
kaxon....solution
kader....reveal
kater....realize
kap....adventure
ijkaxer....invent
kyekaxer....discover, stumble on
katepa....conscious
kexer....seek
kexun....goal
kexon....quest
keder....question
keter....wonder, be curious about
kep.....mission
kebier....choose
kebider....vote
tunkexer....research
zyakexer....search
keteaxer....scan
pokexut....hunter
nazkexut....treasure hunter
kyeojkexut....fortune-seeker
koxer....hide
koxun....stash
koxon....problem, quandary
kod....secret
koter....belie
kop....going into hiding
kobier....steal
koem....hideaway
koembier....take refuge
koembuer....provide shelter
kof....cover
koexut....spy
kodyun....coverword
kodin....myth
kodrentun....cryptography
teabkof....blindfold
koxof....cloak
koxov....veil
koifer....covet
kopier....elope
kopuer....sneak up to
kotepa....subconscious
KYA Family
kyaa....variable
kyaser....vary
kyadun....variable
kyasun....variant
kyasea....variant
kyayukwa....versatile
kyaxer....change
ebkyaxer....exchange
kyaper....fluctuate, slide
kyasanier....mutate
tepkyaxer....persuade, motivate
kyea....haphazard
kyeser....happen
kyes....event, happening, incident
kyeoj....fate, destiny
kyen....luck, chance
fikyen....good luck
fukyen....bad luck
fukyes....accident
kyenek....game of chance
kyenekam....casino
kyenekar....gaming machine
kyeson....circumstance
yankyeson....coincidence
kyeper....waver
kyebuk....danger
kyeteaser....notice
kyeyanuper....happen to meet
kyeon....case
kyexej....adventure
fukyeoj....misfortune
fikyeoj....good fortune
kyoa....fixed, static, still
kyoser....stay, stand
kyos....status, state
kyosa....static
kyoejea....constant, permanent
kyoaxer....stabilize
kyoxer....fix, park
purkyoxam....parking garage
kyoteaxer....stare
kyotepier....pay attention
kyotexer....obsess

The ki- (Slant), kyi- (Heavy) Family[edit]

Summary:
KI Family
kia....oblique
kim....slope
kixer....bend
kipar....skate
kua....lateral
kum....side
kunad....edge
kuber....set aside
kumas....embankment
KYI Family
kyia....heavy
kyiper....gravitate
kyisona....grave
kyid....emphasis
kyin....cargo
kyik....gram
kyitipa....solemn
kyua....light
kyuper....levitate
kyusona....trivial
kyutipa....lighthearted

The va (Yes), vya- (True) Family[edit]

VA Family
va....yes ve....maybe vo....no
vaa....affirmative vea....possible voa....negative
vay....indeed vey....possibly voy....not
VYA Family
vyaa....true
vyan....truth
vyaama....virtual
vyaba....regular
vyadea....honest
vyafa....precise
vyala....authentic
vyalma....objective
vyalva....proper
vyama....real
vyamsa....substantial
vyasa....correct
vyava....exact
vyayaba....systematic
vyasauna....genuine
vyasma....concrete
vyayma....effective
vyayuxea....faithful
vyatepa....rational
vyatesa....reasonable
vyatexa....logical
vyatina....orthodox
vyatipa....loyal
vyanaba....adjusted
vyaotea....wise
vyantina....dogmatic
vyayuva....trusty
vyankexer....investigate
vyanyeker....prove
vyantixer....research
vyatexer....believe
vyayab....system
dovyab....law
vyavader....determine
vyatisika....sagacious
vyateja....true-to-life
vyea....relative
vyean....relativity
vyenaz....coefficient
vyenxer...relate
vyesag....ratio
vyeson....subject
vyel....relative to, than
vyesun....object
vyet...kin
vyetepa....subjective
vyetexer....consider
vyexeon....circumstance
vyexer....correlate
vyoa....false
vyoan....falseness
vyom....fiction
vyomdin....fairy tale
vyomeper....err
vyomepxer....misroute
vyomsin....illusion
vyomvatex....superstition
vyon...fault
vyonap...disorder
vyonder....lie
vyonober....excuse
vyons....failure
vyonxer...transgress
vyosauna....counterfeit
vyosyen....artifice
vyotepa....foolish
vyotesier....misinterpret
vyotester....misunderstand
vyotex....fallacy
vyotipan....treason
vyoxler....traffic
vyoyeker...debunk
vyoyixler....betray
There is also the hybird truth particle vyao, meaning true or false, eg.: Et tojba hua twob. Vyao?....You killed that man. True or false?
Factive adverbs:
"Factive Adverbs"
FACTIVE ADVERB EXAMPLE
vay....indeed, really, do/does Aat vay tide et.....We really do understand you.
Vay upu gajod.....Do come again.
vey....may, maybe, perhaps, might Vey mamilo.....It may rain.
voy....not Et voy se ata xeb.....You are not my boss.
Factive Responses
"Factive Responses"
FACTIVE RESPONSE EXAMPLE
va....yes Va, at tide.....Yes, I understand.
ve....maybe, perhaps Ve. At voy te.....Maybe, I don't know.
vo....no Vo. Et yofe ayser has.....No. You can't have it.
vao....yes or no Et se tadxwa, vao?'....You are married, right or wrong?
Complementizers
"Complementizers"
COMPLEMENTIZER EXAMPLE
van....that At ta van et upo.....I knew (that) you would come.
Van yat fyadilu.....Let's pray.
ven....if, whether Ven et peso, at pio.....If you stay, I will leave.
Ven at su et, at peso.....If I were you, I'd stay.
At voy te ven mamilo.....I don't know whether it will rain.
von....lest, that...not, don't At yufa von it toju.....I feared lest he die.
At ojfe von et piu.....I wish you wouldn't (=that you not)go.
Von su huyen!....Don't be that way!
duven....Do...?, Say whether...? Duven et tre huyt?....Do you know that female?
Correlative conjunctions:
"Correlative Conjunctions"
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE
ay....and Et ay at po hum.....You and I will go there.
ey....or Aat yake mamil ey mamyoym.....We expect rain or snow.
oy....but At po oy at voy beso glajob.....I will go but I won't stay long.
ay/ey....and/or Ha duzun yebio X ay/ey Y.....The concert will include X and/or Y.
hyaewa...ay....both...and Hyaewa et ay at voduda.....Both you and I answered no.
Hyaewati voduda.....Both answered no.
Hyeawa...ey....either...or Hyeawa et ey at ako.....Either you or I will win.
Hyeawat ako.....Either will win.
Hyoewa...ey....neither...nor Hyoewa et ey at ako.....Neither you nor I will win.
Hyoewat (bi ha ewati) ako.....Neither (of the two) will win.
Some derivatives of va, ve, and vo:
  • vader....affirm, assent, say yes, approve, ratify, vouch
  • vaduder....answer yes, reply affirmatively
  • vaa....positive, affirmative
  • vatin....optimism
  • vatexer....think so, believe, trust
  • vafer....hope, anticipate
  • valder....assure, promise
  • veder....hesitate, say maybe, suppose, guess
  • Vea....possible
  • vetin....skepticism
  • vetexer....wonder, be skeptical, hedge
  • vefer....have qualms about, vacillate
  • veduder....equivocate, reply neither yes or no, answer maybe
  • velder....bet, wager
  • voder....deny, negate, veto, say no, decline
  • voa....negative
  • vofer....reject, despair
  • votin....pessimism
  • votexer....doubt, think not, disbelieve
  • voduder....answer no, reply negatively
  • volder....warn

The vi- (Beautiful), vyi- (Clean) Family[edit]

Summary:
VI- Family
via....beautiful vua....ugly
viya....pretty vuya....nasty
vila....magnificent
vira....marvelous
vria....glamorous
vifa....elegant vufa....vulgar
vita....classy vuta....wretched
vioga....cute
viaga....sumptuous


VYI- Family
vyia....clean vyua....dirty
vyida....clear vyuda....muddled
vyina....pure vyuna....stained
vyita....chaste vyuta....sleazy
vyiya....neat vyuya....foul

The am- (hot), im- (wet) Family[edit]

Summary:
AM- Family
ama....hot oma....cold
ayma....warm oyma....cool
aman....heat oman....cold
amxer....to heat omxer....refrigerate
yam....fire yom....ice
yamxer....to burn yomxer....to freeze
amar....heater omar....refrigerator
yamar....stove yomar....icebox, freezer
IM- Family
ima....wet uma....dry
iyma....humid uyma....dryish
yim....flood yum....drought
iman....wetness uman....dryness
imxer....to wet umxer....to dry

Chart of Group 2 Base Words and Principal Derivatives[edit]

Here is chart showing all of the group 2 base words in Mirad:
Group 2 Base Words and Principal Derivations
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE OPPOSITE
ab....on
ayb....over
aber....put on
eb....between
eyb....among
eber....prevent
ob....off
oyb....under
ober....remove
ib....away from
iber....receive
ub....toward
uber....send
aper....get on eper....intervene oper....get off iper....leave uper....come
baer....lean
baler....press
barer....crush
baser....make a stir
baxer....stroke, rub
byaser....stand
byaxer....erect
blaser....fidget
blaxer....rustle
braser....shake
braxer....shake
ber....put
be....at
beer....have
beser....stay
bexer....hold
byeser....behave
byexer....knock
blexer....detain
brexer....restrain
beler....carry
boer....support
boler....prop up
boser....be still
boxer....calm down
byoser....droop
byoxer....hang
bi....from
bier....take
biler....grab
byi....starting with
byiser....originate
bixer....pull
blixer....yank
brixer....uproot
bu....to
buer....give
buxer....push
byuxer....touch
bluxer....drive
bruxer....kick
bay....with bey....by boy....without
yab....up yeb....in
oyeb....out
yob....down yib....far yub....near
yaper.... rise yeper.... enter yoper.... descend yiper.... flee yuper.... approach
paser.... move
pyaer.... hover
pyaser....surge
pyaxer....shoot
plaxer....shake, wipe
praxer....brush
paper....fly
per.... go
peser.... wait
pexer....trap
pyexer....strike
plexer....beat
prexer....crash
peper....ride
poser....rest
poxer....stop
pyoser.... fall
pyoxer....drop
ploxer....sink
proxer....drown
poper....travel
pier....depart
pixer....catch
pyier.... originate
plixer....capture
prixer....rape
piper....sail
puer.... arrive
puser....jump
puxer....throw
pyuer.... reach
pyuxer....impact
pluxer....thrust
pruxer....shoot
puper....tunnel
afer....permit efer....need ofer....prohibit ifer....love ufer....hate
fer....want fia.... good fua.... bad
fyaa....holy fyoa....profane fyia....useful fyua....harmful
yafer....can yefer....must yofer....cannot yifer....dare yufer....fear
ga....more
gaber....add
galer....multiply
galer....exponentiate
gaxer....increase
geer....equal go....less
gober....subtract
goler....divide
gorer....get the root of
goxer....decrease
gin.... point gun.... angle
gwa.... most gwe.... just gwo.... least
gyaa.... fat gyoa.... thin gyia.... solid gyua....fragile
gla.... much gle.... rather glo.... few
gra.... too gre.... enough gro.... too little
aga.... big ega.... normal oga.... small iga.... fast uga.... slow
yaga.... long yoga.... short yiga.... hard yuga.... soft
ja....before je....during jo....after ji....since ju....until
jwa....early jwe....on time jwo....late
aj....past ej....present oj....future ij....beginning uj....end
tajer*....be born tejer*....live tojer*....die tijer*....be awake tujer*....sleep
yijer....open yujer....close
kaxer.... find kexer.... seek koxer.... hide kia.... oblique kua.... lateral
kyaa.... mobile kyea.... haphazard kyoa.... fixed kyia.... heavy kyua.... light
aker.... win eker.... play, risk oker....lose ika.... full uka.... empty
yaker.... expect yeker.... try yoker.... be surprised yika.... difficult yuka.... easy
va....yes ve....maybe vo....no via.... beautiful vua.... ugly
vyaa....true vyea.... relative vyoa.... false vyia.... clean vyua.... dirty
av....for eva....neutral ov....against iva.... happy uva.... sad
yava....innocent yeva....fair yova....guilty yiva....free yuva....captive
yaza....convex yez....along yoza....concave yiz....beyond yuz....around
za....front ze....middle zo....behind zi....right zu....left
zyaa....wide zye....through zyoa....narrow zyia....flat zyua....round
zay....forward zey....across zoy....back
aza....strong eza....moderate oza....weak iza....straight uza....curved
ha....the hea....some hoa....which hia....this hua....that
hya....every hyea....any hyoa....no hyia....same hyua....other
van....that ven....whether von....lest
hay....hello
hyay....cheers
hway....thanks
hey....hey
hyey....oh, well
hwey....you're welcome
hoy....goodbye
hyoy....boo
hwoy....sorry
hiy....voici huy....voila
ya(n)....together yo(n)....apart
ama....hot
yam....fire
oma....cold
yom.... ice
ima....wet
yim....flood
uma....dry
yum....drought
a(n)....one e(n)....two o(n)....zero
lo-....un-, de-
i(n)....three u(n)....four
ya(on)....six ye(on)....seven yo(on)....five yi(on)....eight yu(on)....nine
ay....and ey....or oy....but
*Really, a hybrid of Group 1 and 2.

Chart of Group 1 Scaled Base Words[edit]

These group 1 base words are mostly hierarchical in nature with the zeroth element being at the top of the scale:
Group 1 Scaled Base Words
dob....state dab....government deb....leader dib....administration dub....minister
dom....city dam....metropolis dem....park dim....fountain
dot....society dat....friend det....mate dit....citizen dut....sir
fob....vegetation fab....tree feb....fruit fib....trunk fub....branch fyob....root
job....time jab....year jeb....season jib....month jub....day jwob....hour jwab....minute jweb....second
mor....universe mar....star mer....planet mir....world mur....moon
mol....nature mal....air mel....soil mil....water mul....mineral
mos....floor mas....wall mes....door mis....window mus....stairs
nod....point nad....line ned....plane nid....volume nud....column
nof....cloth naf....material nef....weave nif....wire nuf....button nyaf....knot nyef....bag nyif....rope nyuf....package
nog....degree nag....measure neg....level nig....space
som....furniture sam....armoire sem....table sim....chair sum....bed
tob....human tab....body teb....head tib....trunk tub....arm tyob....leg
tod....family tad....spouse ted....parent tid....sibling tud....child tyed....relative
tof....clothing taf....suit tef....hat tif....vest tuf....sleeve tyof....pants
tov....lingerie tav....robe tev....scarf tiv....shirt tyov....underpants
tol....nutrition tel....eat til....drink tul....dish tyal....meal
tom....building tam....house tem....hall tim....room tum....cell
vob....plant vab....grass veb....seed vib....stem vub....blade vyob....root

Chart of Group 1 Geo-physically Scaled Words[edit]

These group 1 words have a vowel that indicates something about the position in the world or its geo-physical nature:
Group I Geo-physically Scaled Words
BASE WORD SKY LAND WATER UNDERGROUND
mol....nature mal....air mel....soil mil....water mul....matter
mom....outer space mam....sky mem....land mim....sea mum....underground
mop....orbit map....wind mep....road mip....river mup....tunnel
mob....chasm meb....mountain mub....cave
mog....ash mag....fire
mak....electricity
meg....stone
mek....dust
mug....metal
muk....mineral
mov....smoke mav....flame
maf....cloud
mef....brick
mev....porcelain
muf....pole
muv....stick
moj....night maj....day
mon....dark man....life
pot....animal
pyot....wild animal
pat....bird
pyat....bird of prey
piat....water fowl
pet....land animal
pelt....insect
pyet....reptile
pit....fish
piit....crustacean
peit....sea mammal
pyeit....mollusk
pyit....predator fish
dop....military dap....air force dep....army dip....navy
diep....marines

Charts of Words Showing Mnemonic Parallelism[edit]

The words in the following charts share some commonality, which is evident in their similar phonetics:
Tob Mnemonic Parallels
tob teb tib tub tyob tayob tayeb
man head trunk arm leg skin hair
fob feb fib fub fyob fayob fayeb
tree treetop trunk branch root bark leaf
vob veb vib vub vyob vayob vayeb
plant tuft stem twig root peel bud
patob patub patayeb
egg wing feather
pit piteb pitub pitayeb
fish fishhead fin scale
dob deb dib dub
state leader administration minister
xeb sub syob
boss offshoot base
-eub Mnemonic Parallels
teub teus teud seux xeus deuz seuz xeuz
mouth voice shout sound noise song tone tune
-ayob Mnemonic Parallels
tayob fayob vayob tayof
skin bark peel leather
Tub Mnemonic Parallels
tub fub vub fuf muf tiibuf movuf gimuf manuf fauf
arm branch twig pipe rod artery (smoking) pipe skewer candle log
-eab Mnemonic Parallels"
teab eye
teater see
teaxer look
teaser seem
teaper visit
egteaper revisit
teader witness
teazer notice
teatier perceive
teatuer show
beaxer watch
neaxer aim
vyateaxer examine
vyabeaxer inspect
vyaleaxer check
izteader indicate
izteatuer point out
izteaxer focus
abteaxer survey
yagteaxer stare
igteaxer glance
egteaser reappear
yozteatuer display, expose
jateater foresee
jateaxer preview
yonteater distinguish
oteaser disappear
vyateatuer prove
zyeteaxer peek
zyoteaxer peer
ugteaxer gaze
yuzteaxer look around
yubteaxer scrutinize
kyoteaxer glare
yogteaxer glimpse
joteaxer review
zoyteaxer look back
zayteaxer look ahead
ojteader warn
tepteatier consider
kuteaxer observe
ejeatuer present
ejeaser show up, appear
utejeaser represent
ajteaxer review
ojteaxer expect, envisage
yoveater suspect
kiteaxer look askance
yizteaxer look beyond
zeyteaxer look across
fyateater respect
vyoteas illusion
vyamteaser seem true
koteaxer sneak a peek
ziteaxer look right
zuteaxer look left
eyteaxer squint
zyateaxer peruse, scan
fateaber blink
teabigyujer wink
teabiler weep, tear up
-z Mnemonic Parallels"
nas teb tuyub tilab tuyob tun tab teub sin teeb nas teib vos drer ten
money head finger breast wrist science body mouth image ear money nose flower write knowledge
noz tebuz tuyuz tilaz tuyoz tuz taz deuz siz teebuz naz teiz voz drez tez
jewel crown ring broche bracelet art statue song painting earring value perfume color poetry culture

Geographic Proper Names[edit]

As in English, Geograpic names are capitalized, including languages (cf. French, where languages are lower cased).


Continents and Their Inhabitants[edit]

Continents
PLACE ADJECTIVE INHABITANT
Asyam....Asia Asyama....Asian Asyat....Asian
Amera Amerikam....North America Amera Amerikama....North American Amera Amerikat....North American
Omera Amerikam....South America Omera Amerikama....South American Omera Amerikat....South American
Afrikam....Africa Afrikama....African Afrikat....African
Antarktikam....Antarctica Antarktika....Antarctic Antarktikat....Antarctic
Australyam....Australia Australyama....Australian Australyama....Australian

Directional and Other Specifiers in Geographic Names[edit]

Many geographic names are preceded with directional or other specifiers:
Geographic Specifiers
SPECIFIER
Amera....North(ern)
Zomira....South(ern)
Imera....East(ern)
Umera....West(ern)
Zea....Central, Middle
Yeba....Inner
Oyeba....Outer
Ejna....New
Ajna....Old
Yuba....Near
Yiba....Far
For example:
  • Omera Afrikam....South Africa
  • Zea Amerikam....Central America
  • Oyeba Mongolyam....Outer Mongolia
  • Yiba Imir....Far East
  • Ejna Englam....New England

Countries, Inhabitants, and Languages[edit]

COUNTRY ADJECTIVE INHABITANT LANGUAGE
-am -a / -ama -at -ad
Afganam....Afghanistan Afgana   /  Afganama....Afghani Afganat....Afghan --
Afrikam....Africa Afrika / Afrikama....African Afrikat....African --
Albanam....Albania Albana  /  Albanama....Albanian Albanat....Albanian Albanad....Albanian
Algeryam....Algeria Algerya  /  Algeryama....Algerian Algeryat....Alergian --
Amerikam....America Amerika  /  Amerikama....American Amerikat....American --
Andoram....Andorra Andora  /  Andorama....Andorran Andorat....Andoran --
Angolam....Angola Angola  /  Angolama....Angolan Angolat....Angolan --
Anxwa Doebi (bi Amerikam)....United States (of America) ADAma....U.S. ADAt....U.S.citizen --
Anxwa Edab....United Kingdom Anxwa Edaba....of the UK Anxwa Edabat....UK national --
Arabam....Arabia Araba  /  Arabama....Arabian Arabat....Arab Arabad....Arabic
Argentinam....Argentina Argentina  /  Argentinama....Argentin Argentinat....Argentinian --
Awstralyam....Australia Awstralya....Australian Awstralyat....Australian --
Awstriyam....Austria Awstriya  /  Awstriyama....Austrian Awstriyat....Austrian --
Bahraynam....Bahrain Bahrayna  /  Bahraynama....Bahraini Bahraynat....Bahraini --
Belgam....Belgium Belga  /  Belgama....Belgian Belgat....Belgian --
Bolivyam....Bolivia Bolivya  /  Bolivyama....Bolivian Bolivyat....Bolivian --
Botswanam....Botswana Botswana  /  Botswanama....Botswanian Botswanat....Botswanian --
Brazilam....Brazil Brazila  /  Brazilama....Brazilian Brazilat....Brazilian --
Bretanyam....Britain Bretanya  /  Bretanyama....British Bretanyat....Brit --
Bruneyam....Brunei Bruneya  /  Bruneyama....Brunei Bruneyat....Bruneian --
Bulgaryam....Bulgaria Bulgarya  /  Bulgaryama....Bulgarian Bulgaryat....Bulagian Bulgaryad....Bulgarian
Burmam....Burma Burmama....Burmese Burmat....Burmese Burmad....Burmese
Cadam....Chad Cada  /  Cadama....Chadean Cadat....Chadean --
Cekyam....Czech Republic Cekya  /  Cekyama....Czech Cekyat....Czech Cekyad....Czech
Cileam....Chile Cilea  /  Cileama....Chilean Cileat....Chilean --
Cinam....China Cina  /  Cinama....Chinese Cinat....Chinese Cinad....Chinese
Cipram....Cyprus Cipra  /  Ciprama....Cypriot Ciprat....Cypriot --
Danyam....Denmark Danya  /  Danyama....Danish Danyat....Dane Danyad....Danish
Domenikam....Domenican Republic Domenika  /  Domenikama....Domenican Domenikat....Domenican --
Egiptam....Egypt Egipta  /  Egiptama....Egyptian Egiptat....Egyptian --
Ekwadoram....Equador Ekwadora  /  Ekwadorama....Equadorean Ekwadorat....Equadoran --
Englam....England Engla  /  Englama....English Englat....Englishman Englad....English
Eritram....Eritrea Eritra  /  Eritrama....Eritrean Eritrat....Eritrean Eritrad....Eritrean
Estyam....Estonia Estya  /  Estyama....Estonian Estyat....Estonian Estyad....Estonian
Etyopyam....Ethiopia Etyopya  /  Etyopyama....Ethiopian Etyopyat....Ethiopian Etyopyad....Ethiopic, Amharic
Europam....Europe Europa /  Europama....European Europat....European --
Filipinam....Philippines Filipina  /  Filipinama....Philippine Filipinat Filipino --
Fijyam....Fiji Fijya  /  Fijyama....Fijian Fijyat....Fijian Fijiad....Fijian
Finyam....Finland Finya  /  Finyama....Finnish Finyat....Finn Finyad....Finnish
Fransam....France Fransa  /  Fransama....French Fransat....Frenchman Fransad....French
Germanyam....Germany Germanya  /  Germanyama....Germany Germanyat....German Germanyad....German
Grinlandam....Greenland Grinlanda  /  Grinlandama....Greenlandian Grinlandat.... Greenlander --
Gwatemalam....Guatemala Gwatemala  /  Gwatemalama....Guatemalan Guatemalat....Guatemalan --
Haitiyam....Haiti Haitiya  /  Haitiyama....Haitian Haitiyat....Haitian Haitiyad....Haitian
Helenam....Greece Helena  /  Helenama....Greek Helenat....Greek Helenad....Greek
Helvetam....Switzerland Helveta  /  Helvetama....Swiss Helvetat....Swiss --
Hindam....India Hinda  /  Hindama....Indian Hindat....Indian Hindad....Hindu
Holandam....Netherlands Holanda  /  Holandama....Dutch Holandat....Dutchman Holandad....Dutch
Indonesyam....Indonesia Indonesya  /  Indonesyama....Indonesian Indonesyat....Indonesian Indonesyad....Indonesian
Irakam....Iraq Iraka  /  Irakama....Iraqi Irakat....Iraqi --
Irlandam....Ireland Irlanda  /  Irlandama....Irish Irlandat....Irish Irlandad....Irish
Islandam....Iceland Islanda  /  Islandama....Icelandic Islandat....Icelander Islandad....Icelandic
Israylam....Israel Israyla  /  Israylama....Israyli Israylat....Israeli Israylad
Italyam....Italy Italya  /  Italyama....Italian Italyat....Italian Italyad....Italian
Ejna Zelandam....New Zealand Ejna Zelanda....New Zealandese Ejna Zelandat....New Zealander --
Jordanam....Jordan Jordana  /  Jordanama....Jordan Jordanat....Jordanese --
Kampucam....Cambodia Kampuca  /  Kampucama....Cambodian Kampucat....Cambodian Kampucat....Cambodian
Kanadam....Canada Kanadamama....Canadian Kanadat....Canadian --
Kartvelam....Georgia Kartvela  /  Kartvelama....Georgian Kartvelat....Georgian Kartvelad....Georgian
Kataram....Qatar Katara....Qatari Katarat....Qatari --
Kazakam....Kazakstan Kazaka  /  Kazakama....Kazakh Kazakat....Kazazh Kazakad....Kazakh
Kenyam....Kenya Kenya  /  Kenyama....Kenyan Kenyat....Kenyan --
Kenyam....Kenya Kenya  /  Kenyama....Kenyan Kenyat....Kenyan Kenyad....Kenyan
Kirgizam....Kirghistan Kirgiza  /  Kirgizama....Kirghiz Kirgizat....Kirghiz Kirgizad....Kirghiz
Kolombyam....Columbia Kolombya  /  Kolombyama....Columbian Kolombyat....Columbian --
Kroatyam....Croatia Kroatya  /  Kroatyama....Croatian Kroatyat....Croat Kroatyad....Croatian
Kubam....Cuba Kuba  /  Kubama....Cuban Kubat....Cuban
Kuwaytam....Kuwait Kuwayta  /  Kuwaytama....Kuwaiti Kuwaytat....Kuwaiti --
Laotam....Laos Laota  /  Laotama....Laotian Laotat....Lao Laotad....Lao
Latyam....Latvia Latya  /  Latyama....Latvian Latyat....Latvian Latyad....Latvia
Lebanam....Lebanon Lebana  /  Lebanama....Lebanese Lebanat....Lebanese --
Libyam....Libya Libya  /  Libyama....Libyanese Libyat....Libyanese --
Litwam....Lithuania Litwa  /  Litwama....Lithuanian Litwat....Lithuanian Litwad....Lithuanian
Luksemburgam....Luxemburg Lusemburga  /  Lusemburgama....Luxemburg Luksemburgat....Luxemburger --
Madagaskaram....Madagascar Madagaskara  /  Madagaskarama....Madagascaran Madagaskarat....Madagascarn --
Magyaram....Hungarian Magyara  /  Magyarama....Hungarian Magyarat....Hungarian Magyarad....Hungarian
Malayam....Malaysia Malaya  /  Malayama....Malay Malayat....Malaysian Malayad....Malay
Maltam....Malta Malta  /  Maltama....Maltese Maltat....Maltese Maltad....Maltese
Meksikam....Mexico Meksikamama....Mexican Meksikat....Mexican --
Mongolyam....Mongolia Mongolya  /  Mongolyama....Mongolese Mongolyat....Mongol Mongolyad....Mongolian
Morokam....Morocco Moroka  /  Morokama....Moroccan Morokat....Moroccan --
Mozambikam....Mozambique Mozambika  /  Mozambikama....Mozambican Mozambikat....Mozambicam --
Namibyam....Namibia Namibya....Namibian Namibyat....Namibian
Nepalam....Nepal Nepala  /  Nepalama....Nepalese Nepalat....Nepalese Nepalad....Nepalese
Nigeryam....Nigeria Nigerya  /  Nigeryama....Nigeria Nigeryat....Nigerian Nigeryad....Nigerian
Niponam....Japan Nipona  /  Niponama....Japanese Niponat....Japanese Niponad....Japanese
Norvegam....Norway Norvega  /  Norvegama....Norwegian Norvegat....Norwegian Norvegad....Norwegian
Omanam....Oman Omana  /  Omanama....Omani Omanat....Omani --
Pakam....Pakistan Paka  /  Pakama....Pakistanian Pakat....Pakistani --
Paragwayam....Paraguay Pargwaya  /  Pargwayama....Paraguayan Paragwyat....Paraguayan --
Persam....Iran Persa  /  Persama....Iranian Persat....Iranian Persad....Persian
Peruvyam....Peru Peruvya  /  Peruvyama....Peruvian Peruvyat....Peruvian --
Polam....Poland Pola  /  Polama....Polish Polat....Pole Polad....Polish
Portugalam....Portugal Portugala  /  Portugalama....Portuguese Portugalat....Potuguese Portugalad....Portuguese
Pwertorikam....Puerto Rico Pwertorika  /  Pwertorikama....Puerto Rican Pwertorikat....Puerto Rican --
Romanyam....Romanian Romanya  /  Romanyama....Romanian Romanyat....Romanian Romanyad....Romanian
Rusam....Russia Rusa  /  Rusama....Russian Rusat....Russian Rad....Russian
Rwandam....Rwanda Rwanda  /  Rwandama....Rwandan Rwandat....Rwandan Rwandad....Kinyarwanda
Salvadoram....San Salvador Salvadora  /  Salvadorama....Salvadoran Salvadorat....Salvadoran --
Sawdam....Saudi Arabia Sawda  /  Sawdama....Saudi Sawdat....Saudi --
Senegalam....Senegal Senegala  /  Senegalama....Senegalese Senegalat....Senegalese --
Serbyam....Serbia Serbya  /  Serbyama....Serbian Serbyat....Serb Serbyad....Serbian
Singaporam....Singapore Singapora  /  Singaporama....Singaporean Singaporat....Singaporean --
Skotam....Scotland Skota  /  Skotama....Scottish Skotat....Scotlander Skotad....Scottish Gaelic
Slovakyam....Slovakia Slovakya  /  Slovakyama....Slovak Slovakyat....Slovak Slovakyad....Slovakian
Slovenyam....Slovenia Slovenya  /  Slovenyama....Slovene Slovenyat....Slovene Slovenyad....Slovenian
Somalyam....Somalia Somalya  /  Somalyama....Somali Somalyat....Somali Somalyad....Somali
Spanyam....Spain Spanya  /  Spanyama....Spanish Spanyat....Spaniard Spanyad....Spanish
Sudanam....Sudan Sudana  /  Sudanama....Sudanese Sudanat....Sudanese Sudanad....Sudanese
Suryam....Syria Surya  /  Suryama....Syrian Suryat....Syrian --
Swedam....Sweden Sweda  /  Swedama....Swedish Swedat....Swede Swedad....Swedish
Tanzanam....Tanzania Tanzana  /  Tanzanama....Tanzanian Tanzanat....Tanzanian Tanzanad....Tanzanian
Tayam....Thailand Taya  /  Tayama....Thai Tayat....Thai Tayad....Thai
Taywanam....Taiwan Taywana  /  Taywanama....Taiwanese Taywanat....Taiwanese Taiwanad....Taiwanese
Tibetam....Tibet Tibeta  /  Tibetama....Tibetan Tibetat....Tibetan Tibetad....Tibetan
Tunisyam....Tunisia Tunisya  /  Tunisyama....Tunisian Tunisyat....Tunisian --
Turkam....Turkey Turka  /  Turkama....Turkish Turkat....Turk Turkad....Turkish
Ugandam....Uganda Uganda  /  Ugandama....Ugandan Ugandat....Ugandan Ugandad....Ugandan
Ukraynam....Ukraine Ukrayna  /  Ukraynama....Ukraine Ukraynat....Ukrainian Ukraynyad....Ukrainian
Urugwayam....Uruguay Urugwaya  /  Urugwayama....Urugyuayan Urugwayat....Uruguayan --
Vatikam....Vatican State Vatika  /  Vatikama....Vatican Vatikat....Vatican --
Venezwelam....Venezuela Venezwela  /  Venezwelama....Venezuelan Venezwelat....Venezuelan --
Vyetnam....Vietnam Vyetna  /  Vyetnama....Viet Vyetnat....Viet Vyetnad....Vietnamese
Yemenam....Yemen Yemena  /  Yemenama....Yemeni Yemanat....Yemeni --
Welxam....Wales Welxa  /  Welxama....Welsh Welxat....Welshman Welxad....Welsh
Zambyam....Zambia Zambya  /  Zambyama....Zambian Zambyat....Zambian --
Amera Amerikam....North America Amera Amerikama....North American Amera Amerikat....North American --
Amera Koream....North Korea Amera Korea / Amera Koreana....North Korean Amera Koreat....North Korean Koread....Korean
Zayram....Zaire Zayra  /  Zayrama....Zairian Zayrat....Zairian --
Zea Amerikam....Central America Zea Amerikama....Central American Zea Amerikat....Central American --
Zimbabwam....Zimbabwe Zimbabwa  /  Zimbabwama....Zimbabwean Zimbabwat....Zimbabwean --
Omera Afrikam....South Africa Omera Afrikama....South African Omera Afrikat....South African --
Omera Koream....South Korea Omera Korea / Omira Koreama....South Korean Omera Koreat....South Korean Koread....Korean
Here are some languages not associated with any particular country name:
  • Swahilad....Swahili
  • Romad....Roma (Gypsy)
  • Kurdad....Kurdish
  • Mirad....Mirad (World Language)
  • Umerad....Martian
  • Klingonad....Klingon
  • Esperantad....Esperanto
  • Arabad....Arabic
  • Visauna Arabad....Classical Arabic
  • Ejyena Egona Arabad....Modern Standard Arabic, Fus'ha, MSA
  • Hebrad....Hebrew (but also: Israelad)
  • Fyadyesa Hebrad....Biblical Hebrew
  • Ajyena Hebrad....ancient Hebrew
  • Visauna Hebrad....Classical Hebrew
  • Swahilad....Swahili
  • Romanxad....Romansh
  • Latinad....Latin
  • Visauna Latinad....Classical Latin
  • Vutyana Latinad....Latin Vulgate, Vulgar Latin
  • Fyaxela Latinad....Liturgical Latin
  • Sanskitad....Sanskrit
  • Angla-Saksad....Anglo-Saxon
  • Persad....Persian
  • Prusyad....Prussian
  • Keltad....Celtic
  • Romansad....Romance
  • Baltad....Baltic
  • Aajna Hinda-Europad....Proto-Indo-European
  • Aajna-Slavad....Proto-Slavic
  • Ajyena Helenad....Ancient Greek
  • Vyisina Helenad....Katharevusa, Puristic Greek
  • Yasauna Helenad....Demotic, Vulgar Greek
  • Ejyena Helenad....Modern Greek
A book in Swahili would be called Swahilada dyen.
The Arab-speaking world would be expressed as either Arabada mir or, more specifically, Arabadalea mir.
The language nouns ending in -ad can be made into verbs with -adaler....to speak language X and -ader....to say/pronounce in language X, as follows:
  • Fransad....French (language) → Fransadaler....speak French
  • Kinad....Chinese → Kinadaler....speak Chinese
  • Anglad....English → Anglader....say in English, pronounce in English
  • Duven et Angladale?....Do you speak English?
  • Et Miradale fi.....You speak Mirad well.
  • Miradu has.....Say it in Mirad.
A speaker of Spanish would be Spanyadalut, or more simply, Spanyadut.
Country adjectives that end in -ama can be reduced to -a, espcially in country pairings like these:
  • Kanadama → Kanada-Fransa vyeni....Canadian-French relations

Cities and Their Residents[edit]

Here are some key cities, their adjectival forms, and inhabitants. The adjective can end in -a or -yena.
Cities and Their Residents
CITY ADJECTIVE INHABITANT
Paris....Paris Parisyena....Parisian Parisat....Parisian
Nuyork....New York Nuyorka....of New York Nuyorkat....New Yorker
Roma (Dom)*....Rome Romayena....Roman Roma Domat....Roman
Beijing....Beijing Beijinga....of Beijing Beijingat....resident of Beijing
Berlin....Berlin Berlina....from Berlin Berlinat....Berliner
* Without Dom....City, Roma could be confused with Roma....of Romany, Gypsy.
Examples:
  • Berlina diti dyunwe Berlinati.....Berlin citizens are called Berliners.
  • Bostonati ayse Bostonyena deus.....Bostonians have a Bostonian accent.

Measurements[edit]

Mirad uses the International System of Units|International System of Units (SI) for rendering measurement units. These symbols are pronounced as if you were spelling each letter out (see Mirad Grammar/Phonology and Orthography#Alphabet|the alphabet. Bear in mind that majuscules (uppercase letters are prefaced with the word ag- (big). Similarly, Greek letters are spelled with the English spelling of their Greek names (eg. alpha, beta, gamma, etc. and if the latter are majuscules, they are similarly preceded with the word ag-. The Mirad pronunciation of the SI symbol for ohm (Ω) is ag-omega.
SI base units
ENGLISH
UNIT
NAME
SYMBOLIC
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
second s time so
meter m length mi
kilogram kg mass ki-ge
ampere A electric current ag-a
kelvin K thermodynamic temperature ag-ki
Mole mol amount of substance mi-o-li
candela cd luminous intensity ca-da
The hyphen in the above "spelled out" words ensure that each syllable gets even stress.
Here are SI derived units with special names and symbols:
SI derived units with special names and symbols
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
radian rad plane angle ro-a-da
steradian sr solid angle so-ro
hertz Hz frequency ag-he-zu
newton N force, weight ag-ni
pascal Pa pressure, stress ag-po-a
joule J energy ag-ji
watt W power ag-wu
coulomb C electric charge ag-ca
volt V electrical potential difference ag-vu
farad F capacitance ag-fe
ohm Ω electrical resistance ag-omega
Siemens S electrical conductance ag-so
Weber Wb magnetic flux ag-wu-ba
tesla T magnetic flux density ag-to
henry H inductance ag-he
degree Celsius °C temperature nog-ag-ca
lumen lm luminous flux li-mi
lux lx illuminance li-xu
becquerel Bq radioactivity ag-ba-ko
gray Gy absorbed dose (of ionizing radiation) ag-ge-yu
sievert Sv equivalent dose (of ionizing radiation) ag-so-vu
katal kat catalytic activity ki-a-to
byte b 8 bits of information ba
Also, here are some non-SI units that are very convenient and acceptable:
Convenient non-SI units
ENGLISH
NAME
SYMBOLIC
WRITTEN
ABBREVIATION
QUANTITY
UNIT
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
litre L volume ag-lo
hectare ha area he-a
ton t area to
decibel dB loudness da-ag-ba
The following chart shows how in Mirad to pronounce coherent derived unit formulae in terms of base units. Note that the backslash means per or divided by and is pronounced gol. The symbol x means times and is pronounced gal. The superscript number is a power and is pronounced gar plus the number (with -wa, if a unit number). The negative superscript number is pronounced gor plus the number (again, with -wa if a unit number). See Arithmetical Expressions for further information on these terms.
Examples of coherent derived units in terms of base units
NAME SYMBOLIC
FORMULA
DERIVED
QUANTITY
TYPICAL
SYMBOL
MIRAD
PRONUNCIATION
square meter m2 area A mi-gar-ewa
cubic meter m3 volume V mi-gar-iwa
meter per second m/s speed, velocity v mi-gol-so
meter per second squared m/s2 acceleration a m-gol-so-gar-ewa
reciprocal meter m−1 wavenumber σ, mi-gor-awa
vergence (optics) V, 1/f
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 density ρ ki-ge-gol-mi-gar-iwa
kilogram per square meter kg/m2 surface density ρA ki-ge-gol-mi-gar-ewa
cubic meter per kilogram m3/kg specific volume v mi-gar-iwa-gol-ki-ge
ampere per square meter A/m2 current density j ag-a-gol-mi-gar-ewa
ampere per meter A/m magnetic field strength H ag-a-gol-mi
mole per cubic meter mol/m3 concentration c mi-o-li-gol-mi-gar-iwa
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m3 mass concentration ρ, γ ki-ge-gol-mi-gar-iwa
candela per square meter cd/m2 luminance Lv ca-da-gol-mi-gar-ewa
The SI has a whole list of prefixes that act as multipliers (macro) or dividers (micro) of the above and other measurement units. For example, a kilometer is a meter times a 1,000 (macro unit), whereas a millimeter is a meter divided by a 1,000 (micro unit). The SI symbol for b (byte) is pronounced ba in Mirad. A terabyte ( Tb) is therefore pronounced ag-to-ba, which This amounts 1012 bytes. Here is a table showing the Mirad macro and micro prefixes:

Scalar Metrics
MACRO MICRO
BASE
10
US/UK NAME MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX
....MIRAD PRON.
SI SYMBOL BASE
10
(US/UK NAME) MIRAD PREFIX....SI PREFIX SI SYMBOL
....MIRAD PRON.
1 one an- ... mono-, uni- 1/1 whole ayn-....holo-, uni-
2 two en-....bi- 1/2 half eyn-....demi-, di-
3 three in-....tri- 1/3 third iyn-....terci-
4 four un-....tetra- 1/4 fourth uyn-....quadri-
5 five yoon- ....penta- 1/5 fifth yoyn....quinti-
6 six yaon-....hexa- 1/6 sixth yayn....sexti-
7 seven yeon-....hepta- 1/7 seventh yeyn....septi-
8 eight yion....octo- 1/8 eighth yiyn....octi-
9 nine yuon....nona- 1/9 ninth yuyn....novi-
10 ten alo-....deca- da....da-a- 1/10 tenth aloy-....deci- d....da-
102 hundred aso-....hexa- h....hi- 10-2 hundredth asoy-....centi- c....ca-
103 thousand amso-....kilo- k....ki- 10-3 thousandth) amsoy-....milli- m....mi-
106 million amlo-....mega- M....ag-mi- 10-6 millionth amloy-....micro- r....ro-
109 billion /milliard amro-....giga- G....ag-ge- 10-9 billionth/ milliardth amroy-....nano- n....ni-
1012 trillion /billion garale-....tera- T....ag-to- 10-12 trillionth / billionth) gorale-....pico- p....po-
1015 quadrillion)/ billiard garalyo-....peta- P....ag-po- 10-15 quadrillionth) / billiardth goralyo-....femto- f....fe-
1018 quintillion / trillion garalyu-....exa- E....ag-e- 10-18 quintillionth)/ trillionth goralyu....atto- a....a-
1021 sextillion)/ trilliard garela-....zetta- Z....ag-zu- 10-21 sextillionth / trilliardth gorela....zepto- z....zu-
1024 septillion)/ quadrillion garelu-....yotta- Y....ag-yu 10-27 septillionth / quadrillionth gorelu....yocto- y....yu-

*Note: The gar (to a plus power) and gor (to a minus power) forms are alternatives for the numeric prefixes beyond 100. For example, billion (109) could be expressed as garyu-(ten) to the 9th power, while billionth could be expressed by goryu ((ten) to the minus 9th power). The prefix garya- is composed of the positive exponential operator gar (to the power of), followed by the number 6. The prefix gorale- is composed of the negative exponential operator gor (to the root of), followed by the number 12.

The macro and micro values can also be represented with abbreviated symbols, which can be pronounced in Mirad as spelled out alphabetics. Upper case equivalents are preceded with ag-. Here is a table showing grams:

Kg Metrics With Abbreviated Symbols
MACRO MICRO
SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION SYMBOL (EXPANSION) MIRAD PRONUNCIATION
dag (decagram) da-a-ge (decigram) da-ge
hg (hexagram) he-ge cg (centigram) ca-ge
kg (kilogram) ko-ge mg (milligram mi-ge
Mg (megagram) ag-mi-ge rg or μg (microgram) ro-ge or mu-ge
Gg (gigagram) ag-ge-ge ng (nanogram) ni-ge
Tg (teragram) ag-to-ge pg (picagram) po-ge
Pg ( petagram) ag-po-ge fg (femtogram) fe-ge
Eg (exagram) ag-e-ge ag (attogram) a-ge
Zg (zettagram) ag-ze-ge zg (zeptogram) ze-ge
Yg (yottagram) ag-yu-ge yg (yoctogram) yu-ge
The squared and cubed representations of the above are followed by gar ewa (squared) and gar iwa (cubed), respectively:
  • 10 kg2....(pronounced as:) alo ko-ge gar ewa
  • 12 mm3....(pronounced as:) ale mi-mi gar iwa


Age (Years)[edit]

The word for age is jag.
  • jag....age
  • jaga....old
  • jagser....get old, grow older
  • jagat....old person, elder
  • zejaga....middle-aged
  • zejagat....middle-aged person
  • gajaga....elder, older, senior
  • gajagat....elder
  • gyajagat....eldest
  • grejagat....adult
  • grejagseat....adolescent
  • grojagat....minor, underaged person
  • alonijagat....teenager
  • elonijagat....twenty-year-old
  • joga....young
  • jogxer....rejuvenate
  • jogat....youth, youngster, young boy
  • jogayt....young girl


The usual question about age is Hojaga et se?....How old are you?
Some usual responses are:
  • At se elo jaga.....I am twenty years old.  (Lit: I am twenty aged.)
  • At se ili jabi jaga.....I am thirty-three years old.
  • Hia tamaz se asoni bi jabi jaga.....This castle is hundreds of years old.
  • Hua tobot se anay ewa jubi jaga.....That baby is only two days old.
  • Iyt voy se ga jaba vyel at.....She is not older than I.
  • At se gwajagat bi ata tod.....I am the eldest of my family.
  • Hya alonijagati aso grejagseati.....All teenagers will become adolescents.
  • Hogla jubi jaga se hia tobot?....How many days old is this child?

Words Ending in -yen (manner)[edit]

The ending -yen is a stub for byen, meaning way, manner and is used to form many different words, as the following chart shows:
Words in -YEN
BASE DERIVATION
b-....gesture
ut-....self
fi-....good
fu-....bad
nap....order
dit....citizen
ju-....day
utyan....group
yan-....together
yon-....apart
dal-....speak
nyap....law
dre-....write
aj-....past
byen....manner
utbyen....personality
fibyena....polite
fubyena....rude
napbyen....discipline
ditbyen....civility
jubyen....habit
utyanbyen....custom
yanbyen....harmony
yonbyen....disharmony
dalbyen....idiom
nyapbyen....rule of law
drebyen....writing style
ajbyen....tradition
s-....be
ut-....self
xe-....act
syen....style
utsyen....genre
xesyen....process
x-....do
yex-....work
yux-....serve
xyen....method
yexyen....occupation, industry
yuxyen....means
xe-....act
vyo-....wrong
xeyen....behavior
vyoxeyen....misbehavior
t-....know
vi-....fine
xe-....act
mas-....wall
tom....building
taj-....birth
ko-....hide
fo-....profane
yanif....sew
tyen....profession, technique, skill
vityen....fine art
xetyen....practice
mastyen....masonry
tomtyen....architecture
tajtyen....talent
kotyen....magic
fotyen....witchcraft
yaniftyen....couture
te-....know
zey-....across
ob-....under
kyo-....fixed
ij-....begin
ag-....big
aa-....first
teyen....idea, concept
zeyteyen....metaphor
obteyen....underlying concept
kyoteyen....idee fixe, obsession
ijteyen....initial concept, germ of an idea
agteyen....grand idea, ideal
aateyen....principle, premise
tex-....think
ki-....slant
an-....single
texyen....opinion, point of view
kitexyen....bias
antexyen....obsession
tep-....mental
an-....single
fu-....bad
flu-....terrible
fru-....horrible
kya-....mobile
kye-....haphazard
kyo-....fixed
va-....positive
vo-....negative
tepyen....attitude, mood
antepyen....obsession
futepyen....anger
flutepyen....rage
frutepyen....furor
kyatepyen....distractedness
kyetepyen....volatility
kyotepyen....attention
vatepyen....optimism
votepyen....pessimism
tuz-....art tuzyen....technique, artistry, skill
dot-....social dotyen....manners, civility, mores
tees-....hear teesyen....acoustics
tej-....life tejyen....lifestyle
ex-....function exyen....procedure, process
dal-....speak
vi-....beautiful
dalyen....language
vidalyen....eloquence, rhetoric
mal-....air
jeb....season
malyen....weather
jebmalyen....climate
den-....saying denyen....diction
ifek-....play ifekyen....gamesmanship
yaut-....common yautyen....culture
teas-....see teasyen....perspective, point of view, aspect
dres-....write dresyen....writing style
des-....pronounce desyen....accent
tapekut....athlete tapekutyen....sportsmanship

Words Ending in -z (something precious)[edit]

Words ending in -z refer to something precious or refined, as this chart shows:
-Z Words
NORMAL WORD REFINED WORD
tun....science tuz....art
vituz....fine art
daltuz....rhetoric
t-....know tez....culture
yobtez....subculture
teub....mouth deuz....song
fadeuz....hymn
yegdeuz....refrain
seuz....tone
teuz....voice
zoyteuz....echo
teuboz....smile
videuz....melody
yandeuz....harmony
uvdeuz....dirge
ajdeuz....ballad
dudeuz....antiphon
ivdeuz....carol
yogdeuz....ditty
awatdeuz....solo
ewatdeuz....duet
fizdeuz....anthem
fya-....holy
fyo-....profane
fyaz....miracle
kofyaz....magic
fyoz....witchcraft
fyamaz....halo
vos....flower voz....color
vooz....tint
voyz....shade of color
toz....facial/hair color
nas....money naz....value
noz....gem, jewel
finaz....merit
fi-....good
fu-....bad
fiz....honor
utfiz....dignity
firz....ideal
fiyz....respect
agfiz....glory
fuz....shame
d-....communicate daz....dance
dez....theatre
diz....comedy
duz....music
drez....poetry
dyez....cinema
tab....body taz....statue
san....shape saz....sculpture
teb....head tebuz....crown
eytebuz....diadem
teis....smell teiz....perfume
tiab....breast tiabuz....broche
teyob....neck teyobuz....necklace
zetiub....navel zetiubuz....belly button ring
meg....stone mez....crystal
tel....food teluz....taste
tuab....arm eytuabuz....epaulette
tuyub....finger tuyubuz....ring
sin....picture siz....painting
finsiz....medal
dresiz....engraving
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