Mirad Grammar/Interjections

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Interjections[edit | edit source]

Interjections in Mirad include the assertive expressions yes, no and maybe:
Common Assertive Interjections
Va! Yes!
Ve! Maybe!, Perhaps!
Vo!* No!
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, wit voy se tadxwa.....No, he is not married.
  • Va. At se otadxwa.....Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadxwa.....Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay.....Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa.....Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo?....Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay.....Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et.....No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe von xu hus.....No! Please don't do that.
  • Et se Amerikama, vao?....You're American, yes or no?
  • Ven va, (van et) xu has.....If so, (let you) do it.
  • Ven vo, von (et) xu has.....If not, don't (you) do it.
There are also some hybrid combinations of the above assertive expressions:
Hybrid Interjections
Vao? Yes or no?
Vea! Maybe so!
Veo!* Maybe not!
Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is...
DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is...
POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hyay! Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!, Hurrah!
SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hyey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!
NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hyoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!
EXPRESSION OF WELCOME hwey! You're welcome!, Please
EXPRESSION OF SORROW hwoy! Sorry!, Excuse me!
EXPRESSION OF FUN hwiy! Whee!, O la la!
EXPRESSION OF PAIN hwuy! Ouch!, Ow!, That hurts!
LAUGHTER hihi! Ha ha!, Hee hee
CRYING huhu! Boo hoo!, Woe is me!
ADMIRATION waw!2 Wow!, What a show!
DISGUST wow!3 Yuck!, Eeoow!, Gross!
1Pronounced like English why. Mirad hw is pronounced like English wh.
2Pronounced like English wow.
3Pronounced like English woe.

  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Hoyen et xeye?....Hey, John, how are you doing?
  • Hey, Tot!....O, God!
  • Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ha dyen et dila.....Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tobyan.....Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundraf.....Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xawa.....Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy hos at yaka.....There's what I expected.
  • Hyay et!....Good for you!
  • Hyay! Et utnaze his......Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hway! Et sa gla fitipa......Thanks.! You were very kind.
  • At fu hwayder et.....I'd like to congratulate you.
  • Hwey!....You're welcome!
  • Et efe hwoyder at.....You need to apologize to me.
  • Fi. Hwoy.....Ok. I'm sorry.
  • Hyey via imaj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hyey At ta voy van et upo.....Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hyoy at.....Woe is me.
  • Hyoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay.....Pity!. Better luck next time.
  • Hwoy. At yefe hyoder et.....Sorry. I must take leave of you.
  • Hihi! Hus sa gla diza.....Ha ha! That was very funny.
  • Von hihidu.....Don't laugh.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.
Note: The English expression Please can be expressed in various ways:
  • Hwey! Yepu.....Please! Come in. (Hwey can also mean you're welcome in answer to thank-you.
  • Dilwe von (et) tyoyapu ab ha vaz.'....Please (= it is requested) don't walk on the grass.
  • Dilwe van et yanupu yat.'....Please (= it is requested that) join us.
  • Dilwe!....Please!
  • Xu (at) (ha) fis bi yubeler at hua tyoyafi.....Please (= do (me) (the) favor of) bring me those shoes.
Many of the conjunctions in this section can be made into verbs with the addition of -der (to utter), eg.:
  • hayder....greet, say hi
  • heyder....address, call out to, wave down
  • hoyder....say goodbye to
  • hyayder....congratulate
  • hwayder....thank
  • hwoyder....apologize, excuse oneself, say you're sorry
  • hihider....laugh
  • huhuder....hiss
  • vaoder....decide

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