Mirad Version 2

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Contents

Introduction[edit]

Mirad ( aka Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad is categorized by constructed language experts as 'philosophical' because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the word stock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is "from scratch", yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.
The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.
Mirad is constructed on the following principles:
  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, or semantic value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:
  • The letter w was added, mainly to indicate the passive voice of verbs.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • The deictic proforms like "this, that, such, which" were modified and systematized.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • A definite article was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The writing system now consists only of letters, with no diacritics.

Alphabet[edit]

Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters H, Q, and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used much as in English (see Orthography). Mirad, at least natively, uses no diacritic marks such as breve, accent aigu, or diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
A B C* D E F G H* I J K L M N O P Q* R S T U V W X Y Z
a b c* d e f g h* i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z
* Not used in native Mirad words.

Pronunciation[edit]

Each letter in Mirad is a phoneme and has only one basic pronunciation. The sounds can be divided into vowels and consonants.

Vowels[edit]

The vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some examples.


Vowel Spanish French English
a mano la ah!
e hecho é day (without the y-glide)
i si oui see (without the y-glide)
o no eau so (without the w-glide)
u tu vous too (without the w-glide)

Vowel Diphthongs[edit]

Vowels in Mirad can be "post-iotated" with the consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a word or before a syllable beginning with a consonant. For example, igay and eyna contain post-iotated vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-ra-ya) does not.
Mirad Diphthong Pronunciation
ay English I or Spanish hay
ey English day (with y-glide) or French abeille
iy English see (with y-glide) or French fille
oy English boy or Spanish hoy
uy English gooey or French mouiller

Consonants[edit]

The consonants in Mirad are pronounced not altogether differently from their English counterparts, except for x, which is sounds like English sh in ship and j which resembles the zh sound in Zhivago or mirage. However, the so-called stops p, t, and k sound more closely like their European equivalents in that they are not aspirated, i.e. their is no puff of breath following them as in English.
The consonants h, and q, and c are not native to Mirad and are used only to represent foreign names and expressions. In that case, c is used for the English ch sound in China.
The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and is pronounced as in English or the ou in French oui.
Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
Mirad Consonant Pronunciation
b English boy
c English child
d English dog
f English frog
g English good (always hard, even before e and i)
h English house (or other similar sounds like German Bach
j French je or English mirage
k English kite (without aspiration) or French comment
l English love or French bel
m English mother
n English nobody
p English pan (without aspiration) or French pas
q (Only used in foreign words, where it has various pronunciations)
r a dental flap as in Spanish mira or Italian Roma
s Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in Rose)
t English top (without aspiration) or French tous
v English very
w English water
x English shape or French chanter
y English yard
z English zone

Stress[edit]

Stress in Mirad is not marked and not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last vowel followed by a consonant, or, in the case of words ending in more than one vowel, to the penultimate (next-to-last) vowel. The letter y is always treated as a consonant. Another, simpler rule is that the stress falls on the last, non-final vowel. The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
teja vital te-ja
igay quickly i-gay
Mirad Mirad Mi-rad
booka sick bo-o-ka
bookan sickness bo-o-kan
tejea alive te-je-a

Orthography[edit]

Orthography has to do with the way words are spelled.

Capitalization[edit]

Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
  • The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
  • Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
  • All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English
Amerikam America
Amerikama American
Amerikat an American
Amerikad American English
Ivan Ivan
Dropek ay Poos War and Peace
At Mirade. I speak Mirad.
Yadut be ad mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon.
Yat tameya Boston. We were living in Boston.
Id se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine.
Ad Anxwa Doobi gey dyunwe ad AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.

Punctuation[edit]

Punctuation and the rules governing it are the same as in English.

Syllabification[edit]

Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
Pattern Mirad Examples
V[y] o, ay
C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre
V[y]C iyt, ad
C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, toyb, xwer
A syllable cannot contain more than one vowel. For example, booka (tired) contains three syllables: bo-o-ka and is pronounced bo-o-ka with the stress on the second o following the normal stress rule.
Double consonants are split syllabically and are pronounced separately. For example, yaggorbun (slit) is syllabified as yag-gor-bun (Lit. long-cut-application).

Nouns[edit]

In Mirad, all native nouns (i.e. substantives encompassing nouns, pronouns, and words nominalized from other parts of speech like gerunds and participial forms) end in a consonant. Only nouns per se are discussed here, while other words having substantive properties such as pronouns, proforms, gerunds, nominalizations of other parts of speech, etc. will be discussed in later sections.

Noun-modifying Articles[edit]

In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ad* the. No indefinite article like a / an is expressed. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ad (which in reality is a DEFINITE DEICTIC ADJECTIVE, discussed with other deictic proforms in the later section on Deictic Adjectives). This definite article never changes form and is used exactly as in English. It is positioned before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers.
Mirad English Specificity
tam a house indefinite, no article
ad tam the house definite
ad tej life general, no article
ad tej the life (...I lead) specific
ad Fransad French general, no article
ad Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."
Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad.
* The definite article is technically an adjective and should end in the adjectival suffix -a. However, this ending is optional for the definite article and other adjectival deictic proforms in the interest of brevity. So, both ad and ada are acceptable.

Pluralization[edit]

Nouns are pluralized by adding the suffix i. Any noun modifiers, such as the definite article ad, are left unchanged, because there is no agreement in gender and number as there commonly is in many European languages like French, German, and Italian.
Singular Plural
ad tam the house ad tami the houses
pat a bird pati birds
ad fia toyb the good woman ad fia toybi the good women
fia tob a good man fia tobi good men

Modifiers: Placement and Agreement[edit]

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun. A complete discussion of prepositions can be found in the section Prepositions.
Mirad English
ad ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifa taxi many pleasant memories
yad fia tob every good man
ad yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja tej My past life

Linking[edit]

Nouns can be linked by connective morphemes like ay and, ey or, oy but not, as well as with prepositions like av for, bay with, bu to, and bi from. Connectives and prepositions come before the noun and before all other noun modifiers. More informatiion on these connective words can be found in the sections on Prepositions and Conjunctions.
Mirad English
Ivan ay Maria Ivan and Maria
ad tam ey ad par the house or the car
yaduti oy ad toybi all but the women
boy eta dyun without your name
bi ida domep bu uda domep from this street to that street
ja ad ujna osexen before the final destruction

Genitive Association[edit]

Nouns can be linked in a genitive association with the preposition bi of, from or nouns can simply be compounded or stacked, in which case the base noun is last. Examples:
  • tej bi nasuk a life of poverty
  • ad tam bi Maria Mary's house (= the house of Mary)
  • job bi aga ivan a time of great joy
  • dom ditpar a city bus
  • toj fan a death wish
  • dropek jaxeni war preparations
The X bi Y construction must always be used for possession by a named person. The two methods of genitive association follow the English pattern in all other cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns.

Other Associations[edit]

Other associations like a book on science, a meal for two, the bridge across the Seine are expressed with various prepositions, which are discussion in the section on Prepositions.
How nouns are formed will be discussed in the section on Word Formation.

Modifiers[edit]

Types of Modifiers[edit]

Modifiers consist of various types of adjectives, adverbs, proforms, and participles, as shown in the table that follows:
Category Examples
Qualitative Adjectives big, white, tough, personal
Qualitative Adverbs well, poorly, mainly, quickly
Quantitative Adjectives much, some, enough
Quantitative Adverbs very, quite, more
Numerical Adjectives one, two, second
Deictic Adjectives the, this, any, which, other, any kind of
Deictic Adverbs here, there, then, now, so, however
Pronominal Adjectives my, your own, whoever's, whose, everyone's
Deverbal Adjectives ( = Participles) running, conversant, dead, living, inquiring
The difference in the above table of modifiers between adjectives and adverbs, is that adjectives modify nouns, while adverbs modify verbs (or whole verb clauses), adjectives, and even other adverbs.

Qualitative/Associative Adjectives and Derived Forms[edit]

Qualitative/Associative Adjectives[edit]

Qualitative/associative adjectives are modifiers that describe or lend attributes to nouns. In Mirad, all such adjectives end in the suffix a. Many are pure, descriptive adjectives like iga fast, while others (associative adjectives) are formed from nouns, such as sana formal from san form, shape. In fact, the adjectival suffix a can often be affixed to a noun to derive an associative adjective of that noun. Here are some examples:
Noun Qualitative/Associative Adjective
taam home taama domestic
tej life teja vital
tob man toba human
pat bird pata avian

Adjective Word Order[edit]

Qualitative/associative adjectives immediately precede the noun they modify.
  • ad aga tami the big houses
  • fia tej a good house
  • ad oga pat the little bird
  • yata teja yivani our vital freedoms

Qualitative/Associative Adverbs[edit]

Adverbs can be derived from qualitative adjectives by suffixing the letter y. For example:
Adjective Adverb
fia good fiay well
yeva just yevay fairly
uja final ujay finally
joga new jogay newly
teyda maternal teyday maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi. She sings well.
  • At upo ig. I'll come quickly.

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze viay. He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer ad gya ig. You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et yodjob ako firxa ivan. You will never gain perfect happiness.

Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs by Degree[edit]

As in English, qualitative adjectives and adverbs can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative specifier of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the qualitative adjective or adverb, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative adverbs used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on quantitative specifiers.
Quantitative Specifier Example
ga more ga fia better
ge as, equally ge fia as good
go less go fiay less well
gla very gla fia very good
gle rather gle fia rather/quite good
glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good
gra too gra fia too good
gre enough gre fiay well enough
gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good
gya most gya fia best
gye average gye fia good on average
gyo least gyo fiay least well, the worst
The relative morpheme ev is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison; than in a non-equal comparison; or of / in in a superlative expression. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga ev etas. My house is bigger than yours.
  • Id tam voy se ge aga ev atas. This house is not as big as mine.
  • Id se ad gya aga tam bi yata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Abstract Nouns Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
Adjective Abstact Noun
fia good fian goodness
yeva just yevan justice
uja final ujan finality
joga young jogan youth
teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity

Nouns Denoting Persons and Things Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to persons and things can be derived from qualitative adjectives by suffixing t for persons, and s for things, as in the following table:
Adjective Person Pronoun Thing Pronoun
fua bad fuat bad person fuas something bad
joga young, new jogat youth, young one jogas novelty, something new
aga big agat big one agas something big
These derived person and thing nouns can, in turn, be pluralized, eg. fuasi bad things.
Verbs can be derived from qualitative adjectives, too, such as agaxer to magnify from aga big, but this will be discussed in the section on Verbs and in sections under Word Formation.

Quantitative Adjectives and Derived Forms[edit]

Quantitative adjectives qualify singular nouns for relative amount and plural nouns for relative number, and as adverbs, modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs answering the question to what degree?. Derived from these are pronouns for persons and things. The pronouns are formed by adding s for things and t for persons, plus the plural ending i, if the referent is plural. The following table presents most of these word forms:
Adverb Adjective Thing Things Persons
How... (+ adj./adv.)? How much... (+ s. noun) / How many... (+ pl. noun)? How much? How many? How many (people)?
ga more (...eager(ly)) ga more (...money/coins) gas more (of it) gasi many (things) gati many (people)
ge as ge as much/many ges as much gesi as many geti as many people
go less go less / fewer gos less gosi fewer goti fewer (people)
gla very gla much, many, a lot of glas much glasi many 'glati many (people)
gle rather gle quite a lot of gles quite a lot glesi quite a lot qleti quite a few (people)
glo slightly glo little / few glos a little bit glosi a few gloti few (people)
gra too gra too much / too many gras too much grasi too many grati too many (people)
gre enough gre enough gres enough gresi enough (things) greti enough (people)
gro insufficiently gro too little / too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people)
gya most gya the most gyas the most gyosi the most gyoti most people
gye so gye so much / so many gyes so much gyesi so many (things) gyeti so many (people)
gyo least gyo the least amount of / the least number of gyos the least gyosi the least (number of) gyoti the least number (of people)

Numerical Adjectives[edit]

Numerical adjectives are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:

Cardinal Numbers[edit]

The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
The units are given below:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91
ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
  • asa 101
  • asale 112
  • usyulyu 199
The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
  • iro asyulyo 3,195
  • yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
  • alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922

Quantitative Numerical Adjectives[edit]

Quantitative numerical adjectives are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical adjective goes first. Numerical adjectives are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numerical adjective is one syllable, the wa is suffixed; otherwise it stands alone. If the numerical adjective is 2 or more, then the noun is pluralized.
Mirad English
owa tamsingular! no houses, zero houses
awa tamsingular! one house, a house
ewa tamiplural! two houses
iwa tami three houses
uwa tami four houses
yowa tami five houses
yawa tami six houses
yewa tami seven houses
yiwa tami eight houses
yuwa tami nine houses
alo wa tamialo is not monosyllabic! ten houses
ase wa tami a hundred two houses
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses
iro alo wa tami three thousand ten houses

Ordinal Numerical Adjectives and Their Derived Adverbs and Pronouns[edit]

Ordinal numerical adjectives like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Adjective
o zero oa zeroth
a one aa first
e two ea second
i three ia third
alo ten aloa tenth
asu 104 asua 104th
The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
  • anapa first, first in order
  • alapa eleventh, elevnth in order
Ordinal numerical adverbs can be derived by adding the suffix y to the adjective counterparts:
Adjective Adverb
aa first aay firstly
anapa first anapay firstly
ea second eay secondly
Ordinal numerical adjectives can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s:
  • ad aas the first thing
  • ad aat the first person
  • ad aati the first people
  • ad eas the second thing
  • eat another / a second person
  • ad anapa jubi the first days
  • ad aati so ujna the first shall be last
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical adjective> | <quantitative numerical adjective> | <qualitative adjective>
  • ud uwa aga tami those four big houses
  • ad aa alo wa oga tami the first ten little houses
  • ata aa ewa oga tobobi my first two little children
Fractions like half and multiples like "triple are discussed later under Word Formation.

Deictic Adjectives and Derived Forms[edit]

Deictic Adjectives are modifiers which point out or specify other words. They include demonstratives like this, that, those, specifiers like any, some, all, the, etc. Derived from these are animate and inanimate pronouns like this one, those things, something, everyone, etc. Also derived from these are adverbs of time like when, now; adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere; adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow; adverbs of kind, age, direction, reason, and so forth.

Table of Deictic Adjectives and Derived Pronouns[edit]

There are ten deictic base morphemes used to generate many specifiers, including adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs. Here is a table showing adjectives and pronouns built off of these ten deictic base morphemes. The base morphemes can be used a prefixes or adjectives or "thing" pronouns. As adjectives, the suffix -a is optional.
  Base Morpheme Adjective of Kind Thing Pronoun Things Pronoun Person Pronoun Persons Pronoun
Interrogative od(a)? which? odyena? what kind of? od? what? odi? what things? odut? who? oduti? who?
Definite ad(a) the adyena? the kind of ad it adi the things adut he aduti they
Indefinite ed(a) some edyena some kind of ed something edi some things edut someone eduti some people
Proximal id(a) this idyena this kind of, such (a) id this idi these (things) idut this person iduti these people
Distal ud(a) that udyena that kind of, such (a) ud that udi those (things) udut that person uduti those people
Negative yod(a) no yodyena no kind of, no such yod nothing yodi nothing yodut nobody yoduti none
Distributive yad(a) every yadyena every kind of yad everything yadi all things yadut everyone yaduti all (people)
Indiscriminate yed(a) any yedyena any kind of, whatever kind of yed anything yedi whatever things yedut anyone yeduti whoever
Identive yid(a) the same yidyena the same kind of yid the same thing yidi the same things yidut the same person yiduti the same people
Alternative yud(a) the other yudyena some other kind of yud something else yudi other things yudut someone else yuduti other people
Note: The definite deictic morpheme ad or ada is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the. As mentioned before, if the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun. For example:
  • Yat tilia ad tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil. We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ad tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil. We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia yadewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the second glasses of wine.

Derivation of Possessive Forms[edit]

The above pronoun persons can be made into adjectival possessives with the addition of the adjectival ending a, eg.:
  • odut? who?oduta? whose?, eg. Oduta dyen se id? Whose book is this?
  • yadut? everyoneyaduta everyone's, eg. Yaduta tej ujo. Everyone's life will end.
  • uduti those peopleudutia those people's, their, eg. At gafe udutia utbyeni. I prefer those people's manners.
Such adjectival possessive forms can be further nominalized into possessive pronouns with the addition of s for thing, eg.:
  • Odutas et bia? Whose did you take?
  • At bia idutasi. I took theirs (= these people's things).
Similar pronominalizations can be made with the adjectives of kind:
  • yadyenati all kinds of people
  • udyenas such a thing
  • yedyenasi any kinds of things
  • idyenat such a person, something like this, this kind of person
  • yudyenasi other kinds of things
Here are some examples of how these deictic adjectives and pronouns can be used:
  • Od se eta dyun? What is your name?
  • Odut aka ad igpek? Who won the race?
  • Yad uja fi. Everything ended well.
  • Yod yoka at. Nothing surprised me.
  • Yodut ta odut ako. Nobody knew who would win.
  • Oduti fu pier yefe. Those who would like to leave may.
  • Yedut yefe eker id ifek. Anyone can play this game.
  • Udyena utbyen voy afwo. Such behavior will not be permitted.
  • Ud tob voy taxe id tob. That man does not remember this man.
  • Uduti yanyexe fi. Those guys work well together.
  • At jay teataye idyenasi. I've seen such things before.
  • Udyena toyb voy vabiwu. Such a woman would not be accepted.

Placement of Deictics[edit]

In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic adjectives go first, as in English. For example:
  • Oduta ewa oga nyefi se idi? Whose two small bags are these?
In interrogative sentences, the interrogative word often starts out the sentence, as in English.
  • Od se eta dyun? What is your name?
  • Odut et teata aay idjub? Who(m) did you see first today?
Interrogative deictics can also go at the end of sentence:
  • Eta dyun se od? What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?

Deictics Incorporating Numerical Information[edit]

Sometimes, a deictic adjective or pronoun contains numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
Adjective Pronoun Thing Pronoun Person
yadawa each yadawas each one yadawat each person
yadewa both yadewasi both (things) yadewati both (people)
yadiwa all three yadiwasi all three (things) yadewati all three (people)
yodawa not a single yodawas not a single thing yodawat not a single person
yedawa any single yedawas any single thing yedawat any single person
yedewa any two yedewasi any two things yedewat any two people
yedowa neither yedowas neither one yedowat neither person
The above person pronouns and be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Yadawata tej se ge glatedea ev yudutas. Each one's life is as important as another's.
The preposition bi of, from can be used in an alternative expression of the above sentence:
  • Ad tej bi yadawat se... The life of each person is...

Table of Deictic Adverbs[edit]

This tables shows a correlated set of adverbial expressions built on the basic deictic morphemes. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other expressions relating to age, frequency, and so forth.
Category Manner Place Time Degree Reason
Interrogative odyen? how?, in what way? odem? where? odjob? when? odnog? how?, to what degree? odav? why?
Definite adyen the way adem the place adjob the time adnog as, to the degree adav because
Indefinite edyen somehow, in some way edem somewhere edjob sometime ednog somewhat edav for some reason
Proximal idyen this way, so idem here idjob now idnog so, this, to this extent idav for this reason, therefore
Distal udyen that way, thus udem there udjob then udnog so, that, to that extent udav for that reason, therefore
Negative yodyen in nowise yodem nowhere yodjob never yodnog not at all yodav for no reason
Distributive yadyen totally, in every way yadem everywhere yadjob always yadnog totally yadav for every reason
Indiscriminate yedyen anyway yedem anywhere, wherever yedjob whenever yednog however, to any degree yedav for whatever reason
Identive yidyen likewise yidem the same place yidjob at the same time yidnog as, to the same extent yidev for the same reason
Alternative yudyen otherwise yudem somewhere else yudjob some other time yudnog not as yudav for some other reason
It should be noted that all of these deictic forms, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe idem. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tameya udem., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tameya be udem., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at. For example, from where? is expressed as bi odem? Similarly, until then would be expressed as ji udjob.
Note: idyen is an abbreviated form that can be used adjectivally to mean like this, such a (idyena), adverbally to mean in this way, so (idyenay), and as a pronoun to mean this way, this manner, such.
  • Xu idyen. Do (it) this way/so
  • Su idyen. Amen. (=Let it be this way/thus.)
Here are some examples of how adverbial deictics are used:
  • Odem et tame? Where do you live? (Equivalent to Be odem et tame? (At) what place...?)
  • At tame udem. I live there.
  • Et tame adem ad mep uje. You live where the road ends.
  • Udem yet peye? Where are you guys going?*
  • Et yafe per yedem et fu. You can go anywhere you'd like.
  • Idem se adem at tamaye glaju. This place is where I've lived for a long time.
  • Bi odem et se? Where are you form?
  • Odjob et taja? When were you born?
  • At taja adjob Kennedy sa ad doebeb. I was born when Kennedy was the president.
  • Et teato ud pansin yodjob. You will never see that movie.
  • Odyena tej et fe? What kind of life do you want?
  • Udyena tej voy se av at. Such a life is not for me.
  • Yat voy xe udyenasi. We don't do such things.
  • Odav et tadsa udnog jwa? Why did you marry so late?
  • Anay adav at yefa bikier ata ted. Only because I had to take care of my dad.
  • Ad tob pia yodav. The man left for no reason.
  • Odyen it xa ud? How did he do that? (Equivalent to Be odyem...? In what way...?)
  • Et texe yidyen at. You think the same way (as) I do.
  • Id son se yudyenas. This issue is a different sort of thing.
  • Odyena et se? How are you?
  • Odnog iyfla et se! How nice you are! (=Odgla..., Odyen(ay)...)
* Bu odem (to where, whither) is not required here, since the verb per go (to) has the to idea built in.

Quantitative Expressions Built on Deictic Morphemes[edit]

The deictic morphemes can be combined with gla to form quite a few quantitative expressions:
+adj./+object/+objects Thing Things Persons
odgla? how?/how much?/how many? odglas? how much? odglasi? how many odglati? how many (people)?
adgla how?/as much/as many adglas as much adglasi as many adglati as many (people)
edgla somewhat/some/some edglas some edglasi some edglati some (people)
idgla this/this much/this many idglas this much idglasi this many idglati this many (people)
udgla that/that much/that many udglas that much udglasi that many udglati that many (people)
yodgla not at all/no/no yodglas none of it yodglasi none of them yodglati none
yadgla totally/all/all yadglas all of it yadglasi all of them yadglati all
yedgla however/any/any yedglas any of it yedglasi any of them yedglati any number of them
yidgla as/as much/as many yidglas the same amount yidglasi the same number yidglati as many (people)
yudgla not as much/not as much/not as many yudglas a different amount yudglasi a different number of things yudglati a different number of people
Here are some examples showing how these quantitative deictics are used:
  • Odgla pati et teata idjub? How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay udgla tami. I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe yidglas ev et. She wants the same amount as you.
  • Odglati yantexe yet? How many (people) agree with you?
  • Yodglati yantexe. None agree.
  • Yit fu edglasi. They would like some (of them).

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be negated by the prefixation of the vowel o (or ol before adjectives that begin with a vowel). This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
Here are some examples:
NORMAL NEGATED
ega normal olega abnormal
twa known otwa unknown
geyla similar ogeyla dissimilar
iva happy oliva unhappy
tatyena angelic otayena unangelic, yotatyena devilish

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

All qualitative adjectives end in at least the suffix a.
The suffix yena makes a noun into an adjective having the meaning like, -ish, -ly, having the qualities of, eg.:
  • tot godtota divinetotyena godly, godlike
  • tob mantoba humantobyena virile, manly, human-like
  • pot animalpota animalpotyena bestial, animal-like
The suffix aya or ika means full of like the English endings -ful, -ous, -y, eg.:
  • mil watermilaya or milika watery
  • meb mountainmebaya or mebika mountainous
  • mel soilmelaya or melika soily, dirty
  • tex thoughttexaya or texika thoughtful
The opposite of this suffix is oya or uka meaning empty of, -less, eg.:
  • mil watermiloya or miluka waterless
  • teb headteboya or tebuka headless
  • ivan joyivanoya or ivanuka joyless
The suffix ina adds the notion of given to thinking like or an -ism much like English -istic, eg.:
  • tob humantobin humanismtobina humanistic
  • kyeoj' fate kyeojin fatalismkeyojina fatalistic
  • yautin communismyautina communistic
The suffix tuna adds the notion of pertaining to the study of like English -ological, eg.:
  • tob humantobtun anthropologytobtuna anthropological
  • vob planttobtun botanyvobtuna botanical
The suffix ea, which makes an present active participle from a verb stem, is like English -ant, -ent, -ing, eg.:
  • agser to growagsea growing as in the growing grass
  • oker to lose → 'okea losing as in the losing team
  • kyaxer to mutatekyaxea mutant as in a mutant gene
The suffix (a)wa, which makes a past passive participle from a verb stem, is like English -ed, eg.:
  • oker to loseokwa lost as in the lost child
  • akler' to defeat aklawa defeated as in the defeated enemy
  • anxer' to unite anxwa united as in the United States
The suffix oa, which forms a future active participle from a verb stem, means apt to, liable to, eg.:
  • tojer to dietojo will dietojoa moribund, about to die
  • puer to arrivepuo will arrivepuoa about to arrive, next
The suffix u(w)a, which forms a conditional active (or passive) participle from a verb stem, means "supposed to, able to, eg.:
  • tojber to killtojbu would killtojbua lethal
  • teler to eattelwu would be eatenteluwa edible
  • belker to curebelkwu would be cured belkuwa curable
The suffix yea adds a sense like the present active participle, but a more repetitive or habitual one like the English suffix -ive, eg.:
  • toxer to forgettoxyea forgetful
  • ifer to loveifyea amiable, loving
  • daler to talkdalyea talkative

Pronouns[edit]

Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
In Mirad, pronouns can be:
  • personal or deictic
  • ordinary or reflexive
  • animate or inanimate
  • specific or generic
  • ungendered or feminine

Basic Animate Personal Pronouns[edit]

Basic animate personal pronouns in Mirad have three person-levels (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and two genders (ungendered, feminine), and three specificities (specific, generic, and reflexive). Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here is two charts showing the basic personal, split into ungendered and feminine.
Masculine-or-common Singular Plural
First at I, me yat we, us
Second et you yet you, you all
Third Specific it he, him, she, her yit they, them
Third Generic ot one yot they, them
Third Reflexive ut oneself  
Feminine Singular Plural
First ayt I, me (female) yayt we, us (females)
Second eyt you (female) yeyt you, you all (females)
Third iyt she, her yiyt they, them (females)
The third person generic pronouns ot and oti are of common gender and are used as English one and they (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ad yakwas. One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de lav et vyode yodjob. They say you don't lie.
The person specific ungendered pronouns refer by default to males, but can serve as gender-neutral pronouns referring back to either males or females. If the vowel stem is iotated with a y, the pronoun then refers specifically to a female.
The first person plural pronoun wa(y)t can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others."
There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
  • Xu at fibun. Do me a favor.
  • At so eta dat. I will be your friend.
  • Lov tojbu it. Don't kill him/her..
  • At ta lav iyt upo. I knew she would come.
  • Fadilu av yayt. Pray for us (women).
Note: The English pronoun it is inanimate (refers to a thing or abstaction) and is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is explained later.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit]

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed by adding the reflexive person pronoun ut (self) to the end of the basic personal specific pronouns, as follows:
Reflexive Singular Plural
First atut myself yatut ourselves
Second etut yourself yetut yourselves
Third Specific itut himself, iytut herself yitut themselves
Third Generic otut oneself  

Possessive Adjectives Derived from Personal Pronouns[edit]

Add the adjectival ending a to convert basic and reflexive personal pronouns to possessive adjectives:
  SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR REFLEXIVE PLURAL REFLEXIVE
FIRST PERSON ata my yata our atuta my own yatuta our own
SECOND PERSON eta your yeta your etuta your own yetuta your own
THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC ita his, iyta her yita their ituta his own, iytuta her own yituta their own
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's   otuta one's own  

Nominalized Possessive Personal Pronouns[edit]

The above pronominal adjective forms can be nominalized as follows:
+ THING + THINGS
atas mine atasi mine, my things
etas yours etasi yours, your (things)
itas his, iytas hers itasi his (things), iytasi her (things)
otas one's otasi one's , one's things
yatas ours yatasi ours, our things
yetas yours yetasi yours, your things
yitas theirs yitasi theirs, their things
atutas my own atutasi my own, my own things
etutas your own etuyasi your own, your own things
itutas his own, iytutas her own itutasi their own (things), iytutasi their own
otutas one's own otutasi one's own (things)
yatutas our own yatutasi our own (things)
yetutas your own yetutasi your own (things)
yitutas their own yitutasi their own (things)

The Inanimate and Abstract Pronoun it[edit]

The pronoun it is a special case in Mirad. When it refers back to a previously-specified inanimate object or non-human subject such as book or dog, the definite deictic pronoun ad is used. The possessive form of ad is ada its. For example:
  • At eke bay ad epet adav at iyfe ad. I play with the dog because I like it.
  • At ifye ad epet ay at ife ada dyun. I like the dog and I love it's name.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction, then the it is left unexpressed in Mirad. For example:
  • Mamilo. It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia lav et upa. It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et. It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se gyua yarper ida meb. It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

Referring to Third Persons with Proximal and Distal Deictic (Demonstrative) Pronouns[edit]

The definite, proximal, distal deictic (demonstrative) pronouns can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
  Thing Things Person Persons
DEFINITE ad it, the thing adi they, them, the things adut he, she, him, her, the person aduti they, them, the persons
PROXIMAL id it, this idi they, them, these things idut he, she, him, her, this person iduti they, them, these people
DISTAL ud it, that udi they, them, those things udut he, she, him, her, that person uduti they, them, those people
By iotating the first vowel, the above pronouns can be made feminine. For example, iydut she, her. These pronouns can also be converted to possessive adjectives by suffixing the adjective ending a, for example, uduta their, those people's. Furthermore, the possessive adjectives can be nominalized by suffixing s, for example, idutas theirs, these people's or idutasi theirs, these people's (things).
Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
  • Uydut voy se tadsa. She (that woman) is not married.
  • At yodjub teataye iduti. I have never seen them (these people).
  • Udutasi se ga aga ev atasi. Theirs are bigger than mine.
  • Odem et oka ad? Where did you hid it (the thing)?
  • Odyen et ijtya adut? How did you meet him (the person)?
The above pronouns answer the questions od?' what?, odi? what things?, odut? who(m)?, or oduti? what things?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions odat? which one?, odati? which one?, odas? which thing?, and odasi? which things?:
SELECTIVES Thing Things Person Persons
DEFINITE adas the one adasi the ones adat the one adati the ones
PROXIMAL idas this one idasi these idat this one idati these
DISTAL udas that one udasi those udat that one udati those
Here are some examples using these selective deictic pronouns:
  • Lev et fu idas ey udas? Would you like this one or that one?
  • Udut se adat et gyafe. He (that person) is the one you love most.
  • At iyfe idasi ga ev udasi. I like these more than those.

Table of Deictic Pronouns[edit]

Here is a full table of deictic pronouns:
  THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS SELECTIVE THING SELECTIVE THINGS SELECTIVE PERSON SELECTIVE PERSONS POSSESSIVE THING POSSESSIVE THINGS
INTERROGATIVE od? what? odi? what things? odut? who(m)? oduti? who(m)? odas? which one? odasi? which ones? odat? which one? odati? which ones? odutas? whose? odutasi? whose?
DEFINITE ad it adi they, them adut he, him aduti they, them adas the thing adasi the things adat the one adati the ones adutas his adutasi his (things)
INDEFINITE ed something edi some things edut somebody eduti some (people) edas some thing edasi some things edat some person edati some people edutas someone's edutasi some one's things
PROXIMAL id idi idut iduti idas idasi idat idati idutas idutasi
DISTAL ud this udi these udut this person, he uduti they, them udas this one udasi these udat this one udati these udutas his udutasi his things
NEGATIVE yod nothing yodi no things yodut nobody yoduti none yodas none yodasi none yodat no one yodati none yodutas nobody's yodutasi nobody's
DISTRUBUTIVE yad everything yadi all things yadut everybody yaduti all people yadas each one yadasi all yadat each one yadati all people yadutas everyone's yadutasi everyone's
INDISCRIMINATE yed anything yedi whatever things yedut whoever yeduti any people yedas whichever one yedasi whichever ones yedat whichever person yedati whichever people yedutas whoever's yedutasi whoever's things
INDENTIVE yid the same thing yidi the same things yidut the same person yiduti the same people yidas the same one yidasi the same ones yidat the same one yidati the same ones yidutas the same person's yidutasi the same person's
ALTERNATIVE yud something else yudi others yudut someone else yuduti others yudas another one yudasi other ones yudat another person yudati other people yudutas somebody else's yudutasi somebody else's

Pronominalization of Adjectives[edit]

Qualitative adjectives can be pronominalized by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by adding i.
ADJECTIVE THING PRONOUN PERSON PRONOUN
fia good fias a good thing, fiasi good things fiat a good person, fiati good persons
aga big agas something big, agasi big ones agat a big person, agati big persons
joga young, new jogas, something new, novelty, jogasi new ones yogat young person, youth, yogati youngsters
jaga old jagas antique, jagasi, old ones jagat elderly person, jagati oldsters
Examples:
  • Id tyoyaf voy gre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
  • Yat fu daler bay ad gya jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
  • At fe teaxer ad jogas, voy ad jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
  • Ad ujnati so ad aati. The last shall be the first.

Verbs[edit]

Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as bayser to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.

Verb Categories[edit]

Conjugated forms of verbs can be described with the following categories:
  • STATES: finite, non-finite
  • TENSES: present, past, future tenses
  • ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional
  • VOICES: active, passive
  • MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
  • PERSONS: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural
In addition, lexically, verbs can be described as transitive, intransitive, reflexive, inchoative, or causative.

Non-finite Forms[edit]

Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • INFINITIVES -- the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
  • GERUNDS -- verbal nouns, ending in en
  • PARTICIPLES -- verbal adjectives, ending in a

Infinitives[edit]

Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present active infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
STEM INFINITVE ENDING INFINITIVE
agas er agaser to grow
agax er agaxer to magnify
p er per to go
xw wer xwer to happen, be done
The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:
INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE
PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified
PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified

Gerunds[edit]

The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND
agaxer to magnify agax- agaxen magnifying agaxwen being magnified
per to go p- pen going (no passive voice)
saxer to create, make sax- saxen creating, creation saxwen being created
Some examples:
  • Ad saxen bi ud mar efxa amroni bi jabi. The formation of this star took millions of years.
  • Iyta deuzen sa gla via. Her singing was very beautiful.
  • Popen se yex. Traveling is work.
  • Teetwen fiay se glatedea av vyamekuti.' Being heard is very important for actors.

Participles[edit]

Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles can be present, past, future, or hypothetical. They can also be active or passive. Here is a table of partiples:
TENSE-VOICE INFINITIVE STEM ENDING PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE
PRESENT ACTIVE deuzer to sing deuz- -ea deuzea singing ad deuza pat the singing bird
PRESENT PASSIVE ebdaler to discuss ebdal- -ewa ebdalewa being discussed ad ebdalewa dyen the book being discussed
PAST ACTIVE pier to depart pi- -aa piaa departed ad piaa topi the departed souls
PAST PASSIVE azyujber to lock azyujb- -(a)wa azyujbawa locked ad azyubawa (or: azyubwa) mes the locked door
FUTURE ACTIVE tajber to give birth tajb- -oa tajboa about to give birth ad tajboa toyb the woman about to give birth
FUTURE PASSIVE osexer to destroy osex- -owa osexowa about to be destroyed ad osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed
HYPOTHETICAL ACTIVE tojber to kill tojb- -ua tojbua apt to kill tojbua til a lethal potion
HYPOTHETICAL PASSIVE tiler to drink til- -uwa tiluwa drinkable tiluwa mil potable water

Finite Forms[edit]

In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • two MOODS (indicative and hypothetical)
  • three TENSES (present, past, future)
  • five ASPECTS (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional)
  • two VOICES (active, passive)
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person suject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he is, etc.

Moods[edit]

There are two moods in Mirad: Indicative and Hypothetical.

Indicative Mood[edit]

The indicative forms of the verb indicate actions or states that occur in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, PRESENT, PAST, and FUTURE indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.

Hypothetical Mood[edit]

Wheras he indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the HYPOTHETICAL MOOD expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an imagined if-condition, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (If I were a rich man...)
  • an imagined then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (I would be happy.)

Aspects[edit]

There are four aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state immediating on-going in the particular tense.
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
  • the CONDITIONAL aspect, i.e. an action supposed to happen.

The Simple Aspect (default)[edit]

Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is SIMPLE, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, and non-conditional.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (saxer to create and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 saxer VERB #2 ser
INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE at saxe I create at se I am
INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE at saxa I created at sa I was
INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE at saxo I will create at so I will be
HYPOTHETICAL ATEMPORAL SIMPLE ACTIVE at saxu I would create at su I would be, Lav ad su. Let it be., Su fia! Be good!, Lav yadut su iva! Let everyone be happy!
The Simple Indicative Present Tense[edit]
The simple indicative present tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
The Simple Indicative Past Tense[edit]
The simple past tense intantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time.
The Simple Indicative Future Tense[edit]
The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix 'o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal[edit]
A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
Generally, if a verb form ending in u begins a sentence, then it is probably an IMPERATIVE. For example, Ipu!, Go away!. If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the subordinating particles lav, lev, or lov, than it is probably a CONDITIONAL clause like At fu per. I would like to go.. If the subject of the verb is preceded by lev if, then it is a SUBJUNCTIVE clause as in Lev at su nasikat... If I were a rich man.. If the subject is preceded by lav that/let/may or lov don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Lav et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Lav yat fadilu. Let us pray..

Voices[edit]

Mirad has two voices, ACTIVE and PASSIVE.

Active Voice[edit]

The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.

Passive Voice[edit]

A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa).
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE PASSIVE EXAMPLE
INFINITIVE xer to do xwer to be done Ese yod xwer. There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPAL sexea constructing sexewa being constructed Id se sexewa. This is under construction.
PRESENT xe does xwe is done Idyeni yodjob xwe. Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPAL xaa having done x(a)wa done Yad se xwa. Everything is done.
PAST tojba killed tojbwa was killed Odjob it tojbwa? When was he killed?
HYPOTHETICAL bakxu heal bakxwu be healed Lav it bakxwu. May he be healed.
Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive or reflexive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ad mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form.

Aspects Revisited[edit]

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple conditional refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
SIMPLE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
SIMPLE PRESENT at xe I do Ad xwe it is done
SIMPLE PAST at xa I did Ad xwa it was done
SIMPLE FUTURE at xo I will do Ad xwo it will be done
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL at xu I would do Ad xwu it would be done

The Progressive Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PROGRESSIVE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE at xeye I am doing Ad xewe it is being done
PAST PROGRESSIVE at xeya I was doing Ad xewa it was being done
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE at xeyo I am going to be doing Ad xewo it will be happening
CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE at xeyu I would be doing Ad xewu it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PERFECT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PERFECT at xaye I have done Ad xawe it has been done
PAST PERFECT at xaya I had done Ad xawa it had been done
FUTURE PERFECT at xayo I will have done Ad xawo it will have been done
CONDITIONAL PERFECT at xayu I would have done Ad xawu it would have been done

The Imminent Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PERFECT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PERFECT at xoye I am going to do Ad xowe it is going to be done
PAST PERFECT at xoya I was going to do Ad xowa it was going to be done
FUTURE PERFECT at xoyo I will be about to do Ad xowo it will be about to be done
CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)

The Potential Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PERFECT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT PERFECT at xuye I am to do Ad xuwe it is to be done, it is doable
PAST PERFECT at xuya I was to do Ad xuwa it was to be done, it was doable
FUTURE PERFECT (not used) (not used)
CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)

Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit]

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
STATE MOOD ASPECT TENSE ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PRESENT xe does xwe is done, happens
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PAST xa did xwa was done, happened
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE FUTURE xo will do xwo will be done, will happen
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL SIMPLE ATEMPORAL xu would do, do! xwu would be done, would happen, be done!
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT xeye is doing xewe is being done, is happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PAST xeya was doing xewa was doing, was happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE xeyo will be doing xewo will be happening
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL PROGRESSIVE ATEMPORAL xeyu would be doing xewu would be happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PRESENT xaye has done xawe has been done, has happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PAST xaya had done xawa had been done, had happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT FUTURE xayo will have done xawo will have been done, will have happened
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL PERFECT ATEMPORAL xayu would have done xawu would have been done, would have happened
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PRESENT xoye is about to do 'xowe is about to be done, is about to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PAST xoya was to be done xowa was to be done, was to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PRESENT xuye is supposed to do xuwe is supposed to be done, is supposed to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PAST xuya was supposed to do xuwa was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen
INFINITIVE     PRESENT xer to do xwer to be done, to happen
INFINITIVE     PAST xaer to have done xawer to have been done, to have happend
PARTICIPLE     PRESENT xea doing xewa being done, happening
PARTICIPLE     PAST xaa having done xawa or xwa done, happened
GERUND     ATEMPORAL xen doing, deed xwen being done, happening, event

Predicate Types[edit]

Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to whether the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed as a question (INTERROGATIVE), a declaration (DECLARATIVE), a negation (NEGATIVE), affirmation (AFFIRMATIVE), or combinations of these.

Making Predicates Interrogative[edit]

To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer dulev Tell me whether...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as od? what?, odut? who?, or odem? where?.
DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE
Et se tadsa? You are married. Dulev et se tadsa? Are you married? (Lit: Say whether you are...)
Ad mari se maya. The stars are bright. Dulev ad mari se maya? Are the stars bright?
It aka. Odut aka? Who won?
It pa edem. He went somewhere. Odem it pa? Where did he go?
Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
  • Et tame be yubem? You live in the neighborhood?

Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit]

The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
  INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION
AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe Yes, I indeed/do agree.
DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po. Maybe. I may/possible will go.
NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva. No. I would not be happy.

Mixing Them Up[edit]

The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
  • Dulev et se voy tadsa? Aren't you married? (Lit: say-whether you are not married?)
  • Odav iyt se voy tadsa? Why isn't she married?
  • Vey voy mamilo. It may not rain.
  • At vay voy tadso iyt. I certainly will not marry her.
  • Et peyo, va ey vo? You will go, yes or no?
  • Vo. Ud ve vay se vyoa.' No. That may indeed be wrong.

Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit]

An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the hypothetical without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring to you. For example:
  • Ipu! Go away!
  • Tiju! Wake up!
  • Su fiat! Be a good person!
Hortative expressions like Let's go. or May he win. use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive factual particle lav that, may, let.
  • Lav yat fadilu. Let's pray.
  • Lav et aku id ifek. May you win this game.
  • Lav ad edeb yagteju. Long live the king. (Lit. That the king long-live-would.)
The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative factual particle lov don't, lest.
  • Lov dalu at udyen. Don't speak to me that way.
  • Lov yit oku. May they not lose.
  • Lov yat toxu it. Let's not forget him.

Conditional Expressions[edit]

A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional particle lev if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
  • Lev et pio [SIMPLE FUTURE], at so [SIMPLE FUTURE] uva. If you leave, I will be sad.
  • At voy ta [SIMPLE PAST] lev it upo. [SIMPLE FUTURE]. I didn't know whether he would come.
  • Lev ot yexe [SIMPLE PRESENT] gla, ot akxe [SIMPLE PRESENT]. If one works hard, one succeeds.
  • Lev at su [SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL] nasika, at nusbiu [SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL] aga tam. If I were rich, I'd buy a new house.
  • Lev at tayu [PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL]. at dudayu [PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL] yudyen. If I had known, I would have responded differently.

Relative Clauses[edit]

Relative clauses work as in English. The wh-word in Mirad is replaced with a singular-plural-matching od-word (interrogative deictic pronoun). The od-word is omitted where there is no ambiguity.
  • Ad toyb odut teapa at tye et. The woman who visited me knows you.
  • Ad yexuti oduti uvda oyixwa. The workers who complained were fired.
  • Ud tobot (odut) iyt tajba agsa ser bektut. That child (that/which) she bore grew up to be a doctor.
  • Ad dun od tede gya se idas. The word that means the most is this one.
  • At dyeaye yad dyeni (odi) it dra. I have read all the books (that/which) he wrote.
  • Ad tam yoz od it upa osexaye. The house out of which he came / he came out of has been demolished.
  • At voy te odem et tame. I don't know where you live.
  • It voy da ut odjob it puo. He did not tell me when he would arrive.
  • Et voy yafe teater yezbu oda nyem iyt ba ad zyun. You cannot see into which box she put the ball.
  • At voy tide odyen et xa ud. I don't understand how you did that.
  • Oduti xa id tobtojben se otwas. Who all committed this homicide is a mystery.
  • Dulev et te oduta til id se? Do you know whose drink this is?

Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit]

As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.

Indirect Discourse[edit]

The positive subordinating conjunction lav that is used to introduce a subordinate that clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, the lav conjunction cannot be omitted.
  • At ta lav et upo. I knew (that)you would (Lit: will) come.
  • Ata ted da lav it yexe yad ita tej gel fufut. My father said (that) he had worked (Lit: he worked) all his life as a plumber.
  • Se vyaa lav at gra tele. It is true that I eat too much.

Direct Discourse[edit]

Direct discourse works exactly as in English. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
  • Iyt da "At voy fe per." She said "I don't want to go."
  • At dida it "Odut sa eta ted?". I asked him, "Who was your father?"

Transitivity[edit]

Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit]

Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE
xer do ser be
agxer grow (something) agser grow (up)
amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up
buxer push buser jump
per go ber put
aber put on aper get on
yaber raise yaper rise
poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop
yuber bring near yuper approach
yezber introduce yezper enter
  • At agxe vobi. I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ad vobi agseye ig. The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ad par! Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ad par posa. The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ad mis. I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ad yapaye. The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].

Reflexive Verbs[edit]

Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye atut. I am going to kill myself.
  • Tu etut! Know thyself!
  • It gorba itut bay gorbar. He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer otut. One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber commit suicide
  • utboler support oneself
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyimiler etut. You need to wash up [= wash yourself].

Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit]

  • Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE
per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home., It pa Paris. He went to Paris.
der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name., Du at ad. Tell it to me.
peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me.
buer give (to) Buu at ud dyen. Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu ad bu at. Give it to me.

Causative and Inchoative Verbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into causative and inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive, while inchoative verbs are intransitive. English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective + xer, such as justify, condensate, etc..
  • aga bigagaxer to magnify, make bigger, agxer to grow
  • ana oneanaxer to unify, make one, anxer to unite
  • yona apartyonaxer to separate, break apart, yonxer to divide, divorce
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
  • aga bigagaser to get bigger, agser to grow
  • ana oneanaser to come together as one, unify, anser to unite
  • yona apartyonaser to separate, break apart, yonser to divide, divorce
Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
  • Ansu [INTRANSITIVE] ey yet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided.
  • At yonsa [INTRANSITIVE] adjob at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age.
  • Idi agaxo [TRANSITIVE] od et teate. These will magnify what you see.
  • Id tobob agseye [INTRANSITIVE] ig. This child is growing up fast.
  • Ata tayd agxe [TRANSITIVE] vosi be zoyozem.' My wife grows flowers out back.
Causative and inchoative verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make someone be something and of the latter, to become something.
  • yuglal pulp, mashyuglalxer to crush, mash, pulp, malt, mill [CAUSATIVE]
  • mog ashmogxer to incinerate [CAUSATIVE]
  • vos' flower, bloom vosser to bloom, flourish [INCHOATIVE]
Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
  • At gorbuxer ata tayeb zamaj. I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at. You cannot make me go.
  • It uxa tojbuxa yit. He had them killed.
  • At efe milabuxer at par. I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa idem edav. You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et. I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at. You cannot make me sing.
  • At ivteuduxwa. I was made to laugh.
  • Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat. Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Lav edut ivasuxu et. May someone get you to be happy.

Directional Verbs[edit]

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED
bier to take buer to give
nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell
telier to eat teluer to feed
gonbier to participate gonbuer to share
tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink
teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out
teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show
taxier to memorize taxuer to remind
alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire
ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak
ifier to enjoy ifuer to please
dier to ask duer to suggest
dider to question duder to respond
tamier to take up residence tamuer to lodge
tier to study tuer to teach
pier to depart puer to arrive
nier to consume nuer to supply
kebier to choose kebuer to distribute
tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep
tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill
byier to originate byuer to target
mempier to take off mempuer to land
simbier to take a seat, sit simbuer to seat
xier result xuer cause

Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB
ab on aber apply aper get on, mount
ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yob down yober take down yoper descend
yez in yezber insert yezper enter
yez in yezpuxer throw in yexpuser jump in
yoz out yozber expose yozper exit
yoz out yozpuxer eject yozpuser jump out
zyu around zyuber rotate zyuper revolve
zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour
yub near yuber bring near yuper approach
ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene
yan together yanber compose yanper meet
iz direct izber lead izper head
uz crooked uzber divert uzper diverge
Note:
The prefix eg- again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember to positionegember to reposition, replace
  • der to sayegder to repeat
  • sanxer to shape, formegsanxer to reshape, reform
The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer to build, constructlosaxer to destroy, deconstruct
  • yonxer to uniteloyonxer to disunite
  • xer to doloxer to undo
The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
  • nadxer to alignvyonadxer to misalign
  • der to sayvyoder to misstate, lie
  • utbier to appropriatevyoutbier to misappropriate
The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer to operateyanexer to cooperate
  • tamer to dwellyantamer to cohabit
  • napber to put in orderyannapber to coordinate
The prefix zay- is used as the English re-, meaning back, eg.:
  • teaper to visitzayteaper to revisit
  • uper to comezayuper to return, come back
  • buxer to pushzaybuxer to repel, push back
  • puxer to throwzaypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison

Modal Verbs[edit]

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.

Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
POSITIVE   NEGATIVE
afer may efer need ofer may not
ifer love fer want ufer hate
iyfer like   uyfer dislike
yafer can, be able yefer must, have to yofer cannot
  yeyfer should, ought  
yifer dare   yufer be afraid
yiver have a right, be free   yuver be bound
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe yezper ay ifeker. You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer. We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier idem. One is not permitted to smoke here.
  • At <y>ife dyeer. I love to read.
  • Dulev et fe yezuper? Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et. I would like to visit you.
  • It ufaye yadjob teaxwer. He has always hated being looked at.
  • Dulev et iyfe per tilami? Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa. I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer yed et fu. You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas. You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler udyen azay. You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi. I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der fua yed. I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Lov yufu der od et tede. Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut. You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuve kyoejer. We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Object-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit]

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "object-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented", eg:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED VERB SUBJECT-ORIENTED ADJECTIVE OBJECT-ORIENTED VERB OBJECT-ORIENTED ADJECTIVE
afer may afa allowed afwer be permitted afwa permissable
efer need efa needful efwer be necessary efwa necessary, required
ofer be unallowed ofa prohibited ofwer be prohibited ofwa banned
yafer be able yafa able yafwer be possible yafwa possible
yefer must yefa obliged yefwer be obligatory yefwa obligatory
yofer be unable yofa unable yofwer be impossible yefwa impossible
fer want fa willing fwer be desirable fwa desirable, wanted
yifer dare yofa daring, brave yifwer be safe yifwa safe
yufer be afraid yifa afraid yufwer be a danger yufwa frightning
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier idem. It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa) puxer ofwasi idem. It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) lav yet dolu. It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser idem gajob. It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder. It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe lav et piu ig. It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • Dulev yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi? Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo. More help will be needed.

Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit]

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
PERSON-ORIENTED THING-ORIENTED
afxer allow afwaxer permit
efxer require efwaxer necessitate
ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit
yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible
yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory
yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable
yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe
yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening
ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant

Creating Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit]

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related adjectives:
POSITIVE NEGATIVE
teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyofa blind
teatyafwa visible teatyofwa invisible
teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyofa deaf
teetyafwa audible teeyofwa inaudible
dalyafa able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb
tobobifa child-loving tobobufa child-hating
pyafa ready (= able to go) pyofa unready (= unable to go)
tosyafwa palpable (= possible to feel) tosyofwa numb
yudutifat zenophile yudutufat zenophobe

Prepositions[edit]

Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.

Single-word Prepositions[edit]

Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
SPATIAL
ab on, upon eb between ob off, off of
ayb over, above eyb among, amid oyb under, below
bu to be at bi from, of
byu as far as, up to   byi since, beginning with
bay with bey by boy without
ub toward   ib away from
yub near (to)   yib far (from)
yaz along yez in yoz out of
yuz around   yiz beyond
za in front of ze at the middle of zo behind, in back of
zu (to the) left (of) zey across zi (to the) right (of)
zya throughout zye through  
TEMPORAL
ja before je during, while jo after
ju until   ju since
RELATIONAL
av for, about ev than, as ov against
ay and ey or oy but, except
MATHEMATICAL
gal times, x gel like gol, ÷ divided by
gar to the power of ogel unlike gol to the root of
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ad dyen se ab ad sem. The book is on the table.
  • Lov et pyosu ob ad abtamas! Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ad pati papa ayb ata tam. The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ad yagsim. He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb udut ay at. Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati. We live among good peeople.
  • Od se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston? What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • Id se ifek bi kyen. This is a game of luck.
  • Dulev et sa be ud duzun zomoj? Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ad zenod bi ad mapil. We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ad mis. She walked up to the door.
  • Ad tob tojbwa bey gobar. The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at ev boy at. You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ad amar. Look away from the sun.
  • Lov teaxu iz ub ad man. Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Et efe tyoyaper yuz ad ovon. You need to walk around the obstacle.
  • Yat yofe per yiz id nod. We are prohibited from going beyond this point.
  • Iyt simpa za at. She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo ud toyb. You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu ad zu ad mis. Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simbio zi et. I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ad pat poosa ze ad tim. The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Diwe lav et poosu yez ad tam. Please stay in the house.
  • At so yozdom av yoga joob. I will be out of town for a short while.
  • Ad mimpar mimpa yaz ad mip. The boat sailed along the river.
  • Id xwa zya ad doob. This happened throughout the nation.
  • Mil upeye zye ad mes. Water is coming through the door.
  • Id xwo ja zajub. This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ad moj. There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj. Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub. I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe lav et xu ed av at. Please do something for me.
  • Id dyen se din av ewa fiuti. This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia ev nas. Friendship is better than money.
  • Yod se ge fua ev od yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat. They were working against us.
  • Et ay at yeyfe ser dati. You and should be friends.
  • Odut ako, et ey at? Who will win, you or I?
  • Yadut oy udut ta ad dud. Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at. You are not like me.
  • Et se yadgla ogel at. You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u. Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e. Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u. Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a. Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya. Four squared equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Asya gor e gese u. The square root of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the root of two...)

Directional Adverbs[edit]

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming complex prepositions:
yub near yib far
yab up yob down
zay forward, ahead zoy back
iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout

Prepositional Phrases[edit]

Prepositional phrases contain one or more prepositions in some combination with either a noun or an adverb. This chart shows some examples:
COMPLEX PREPOSITION EXAMPLE
yub bu near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et. I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi far from Ad amar se yib bi ad meir. The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ad mam. He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi up from Su yab bi ad sim. Get up from the bad.
yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ad obmos. Run down to the cellar.
yob bi down from Ad tat upa yob bi ad mam. The angel came down from the sky.
yob ab down on top of Ad kawa yob ab eta oybmos. It was found down on your floor.
zay bu on to, forth to Ad elyanaadpar popa zay bu zona doym. The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat. She sat across from us.
zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ad yexim. I am back from the office.
iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fom! Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ad yexim. He came right back from the office.

Idiomatic Prepositional Phrases[edit]

The following chart shows other prepositional phrases that are considered idiomatic, because they are somewhat abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ad in front of the noun in these phrases:
OTHER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of
be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of
be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between
be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above
be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below
be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of yez eybem bi in the midst of
be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of
be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of
be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of
be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of
be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of
be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with
be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with
be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route
bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of
be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of
be nod bi at the point of be yezem bi at the interior of, inside be yozem bi at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay in line with yaz kunad bi alongside be ted bi in the sense of
be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with
be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of

Conjunctions[edit]

Disjunctive[edit]

Conjunctive[edit]

Interjections[edit]

Syntax[edit]

Greetings and Other Polite Expressions[edit]

MIRAD ENGLISH
Lay! Hello!
Ley! Hey!
Loy! Bye!
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fimoj! Good evening!
Odyen et se? How are you?
Baka. Ay et? Well. And you?
Iftaxwo. Thank-you.
Sa yod. You're welcome.
Diwe. Please.
Yovobu at. Excuse me.
Fipop! Bon voyage!
Su valta! Be safe!
Egbaksu ig! Get well soon!
Ivadwu! Congratulations!
Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday!

Word Formation[edit]

In order for every word to express the maximum information and so that it is easily codified and decodified (that is, so that word formation is simple, easily decipherable and apprehensible, certain meanings have been attached to consonants and certain values to vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of core words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Word Formation[edit]

The vocabulary is built on core words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from the core words in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules.

Core Words[edit]

The core words are divided into two groups:
  • 1st Group: Nouns
  • 2nd Group: Prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs.

Core Words of the 1st Group: Nouns[edit]

All noun core words are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
Examples:
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING
t o b man
d o t society
f o b plant
The classifier and generic letters are consonants, so one needs to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings[edit]
CONSONANT 1st Group Core Words (NOUN) 1st Group Core Words (NOUN) 2nd Group Core Words Numeric Value
  CLASSIFIER GENERIC CLASSIFIER
b organ, illness, body, etc. organism gesture, manner, movement  
p animal, vehicle   movement  
s thing, furniture   form, thing hundred
x do, action   do, action  
d society person, thing reading, writing  
t person person intelligence, knowing  
f vegetation clothing volition  
v plant, color linen    
g     quantity  
k        
j time time time  
z   jewel, precious    
l   element, liquid   ten
m nature place, building   ml = million
n mechandise      
r   tool   thousand, mr = billion
Vowels and Their Meanings[edit]
The stem vowel in core words has various meanings.
Numeric Value of Vowels[edit]
The numeric value of vowels is shown here:
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
Positional Value of Vowels[edit]
The positional value of vowels is shown below (Rule nr. 10):
  a up, superior, north  
u left, west e center, middle i right, east
  o down, inferior, south  
Geophysical Value of Vowels[edit]
o outer space, nature
a air, gas, sky
e land, soil, earth
i liquid, water, juice
u underground, minerals
Value of Vowels in Core Words of the 2nd Group[edit]
  • a, ya oppose o, yo
  • e, ye intermediate
  • i, yi oppose u, yu
Directional Value of Vowels[edit]
a- free movement from above onto
-a movement with contact from above onto
ya- free movement upward
-ya movement with contact upward
o- free movement from below upward
-o movement with contact from below onto
yo- free movement downward
-yo movement with contact fall
u- free movement toward the center
-u movement with contact toward the center
yu- free movement near
-yu movement with contact near
i- free movement away
-i movement with contact away
yi- free movement far away
-yi movement with contact far away
e- stop  
-e pause  
ye- in  
-ye in  
Special Value of Certain Vowels[edit]
  • The prefixes a-, an- have to do with one, single, singular and are opposed to:
  • The prefixes ya-, yan- meaning together, plural.
  • The prefix yan- contrasts with yon- meaning apart.

Meaning of Core Words: 1st Group[edit]

The meaning of the 1st Group core words comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the generic consonant, eg.:
FULL WORD CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT
tob = man t = human, animal b = organism
tod = family t = human, animal d = society
tof = clothes t = human, animal f = tissue
tov = lingerie t = human, animal v = linen
tol = food t = human, animal l = liquid, food
tom = building t = human, animal m = place
dob = state d = communication b = organism
dom = city d = communication m = place
som = furniture s = thing m = place

Meaning of Core Words: 2nd Group[edit]

The meaning of the 2nd Group core words comes from a combination of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel. Here is a chart showing the principal core words of this group.
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE
ja before je during jo after
aja past eja present oja future
jwa early jwe on time jwo late
ij beginning   uj end
ji since   ju until
yija open   yuja closed
ga more ge same go less
gyaa fat gye enough gyoa thin
aga big ega normal oga small
iga fast   uga slow
gia sharp   gua dull
gin point   gun angle
gyia easy   gyua difficult
yaga long   yoga short
yiga hard   yuga soft
ak gain ek risk ok loss
kaer find keer seek koer lose
yaker expect yeker try yoker be surprised
kyaa variable kyea random kyoa fixed
ika full   uka empty
kia oblique   kua lateral
kyia heavy   kyua light
yika fragile   yuka solid
ika full   uka empty
va yes ve maybe vo no
vay indeed vey possibly voy not
av for ev than ov against
vyaa true vyea relative vyoa false
yava innocent yeva fair yova guilty
via beautiful   vua ugly
iva happy   uva sad
yiva free   yuva bound
vyia clean   vyua dirty
yafa able yefa obliged yofa unable
afa allowed efa needful ofa prohibited
fyaa proud   fyoa ashamed
faa holy   foa profane
fia good   fua bad
ifer love   ufer hate
fyia useful   fyua harmful
yifa brave   yufa afraid
ab on eb between ob off
ayb above eyb amid oyb below
yab up   yob down
bay with bey by boy without
bi from be at bu to
byi since   byu up to
ib away   ub toward
yib far away   yub near
yaz along yez in yoz out
yaza vertical yeza horizontal yoza perpendicular
iza straight   uza crooked
zyia flat   zyua round
yiz beyond   yuz around
za in front of ze at the middle of zo behind
aza strong eza medium oza weak
zyaa wide zye through zyoa narrow
zay ahead zey across zoy' back
zi right   zu left
  ber put  
  per go  
  xer do  
  ser be  
  der say  
  ter know  
  fer want  
Each core word of the 2nd Group is composed of one letter or two letters not counting the grammatical suffixes a for an adjective, ay for an adverb, er for a verb, and the enhancer consonant y. These two letters are: either a consonant and a vowel, or a vowel and a consonant. The simplification that results from this is evident.

Vowel Patterns in Core Words[edit]

Note that that in 2nd Group core words there is a three-way contrast with the root vowels a, e, o and a two-way contrast with the root vowels i and u, as in the chart below, where the root vowels are underlined:

PATTERN TYPE POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE
3-WAY (a-e-o) aza strong eza medium oza weak
2-WAY (i-u) fia good -- fua bad

Meaning of the Classifier Consonant in 2nd Group Core Words[edit]

Most human qualities are presented in the 2nd Group core words that contain the consonants f or v.
Core words relating to time all have the letter j.
The letters g and k relate mostly to physical qualities, measurements, and actions.

Parallelism in Core Words[edit]

Core words exhibit both vertical and horizontal parallelism in meaning as shown in some sample charts below:
aza za va vyaa yava
strong front yes true innocent
eza ze ve vyea yeva
moderate middle maybe relative fair
oza zo vo vyoa yova
weak back no false guilty
ja jwa1 aja kaer aker
before early past find win
je jwe1 eja keer eker
during on time present seek play
jo jwo1 oja koer oker
after late future hide lose
1: jwa, jwe, and jwo were originally spelled as jya, jye, and jyo, but the need was felt to change the y to w in Version 2 of Mirad for ease of pronunciation.
fia via vyia fyia iva yiva ifer
good beautiful clean proud happy free to love
fua vua vyua fyua uva yuva ufer
bad ugly dirty ashamed sad bound to hate
tab tib tub tyob tayob tayeb tyab
body trunk arm foot skin hair ovary
fab fib fub fyob fayob fayeb fyab
tree tree trunk branch root bark leaf fruit
vab vib vub vyob vayob vayeb vyab
plant stem twig root peel leaf seed

Derived Words[edit]

Derived words, that is, words that are built from core words, are formed following certain very simple rules of vocabulary-building:
These rules govern:
  1. Compouding whole words
  2. Affixation
  3. Ordinal number codification
  4. Compounding partial words
  5. Word-building by adding ordinal vowels
  6. Swapping endings
  7. Scientific Word-building
  8. Feminizing words
  9. Geophysical vowel codification
  10. Directional and positional vowel codification
  11. Mnemonic markers
  12. Harmonic word-building

Rule #1: Compounding Whole Words[edit]

Compound words are formed by the combination of two or more words. When compounding, the determining word is placed very simply in front of the determined word.
  • mar star + tun sciencemartun astronomy
  • mag fire + meb mountainmagmeb volcano
  • tul meal + dren documenttuldren menu
  • nax cost + aga bignaxaga expensive
  • nax cost + oga smallnaxoga cheap
  • amar sun + yap ascentamaryap sunrise
  • amar sun + yop descentamaryop sunset
  • mam sky + par vehiclemampar airplane
  • map wind + yaf powermapyaf windpower
  • dom city + teas viewdomteas cityscape
  • tej life + tun sciencetejtun biology
  • man light + tam housemantam lighthouse

Rule #2: Affixation[edit]

Affixes can be prefixed or suffixed to verbs, nouns, and other parts of speech.
Prefixes[edit]
Adverbs and prepositions can serve as prefixes, especially for forming new verbs, eg.:
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUNDED VERB
go less ber put gober subtract
yez in ber put yezber introduce
yoz out ber put yozber oust
yuz around ber put yuzber surround
ob off ber put ober1 remove
ig fast xer do igxer accelerate
ug slow xer do ugxer brake
ja before xer do jaxer prepare
je during xer do jexer continue
oj future xer do ojxer plan
ab on per go aper1 get on
yez in per go yezer enter
yoz out per go yezer exit
zay ahead per go zayper advance
zoy back per go zayper retreat
ja before per go japer precede
jo after per go joper follow
yuz around per go yuzper circulate
va yes der say vader affirm
vo no der say voder deny
fi good der say fider praise
fu bad der say fuder malign
ja before der say jader predict
ja before dren writing jadren preface
jo after dren writing jodren postscript
Note: If the prefix is an adverb or preposition ending in b and is being affixed to the verb per go or ber put, then the b of the prefix is dropped:
Prefixes Ending in b with Verbs per and ber[edit]
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB
yab up ber put yaber raise
yab up per go yaper rise
ab on ber put aber put on, apply
ab on per go aper get on, mount
yob down ber put yober take down
yob down per go yoper descend
ob off ber put ober take off, remove
ob on per go oper get off, dismount
Prefixing Core Words[edit]
The two or three first letters of a core word can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB
oza weak der say ozder whisper
yaga long der say yagder ramble
aja past der say ajder evoke
yoga short der say yogder summarize
tyoyab foot per go tyoyaper walk
dreer write sar tool dresar pencil
tuyob hand dren writing tuyodren manuscript
mam sky mil water mamil rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs.
Prefixes Per Se[edit]
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
o un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendlyodata unfriendly
lo un-, same as o but used where o is not clear gla manylogla rare
yo un-, same as o but more intense dat friendyodat enemy
ey(n) semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate
eg- re-, again eganxer reunite, egder repeat, egvader reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad[edit]
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yoper < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph yozsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yezdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yezsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract yozbixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yozega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous yudsauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous yidsauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yezupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yezber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient yadtea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon yadtotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yaztuder
penta- five GREEK pentagon youngun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo egxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gyadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle azyus
Suffixes[edit]
Mirad has semantic suffixes, grammatical suffixes, and part-of-speech-changing suffixes
Semantic Suffixes[edit]
Semantic suffixes are generally formed from the two last letters of a core word. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
CORE WORD SUFFIX SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS
mil water -il liquid teabil tear < teab eye
    teubil saliva < teub mouth
    tayebil sweat < tayeb skin
    mamil rain < mam sky
tam house -am house apatam chicken coop < apat chicken
    apelatam beehive < apelat bee
    melyexam farmhouse < melyex agriculture
    datibam hostel < datib guest-reception
nem place -em place vobyexem plantation, farm < vob plant + yex work
    vabem field < vab grass
    abem top, surface < ab above, upper
    obem bottom < ob below
nof cloth -of material tof clothes < t- human
    misof curtain < mis window
    faof wood < fa(b)- tree
    tayof leather < tayo(b) skin
sar tool -ar instrument par vehicle < p- motion
    zyupar rotor < zyup turn
    gorbar knife < gorb cut
    syaagar computer < syaag computation
sun thing -un thing dun word < d- utter, say
    gorfun piece, scrap < gorfer rip, shread, tear
    zyiun plaque, plate < zyia flat
    vyun spot < vyua dirty
tin doctrine -in -ism totin theism, religion < tot- god
    Kristin Christianity < Krist Christ
    vyisatin puritanism < vysiat puritan, clean person
    otofin nudism < otofa nude
fuf pipe -uf cylinder object manuf candle < man light
    tiibuf artery < tiib heart
    miluf toilet < mil water
    movuf cheminee < mov smoke
yel oil -yel oil, gel, wax, pulp kafyel olive oil < kaf olive
    apelatyel wax < apelat bee
    levyel jam, jelly, confiture < leve sugar, sweet
    bekyel salve < bek care, treatment
    megyel cement < meg stone
    yanyel paste < yan together
Grammatical Suffixes[edit]
Mirad has only a few grammatical suffixes:
GRAMMATICAL SUFFIX CORE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-er (present active infinitive) sag cipher sager to count
  nab rank naber to rank
  yex work yexer to work
-wer (present passive infinitive) teat sight teatwer to be seen
-ayer (past active infinitive) toj death tojayer' to have died
-wayer (past passive infinitive) ux cause uxwayer to have been caused
-en (active veral noun) yex work yexen working
-wen (passive noun) sayag calculus sayagwen being calculated
-a (adjective) yib far away yiba remote
  mor universe mora universal
-ay (adverb) iga quick igay quickly
  yiba remote yibay remotely
Augmentative Suffixes[edit]
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX CORE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
Diminutive Suffixes[edit]
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX CORE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack
Suffixes Forming Nuanced Adjectives[edit]
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-aya full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekaya dusty
-oya empty of, -less, -free vyun spot vyunoya spotless
-ika full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekika dusty
-uka empty of, -less, -free miek dust miekuka dust-free
-ea (present active particple) doing X, -ing, -ant, -ent ilp flow ilpea flowing, fluent
-eya given to doing X, -ive vyod lie vyodeya mendacious, given to lying
-wea (present passive participle) being Xed vyixer to clean vyixwea being cleaned
-yena like, -ly, -ic tat angel tatyena angelic
-(a)wa (past passive participle) Xed oter to ignore otwa or otawa unknown
-uwa (potential passive participle) -able, liable to be Xed teater to see teatuwa visible
Other Suffixes[edit]
SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION
-an abstract quality, -ness, -hood, -ity iva happy ivan happiness
    via beautiful vian beauty
    ama hot aman heat
-at person who has the quality of yova guilty yovat guilty party
    oga little ogat little person
-ut agent, practitioner, one who does X, -er, -ant, -ent yuxer to help yuxut helper, assistant
    vyoder lie vyodut liar
-eat one who does X vyixeat cleaning person
-(a)wat one who has been Xed tujber to kill tujbwat or tujbawat murder victim
-(a)was what is/was Xed ter to know twas or tawas what is known, fact
-et a person a level down ted father tedet son
    tid uncle tidet cousin
    tad spouse tadet brother
-es item of lesser importance nas money nases change, coin
-ob child of, offspring tob man tobob infant
    apet horse apetob foal
-un < sun concrete thing viber decorate vibun ornament
-on < son abstract thing kyiser weight down kyison problem
    ifer to love ifon love
-tun science, ...ology tej life tejtun biology
    tob man tobtun anthropology
-in < tin doctrine, -ism tot god totin theism, religion
    dot society dotin socialism
-yan collection, aggregate fab tree fabyan forest
    mar star maryan constellation
-ar < sar instrument, tool, device per go par vehicle
    teab eye teabar eyeglasses
-ur < sur machine yalb lift yalbur elevator
Many of the above suffixes and prefixes can be combined as in the following example:
  • ov- against, anti-
  • dot society
  • -in ism
  • -at person having the quality of
  • -yena like, -ish
  • ovdotinatyena anti-socialistic

Rule #3: Ordinal Number Codification[edit]

Ordinal number codification applies only to core words of the 1st group. Ordinal numeration operates on the vowel of the core word stem. This classification, called primary numeration has as its criterion the decreasing importance of items relative to the object and the greatness with respect to the object.
Primary Ordinal Numeration[edit]
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b
tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant
tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree
teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop
tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk
tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum wing dub ministry fub branch
tyob leg jyob* hour fyob root
    jyab* minute
    jyeb* second
* Easier to pronounce as jwob, jwab, and jweb.
Seconday Ordinal Numeration[edit]
The order, the elements or details composing new words thus formed can have a secondary ordinal number classification. This second ordinal numeration, called secondary numeration, operates through the addition of a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
Examples:
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b
mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg
miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip
miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh
miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee
miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin
miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle
tuyab hand tyoyab foot
tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel
tuyib palm tyoyib sole
tuyub finger tyoyub toe
tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
Tertiary Ordinal Numeration[edit]
A third-level ordinal numeration can occur in order to indicated an order, type, or details. This operates by adding a third ordinal vowel to the front of the word.
Example:
...tuyub
tuyub finger
atuyub thumb
etuyub index
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = man
PRIMARY NUMERATION tub arm
SECONDARY NUMERATION tuyub finger
TERTIARY NUMERATION atuyub thumb
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixal numeration even though there is no primary or secondary numeration.
Example:
...dob ...pet
dob state pet animal
adob empire apet horse
edob kingdom epet bull
idob principality ipet ass
udob duchy upet ram
yodob marquisate yopet goat
yadob county yapet pig
yedob dominion yepet dog

Rule #4: Compounding Partial Words[edit]

When forming a compound word, the generic consonant (the last one) of the determinant (first word) is the same as the classifier consonant (first) of the determined (2nd word), the generic consonant is suppressed so as to avoid two of the same consonants in a row. This is also called portmanteau compounding.
  • dom city + mep waydomep boulevard
  • pat bird + teub mouthpateub beak
  • pat bird + tub armpatub wing
  • teb head + bok illnesstebok headache
When forming a compound word, the principal word has one or two prefixed vowels, this vowel or these vowels come at the beginning of the compound word.

Examples:

  • tuyub fingeratuyub thumbiatuyub right thumb
Codifying the Negative and Opposite Senses[edit]
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 1st group, the negative sense or opposite sense is obtained by adding the prefixes o and yo, the latter being more intense.
  • mola naturalomola unnatural, artificial
  • tobyena humaneotobyena inhumane
  • data friendlyyodata inimical
  • tat angelyotat devil
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 2nd group, the opposite sense is obtained by prefixing lo dis-, un-, de- if followed by a consonant, or ol if followed by a vowel, eg.:
  • fwa wantedlofwa unwanted
  • yuxer to tie uployuxer to untie
  • axaxer to activateolaxaxer to deactivate
  • afwa allowableolafwa disallowed

Rule #5: Codification by the Addition of Ordinal Vowels[edit]

a) When you wish to form a compound word with words from a same family of vowels, if the ordinal vowel is an o, you replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING
a d o b republic
  d e b leader
a d e b president
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING
i d o b kingdom
  d e b leader
i d e b king
b) If, on the other hand, the two words are already subordinate, then the vowel of the determinant is placed between the ordinal vowel of the determined and the generic consonant.
Examples:
  • mil watermal airmial steam, vapor
  • mel soilmil watermeil mud
  • tul mealtil drinktuil soup
c) You can also form new compound words by applying the Rule # 6 above (a and b).
Examples:
  • adob republicdab governmentadab government of the republic
  • adab government of the republicdeb leaderadaeb president of the republic
  • (Applying Rule #8 on feminizing words by post-iotation) ⇒ adaeyb Madam President of the Republic

Rule #6: Swapping Endings[edit]

When the generic consonant of a core word is replaced by that of another core word, all of the vowels of this latter word undergo the transformation required by the new generic consonant.
Examples:
TOB
man
TOF
clothing
NOF
cloth


TYOYAB
foot
TYOYAV
sock
NOV
linen
tob man tof clothing tov lingerie
tab body taf suit  
teb head tef hat tev scarf
teib nose   teiv handkerchief
tib' trunk tif vest  
tiab chest   tiav shirt
tyob leg tyof pants tyov underwear shorts
tyoyab foot tyoyaf shoe tyoyav sock
tuyob hand tuyof glove  

Rule #7: Scientific Vocabulary-building[edit]

Chemical Elements[edit]
The names of chemical elements are formed from a number representing the element's atomic number (number of electrons), followed by a letter combination indicating whether it is a metal or metalloid, and followed, if pertinent, by a combination of letters indicating whether it is a gas or liquid. The table that follows shows how this composition works:
ELEMENT ELECTRON COUNT METAL GENERIC = m
silver 47 = ulye ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali alim
iron 46 = elya elyam
gold 79 = yelyum yelyum
copper 29 = elyu elyum
tin 50 = yolo yolom
    METALLOID GENERIC = mc
phosophorus 15 = alyo alyoms
carbon 6 = ya yams
    GAS = al LIQUID = il
hydrogen 1 = a amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi yimsal
mercury 80 = yilo yilomsil
The words amsal, yemsal, and yimsal each carry three pieces of information.
The first letter indicates their classification by number of electrons.
The two following letters: mc indicates metalloids; The two last letters: al indicates that they are a gas.
The word yilomil also carries three pieces of information:
The three first letters: 'yi-l-o show classification by number of electrons.
The fourth letter, m, indicates that it's a metal.
The two last letters, il, indicates that it's a liquid.
Other Non-elemental Substances[edit]
Non-elemental natural and man-made substances and alloys are formed using mnemonic components.
  • steel = elyamyig < elyam iron + yig(a) hard
  • plastic = sanyel < m- shape + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • rubber = yigyel < yig- soft + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • glass = zyev < zy(e) (see) through + (m)ev porcelain
  • bronze = elyumyig < elyum copper + yig(a) hard
  • paint = vozil < voz color + -il liquid
  • ink = dril < dr(er) write + -il liquid
  • coal = yamsmumun < yams carbon + mum mine + -un substance
  • glue = yanil < yan together + -il liquid
  • paste = yanyel < yan together + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • resin = defabyel < defab pine tree + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • wood = faof < fa(b) tree + (n)of material, tissue
  • leather = tayof < tayo(b) skin + (n)of material, tissue
  • concrete = yanmulmeg < yan together + mul matter + meg stone
  • tar = movyik < mov smoke + yik(a) solid
  • lava = magmebil < mag fire + meb mountain + -il liquid
  • fuel = magil' < mag fire + -il liquid
  • shampoo = tayevyiyel < taye(b) hair + vyi(a) clean + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • detergent = vyunobil < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -il liquid
  • soap = vyunobyel < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cheese = bilyig < bil milk + yig(a) hard
  • butter = bilyug < bil milk + yug(a) soft
  • syrup = gyalevil < gya extremely + lev(el) sugar, sweet + -il liquid
  • gravy = taobil < taob flesh, meat + -il liquid
  • alcohol = fil < (levaf) ferment + -il liquid
  • wax = apelatyel < apelat bee + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • honey = apelatil < apelat bee + -il liquid
  • brick = mef < m(el) earthen + (no)f hard material
  • porcelain = mev < m(el) earthen + (no)v soft material
  • gem = mez < m(el) earthen + (no)z value, precious
Atomic and Subatomic Particles[edit]
From the word mul matter, substance, stuff, we get the following derivatives:
  • mul matter, substance, stuff
  • mula material, substantial, physical
  • omula immaterial, unsubstantial, non-physical
  • ovmul anti-matter
  • omul nothingness, void, nihil
  • omulxer anihilate
  • moza mul black matter
  • multun physics
  • multuna physics-related
  • multut physics scientist
  • mulog particle
  • muloga particulate
  • mulogxer crush, crumble, pulverize
  • amulog proton
  • emulog neutron
  • imulog electron
  • imuloga electronic
  • imulp electricity
  • imulpa electrical
  • imulpaxer electrify
  • mules element
  • mulesa elemental
  • mulesyan compound
  • yanmul mix, mixture, chemical
  • yanmula chemical
  • yanmultun chemistry
  • yanmultuna chemical
  • yanmultut chemist
  • mulgyon atom
  • mulgyona atomic
  • obmulgyona subatomic
  • mulgyonzen nucleus
  • mulgyonzena nuclear

Rule #8: The Feminization of Words[edit]

To form the feminine of a word or to indicate that an object or thing belongs to females, iotate (add a y) to the ordinal vowel of the word.
Examples:
MALE-RELATED FEMALE-RELATED
tob man toyb woman
tad spouse, husband tayd wife
tadet brother taydet sister
ted father teyd mother
tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt
tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
apet horse apeyt mare
epet bull epeyt cow
tiav shirt tiayv blouse
tyof pants tayf skirt
tulyuxut waiter tulyuxuyt waitress
Note that personal pronouns can be feminized as well. The unfeminized form is either masculine or neutral with respect to gender.
MASCULINE FEMININE
at I / me ayt we / us women
et you eyt you gals
it he / him iyt she / her
yat we / us yayt we females / us women
yet you guys yeyt you gals
yit they / them yiyt they / them (f.)
This process works for the possessive adjective derivatives of these pronouns:
  • iyta her
  • yeyta you gals'
The pronouns ot one, yot they (generic) and (y)ut are not normally feminized.

Rule #9: Geophysical Vowel Coding[edit]

Geophysical vowel coding, as it's name indicates, occurs on vowels by giving them a particular geophysical meaning.
  • a = air, gas, skyward
  • e = soil, ground
  • i = water, liquid, juice, etc.
  • u = concrete thing, material, mineral, underground
  • o = abstract thing, initial item, outer space
This codification occurs on the ordinal vowel of 1st Group core words only.
Examples:
m...m m...p d...p p...t m...l
mom outer space mop galaxy dop military pot animal mol nature
mam sky map wind dap air force pat bird mal air
mem land mep way dep army pet (land) animal mel soil
mim sea mip river dip navy pit fish mil water
mum underground mup tunnel put worm mul mineral
Vowel coding also allows for arriving at other combined-concept word categories by placing a vowel having the value ascribed to it by Rule # 9 just a before the generic consonant of the initial word. (See Rule #5)
Examples:
COMBINED-CONCEPT WORD CODIFICATION
pait aquatic bird pat bird + liquid / sea
piat flying fish pit fish + skyward / air
diap naval aviation dip navy + skyward / air
'meil mud mel' soil + liquid / sea

Rule #10: Directional and Positional Codification[edit]

Rule #11: Codification of Mnemonic Marks[edit]

Rule #12: Harmonic Codification[edit]