Mirad Version 2
Phonology and Orthography
- There is a direct, one-to-one correlation between Mirad sounds (phonology) and the way these sounds are written (orthography).
- Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English. Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
UPPERCASE A B C* D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q* R S T U V W X Y Z LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
- * Not used in "native" Mirad words.
- Spelling a word means uttering the names in succession of the letters in the word. For example:
- Mirad → mi i ro a da
- anxwa → a ni xu wu a
- The letters w and h have only limited, functional (non-semantic) values in Mirad.
- The letters c (pronounced as ch in English chair) and q (pronounced variably, depending on the context) are used only to represent foreign words and names. For example, Ce is used to represent Che in Che Guevara.
- The Mirad phonological system consists of 20 consonant phonemes (minimal significant sounds) and 5 vowel phonemes.
- There are 20 consonant phonemes.
- The following IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) chart shows the articulation of the consonant phonemes in Mirad:
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal Nasal /m/ /n/ Plosive voiced /b/ /d/ /g/ unvoiced /p/ /t/ /k/ Affricate voiced unvoiced (/t͡ʃ/)* Fricative voiced /v/ /z/ /ʒ/ unvoiced /f/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/ Approximate /l/ /j/ /w/ Flap /ɽ/
- Note: /j/ and /w/ are glides. The plosives are unaspirated as in French and Spanish.
- * Used only in foreign words.
- The consonant graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above consonant phonemes are as follows:
PHONEME /b/ /t͡ʃ/ /d/ /f/ /g/ /h/ /ʒ/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /p/ /ɽ/ /s/ /t/ /v/ /w/ /ʃ/ /j/ /z/ GRAPHEME b c d f g h j k l m n p r s t v w x y z
- The letter x is pronounced like an sh in English.
- The letter h is never silent. It is used to form the determiners in Mirad and is also used to simulate foreign sounds like the ch in Yiddish lachayim (to life!), or German Bach.
- The letter j is pronounced like the Zh in Russian Zhivago.
- The letter s is always unvoiced as English ss and never sounds like a z.
- The letter g is always a hard sound as in English gap, not as in English wage.
- The letter c is used only in foreign words and represents the unvoiced affricate sound t͡ʃ like the ch in English church. For example, the Mirad name for China is Cinam.
- The letters in Mirad correspond one-to-one with phonemes. There are no cases of sounds being represented by paired consonant as in English ph, sh, ch, or th.
- The letter y is the consonant phoneme /j/ and is pronounced [j] like the y in English yes when it begins a syllable, but when it ends a syllable it is a phonetically the glide /ɪ/ as in the word bay = /bay/ = [baɪ], as in English bye.
- The unvoiced plosives p, t, and k are pronounced without the puff of breath that sometimes follows them in their English counterparts.
- The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and certain numerical expressions. It is pronounced as English w or the ou in French oui. German speakers are cautioned not to confuse it with the German letter w, which is pronounced in a manner closer to an English v.
- Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
CONSONANT IPA ARTICULATION NEAREST EQUIVALENTS b b unaspirated voiced bilabial plosive French bon, English boy c tʃ unvoiced palato-alveolar affricate English child, Spanish chico (only used in foreign words) d d unaspirated voiced alveolar plosive French de, English dog f f unvoiced bilabial fricative English fog g g unaspirated voiced velar plosive French gare, English good (always hard, even before e and i) h h glottal fricative English house (or a glottal stop or other similar sounds like German Bach j ʒ voiced palatal fricative French je or English mirage k k unaspirated unvoiced velar fricative French carte, English kite (without aspiration) or French comment l l voiced post-alveolar lateral approximant English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell. m m voiced bilabial nasal English mother n n voiced alveolar nasal English nobody p p unvoiced bilabial plosive French pain, English pan (without aspiration) q - - (Only used in foreign words, where it has various guttural pronunciations) r r alveolar flap Spanish mira or Italian Roma s s unvoiced alveolar fricative Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in rose) t t unaspirated unvoiced alveolar plosive French tous, English top (without aspiration) v v voiced bilabial fricative English very w w voiced labio-velar approximant English water, French oui x ʃ unvoiced post-alveolar fricative English shape or French cher y j voiced palatal approximant English yard (except when post-iotating a vowel to create a vowel diphthong like oy) z z voiced alveolar fricative English zone. German speakers, beware. Mirad z is pronounced like a German s, as in Sohn, not like z as in zehn, which sounds more like ts.
Note: If you see a blank here instead of an IPA symbol, it probably means that the font you are using to display characters in your browser does not support these characters.
- There are 5 vowel phonemes, each of which can be followed by a y-sound, producing post-iotated vowels or diphthongs.
- This IPA chart shows the articulation of Mirad vowel phonemes:
Front Central Back High /i/ /u/ Mid /e/ /o/ Low /a/
The vowel graphemes (letters) in Mirad used to represent the above vowel phonemes (sounds) are as follows:
PHONEME /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ GRAPHEME a e i o u
- Simple Vowels
- The vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some examples.
VOWEL IPA* SPANISH FRENCH ENGLISH a a mano la ah! e e hecho été day (without the y-glide) i i si oui see (without the y-glide) o o no eau so (without the w-glide) u u tu vous too (without the w-glide)
- * IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet
- Iotated Vowels (Diphthongs)
- Vowels in Mirad can be post-iotated ( = post-palatized, y-glided) with the consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a syllable. For example, igay and eyna contain post-iotated vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-RA-ya) does not, since the y begins a syllable.
POST-IOTATED VOWELS IPA /PHONEMIC/ [PHONETIC] ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION SPANISH/FRENCH PRONUNCIATION ay /aj/ [aɪ] bye hay ( Sp. there is) ey /ej/ [eɪ] day (with y-glide) rey ( Sp. king) iy /ij/ [iɪ] see (with y-glide) abeille (Fr. bee) oy /oj/ [oɪ] boy hoy (Sp. today) uy /uj/ [uɪ] gooey muy (Sp. very)
- Syllables starting with a y (ya, ye, etc.) form a set of what are known as pre-iotated vowels. Vowels, pre-iotated vowels, post-iotated vowels, and circum-iotated vowels (that is, those beginning and ending with a vowel like yay, yoy, etc.) are sometimes treated as a class of vowels in the grammar of Mirad for the sake of word-building.
- Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-iotate or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the glides r, l, and w, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide or non-y consonants, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
CASE EXAMPLE SYLLABIFIED 1 ama hot a-ma 2 ayma warm ay-ma 3 aymsea warming up aym-se-a 4 pyerxwa exploded pyer-xwa 5 upayo will have come u-pa-yo 6 vyaa true vya-a 7 vyaay truly vya-ay 8 vyay (not a word) vyay 9 tambwa settled tam-bwa
- Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
PATTERN EXAMPLES V[y] o, ay C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre V[y]C iyt, ad, ant, aynt C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, toyb, xwer V[lrn]C alx, arx, yalp, yarp, yank
- Two non-glide consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.
- Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel. In this case, final y is treated like a consonant, and so a word ending in ay is stressed on that syllable (since the a is non-final). The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked teja vital te-ja igay quickly i-gay Mirad Mirad Mi-rad booka tired bo-o-ka bookan fatigue bo-o-kan tejea alive te-je-a oyse lacks oy-se
- Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
- The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
- Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
- All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
- The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English Amerikam America Amerikama American Amerikat an American Amerikad American English Ivan Ivan Dropek ay Poos War and Peace At Mirade. I speak Mirad. Hyat be ha mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon. Yat tameya Boston. We were living in Boston. His se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine. Ha Anxwa Doobi gey dyunwe ha AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.
- Punctuation and the rules governing it are the same as in English. The most common punctuation marks are:
PUNCTUATION MARK NAME . period , comma ; semi-colon : colon ' single quote " double quote ( left parens ) right parens -- dash ! exclamation point ? question mark * asterisk
Types of Nouns
- Nouns in Mirad can be distinguished in these various ways:
- common vs. proper
COMMON PROPER tam...house Meer...Venus yagsim...bench Fransam...France dyes...book Notre Dame...Notre Dame tej...life Tot...God
- concrete vs. abstract
CONCRETE ABSTRACT tab...body ifon...love mil...water oyman...coolness deuz...song deuzen...singing
- countable vs. mass
COUNTABLE MASS pat...bird pattel...bird food patayeb...feather patayebyan...plumage meg...rock mil...water
- gender-neutral / male-oriented vs. female-oriented
GENDER-NEUTRAL / MALE-ORIENTED FEMALE-ORIENTED tob...human being, man toyb...woman taf...suit, outfit tayf...dress apet...horse apeyt...mare
- singular or plural
SINGULAR PLURAL dom...city domi...cities gon...part goni...parts jub...day jubi...days
- inanimate (things) or animate (humans and animals)
INANIMATE ANIMATE mam...sky pot...animal tom...building aut...person job...time tobot...child
- Nouns also include gerunds, i.e. abstract nouns which are nominalized derivations of verbs like deuzen singing < deuzer to sing or osexen destruction < osexer to destroy.
- In Mirad, all common nouns in their singular dictionary lookup form end in a CONSONANT. Proper nouns sometimes end in a vowel, such as Roma Rome. Plural common countable nouns end in the vowel i (pat bird ⇒ pati birds).
- The above noun type distinctions are relevant in various parts of Mirad's grammar.
Pluralization of Common Nouns
- A singular countable common noun always ends in a consonant and is made plural by suffixing the plural marker vowel i. So, the plural of pur car is puri cars. In noun phrases, for example, where a noun is modified by an article and adjective, only the noun is pluralized, that is, there is no agreement across word boundaries as in many European languages (la belle fleur →les belles fleurs).
SINGULAR PLURAL tam...house tami...houses toyb...woman toybi...women tej...life teji...lives ha via dom...the beautiful city ha via domi...the beautiful cities
- In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ha the; There is no indefinite article like English a / an. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ha (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Deictic Determiners). The definite article ha is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Spanish. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
MIRAD ENGLISH SPECIFICITY tam a house indefinite, no article ha tam the house definite ha tami the houses definite, plural tej life general, no article fitejawa tej a life well-lived indefinite, no article ha tej (...at bayse) the life (...I have) specific Fransad French general, no article Ivan Ivan person's name, no article Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article Ha yivani hu yat ifie. The freedoms we enjoy. abstraction specified Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
- Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dare not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."
- Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take a definite article only in a few cases like ha Anxwa Doebi the United States, which is really composed of common nouns. Otherwise, a country name like Fransam does not take a definite article, just as it does not in English.
Modifiers: Placement and Agreement
- Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun, except that numeric adjectives, such as ewa two naturally are followed by a noun in the plural number.
Mirad English ha ewa aga tami the two big houses gla ifxea taxi many pleasant memories hya fia tob every good man ha yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads gra vua sexen too much ugly construction ata aja teji My past lives
- Nouns can be
- linked with a preposition or conjunction, where the prepositional/conjunctional phrase follows the head noun, or
- juxtaposed, where the modifier noun is separated by a space and comes before the head noun, or
- compounded, where the modifier noun is prefixed to a headword, or
- hyphenated, where two equal elements are joined by a hyphen.
LINKAGE EXAMPLE CONSTRUCTION Ivan ay Maria....Ivan and Maria nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ay (and) ha tam ey ha par....the house or the car nouns linked associatively by the conjunction ey (or) hyati oy ha toybi....all but the women nouns linked associatively by the conjunction or (but) dunnyan boy eta dyun....a list without your name nouns linked associatively by the preposition boy (without) tej bi nasuk....a life of poverty nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi of ha tam bi Maria ....Mary's house (the house of Mary nouns linked possessively by the preposition bi (of) job bi aga ivan....a time of great joy nouns linked associatively by the preposition bi (of) dyen ayv ha Ea Mira Dropek....a book about the Second World War nouns linked associatively by the preposition ayv (about) dropek jaxeni....war preparations modifier noun dropek (war) juxtaposed with the head noun jaxeni (preparations) dom yautpur....a city bus modifier noun dom (city) juxtaposed with the head noun yautpur (bus) tojvaf....a death wish modifier noun toj (death) compounded with the head noun vaf (wish) jogatanyaf....youth league modifier noun jogat (youth) compounded with the head noun anyaf (league) maj-moj...a day-and-night two or more equal nouns hyphenated
- The X bi Y prepositional construction must always be used for possession by a named person, eg. ha tam bi Sam (Sam's house = the house of Sam). The methods of noun linkage otherwise follow the English pattern in most all cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb wine glass, where wine modifies the glass associatively). More about this and other prepositions or conjunctions can be found in the section on Prepositions or Conjunctions.
- Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Word Formation.
Noun Derivational Suffixes
- Nouns can be divided into:
- simple nouns such as pur vehicle
- compound nouns such as naadpur train < naad rail + pur vehicle
- derived nouns such as fabyan forest < fab tree + -yan, a suffix meaning collection
- Derived nouns are formed by attaching nominal suffixes (and sometimes prefixes)to other words or roots. A list of nominal suffixes to form derived nouns is shown in the following table. More can be read about noun derivation in the section on vocabulary-building.
SUFFIX MEANING BASE ONTO WHICH
SUFFIX IS ADDED
EXAMPLES -yan collection, grouping, -ary noun tob man → tobyan mankind
mar star → maryan constellation
fab tree → fabyan forest
dyen book → dyenyan library
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant verb stem bek ertreat → bekuyt nurse
ertravel → poput traveler
erwin → akut winner -en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifi erenjoy → ifien enjoyment
ersing → deuzen singing
eract → axen action, acting -ob, -oyb (f.) offspring, baby of noun tob human being → toboyb baby girl
apet horse → apetob foal
yopet goat → yopetob kid
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem vi abeautiful → via beauty
afair → yevan fairness, equity
ahuman → toban humanity, humanness, manhood -(s)(u)n object, thing various stems vyu adirty → vyun spot
ersettle → tambun settlement
ershred → gorfun scrap, shred
yod not a single → yodsun not a single thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems if erto love → ifon love
ov against → ovon obstacle
astrong → azon force
adifficult → yikson problem -in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot god → totin religion, theism
anude → otofin nudism
yulf terror → yulfin terrorism
-tun science of, -ology noun tot god → tottun theology
tob man → tobtun anthropology
vob plant → vobtun botany
-es small item, part noun tom building → tomes apartment
saun kind → saunes sample
dreuz poem → deuzes stanza
mek dust, powder → mekes speck, gain
-et sub-level version of (persons only) noun tad father → tadet son
tuyd aunt → tuydet niece
tyud tutor → tyudet pupil
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas first one, first thing
otwa unknown → otwas mystery
tejea living → tejeas living thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat second one, second person
faa holy → faat holy one, saint
ujna last → ujat last one, last person
Amerika American → Amerikat an American
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla English → Anglad English (language)
Mira of the world → Mirad Mirad (world speech)
thorse → aped neigh, whinny -(e)m place various stems ho-? what-? → hom? where?
yex work → yexem worksite
ab on, above → abem top, surface
alateral → kum side -(a)m place, house, building various stems nun merchanise → nunam store
til drink → tilam bar, tavern
erto pray → fyadilam church -im room, chamber various stems fadil erto pray → fadilim chapel
erto cook → magelim kitchen
erto dress → tofim dressing room -[aou]r instrument, device, machine usu. verb stem p erto go → pur car
erto write → drar pencil
erto cut → gorbar knife
erto lift → yalbur elevator, lift
dop military → dopur machine gun
-ag big noun tam house → tamag mansion
tyal meal → tyalag banquet
tilar spoon → tilarag ladle
-ayg big and cute noun tam house → tamayg cozy mansion
epet dog → epetayg wolfie
-yag big and ugly noun tud uncle → tudyag dirty old uncle
toyb woman → toybyag hag
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet horse → apetog pony
tyal meal → tyalog snack
gorbun cut → gorbunog cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam house → tamoyg cottage
apayt chicken → apaytoyg chickadee
mimpar boat → mirparoyg dingy
-yog little and ugly noun tam house → tamyog shack
epat duck → epatyog ugly duckling
kod secret → kodyog little dirty secret
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man light → manig flash
pyex stroke → pyexig swat
erdive, fly down → yopapig swoop -if love of, -philia noun tel food → telif gourmandise
doab homeland → doabif patriotism
dyes book → dyesif bibliophilia, love of books
-ef need of noun tel food → telef hunger
afast → igef emergency
til drink → tilef thirst
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf hydrophobia
totin religion → totinuf hatred of religion
toyb woman → toybuf misogyny
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet snake → lopyetyuf fear of snakes
mil water → milyuf hyrophobia
-yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teat erto see → teatyaf ability to see
erto think → texyaf cognition
erto understand → testyaf comprehension
erto spend → nosyaf spending power -yof inability to, disability verb stem teat erto see → teatyof blindness
erto hear → teetyof deafness
erto move → pasyof paralysis
erto sleep → tujyof insomnia -yef compulsion to, mania verb stem vyod erto lie → vyodyef compulsion to lie
erto steal → kobiyef kleptomania, compulsion to steal
- Adjectives can be of the following types:
- qualitative, like iva (happy), fia (good), oga (small)
- denominal (noun-derived), like doma (urban) < dom (city) or teaba (ocular) < teab (eye)
- deverbal (verb-derived), (participles) like tejea (living) < tejer (to live) or twa (known) < ter (to know)
- preposition-derived, like aba (upper) < ab on top of or zoa (posterior) < zo (behind)
- deictic, like hia (this), huyena (such), haewa (both)
- numeric, like awa (one), ea (second), iona (triple)
- quantitative, like ga (more), glo (few), gra (to much)
- pronominal, like heta (whose), ata (my), hyeta (anyone's)
- Descriptive adjectives are the main focus of this section. Determinative adjectives (determiners) behave differently and are discussed under Determiners. Deverbal adjectives, usually referred to as participles, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal adjectives (i.e. possessive adjectives) are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns.
- All descriptive adjectives end in the adjectival marker vowel a.
- fi- (root qualitative morpheme) ⇒ fia good
- pur (noun meaning vehicle) ⇒ pura vehicular
- dalw- (passive stem of the verb speak) ⇒ dalwa spoken
- ab (preposition meaning on) ⇒ aba superior
- Such adjectives precede the noun or noun phrase they modify:
- aga tam....a big house
- ha fia toyb....the good woman
- ata boka ted....my sick father
- fia telsyeb bi vafil.....a good bottle of wine
- Yata dooba doof....our national flag
- Ata tejea tyedi.....my living relatives
- doba xeut state agent can also be expressed as the noun compound dobxeut. Dob means a state.
- pata bok avian illness can be compounded as patbok, literally bird illness.
- Note: Compounded nouns often have an idiomatic meaning not exactly equal to their separate parts. More about this in the later section on vocabulary-building.
Comparison of Adjectives by Degree
- As in English, descriptive adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners themselves that are used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
QUANTITATIVE DETERMINER COMPARISON ga more ga fia (vyel) better (than) ge as, equally ge fia (vyel) as good (as) go less go fia (vyel) less good (than) gla very gla fia very good glay so glay fia so good gle rather/quite gle fia rather/quite good glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good gra too gra fia too good gre enough gre fia good enough gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good/not good enough gwa most gwa fia (bi, be) best (of, in) gwe average gwe fia good on average gwo least gwo fia (bi, be) least good (of, in)
- The relative conjunction vyel is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison or than in a non-equalitative comparison. Examples:
- Ata tam se ga aga vyel etas. My house is bigger than yours.
- Hia tam voy se ge aga vyel atas. This house is not as big as mine.
- His se ha gwa aga tam bi yata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
- Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.
Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives
- Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative and often other adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
ADJECTIVE ABSTRACT QUALITY fia good fian goodness yeva just yevan justice uja final ujan finality joga young jogan youth teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity dooba nation dooban nationality tojbuwa lethal tojbuwan lethality
Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives
- Descriptive adjectives can be negated by prefixing the vowel o. This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
- Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
- Here are some examples:
NORMAL NEGATED ega.... normal oega.... abnormal twa.... known otwa.... unknown geyla.... similar ogeyla.... dissimilar iva.... happy oiva.... unhappy data.... friendly odata.... unfriendly
yodata.... inimical, enemy-like
Adjectival Derivational Endings
- All descriptive adjectives end in at least the suffix a. Many adjectives are derived from other parts of speech, using one of more of the following derivational endings.
ENDING TRANSITION TYPE MEANING BASE WORD DERIVED ADJECTIVE -a N->ADJ relating to, of fyaat god
-aya / -ika N->ADJ full of, -ful, -ous mil water
milaya watery, aquaous
-oya / -uka N->ADJ empty of, -less, -free teb head
-yena N->ADJ like, -ish, -y fyaat god
fyaatyena godly, godlike
tobyena manly, virile
-ea V->ADJ -ing, -ent, -ant ags- grow
agsea growing, crescent
tejea living, alive
kyasea changing, variant
-yea V->ADJ -ive, tending to dal- talk
-wa V->ADJ -ed dal- talk
-oa V->ADJ -about to, apt to toj- die
tajb- give birth
tajboa about to deliver
-ua V->ADJ -able, potentially V tojb- kill
akujua potentially successful
Pronominalization of Adjectives
- Adjectives can be pronominalized (converted to a pronoun) by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN fia.... good fias.... a good thing
fiasi.... good things
fiat.... a good person
fiati.... good persons
aga.... big agas.... something big
agasi.... big ones
agat.... a big person
agati.... big persons
joga.... young, new jogas.... something new, novelty
jogasi.... new ones
yogat.... young person, youth
jaga.... old jagas.... antique
jagasi.... old ones
jagat.... elderly person
awas.... one (of them)
ewasi.... two (of them)
awat.... one (of them)
ewati.... two of them
hia.... this hias.... this one
hiasi.... these (things)
hiat.... this one
gla.... much, many glas.... a lot (of stuff)
glasi.... many (things)
glati.... many (people)
- Hia tyoyaf se ogre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
- Yat fu daler bay ha gwa jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
- At fe teaxer ha jogas, voy ha jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
- Ha ujnati so ha ijnati. The last shall be the first.
- Adverbs are words that modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
- Adverbs can be derived from descriptive adjectives by adding y to the a ending.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB fia good fiay well yeva fair yevay fairly uja final ujay finally joga new jogay newly teyda maternal teyday maternally
- At the end of sentences or clauses, common one-syllable-stem adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
- Iyt deuze fi. She sings well.
- At upo ig. I'll come quickly.
- There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives. Here are the most common examples:
yob....down yub....near yib....far ab....on eb....between ob....off ub....toward ib....away bay....with/along boy....without byu....as far (as) byi....since vay....indeed vey....perhaps voy....not zay....ahead zey....across
ze....to the middle
zoy....back zu....to the left zi....to the right uz....on a curve iz....straight, directly yuz....around yiz....beyond gay....also gey....even goy....no more gaj....still goj....no longer yan....together yon....apart jay....beforehand jey....currently joy....afterwards
- The words in the above chart that are underlined can also serve as prepositions (See Prepositions).
- These words are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
- At teaxa yab..... I looked up. (= At yabteaxa.)
- Duhev et hyej upo zoy?..... Will you ever come back. (= ...zoyupo?)
- Et po yib be tej...... You will go far in life. (= Et yipo...)
- At voy se eta ted.....I am not your father.
- Pu zuy, jogat!....Go left, young man! (= Zuypu...)
- Yat vay sa hum.....We were indeed there.
- It pa oyeb.....He went outside. (= It oyepa.)
- Iyt gay deuze.....She also sings.
- Yit yexe gey be moji.....They work even nights.
- Ha tobob gaj tujeye.....The baby is still sleeping.
- Yat yefe yexer yan.....We must work together. (= ...yanyexer.)
- His vey upo yon.....This may come apart. (= ...yonupo.)
- Hit se jay toja.....This one is already dead.
- Many of the above adverbs can be prefixed to verbs, nouns, and even adjecctives to indicate motion in various directions. (Keep in mind that the b or p can be assimilated to the first letter of per (go) or ber (put). For example:
- yeb (in) + per (go) = yeper (to enter) [NOT: yebper]
- oyeb (out) + bier (take) = oyebier (to take out) [NOT: oyebbier]
- yab (up) + per (go) = yaper (to rise) [NOT: yabper]
- yob (up) + kima (sloped) = yobkima (downward-sloping)
- yub (near) + per (go) = yuper (to approach) [NOT: yubper]
- yib (far) + daler (talk) = yibdaler (to telephone)
- yiz (beyond) + per (go) = yizper (to surpass)
- yuz (around) + pipen (sailing) = yuzpipen (circumnavigation)
- zay (ahead) + paser (move) = zaypaser (to advance)
- ze (to the middle) + jaga (aged) = zejaga (middle-aged)
- zey (across) + mep (road) = zeymep (bridge)
- zoy (back) + nogea (gradual) = zoynogea (retrogressive)
- iz (straight) + nad (line) = iznad (vector)
- zi (to the right) + kum (side) = izkum (right side)
- zu (far) + tuyab (hand) = zutuyaba (left-handed)
- uz (on a curve) + nad (line) = uznad (curve)
- yan (together) + up (come) = yanup (a meeting)
- yon (apart) + ber (put) = yonber (to separate)
Word Order of Adverbs
- The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
- It deuze viay..... He sings beautifully.
- Et yefe xer gwa ig..... You must do it as quickly as possible.
- Et hyoj ako firxa ivan..... You will never gain perfect happiness.
- At voy te. (OR) At te voy. .... I don't know.
Comparison of Adverbs by Degree
- Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of quantitative determiners. The words than and as are translated by the relative conjunction vyel.
POSITIVE +/=/- COMPARATIVE +/- SUPERLATIVE fiay.... well ga fiay vyel.... better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
ge igay vyel....as well as
go fiay vyel....less well than
gwa fiay....(the) best (Lit: most good-ly, as well as possible
gwo fiay....(the) least well
- Determiners are words that specify or point out the context of nouns and other parts of speech. The English determiner this, for example, specifies a noun for its proximity to the current context. Determiners can be categorized in Mirad as the following types:
TYPE ENGLISH EXAMPLES Quantitative more, less, very Numerical one, half, first Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
- Furthermore, as for part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.
- Quantitative determiners act in one of several ways, they:
- specify mass, uncountable, singular nouns for relative AMOUNT, eg. much happiness, less work
- specify countable nouns for relative NUMBER, eg. one apple, two birds, many places
- specify adverbs, adjectives, and verbs for relative DEGREE, eg. how poorly, very good, eat too much.
- From these, pronominalized quantitative determiners for PERSONS and THINGS can be derived.
- Inanimate singular pronouns are formed by adding s for AN AMOUNT OF A THING
- Inanimate plural pronouns are formed by adding si for A NUMBER OF THINGS
- Animate plural pronouns are formed by adding ti for A NUMBER OF PERSONS.
- The following table presents most of these word forms:
ADVERB / ADJECTIVE SINGULAR INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL INANIMATE PRONOUN PLURAL ANIMATE PRONOUN DEGREE: How...(big / quickly)?
AMOUNT: How much...(money)?
NUMBER: How many...(books)?
AMOUNT: How much...(+ STUFF)? NUMBER: How many...(+ THINGS)? NUMBER: How many...(+ PEOPLE)? ga more gas more (stuff) gasi many (things) gati many (people) ge as, as much, as many ges as much (stuff) gesi as many (things) geti as many people go less, fewer gos less (stuff) gosi fewer (things) goti fewer (people) gla very, much, many
glay so, so much, so many
glas much (stuff)
glays so much stuff)
glasi many (things)
glaysi so many (things)
glati many (people)
glayti so many (people)
gle rather, quite a lot, quite a few gles quite a lot (of stuff) glesi quite a lot (of things) qleti quite a few (people) glo slightly, a little, few glos a little bit glosi a few (things) gloti few (people) gra too, too much, too many gras too much (stuff) grasi too many (things) grati too many (people) gre enough gres enough (stuff) gresi enough (things) greti enough (people) gro insufficiently, too little, too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people) gwa most gwas the most (stuff) gwasi the most (things) gwati most people gwe so, so much, so many gwes so much (stuff) gwesi so many (things) gweti so many (people) gwo least gwos the least (stuff) gwosi the least (number of) gwoti the least number (of people)
- Examples Using Quantitative Determiners
- Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
- At se gla iva.....I am very happy.
- Et sa gro uga.....You were too slow.
- Adverbs of Degree modifying another adverb:
- Tobi dale ge igay vyel toybi.....Men talk as fast as women.
- Yat yexe ga igay vyel yet.....We work faster (= more fast) than you.
- Adjectives quantifying a singular mass noun:
- Ga nas efwo.....More money will be needed.
- Gra nas noswa....Too much money was spent.
- Adjectives quantifying a plural countable noun (= things or people):
- At ayse gro sari....I've got too few tools.
- Gla tami osexwa.....Many houses were destroyed.
- Yat efe gla ga valdibuti.....We need many more policemen.
- Pronouns referring to a mass amount of something (= stuff):
- Gas ilokeye.....More (stuff) is leaking.
- Et dileye gras.....You are asking for too much (stuff).
- Yat keo gwas.....We will seek as much (stuff) as possible.
- Pronouns referring to a countable number of things:
- Hisi se fia oy yat fe gasi.....These (items) are good but we want more (items).
- At teate drilari oy grosi.....I see pens, but not enough.
- Pronouns referring to a countable number of people:
- Grati xaye vyosi be hia yexem.....Too many (people) have made mistakes at this work site.
- Glati dyunwe oy gloti kebiwe.....Many are called but few are chosen.
- Adverbs of degree modifying an adjective:
- Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:
- The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
- The units are formed from the plain and pre-iotated vowels:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
- The numerals 5-9 are pre-iotated versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
- The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
- By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91 ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
- By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
- All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
- asa 101
- asale 112
- usyulyu 199
- The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
- aro 1,000
- aro a 1,001
- ero isi 2,300
- yoro yasula 5,641
- The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
- emlo 2,000,000
- umlo 4,000,000
- The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
- yamro 6 billion
- The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
- iro asyulyo 3,195
- yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
- alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922
Cardinal Numerical Determiners
- Cardinal numerical determiners are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical determiner goes first. Cardinal numerical determiners are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added to the last monosyllabic number simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numeric determiner is 2 or higher in value, then the noun is pluralized. Unlike English, "zero" is followed by a singular noun.
Mirad English Wa Behavior Pluralization Behavior owa tam no houses, zero houses The number is monosyllabic,
so wa is suffixed.
The number is less than 2,
so the noun is singular.
awa tam one house, a house " " ewa tami two houses " The number is greater than 2,
so the noun is pluralized.
iwa tami three houses " " uwa tami four houses " " yowa tami five houses " " yawa tami six houses " " yewa tami seven houses " " yiwa tami eight houses " " yuwa tami nine houses " " alo tami ten houses The number is polysyllabic,
so no wa is suffixed.
" ase tami a hundred two houses " " ero iwa tami two thousand three houses The number i is monosyllabic,
so wa is suffixed.
" iro alo tami three thousand ten houses The number alo is polysyllabic,
so wa is not suffixed.
- Cardinal numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun thing or suni things. The t ending is short for aut person or auti persons. For example:
- Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas (= awa sun). You have one house. I have one too.
- At baysa alo dresari. Hij at bayse anay ewasi (= ewa suni). I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
- Esa asoti (= aso auti) yeb ha duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
- Yat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi huti. We must choose twenty-four females from those people.
Ordinal Numerical Determiners
- Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Determiner o.... zero oa.... zeroth a.... one aa.... first e.... two ea.... second i.... three ia.... third alo.... ten aloa.... tenth asu.... 104 asua.... 104th
- The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
- anapa.... first, first in order, primary*
- enapa.... second, second in order, secondary
- inapa.... third, third in order, tertiary
- alanapa.... eleventh, eleventh in order
- There are other ordinal adjectives that are not based on numbers:
- ijna.... initial, first, original
- ujna.... last, final
- ajna.... past, ex-, former
- ojna.... future
- ejna.... present, current
- jana.... previous, last
- jona.... next, following
- Ordinal numerical determiners and adjectives can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Adjective Adverb aa.... first aay.... firstly anapa.... first anapay.... primarily ea.... second eay.... secondly ujna.... last ujnay.... finally
- Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
- ha aas.... the first thing
- ha aat.... the first person
- ha aati.... the first people
- hua aayt.... that first female
- ha eas.... the second thing
- eat.... another / a second person
- ha ujnati so ha ijnati.... the last shall be first
- Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
- hua uwa aga tami.... those four big houses
- ha aa alo oga tami.... the first ten little houses
- ata anapa ewa oga tobobi.... my first two little children
Fractional Numerical Determiners
- Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -yn for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
CARDINAL NUMBER FRACTION AS NOUN AS ADJECTIVE AS ADVERB AS PREFIX AS VERB o.... zero oyn.... a void, vacuum oyna.... non-existant -- oy(n)-.... devoid of oynxer.... annihilate a.... one ayn.... whole
ha ayn.... the whole
ayna.... entire, whole aynay.... entirely ay(n)-.... holo-, whole-, all- aynxer.... integrate e.... two eyn.... a half eyna.... half eynay.... halfway ey(n)-.... half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynxer.... halve i.... three iyn.... a third iyna.... third iynay.... by a third iy(n)-.... terci- iynxer.... cut in third u.... four uyn.... a quarter uyna.... quarter uynay.... quarterly uy(n)-.... quadri- uynxer.... quarter alo.... ten aloyn.... a tenth aloyna.... tenth aloynay.... by a tenth aloy(n)-.... deci- aloynxer.... decimate aso.... hundred asoyn.... hundredth, percent asoyna.... hundredth asoynay.... by a hundredth asoy(n)-.... centi- asoynxer.... cut by a hundred
- Here are some examples:
- His uxo ha oynxen bi yata mir..... This will cause the anihilation of our world.
- Ha ayna mir te ayv et..... The whole world knows about you.
- Has se gas ev ha ayn bi hasa goni..... It is more than the whole of its parts.
- Fransad se ayn-druna dalyen..... France is a holophrastic language.
- Et yafe bier eyn..... You can take half.
- Yat yefo eynxer eta yexnix..... We will have to halve your salary.
- Hus sa eyn-vyan..... That was a half-truth.
- Eso eyn-zyunida dropek..... There is going to be a hemispheric war.
- Duhev his se eyn-exea dopar?.... Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
- Iynxu hua ableyavol..... Cut that pie in thirds.
- It yeyfe bixwer ay uynxwer..... He should be drawn and quartered.
- Hia nas se aloyn bi has yat baysa zojab..... This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
- Ha dep aloynxwu..... The army would be decimated.
- Ewa asoyni bi ha dityan baksa..... Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
- Hia tom se anay asoynge aga vyel hua tom..... This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
- The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
- Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi..... You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
- Iyt eynay tikabeloka..... She almost (=halfway) threw up.
- Words like half of it, a third of them:
- Eynas sa fia.....Half of it was good.
- Eynasi sa fua.....Half of them were bad.
- Esa uwa tobi se hua fukyes. Eynati toja.....There were four people in that accident. Half (of them) died.
- Iynati bi yet se vyasa.....A third of you are right.
- Uynati bi yat yantexe.....A quarter of us agree.
- Alo asoynasi bi hia dyeni fyunxwa.....Ten percent of these books were ruined.
Multiplicative Numerical Determiners
- Multiplicative numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal number if the number is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
CARDINAL NUMBER MULTIPLE AS NOUN ...AS ADJECTIVE ...AS ADVERB ...AS PREFIX ...AS VERB-MAKER o.... zero oon.... null oona.... nil on-.... zero- onxer.... cancel, zero out a.... one aon.... single aona.... single aonay.... singly an-.... uni-/mono- anxer unify e.... two eon.... twosome, double eona.... double eonay.... doubly en-.... di-/bi- enxer double i.... three ion.... threesome, triplet iona.... triple ionay.... triply in-.... tri-- inxer.... triple u.... four uon.... quartet uona.... quadruple uonay.... quadruply un-.... quadri-/tetra- unxer.... quadruple yo.... five yoon.... quintet yoona.... quintuple yoonay.... quintuply yoon-*.... quinti-/penta- yoonxer*.... quintuple ya.... six yaon.... sextet yaona.... sextuple yaonay.... sextuply yaon-*.... sexi-/hexa- yaonxer*.... sextuple alo.... ten alon.... decade alona.... decadic alonay.... by a multiple of ten alon-.... deca- alonxer.... multiply by ten aso.... hundred ason.... hundredfold asona.... hundredfold asonay.... by a hundredfold ason-.... hecato- asonxer.... multiply by a hundred
- * An extra o is added to these prefixes to avoid ambiguity with yan meaning together and yon meaning apart.
- The multiplicative noun dozen is expressed by aleon.
- Aleoni bi pati yizpapa..... Dozens of birds flew by.
- By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
- aonat.... solo, single
- aonatser.... become single
- eonat.... duo, pair, twosome, couple
- eonatser.... couple up, copulate
- ionat.... trio, threesome, trinity
- Ionatin.... Trinitarianism
- uonat.... quartet, foursome
- yoonat.... quintet, group of five people
- yoonati.... quintets
- By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
- aun.... unit
- auna.... unitary, individual
- aunser.... unite
- aunyan.... series
- aunyana.... serial
- eun.... pair
- euna.... even, paired, binary
- oeuna.... odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
- oeunat.... odd man out
- eunxer.... even out
- Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
- Yat vyaptyoyapa be eonati yez ha mep..... We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
- Asonati upo bay yat bu is ovdal..... Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
- Hia ivxel xwe enyabay..... This celebration happens biennially.
- Iyt se untubokat..... She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
- Diwe sagu ha auni..... Please count the units.
- Et gafisa aronay!.... You have improved a thousandfold!
- Tob se entyoyaba sat..... Man is a bipedal creature.
- Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
- anzyus.... monocycle
- enzyus.... bicycle
- ingun.... triangle
- ungun.... quadrangle
- Note: The prefixes for penta-/quinti- and hexa-/sext- must keep the -on so as to distinguish them from the prefixes yon apart and yan together.
- yoongona.... quintipartite BUT: yonper.... separate, go apart
- yaongun.... hexagon BUT: yanuper.... meet, come together
- There are two ways to form determiners of frequency:
- Using jod(i) meaning occasion(s), instance(s), time(s), or
- Using xag meaning frequency
- Here is a chart showing the most common frequency determiners:
"JOD" METHOD "XAG" METHOD MEANING hogla jodi? hoxag? how often?, how many times? hagla jodi haxag as many times, as often hegla jodi hexag sometimes, on some occasions higla jodi hixag this often, this many times hugla jodi huxag that often, that many times, so many times huugla jodi huuxag so often, so many times hyogla jodi hyoxag never, on no occasion hyagla jodi hyaxag always, at all times hyegla jodi hyexag any number of times, however often hyigla jodi hyixag as often, the same number of times hyugla jodi hyuxag not as often, some other number of times ga jodi gaxag (vyel) more often (than) ge jodi gexag (vyel) as many times (as), as often (as) go jodi goxag (vyel) less often (than) gla jodi glaxag many times, often gle jodi glexag quite a few times, quite often glo jodi gloxag not so many times, seldom gra jodi graxag too often gre jodi grexag often enough gro jodi groxag too seldom gwa jodi gwaxag as often as possible, most often, most times gwe jodi gwexag an average number of times gwo jodi gwoxag least often, as seldom as possible owa jod -- never, at no time, zero times awa jod -- once, one time ewa jodi -- twice, two times iwa jodi -- thrice, three times alo jodi -- ten times
- The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
VERB OPERATION PATIENT SUBJECT OPERATOR SIGN RESULT gaber.... add gab.... addition gabwas.... addend gabeas.... adder gab.... plus, + gabsin.... plus sign gabix.... sum galer.... multiply gal.... multiplication galwas.... multiplicand galeas.... multiplier gal.... times, x galsin.... times sign galix.... product garer.... exponentiate, raise gar.... power galwas.... number being raised gareas.... exponent gar.... raised to the power of galsin.... exponent galix.... raising result gober.... subtract gob.... subtraction gobwas.... subtrahend gobeas.... subtractor gob.... minus, - gobsin.... minus sign gobix.... difference goler.... divide gol.... division, fraction golwas.... dividend goleas.... divisor gol.... divided by, ÷ golsin.... division sign golix.... quotient gorer.... cut, uproot gor.... cut, root gorwas.... radicand goreas.... radical gor.... lower to the power of, √ gorsin.... radical gorix.... root lowering result geler.... equal gel.... equation gelwas.... thing being equated geleas.... equator gel.... equal to, as, like gelsin.... equal sign gelix.... equation results
- Examples of mathematical expressions:
- E gab e gele u..... Two plus two equals four.
- E gal i gele ya..... Two times three equals six.
- I gar e gele yu..... Three to the second power equals nine.
- E gob e gele o..... Two minus two equals zero.
- Yu gol i gele i..... Nine divided by three equals three.
- Yu gor i gele i..... Nine cubed equals three.
- Aso gor e gele alo..... One hundred squared equals ten.
- The word for calendar is judar. The sections below explain how calendar expressions are formed and used:
Basic Calendar Units
- Time is divided using the following basic terms:
MIRAD ENGLISH job time jab year jeb season jib month jub day jwob hour jwab minute jweb second
- Other calendar units are formed through the agglutination of numerical morphemes to some of the time units above:
MIRAD ENGLISH NUMERICAL FORMULA arojab millenium year x 1,000 asojab century year x 100 alojab decade year x 10 eynjab half year year x 1/2 uynjab quarter year x 1/4 yejub week day x 7 eynjwob half hour hour x 1/2
- This, next, last, etc. are expressed as follows:
MIRAD ENGLISH hijub
ha jana yejub
ha jona yejub
ja ewa yejubi
the day before yesterday
two weeks ago
the year before last
jo ewa yejubi
the day after tomorrow
two weeks from now
the year after next
Seasons of the Year
- Seasons of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for season jeb:
MIRAD ENGLISH jeab spring jeeb summer jeib autumn, Fall jeub winter
- Examples of usage:
- be jeab.... in spring
- ja jeeb.... before summer
- ju jeib.... until autumn
- ji jeub.... since winter
- je ha jeb.... during the season
- ub ha uj bi jeeb.... toward the end of summer
- eb jeab ay jeeb.... between spring and summer
- jeeba gemoj.... vernal equinox
- jeiba fayebi.... autumn leaves
- jeba til.... seasonal drink
- jeubyena jebmalyen.... wintry climate
- jeabyena malyen.... spring-like weather
- jeuben.... hibernation
Months of the Year
- Months of the year are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for month jib:
MIRAD ENGLISH jiab January jieb February jiib March jiub April jiyob May jiyab June jiyeb July jiyib August jiyub September jilob October jilab November jileb December
- Some expressions using the months:
- be jilob.... in October
- ja jiyab.... before June
- ja zajiyeb.... by next July
- hijib.... this month
- zojib.... last month
- zajib.... next month
- bi-jib-bu-jiba jobnis... month-to-month rent
- jibay... monthly
- jibi joy... months later
- jiba sindryen.... monthly magazine
- hujiba jobnis.... that month's rent
- hya ionjib.... every trimester
- jiber.... menstruate
Days of the Week
- Days of the week are expressed by internally scalarizing the word for day jub:
MIRAD ENGLISH juab Monday jueb Tuesday juib Wednesday juub Thursday juyob Friday juyab Saturday juyeb Sunday
- Here are some common terms relating to days of the week:
MIRAD ENGLISH hojub? which day hajub hu... the day that... hejub someday hijub today hujub that day hyijub (on) the same day hyajub every day hyejub any day zajub yesterday zojub tomorrow ha jajub
be ha jana jub
the day before, (on) the previous day ha jojub
be ha jona jub
the day before, (on) the previous day jazojub the day before yesterday jozajub the day after tomorrow hya ea jub every other/second day hyajub boy juyeb every day except Sunday
- Examples of Usage:
- be juyob....on Friday
- ju juib....until Wednesday
- ji zojub.... since yesterday
- lojo jubuj.... by [Lit: not after] day's end
- jo zajub.... after tomorrow
- je ha jub.... during the day
- bi juab bu juub... from Monday to Friday
Parts of the Day
- Here are the principal parts of a day:
|maj....daytime, day||moj....nighttime, night|
|bi maj....A.M.||bi moj....P.M.|
|amaryap....sunrise, sunup||amaryop....sunset, sundown|
zoimaj.... yesterday morning
zoimoj.... yesterday evening
|jwaimaj....early morning||jwaimoj....early evening|
|jwoimaj....late morning||jwoimoj....late evening|
|ujmaj....dusk, day's end||gwomoj...late night|
- Examples of Usage:
- At tijpa ja ijmaj.....I woke up before dawn.
- At iyfe tuyjer be ha jwoa joeymaj.....I like to nap in the late afternoon.
- It yexe bi amaryap bu amaryop.....He works from sunup to sundown.
- Be gwa umaji, at teaxe teasibar.....Most evenings, I watch television.
- The following is a how a date is normally expressed:
- be juab, 11 jieb 2018 JaK.....on Monday, February 11th, 1918 A.D.
- The day in the above expression is pronounced ali.
- The year is pronounced elo alyi (like English twenty eighteen).
- The acronym for A.D. is JaK, short for Ja Krist (before Christ).
- The acronym for B.C. is JoK, short for Jo Krist (after Christ).
- Other date expressions follow:
- be ha 1800 jabi (alyi aso jabi)....In the 1800's (eighteen hundreds)
- ja ha 20a (eloa) asojab....before the 20th (twentieth) century
- eb 1920 (yulo elo) ay 2001 (elo awa)....between 1920 (nineteen twenty) and (two thousand one)
- hyaje hua alojab....throughout that decade
- At yexa hum je gla jabi.....I worked there for [Lit: during] many years.
- Ujbu his lojo jiyab.....Finish this by [Lit: not after] May.
- Iyt so him ub ha uj bi 2 (ewa) jiab....She will be here toward the end of January 2nd.
- Clock time expressions use mostly the word jwob (hour) or jwobi (hours).
- The usual time-of-day question is Se hojwob? What time is it? [Lit: is what-hour?]
- The typical answer is in the format Se aa/ea... jwob gab/gob alo/ali... bi maj/moj. (Lit: (It) is (the) first/second... hour plus/minus ten/eleven...of day/night.
- Here are some typical answers:
- Se aa jwob..... It is one o'clock. [Lit: It is (the) first hour.] [NOTE: The article "the" is left unexpressed.]
- Se ea jwob..... It is two o'clock. [Lit: It is (the) second hour.]
- Se alea jwob..... It is twelve o'clock. [Lit: It is (the) twelfth hour.]
- Se ia jwob bi maj*..... It is three o'clock A.M. [Lit: It is third hour of daytime.]
- Se aloa jwob bi moj**..... It is ten o'clock P.M. [Lit: It is tenth hour of nighttime.]
- * bi maj (a.m.) can be abbreviated as bma
- ** bi moj (p.m.) can be abbreviated as bmo
- Se ua jwob (gab) alo..... It is four ten..... [Lit: It is fourth hour (plus) ten.]
- Se iloa jwob gob ali..... It is thirteen minutes til three. [Lit: It is thirteenth hour minus thirteen.]
- Se yoa jwobi gab uyn..... It is quarter after five. [Lit: It is fifth hour plus a quarter.]
- Se yoa jwobi gob uyn..... It is quarter past five. [Lit: It is fifth hour minus a quarter.]
- Se yaa jwobi gab eyn..... It is six thirty. [Lit: It is sixth hour plus a half.]
- Se yaa jwobi gab ilo..... It is six thirty. [Lit: It is sixth hour plus thirty.]
- Se yaa jwobi gob eyn..... It is thirty minutes til six. [Lit: It is sixth hour minus thirty.]
- Se yaa jwobi gob ilo..... It is thirty minutes til six. [Lit: It is sixth hour minus a half.]
- Se vyavay yea jwob gab alo bi moj..... It is exactly 7:10 P.M.. [Lit: It is exactly seventh hour plus ten of nighttime.]
- Et sa alo jwoa bey alo jwabi.....You were late by 10 minutes. [Lit: You were late by ten minutes.]
- Has ijo jub 5:30 (= yaa jwob gab ilo) bmo (= bi moj).....It will begin around 5:30 (= five thirty [Lit: five hours plus thirty]) p.m.
- Puu him loga jwoa ev 3 (= ia) j. (= jwob)....Get here no later than 3 (= three) o'clock.
- Ha yautpar puo hum yeb 10 jwabi.....The bus will arrive there within 10 minutes.
- Ha jwobar izeade 2:30 (= ea jwob gab ilo).....The clock says [Lit: indicates] 2:30.
- Yit pua be 3a j. be ha nod.....They arrived at 3 on the dot.
- Mirad normally uses a 12-hour system with distinction between a.m. and p.m., but military 24-hour time can also be used in particular situations, in which case the a.m./p.m. distinction is not needed.
- Yanpu at be iloa jwob gab alyo..... Meet me at 13:15. (= 1:15 p.m.)
- The word jwab (hour, o'clock) can be abbreviated as j., as in the following:
- Yanpu at be 13a j..... Meet me at 13:00 (hours) [Lit: at (the) 13th h.]
- The word gab (plus) can be omitted, as in:
- At teato et be yoa j. alyo..... I'll see you at five fifteen / quarter past five.
- Note the following clock time idioms:
MIRAD ENGLISH jwa early jwe on time jwo late Se vyavay eloa jwob. It is exactly two o'clock. yub eymaj around noon ub eymoj toward midnight yeb jwebi within seconds ji alo jwabi ten minutes ago lojo 3 j. no later than / by 3 o'clock. jwobay hourly / by the hour / on the hour Hia pop efxe 2 1/2 (= ewa gab eyn) jwobi. This trip takes (Lit: necessitates) 2 1/2 hours. ju awa jwob bi hij until one hour from now ji zojub be 10a j. since yesterday at 10 o'clock. je ha jana 12 jwabi for the last 12 minutes ja / lojo 10a j. before / by 10 o'clock (= the tenth hour) lojo 10 jwobi. by / in / within 10 hours. jo 10a j. after 10 o'clock. jo 10 jwobi. after 10 hours / 10 hours later / 10 hours ago
- Many expressions relating to age are built on the Mirad word for age: jag.
- The typical question is:
- Et se hojaga?....How old are you? (Lit. what-aged)
- A typical answer is:
- At se eli jaga....I am twenty-three years old.
- The following chart shows other age expressions, many of which are agglutinations of the deictic morphemes beginning with h:
AGE hojaga?.... how old? hajaga.... of the age hejaga.... of some age hijaga.... this old hujaga.... that old huujaga.... so old jaga....old
gle jaga.... rather old, oldish gla jaga.... very old gra jaga.... too old, super-aged gro jaga.... under-aged, minor ge jaga.... as old, of the same age awa jab jaga.... one year old
ewa jabi jaga.... two years old
alo jabi jaga.... ten years old
ga jaga vyel et.... older than you ga joga vyel at.... younger than me ge joga vyel iyt.... as young as her ha gwa jagat bi ata tedetyan....the youngest of my siblings grojagat....a minor alojagat....a ten-year-old aloyjagat....a teenager jogat....a boy, a youth
grejat....an adult, someone of age
yiloyjagat...an octogenarian asoyjagat....a centenarian
- Some other examples of usage:
- Et jagseye fi.....You are aging well.
- At voy jogseye hyegla.....I am not getting any younger.
- His se taam av ha jagati.....This is a home for the ederly.
- Egaku eta jogan!....Regain your youth!
- At se ga jaga vyel ha meybi.....I am as old as the hills.
- Teaxu ata gwa joga tobob.....Look at my youngest child.
- Yat ife yata awajagat.....We love our one-year-old.
- Jagseatan se yika joob bi tej.....Adolescence is a difficult period of life.
- This section is currency-dependent and remains under construction.
- Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words. They include the following:
- demonstratives like this, that, those
- indefinite specifiers like any, some, all, the, etc.
- Derived animate and inanimate pronouns like this one, those things, something, everyone, etc.
- Derived adverbs of time like when, now
- Derived adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere
- Derived adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow
- Derived adverbs of kind so, age this year old, direction that way, reason why?, and so forth.
Deictic Determiner Base Morphemes
- There are eleven deictic determiner base morphemes. These are used as prefixes joined to other elements to derive adjectival, pronominal, and adverbial determiners.
CATEGORY BASE MORPHEME INTERROGATIVE / RELATIVE ho-...?....what? DEFINITE ha-....the INDEFINITE1 he-....some, a certain PROXIMAL hi-....this, these DISTAL hu-....that, those EMPHATIC huu-....such, so NEGATIVE hyo-....no, not any DISTRIBUTIVE2 hya-....every, all, each INDETERMINATE3 hye-....any, whatever IDIODEICTIC4 hyi-....the same, the very ALLODEICTIC5 hyu-....the other, another, else
- 1 Sometimes referred to as assertive existential.
- 2 Sometimes referred to as universal.
- 3 Sometimes referred to as elective existential
- 4 Idiodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "same-specifying" and refers to words that point reflexively to the same entities, such as at the same time, in the same way, the same person, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as negative alternative.
- 5 Allodeictic is a coined Greek word meaning "other-specifying" and refers to words that point outwardly to other entities, such as somebody else, some other time, in other ways, etc. This category is sometimes referred to as positive alternative.
- Here is a table showing the deictic determiner prefixes attached to elements ending in -a to form various adjectival deictic determiners:
ADJECTIVE OF SELECTION ADJECTIVE OF KIND ADJECTIVE OF POSSESSION INTERROGATIVE hoa?....which? hoyena?....what kind of? hota?....whose? DEFINITE ha (short for haa)....the hayena....the kind of hata....the one's INDEFINITE hea....some, a certain heyena....some kind of, a certain kind of heta....someone's PROXIMAL hia....this, these hiyena....this kind of, such (a), like this, like these hita....this one's DISTAL hua....that, those huyena....that kind of, like that, like those huta....that one's EMPHATIC huua....such a, such huuyena....such a kind of, such kinds of, like that, like those huuta....such a person's NEGATIVE hyoa....not, not a, not any hyoyena....no kind of, no such hyota....nobody's DISTRIBUTIVE hya (short for hyaa)....every, all, each hyayena....every kind of, all kinds of hyata....everybody's INDETERMINATE hyea....any, whatever hyeyena....any kind of, whatever kind of hyeta....anybody's IDIODEICTIC hyia....the same hyiyena....the same kind of hyita....the same one's ALLODEICTIC hyua....the other hyuyena....some other kind of hyuta....someone else's
- Note: The definite deictic determiner adjective ha (actually, short for haa) is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the. As mentioned before, if the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun.
- This is called zero determination. For example:
- Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil. We drank a glass of wine.
- Yat tilia ha tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil. We drank (some) glasses of wine.
- Yat tilia ha tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ha awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the one glass of wine.
- Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ha ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia hya ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank both glasses of wine.
- Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
- Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ha ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
- Yat tilia ha ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the second glasses of wine.
- Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
- Note: Adjectives of possession referring to plural objects use the preposition bi (of). So, some people's houses would be rendered by ha tami bi heti ( = the houses of some peeople.).
- Usage Examples
- Hoa tam se etas? Which house is yours?
- Hoyena dyezuni ifxe et? What kind of movies do you like?
- Hota tef okwa? Whose hat was lost?
- Ha tob ta yata dyuni. The man knew our names.
- Hayena dini at ife, et ufe. The kind of stories I love, you hate.
- Hea mepi eejdyunwo. Certain streets will be renamed.
- Heyena fukyes uxaye parnyan. Some kind of accident has cause a traffic jam.
- Heta abtaf akwa be ha zatem. Someone's coat was found in the foyer.
- Hia dyes se ata gafias. This book is my favorite.
- Hiyena xeyen voy vayafwo. This type of behavior will not be tolerated.
- Hita tim so yovoza. This guy's room will be blue.
- Hua mas efwa eejvozilbwer. That wall needs to be repainted.
- Huyena duni yeyfwe yixwer za at. Such words should not be used in front of me.
- Huta tam magseye. That guy's house is on fire.
- Hyoa din se ga gesaya. No story is more important.
- Hyoyena tes tesiyafwe. No such meaning can be inferred.
- Hyota jatexdren sa ga fia. Nobody's plan is better.
- Hya mepi izpe Roma. All roads lead to Rome.
- Hya tob yefe xer ita gon. Every man must do his part.
- Hyayena telami ese be hia mep. All manner of restaurants exist on this street.
- Hyata tej se uka bi yabi ay yobi. Everyone's life is full of ups and downs.
- Hya ewa domi agxaye. Both cities have grown.
- Hyea voz so fia. Any color will be fine.
- Hyeyena til se beuwa. Any kind of drink is available.
- Hyeta ved se ge ifa vyel atas. Anyone's guess is as good as mine.
- Hyea tim et fe et yafe bayser. Whatever room you want, you can have.
- Hyia fukyesi kyese glajodi. The same accidents occur frequently.
- Hyiena dyezuni teaxuwa zajub. The same kind of films were shown yesterday.
- Hyita dyun yixwa gajod. The same person's name was used again.
- Hyua dyezun sa ifuyea. The other movie was more entertaining.
- Hyuena mos teasu ga fia. Another kind of furniture would look better.
- Hyuta texyen se ga fyia. Someone else's opinion is equally valid.
- Ha dyuni bi hiti voy dodraye. These people's names have not be make public.
Pronominal Deictic Determiners
- The following chart shows deictic determiners used as pronouns. Note that the suffix -s (short for sun) is used pronouns referring to things, while -t (short for tob) is used for those referring to persons. The suffix -i pluralized either of these. The distinction between a form like what? and a selective form like which? is made by using the full adjectival form (with -a-) in the selective forms. So, for example, hot? is who?, but hoat? is which one? (referring to a person).
DEFINITE has....it, the thing
hasi....they, them, the things
hat....the person, he, him
hati....the persons, they, them
heas....a certain one
heat....a certain one
hit....this person, he, him
hiti....these people, they, them
hitas....this person's, his
hitasi....this person's (things), theirs
huati....those people, they
hut....that person, he, him
huti....those people, they, them
hutas....that person's, his
hutasi....that person's (things), his
EMPHATIC huus....such, such a thing
huuas....such a one
huuat....such a person
huut....such a person
huutas....such a person's
huutasi....such people's (things)
hyoas....not a one
hyodat....not a one
DISTRIBUTIVE hyas....everything, all
hyaasi....all of them
hyaati....all of them
INDETERMINATE hyes....anything, whatever
hyeasi....any of them
IDIODEICTIC hyis....the same thing
hyisi....the same things
hyis....the same one
hyiasi....the same ones
hyiat....the same one
hyiati....the same one
hyit....the same person
hyiti....the same people
hyitas....the same person's
hyitasi....the same person's (things)
ALLODEICTIC hyus....something else
hyuas....the other one
hyuasi....the other ones
hyuat....the other one
hyutasi....someone else's (things)
- Here is a chart of pronominal deictic determiners of kind formed from the corresponding adjectival determiners of kind (eg. hoyena?....what kind of...?):
KIND OF THING
KIND OF THINGS
KIND OF PERSON
KIND OF PEOPLE
INTERROGATIVE hoyenas?....what kind of thing?
hoyenasi?....what kind of things?
hoyenat?....what kind of person?
hoyenati?....what kind of people?
DEFINITE hayenas....the kind of thing
hayenasi....the kind of things
hayenat....the kind of person
hayenati....the kind of people
INDEFINITE heyenas....some kind of thing
heyenasi....some kind of things
heyenat....some kind of person
heyenati ....some kind of people
PROXIMAL hiyenas....this kind of thing
hiyenasi....these kinds of things
hiyenat....this kind of person
hiyenati....these kinds of people
DISTAL huyenas....that kind of thing
huyenat....that kind of person
NEGATIVE hyoyenas....no such thing
hyoyenasi....no such things
hyoyenat....no such person
hyoyenati....no such people
DISTRIBUTIVE hyayenas....every kind of thing
hyayenasi....all kinds of things
hyayenat....every kind of person
hyayenati....all kinds of people
INDETERMINATE hyeyenas....any kind of thing
hyeyenasi....any kinds of things
hyeyenat....any kind of person
hyeyenati....any kinds of people
IDIODEICTIC hyiyenas....the same kind of thing
hyiyenasi....the same kinds of things
hyiyenat....the same kind of person
hyiyenati....the same kinds of people
ALLODEICTIC hyuyenas....some other kind of thing
hyuyenasi....other kinds of things
hyuyenat....some other kind of person
hyuyenati....other kinds of people
Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms
- The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner hot? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart hoat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
- The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
- Hot aka zajuba ek?.... Who won yesterday's game?
- Hoat bi ha akuti sa ha gwa fiat?.... Which one of the winners was the best?
- Hota tam se hus?.... Whose house is that?
- Hotas se hus?.... Whose is that?
- Hotia deuzi et gaife?.... Whose songs do you prefer?
- Hotias et gaife?.... Whose do you prefer?
- Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
- Hosi se eta gaifuni?.... What are your preferences?
- Hoa deuzi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which songs are your best?
- Hoasi se eta gwafiasi?.... Which ones are your best?
- Bi hia deuzuti, hoat et gafie?.... Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
- Hoati se gwa fia?'.... Which ones are best?
- Hoti et teexe gwa jodi?.... Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
- Huat hu at teexe gwa jodi draye ejna deuz..... The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
- Ejna deuz? At voy teste haas hu et tede..... New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
- Hias. This one.
- Vo. Huasi se ga fia..... No. Those are better.
- His se jub av ivxelen..... This is a day for celebration.
- Va. Hia jub. At tesde hijub..... Yes. This day. I mean To-day.
- Husi sa ha jubi, ata dat! Those were the days, my friend!
- Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
- Hot aka ha igpek?.... Who won the race?
- Hyas uja fi..... Everything ended well.
- Hyasi uje..... All things come to an end.
- Hyayenasi vey kyesu..... All sorts of things might happen.
- Hyos yoka at..... Nothing surprised me.
- Hyot ta odut ako..... Nobody knew who would win.
- Huati fu pier yefe..... Those who would like to leave may.
- Hyet yefe eker hia ifek..... Anyone can play this game.
- Huyenasi voy afwo..... Such things will not be permitted.
- Hua tob voy taxe hia tob..... That man does not remember this man.
- Huti yanyexe fi..... Those guys work well together.
- At jay teataye hiyenasi..... I've seen such things before.
- Huyenat voy vabiwu..... A person like that would not be accepted.
- Hoyenasi et iyfe xer je ha maj..... What kinds of things do you like to do during the day?
- Pronominal determiners in -t and -ti can be feminized by inserting the glide y before the t:
- Huyenayti ufwe himi..... Women like that are hated in these parts.
- Hoayti yantexe at?.... Who among the women agree with me?
- Hyeyti hu yontexe yefe iper..... Any girls who disagree must leave.
- Hyayti xe hiyen.....Così fan tutte. ( = All (women) do like this., the Mozart Opera title.)
Placement of Deictic Determiners
- In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, as in English. For example:
- Hota ewa oga nyefi se hisi?.... Whose two small bags are these?
- In interrogative sentences, the interrogative word often starts out the sentence, as in English.
- Hos se eta dyun?.... What is your name?
- Hot et teata aay hijub?.... Who(m) did you see first today?
- Interrogative deictic determiners (question words can also go at the end of sentence:
- Eta dyun se hos?.... What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?
Distributive Deictic Determiners Incorporating Numerical Information
- Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
ADJECTIVE INANIMATE PRONOUN ANIMATE PRONOUN POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE POSSESSIVE PRONOUN hawa* the only hawas the only thing
hawasi the only things
hawat the only one (person)
hawati the only ones
hawata the only person's hawatas the only one's
hawatasi the only one's (things)
hyawa* each hyawas each one hyawat each person hawata each person's hawatas each one's
hawatasi each one's (things)
hyaewa both hyaewasi both (things) hyaewati both (people) hyaewatia both person's hyaewatias both person's
hyaewatiasi both persone's (things)
hyaiwa all three hyaiwasi all three (things) hyaiwati all three (people) hyaiwata all three person's hyaiwatias all three person's
hyaiwatiasi all three person's (things)
ohyawa not every ohyawas not everything ohyawat not everyone ohyawata not every person's ohyawatas not everyone's
ohyawatasi not everyone's (things)
hyoawa not a single hyoawas not a single thing hyoawat not a single person hawata the only person's hawatas the only one's
hawatasi the only one's (things)
hyeawa either hyeawas either one hyeawat either one (person) hyeawata either one's hyeawatas either one's
hyeawatasi either one's (things)
hyeewa any two hyeewasi any two things hyeewati any two people hyeewatia any two person's hyeewatias any two persons'
hyeewatiasi any two persons' (things)
hyeowa neither hyeowas neither one hyeowat neither person hyeawata neither person's hyeowatas neither one's
hyeowatasi neither one's (things)
hyuawa another hyuawas another one hyuawat another hyuawata another's hyuawatas another's
hyuawatasi another's (things)
hyuowa no other hyuowas nothing else hyuowat nobody else hyuowata no other's hyuowatas no other's
hyuowatasi no other's (things)
- *Hawa and hyawa are short for haawa and hyaawa.
- Ohyawat se iva bay eta ebtexden..... Not everyone is happy with your decision.
- Hyaewasi yafwe uxer yata efi..... Both (things) can serve our needs.
- Hyeawa tim ivlaxo at..... Either room will satisfy me.
- Hyeowas oivlaxo at..... Neither one will dissatisfy me.
- Note: Hyua means the other, while hyuawa means another.
- Similarly, hya means every, all, while hyawa means each.
- Also, ha means the, while hawa means the only.
- The person pronouns in the above chart can be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
- Hyawata tej se ge glatesa vyel hyutas..... Each one's life is as important as another's.
- Hyeowata dyun se vyama..... Neither person's name is real.
- Hyaiwatia teji se kyebukuwa..... The lives of all three are in danger.
- The above possessive adjectives can, in turn, be converted into inanimate pronouns with the suffix -s.
- Hyawatas se glatesa..... Each one's is important.
- Hyeowatas se vyama..... Neither's is real.
- Hyaiwatias se kyebukuwa..... All three of theirs' are in danger.
- Correlative Distributive Deictic Determiners are handled as follows:
- Hyeawa A ey B.... either A or B
- Hyeowa A oy B.... neither A nor B
- Hyaewa A ay B.... both A and B
- Hawa A, voy B.... only A, not B
Adverbial Deictic Determiners
- This tables shows a correlated set of pro-adverbs built through the agglutination of basic deictic determiners. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed pro-verbs relating to age, frequency, and so forth.
ADVERBS MANNER PLACE TIME DEGREE REASON FREQUENCY -yen
short for byen (manner)
short for em (place)
short for job (time)
how?, in what way?
how?, to what degree?
the way, how
the place, where
the time, when
as, to the degree
as often (...as)
somehow, in some way
for some reason
with some frequency
this way, so
so, this, to this extent
for this reason, hence
that way, thus
so, that, to that extent
for that reason, therefore, so
in such a way, so, thus
at such a place
at such a time
so, to such an extend
for such a reason
not at all
for no reason
totally, in every way
for every reason
however, to any degree
for whatever reason
with whatever frequency
at the same place
at the same time
as, to the same extent
for the same reason
some other time
for some other reason
not as often
- Many of these adverbial determiners are agglutinated abbreviations for longer, full forms:
- hom....where < ho + nem = what place
- hoj....when < ho + job = what time
- hoyen....how < ho + byen = what manner
- hot....who < ho + tob = what human being
- hos....what < ho + sun = what thing
- The longer, expanded forms of pro-adverbs can be used at any time. For example:
- At egteato et hejob.....I will see you again sometime.
- Hosun se eta dyun?....What is your name?
- Et yeyfe axer hubyen.....You shouldn't act that way.
- It should be noted that all of these adverbial determiners, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe him. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tameya hum., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tameya be hum., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at is meant. For example, from where? is expressed as bi hom? Similarly, until then would be expressed as ju huj.
- Here are some examples of how adverbial determiners are used:
- Hom et tame?.... Where do you live? < Et tame be HOa neM? You live at what place.)
- At tame hum..... I live there.
- Et tame hum hu ha mep uje..... You live where the road ends.
- Hom yet peye?.... Where are you guys going?
- Et yafe per hyem hu et fu..... You can go anywhere.
- Bi hom et se?.... Where are you from?
- Hoj et taja?.... When were you born?
- At voy tajaya huj..... I had not been born then.
- Et pia hesav..... He left for some reason.
- Hoyen et iyfe hia vafil?.... How do like this wine?
- Voy se fia axer hiyen..... It is not good to act this way.
- Hosav et tadsa huunog jwa?.... Why did you marry so late?
- Ha tob pia hyosav..... The man left for no reason.
- He tob pia hasav hu it efa per hyum.....The man left because([for] the reason that) he needed to go elsewhere.
- The different, somewhat confusing, meanings of how are illustrated here:
- Hoyen it xa hus?.... How did he do that?.... (Equivalent to Be hoa byen...? In what way...?) (MANNER)
- Hoyen et xeye?.... How are you doing?.... (This is the normal way of saying How are you? or How do you do? (MANNER)
- Hoyena sa ha dyezun?.... How was the film?.... (How here is an ADJECTIVE OF KIND, and thus ends in -a.)
- Honog (= Hogla) aga it se?.... How big is he?.... (DEGREE)
- Honog (= Hogla) iyfla et se!.... How nice you are!.... (DEGREE, but used here as an EXCLAMATORY EXPRESSION)
- * Bu hom (to where, whither) is not required here, since the verb per go (to) has the to direction built in.
- Many of the adverbial determiners in the above chart can be relativized by adding the relative marker hu after the base form, eg:
- At teaso et haj hu et puo him.....I will see you when you get here.
- It xa has hasav hu tosa yefa.....He did it because (for the reason that) he felt compelled.
- Hyem hu et po, et so ga iva.'....Wherever you go, you'll be happier.
- See more about this in the section on relative clauses under Verbs.
Quantitative Deictic Determiners
- The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
ADVERBIAL / ADJECTIVAL
INTERROGATIVE hogla? how?/how much?/how many? hoglas? how much? hoglasi? how many hoglati? how many (people)? DEFINITE hagla how/as much/as many haglas as much haglasi as many haglati as many (people) INDEFINITE hegla somewhat/some/some heglas some heglasi some heglati some (people) PROXIMAL higla this/this much/this many higlas this much higlasi this many higlati this many (people) DISTAL hugla that/that much/that many huglas that much huglasi that many
huyglasi so many
huglati that many (people) EMPHATIC huugla so very, so much, so many huuglas so much huuglasi so many huuglati so many (people) NEGATIVE hyogla not at all/no/no hyoglas none of it hyoglasi none of them hyoglati none DISTRIBUTIVE hyagla totally/all/all hyaglas all of it hyaglasi all of them hyaglati all INDETERMINATE hyegla however/any/any hyeglas any of it hyeglasi any of them hyeglati any number of them IDIODEICTIC hyigla as/as much/as many, equally hyiglas the same amount hyiglasi the same number hyiglati as many (people) ALLODEICTIC hyugla not as much/not as much/not as many hyuglas a different amount hyuglasi a different number of things hyuglati a different number of people
- Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
- Et deuze huugla fi..... You sing so well.
- At se hegla booka..... I am somewhat tired.
- Hogla pati et teata hijub?.... How many birds did you see today?
- At teata vyavay hugla tami..... I saw exactly that many houses.
- Iyt fe hyiglas vyel et..... She wants the same amount as you.
- Hoglati yantexe yet?.... How many (people) agree with you?
- Hyoglati yantexe..... None agree.
- Yit fu heglasi..... They would like some (of them).
- Et yafe bier hyeglasi et fe..... You can take however many you want.
- At se huugla booka.....I am so tired.
- NOTE: The following determiners are synonymous and interchangeable:
- hegla = gle = henog (somewhat, to some degree)
- hyigla = ge = hyinog (as, equally, to the same degree)
- For a discussion of possessive determiners like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Possessive Adjectives under Pronouns.
- Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
- In Mirad, pronouns can be:
- personal or deictic
- ordinary or reflexive
- animate or inanimate
- specific or generic
- ungendered or feminine
Basic Personal Animate Pronouns
- Basic personal animal pronouns in Mirad have three person-levels (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and two genders (gender-neutral, female), and two specificities (specific and generic). Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here is two charts showing the basic personal animate pronouns, split into gender-neutral and female.
FIRST PERSON at....I, me yat....we, us SECOND PERSON et....you yet....you, you all THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC it....he, him yit....they, them THIRD PERSON GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them THIRD PERSON REFLEXIVE ut....self, oneself yut....selves, oneselves SINGULAR
FIRST PERSON ayt....I, me yayt....we, us SECOND PERSON eyt....you yeyt....you, you all THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC iyt....she, her yiyt....they, them
- The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are of common gender and are used as English one and they, people (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
- Ot yefe xer ha yakwas..... One must do what is expected.
- Yot de hav et vyode hoj..... They/People say you never lie.
- The person specific ungendered pronouns refer by default to males, but can serve as gender-neutral pronouns referring back to either males or females. If the vowel stem is iotated with a y, the pronoun then refers specifically to a female.
- The first person plural pronoun ya(y)t can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others."
- There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
- Xu at fibun..... Do me a favor.
- At so eta dat..... I will be your friend.
- Hov tojbu it..... Don't kill him/her.
- At ta hav iyt upo..... I knew she would come.
- Fyadilu av yayt..... Pray for us (women).
- Note: The English pronoun it is inanimate (refers to a thing or abstraction) and is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is explained later.
Reflexive Personal Pronouns
- Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed postfixing the reflexive pronoun ut or yut depending on whether the pronoun is singular or plural. The gender of the pronoun is reflected in the first personal pronoun morpheme, not the ut morpheme. The generic pronoun ot cannot be feminized.
FIRST PERSON atut.... myself aytut.... myself yatyut.... ourselves yaytyut.... ourselves SECOND PERSON etut.... yourself eytut.... yourself yetyut.... yourselves yeytyut.... yourselves THIRD P. SPECIFIC itut.... himself iytut.... herself yityut.... themselves yiytyut.... themselves THIRD P. GENERIC otut.... oneself -- yotyut.... people themselves --
- Examples of usage:
- At yafe teater atut be ha sinzyef.....I can see myself in the mirror.
- Iyt yubteaxa iytut.....She examined herself.
- Tyeu etut!....Know thyself.
- It tojbu itut.....He would kill himself.
- Ot yefe ifer otut.....One must love oneself.
- Yot glajodi voy ife yotyut.....People often don't love themselves.
- The reflexive pronoun ut self can sometimes be prefixed (with no variation in gender or number) to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
- tojber.... kill → uttojber.... commit suicide
- vyixer.... clean → utvyixer.... wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
- exer.... function → utexer.... function automatically, self-run
- izber.... pilot → utizber.... auto-pilot, self-drive
- exut.... operator → utexut.... automaton
- deber.... rule → utdebea.... autocratic, self-ruling
- tejdin.... biography → uttejdin.... autobiography
- fider.... praise → utfider.... boast (= self-praise)
Emphatic Personal Pronouns
- Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the reflexive deictic pronoun hyit or hyiti, depending on whether the personal pronoun is singular or plural. The feminine is marked only on the personal pronoun.
EMPHATIC PRONOUNS SINGULAR PLURAL FIRST PERSON at hyit I myself, me myself yat hyiti we ourselves, us ourselves SECOND PERSON et hyit you yourself yet hyiti you yourselves THIRD PERSON it hyit he himself
iyt hyit she herself
yit hyiti they themselves
- At hyit voy vyatexe Tot.....I myself don't believe in God.
- At jateate yeyt hyiti be hua dezzamos.....I foresee you gals yourselves on that stage.
- Iyt hyit voy sa hum.....She herself was not here.
Reciprocal Personal Pronouns
- The reciprocal pronoun one another, each other is translated with hyuit:
- Yat yefe ifer hyuit..... We must love one another. (hyut here means another, other person.)
- This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a possessive adjective by suffixing a, as in hyuita....one another's:
- Yat yefe fiyzaxer hyuita fwasi. We must respect one another's wishes.
- Note the following:
- hyuitif....Mutual love = love for one another
- Possessive adjectives, which can also be referred to as pronominal determiners, are derived from basic and reflexive personal pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the basic or reflexive personal pronoun, as follows:
POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES SINGULAR BASIC PLURAL BASIC SINGULAR REFLEXIVE PLURAL REFLEXIVE FIRST PERSON ata my yata our atuta my own yatyuta our own SECOND PERSON eta your yeta your etuta your own yetyuta your own THIRD PERSON SPECIFIC ita his
iyta their (f.)
ituta his own
iytuta her own
yityuta their own
yiytyuta their own (f.)
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's yota people's otuta one's own yotyuta people's own
- The above possessive adjectives an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s thing possessed, or si things possessed, as follows:
BASIC POSSESSED THING BASIC POSSESSED THINGS REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THING REFLEXIVE POSSESSED THINGS FIRST SINGULAR POSSESSOR atas mine, my thing atasi mine, my things atutas my own, my own thing atutasi my own, my own things SECOND SINGULAR POSSESSOR etas yours etasi yours, your (things) etutas your own etutasi your own, your own things THIRD SINGULAR SPECIFIC POSSESSOR itas his
itasi his (things)
iytasi her (things)
itutas his own (thing)
iytutas her own (thing)
itutati their own (things)
iytutasi their (f.) own (things)
THIRD SINGULAR GENERIC POSSESSOR otas one's otasi one's , one's things otutas one's own otutasi one's own (things) FIRST PLURAL POSSESSOR yatas ours yatasi ours, our things yatyutas our own yatyutasi our own (things) SECOND PLURAL POSSESSOR yetas yours yetasi yours, your things yetyutas your own yetyutasi your own (things) THIRD PLURAL POSSESSOR yitas theirs yitasi theirs, their things yityutas their own yitutasi their own (things)
- Yat yefe valbeler yatyutasi.....We must protect our own.
- Etasi naze ga vyel atasi.....Yours are worth more than mine.
- Biku etuta soni.....Mind your own business.
The Concrete vs. Abstract Inanimate Pronoun it
- The pronoun it is a special case in Mirad. When it refers back to a previously-specified inanimate object or non-human subject such as book or dog, the definite deictic determiner has is used, for example:
- At eke bay ha epet avhas at iyfe has..... I play with the dog because I like it.
- The possessive forms of has is hasa its, for example:
- At iyfe ha epet ay at ife hasa dyun..... I like the dog and I love it's name.
- If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it, then the pronoun hasi.
- Ha epeti se via ay at ife hasi..... The dogs are beautiful and I love them.
- The possessive form of hasi they/them is hasia their, for example:
- Ha epeti se via oy hasia dyuni se otwa..... The dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
- If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
- Mamilo..... It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
- Se fia hav et upa..... It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
- Sa via jub bay et..... It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
- Voy se yuka yarper hia meb..... It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)
Referring to Third Persons with Deictic Determiners
- The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
Thing Things Person Persons DEFINITE has it, the thing
hasi they/them, the things
hat he/him, the person
hati they/them, them, the persons
haytia their, the girls'
PROXIMAL his it, this
hisa its, this thing'
hisi they/them, these things
hit he/him, this person
hiti they/them, these people
hiytia their, these girl's
DISTAL hus it, that
husa it's, that thing'
husi they, them, those things
hut he/him,that person
huti they/them, those people
hutia their, those people's
huytia their, those womens'
- By changing -t to -yt (post-iotating), the above person pronouns can be made feminine. For example, hiyt she, her. These pronouns can also be converted to possessive adjectives by suffixing the adjective ending a, for example, hiyta her. Furthermore, the possessive adjectives can be substantivized by suffixing s (s.) or si' (pl.) , for example, hiytias theirs, these women's or hiytiasi theirs, these women's (things).
- Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
- Huyt voy se tadsa..... She (that woman) is not married.
- At hoj teataye hiti..... I have never seen them (these people).
- Hutiasi se ga aga vyel atasi..... Theirs are bigger than mine.
- Hom et koxa has?.... Where did you hide it (the thing)?
- Hoyen et ijtya hat?....How did you meet him (the person)?
- At tyaye huyt yagjob..... I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
- The above pronouns answer the questions hos? what?, hosi? what things?, hot? who(m)?, or hoti? what persons?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions hoat? which one?, hoayti? which ones (of the females mentioned)?, hoas? which one/thing?, and hoasi? which ones/things?:
SELECTIVES THING THINGS PERSON PERSONS DEFINITE haas the one haasi the ones haat the one haati the ones PROXIMAL hias this one hiasi these hiat this one hiati these DISTAL huas that one huasi those huat that one huati those
- Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
- Duhev et fu hias ey huas?.... Would you like this one or that one?
- Huayt se haat..... She (that female person) is the one.
- At iyfe hiasi ga vyel huasi..... I like these more than those.
- Compare the following two examples:
- Hoas et fu? Hias..... Which one would you like? This one. (SELECTIVE)
- Hos et fu? His..... What would you like? This. (SPECIFIC)
- Relative pronouns are presented in the chapter on Verbs, under the section "Free Relative Clauses".
- Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as bayser to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, and the stem is the infinitive minus the wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
- This shows how the STEM is derived:
PRESENT INFINITIVE STEM bayser to have bays- xer to do x- poser to stop pos- xwer to happen (PASSIVE) x-
- Conjugated forms of verbs can be described with the following morphological categories:
- STATES: finite, non-finite
- TENSES: present, past, future
- ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional
- VOICES: active, passive (reflexive and reciprocal are lexical, not morphological)
- MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
- PERSONS: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural
- In effect, the PERSONS category does not affect the morphology of the verb form itself, because the verb form stays the same for all PERSONS.
- In addition, verbs can be described in terms of the following opposing lexical categories:
STATIVE DYNAMIC ser.... to be xer....to do INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE agaser....to grow large agaxer....to magnify SUBJECT-ORIENTED OBJECT-ORIENTED bier....to take buer....to give REFLEXIVE NON-REFLEXIVE utvyixer....to wash up vyixer....to wash ACTIVE PASSIVE ifer....to love ifwer....to be loved INCHOATIVE CAUSATIVE tujper....fall asleep tujber....put to sleep AUTONOMOUS DYNAMIC yijer....to open (by itself) yijber....to (make it) open RECIPROCAL NON-RECIPROCAL hyuittujber....to kill one another tujber....to kill GESTURAL MOTIONAL baser....to stir, budge paser....to move
- Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
- INFINITIVES: the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
- GERUNDS: verbal nouns, ending in en
- PARTICIPLES: verbal adjectives, ending in a
- Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
STEM ENDING INFINITIVE ags er agser to grow agx er agxer to magnify p er per to go x wer xwer to happen, be done
- The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:
INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified
- The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
INFINITIVE STEM ACTIVE GERUND PASSIVE GERUND agaxer...to magnify agax- agaxen... magnifying, magnification agaxwen being magnified per... to go p- pen... going (no passive voice) saxer... to create, make, form sax- saxen... forming, creation saxwen being created
- Some examples:
- Ha saxen bi hia mar efxa amroni bi jabi..... The formation of this star took millions of years.
- Iyta deuzen sa gla via..... Her singing was very beautiful.
- Popen se yika yex..... Traveling is hard work.
- Teetwen fiay se glatesa av dezuti..... Being heard well is important for actors.
- Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles can be present, past, future, or hypothetical. They can also be active or passive. Here is a table of participles:
TENSE-VOICE INFINITIVE STEM ENDING PARTICIPLE EXAMPLE PRESENT ACTIVE deuzer to sing deuz- -ea deuzea singing ha deuzea pat the singing bird PRESENT PASSIVE ebdaler to discuss ebdal- -ewa ebdalewa being discussed ha ebdalewa dyen the book being discussed PAST ACTIVE pier to depart pi- -aa piaa departed ha piaa topi the departed souls PAST PASSIVE azyujber to lock azyujb- -(a)wa azyujbawa locked ha azyujbawa (or: azyubwa) mes the locked door FUTURE ACTIVE tajber to give birth tajb- -oa tajboa about to give birth ha tajboa toyb the woman about to give birth FUTURE PASSIVE osexer to destroy osex- -owa osexowa about to be destroyed ha osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed HYPOTHETICAL ACTIVE tojber to kill tojb- -ua tojbua apt to kill tojbua til a lethal potion HYPOTHETICAL PASSIVE tiler to drink til- -uwa tiluwa drinkable tiluwa mil potable water
- Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
- Iyt yepa ha tim deuzeay. She entered the room singing.
- Ujbaway ha dodal, it pia. The speech having been finished, he left.
- Also, the above participles can be nominalized by suffixing n. Examples:
- tiluwa drinkable → tiluwan potability
- tojbua lethal → tojbuan lethality
- piaa departed → ita piaan his having departed...
- Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for peoples. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
- xwa known → xwas what is known, a fact
- xwa known → xwasi facts, information
- oxwa unknown → oxwas what is not known, a mystery
- osexea destroying → osexeas a destroyer
- tojbua lethal → tojbuas something lethal, a lethal thing
- tojboa moribund → someone about to die, a fatal case
- tejea living → tejeat a living person
- tejea living → tejeasi living things
- There is a special nominalized animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer), which refer to person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
- sexut.... builder
- nuut.... supplier
- tojbut.... killer
- ifut.... lover
- akuti.... winners
- Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ha akeat the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ha akut the winner.
- In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
- two MOODS (indicative and hypothetical)
- three TENSES (present, past, future)
- five ASPECTS (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional)
- two VOICES (active, passive)
- Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person suject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he is, etc.
- There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
- Indicative Mood
- The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
- The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, and future indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.
- Hypothetical Mood
- Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
- a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
- a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
- an imagined if-condition, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (If I were a rich man...)
- an imagined then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (I would be happy.)
- There are four aspects in the Mirad verb system.
- the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
- the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
- the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
- the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
- the CONDITIONAL aspect, i.e. an action supposed to happen.
- The Simple Aspect (default)
- Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, and non-conditional.
- Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (saxer to create and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
MOOD TENSE ASPECT VOICE VERB #1 saxer VERB #2 ser INDICATIVE PRESENT SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxe. I create At se. I am INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxa. I created At sa. I was INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxo. I will create At so. I will be HYPOTHETICAL ATEMPORAL SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxu. I would create [CONDITIONAL]
Vas yat saxu! Let's create! [HORTATIVE]
Saxu has! Create it! [IMPERATIVE]
Vas hyat saxu! May everyone create! [JUSSIVE]
At su. I would be
Vas has su. Let it be.
Su fia! Be good!
Vas hyat su iva! May everyone be happy!
- The Simple Indicative Present Tense
- The simple indicative present tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
- The Simple Indicative Past Tense
- The simple past tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time.
- The Simple Indicative Future Tense
- The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
- The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal
- A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
- Generally, if a verb form ending in u begins a sentence, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!. If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the complementizers vas, ves, or vos, than it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per. I would like to go.. If the subject of the verb is preceded by ves if, then it is a SUBJUNCTIVE (unreal conditional) clause as in Ves at su nasikat... If I were a rich man.. If the subject is preceded by Vas that/let/may or vos don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Vas et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Vas yat fadilu. Let us pray. or a prohibition like Vos tilu his! Don't drink this!.
- Mirad has two voices, ACTIVE and PASSIVE (although REFLEXIVES and RECIPROCALS can be produced lexically.).
- Active Voice
- The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
- Passive Voice
- A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa) if the resultant combination of consonants is not to hard to pronounce.
- The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
TENSE-MOOD ACTIVE PASSIVE EXAMPLE INFINITIVE xer to do xwer to be done Ese hyos xwer. There is nothing to be done. PRESENT PARTICIPAL sexea constructing sexewa being constructed His se sexewa. This is under construction. PRESENT xe does xwe is done Huyenasi hoj xwe. Such things are never done. PAST PARTICIPAL xaa having done x(a)wa done Hyas se xawa. Everything is done. PAST tojba killed tojbwa was killed Hoj it tojbwa? When was he killed? HYPOTHETICAL bakxu heal bakxwu be healed Hav it bakxwu. May he be healed.
- Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ha mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ha tobob tajbwa zajub. The child was delivered yesterday (as opposed to Ha tobob taja zajub. The child was born yesterday.)
- Reflexive Voice
- A verb is made reflexive by prefixing the reflexive pronoun ut (self), for example:
- tojber to kill → uttojber to kill oneself
- milber to wash → utmilber to wash up
- teater to see → utteater to see oneself
- yalber to lift → utyalber to lift oneself → Utyalbu! Lift yourself up!
- ter to know → utter to know oneself → Uttu! Know thyself!
- Reciprocal Voice
- A verb is made reciprocal by using hyuit one another as the object, for example:
- tojber to kill → tojber hyuit to kill one another
- vyixer to wash → vyixer hyuit to wash one another
- teater to see → teater hyuit to see one another
- Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
- SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
- PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
- PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
- IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
- POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.
The Simple Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple conditional refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
SIMPLE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE SIMPLE PRESENT at xe.... I do Has xwe.... it is done SIMPLE PAST at xa.... I did Has xwa.... it was done SIMPLE FUTURE at xo.... I will do Has xwo.... it will be done SIMPLE CONDITIONAL at xu.... I would do Has xwu.... it would be done
The Progressive Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PROGRESSIVE ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE at xeye.... I am doing Has xewe.... it is being done PAST PROGRESSIVE at xeya.... I was doing Has xewa.... it was being done FUTURE PROGRESSIVE at xeyo.... I am going to be doing Has xewo.... it will be happening CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE at xeyu.... I would be doing Has xewu.... it would be happening
The Perfect Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PERFECT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT PERFECT at xaye.... I have done Has xawe.... it has been done PAST PERFECT at xaya.... I had done Has xawa.... it had been done FUTURE PERFECT at xayo.... I will have done Has xawo.... it will have been done CONDITIONAL PERFECT at xayu.... I would have done Has xawu.... it would have been done
The Imminent Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
IMMINENT ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT IMMINENT at xoye.... I am going to do Has xowe.... it is going to be done PAST IMMINENT at xoya.... I was going to do Has xowa.... it was going to be done FUTURE IMMINENT at xoyo... I will be about to do Has xowo.... it will be about to be done CONDITIONAL IMMINENT (not used) (not used)
The Potential Aspect
- The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
POTENTIAL ASPECT ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE PRESENT POTENTIAL at xuye I am to do Has xuwe it is to be done, it is doable PAST POTENTIAL at xuya I was to do Has xuwa it was to be done, it was doable FUTURE PERFECT (not used) (not used) CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)
Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System
- The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
|xer to do|
xwer to be done, to happen
|xaer to have done|
xwaer to have been done, to have happend
xwea being done, happening
|xaa having done|
xwaa ∼ xwa done, happened
|xoa about to do|
xwoa about to happen
|xua bound to do|
|xen doing, deed|
xwen being done, happening, event
xwe is done, happens
xwa was done, happened
|xo will do|
xwo will be done, will happen
(CONDITIONAL / IMPERATIVE)
|xu would do, do!|
xwu would be done, would happen, be done!
|xeye is doing|
xewe is being done, is happening
|xeya was doing|
xewa was doing, was happening
|xeyo will be doing|
xewo will be happening
|xeyu would be doing|
xewu would be happening
|xaye has done|
xawe has been done, has happened
|xaya had done|
xawa had been done, had happened
|xayo will have done|
xawo will have been done, will have happened
|xayu would have done|
xawu would have been done, would have happened
|xoye is about to do|
xowe is about to be done, is about to happen
|xoya was to be done|
xowa was to be done, was to happen
|xuye is supposed to do|
xuwe is supposed to be done, is supposed to happen
|xuya was supposed to do|
xuwa was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen
- Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to whether the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed as a question (INTERROGATIVE), a declaration (DECLARATIVE), a negation (NEGATIVE), affirmation (AFFIRMATIVE), or combinations of these.
Making Predicates Interrogative
- To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer Duhwc Say whether.../Is it true that...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as Hos? What?, Hot? Who(m)?, or Hom? where?. Note that the Du in Duhev means Say.../ Tell me..., so Duhev...? really is a command meaning Say whether.... The word hev without the du is a conditional complementizer and just means if or whether. The part of the sentence after Duhev is a simple declarative statement in the normal word order. The same is true for the words following other interrogative words, such as Hos? What? and Hom? Where?. In other words, there is no inversion of word order in questions as there often is in English, Spanish, and many other languages.
DECLARATIVE INTERROGATIVE Et se tadsa..... You are married. Duves et se tadsa?.... Are you married? Ha mari se maya..... The stars are bright. Duves ha mari se maya?.... Are the stars bright? Hut aka.....That guy won. Hot aka?.... Who won? Iyt aka glas.....He won a lot. Hoglas iyt aka?.... How much did she win? It paye..... He has gone. Hom it paye?.... Where has he gone?
- Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
- Et tame ha yubem?.... You live in the neighborhood?
- Yes/no questions such as the above and those introduced with Duhev usually are answered with va yes, ve maybe, or vo no or their equivalents.
YES-NO QUESTION ANSWER Duhev eta dyun se John?.... Is your name John? Vo, se Bill..... No, it's Bill. Duhev eta apet aka?.... Did you horse win? Va. Atas vay aka....Yes. Mine won indeed. Duhev et texe hav ha malyen gafiso hijub?.... Do you think the weather will improve today? Ve..... Maybe. Fe per bay at?... Wanna go with me? Vey zajub.... Maybe tomorrow.
Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations
- The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
INTERJECTION ADVERB PROPOSITION AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe.... Yes, I indeed/do/really agree. DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po..... Maybe. I may/possibly will go. NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva..... No. I would not be happy.
Mixing Them Up
- The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
- Duves et voy se tadsa?.... Aren't you married?
- Avhos iyt se voy tadsa?.... Why isn't she married?
- Vey voy mamilo..... It may not rain.
- At vay voy tadso iyt..... I will certainly not marry her.
- Et peyo, vya?.... You will go, right?
- Vo. Hus vey vay se vyoa..... No. That may indeed be wrong.
- Et te ha dud, vya?.... You know the answer, don't you? (=right?)
- Note that the particles of affirmation/doubt/negation usually precede the verb, but can just as easily follow it.
- At voy te. .... I don't know.
- At te voy. .... I don't know. [Lit: I know not.]
Imperative and Hortative Expressions
- An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the hypothetical without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring implicitly to you. For example:
- Ipu!.... Go away!
- Tiju!.... Wake up!
- Su fiat!.... Be a good person!
- Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive complementizer vas that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive' mood.
- Hav yat fadilu..... Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
- Hav et aku hia ifek..... May you win this game.
- Hav ha edeb yagteju..... Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
- The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest, let's not. If there is no subject pronoun, you is understood.
- Hov dalu at huyen..... Don't (you) speak to me that way.
- Hov yit oku..... May they not lose.
- Hov yat toxu it..... Let's not forget him.
- Hav, hev, and hov are part of a whole system of complementizers:
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZERS MEANING MIRAD
INTERROGATIVE duhev...? Is it true that...?
Tell (me) whether...
(yes/no question introducer)
Duhev eta dyun se John? Is (it true that) your name is John? CONDITIONAL hev if, whether Hev et te, du has.
At utdide hev it upo.
If you know, say so.
I wonder whether he'll come.
ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless Oves et yexe, et voy ako. Unless you work, you will not win. POSITIVE/HORTATIVE hav that, so that, let, may At ta hav it upo.
Hav yat dilo.
Hav et su iva.
At xa has hav et fitexu at.
I knew (that) he would come.
Let you be happy.
I did it so you'd think well of me.
NEGATIVE/PROHIBITIVE hov Don't, let...not, lest Hov teaxu at.
Hov yat su uva.
At pio hov et futepyensu.
Don't look at me.
Let's not be sad.
I will leave lest you get angry.
RELATIVE hu who, whom, that, which Ha toybi hu ifaye et...
Ha toyb hu et ife.
Koxon hu at yofe onyafxer.
The women who have loved you.
The woman (whom) you love.
A problem (that/which) I cannot solve.
- The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Positive subjunctive clauses are introduced with the positive complementizer hav that, let's, so that. Here are some examples:
- Ha ideb dila hav at tyoibu za it..... The king asked that I kneel before him.
- Se igefwa hav et upu gwa ig..... It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
- Dirwa hav hyat dolu..... It was ordered that everyone be silent.
- A negative subjunctive clause is introduced with the negative complementizer hov don't, lest.
- Su bikaya hov et pyosu..... Be careful lest you fall / that you not fall.
- The conditional complementizer hev if, whether can introduce a clause in the subjunctive, indicating an unreal condition, as in the following examples:
- At sexu tam hev at su nasika....I would build a house if I were (= would be) rich.
- Hos et xu hev et baysu ga nas?...What would you do if you had (= would have) more money?
- Many of the above sentences could be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
- Ha ideb dila at tyoiber za it..... The king asked me to kneel before him.
- Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig..... It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
- Hyat dirwa doler..... Everyone was ordered to be silent.
- Su bikaya voy pyoser..... Be careful not to fall.
If-Then Conditional Clauses
- A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional complementizer hev if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
IF-CLAUSE THEN-CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Hev ot yexe gla,
If one works hard,
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE Hev et ta,
If you knew,
you kept quiet.
FUTURE INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE Hev et pio,
If you leave,
at so uva.
I will be sad.
PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL Hev at su nasika,
If I were rich,
Hev et teetu,
If you would listen,
at nusbiu aga tam.
I would buy a new house.
you would understand.
PAST HYPOTHETICAL PAST HYPOTHETICAL Hev at tayu,
If I had known,
at dudayu hyuyen.
I would have responded differently.
- Note that in English, when the then-clause is future tense, the if-clause is present; This is not the case in Mirad, where both clauses are in the future. In Mirad, the formula is "If you WILL leave, I WILL be sad." In English, the formula "I didn't know whether he WOULD x" is translated in Mirad as "I didn't know whether he WILL x."
If/Whether Subordinate Clauses
- Here are some examples of sentences where the main clause contains some verb of knowing, questioning, wondering, guessing followed by a subordinate clause introduced by the conditional complementizer hev whether / if. Note that the tenses in Mirad are somewhat different in that there is no relative shifting of time as in English.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE At utdide
hev it te ha vyan.
if / whether he knows the truth.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE At voy te
I don't know
hev yit aka ey oka.
if / whether they won or lost.
PRESENT INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE At voy te
I don't know
hev et ujako.
if / whether you will succeed.
PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL At utdide
hev et yantexu.
if / whether you would agree.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it se tadsa.
if / whether he was [Mirad: is] married.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST INDICATIVE At dida
hev iyt teata hia dezun.
if / whether she had seen [Mirad: saw] this play.
PAST INDICATIVE FUTURE INDICATIVE At voy ta
I didn't know
hev it upo
if / whether he would [Mirad: will] come.
PAST INDICATIVE PRESENT HYPOTHETICAL At dida
hev it fu per bay at.
if / whether he might like to go with me.
PAST INDICATIVE PAST HYPOTHETICAL At dida
hev it fayu per bay at.
if / whether he might have liked to go with me.
- The negative conditional complementizer ohev unless is used in main-subordinate clause structures in the same way as the above.
MAIN CLAUSE IF / WHETHER SUBORDINATE CLAUSE PRESENT INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Ot voy ujake
One does not succeed
ohev ot yexe jestay.
unless one works hard.
FUTURE INDICATIVE PRESENT INDICATIVE Et voy teato at
You won't see me
ohev et upo.
unless you come (= will come).
- Relative clauses are of two types:
- Bound relative clauses qualify an explicit element (usually a noun or phrase) appearing in the main clause, and refer back to that element by means of the relative complementizer hu, and:
- Free relative clauses, which do not have an explicit antecedent external to themselves. Instead, the relative clause itself takes the place of an argument in the matrix clause. For example, in the English sentence I like what I see, the clause what I see is a free relative clause, because it has no antecedent, but itself serves as the object of the verb like in the main clause. (An alternative analysis is that the free relative clause has zero as its antecedent.) In Mirad, deictic pronouns or adverbs followed by the relative complementizer hu, as shown in the chart below, are used to introduce the free relative clause.
Bound Relative Clauses
- The invariable relative complementizer hu is used to introduce a bound relative clause and refer back to an element in the main clause. Here are some examples:
- Ha tob, hu tadsa ja ewa jabi, bayse awa tobot.....The man, who got married two years ago, has one child.
- Ha toyb hu ake ibe aga nazun.....The woman who wins receives a big prize.
- Hia pati hu at pexa magilwo himaj.....These birds (that/which) I caught will be cooked this evening.
- Biu hyea jotul hu et fu.....Take any dessert (that) you'd like.
- Ha apet hu at bua it ha afyab apeda bay if.....The horse I gave the apple to neighed with pleasure. (= ...that I gave him the apple...)
- Iyt ijtyexa at bu ha yexeb hu iyt yexaya ob it je gla jabi....She introduced me to the boss under whom she had worked for many years. (Lit: ...that she had worked under him...)
- Note that in cases where the relative clause ends in a preposition governing the man clause antecedent, a pronoun is added agreeing in gender, number, and animacy with the main clause antecedent. This type of construction occurs in the last two example sentences above. So, the English relative clause for whom I sang would be expressed in Mirad as that I sang for her/him/it/them depending on the gender, number, and animacy of the antecedent in the main clause.
- Ha toybi hu at deuza av iyti fida ata yafi.....The ladies for whom I sang (= that I sang for them) praised my abilities.
- Bound relative clauses beginning with whose are expressed in Mirad as hu ita/iyta/yita/yiyta (= that his/her/their/their), depending on the gender and number of the explicit antecedent in the main clause.
- Ha ekuyt hu iyta tyoyab yonpyexwa yofa eker hijeb....The female player whose foot (= that her foot) was broken was unable to play this season.
- Ata yubati, hu yita tam sa jay ga aga vyel yatas, agaxa yita param gajod....Our neighbors, whose (= that their) house is already bigger than ours, enlarged their garage again.
- If no preposition governing the antecedent is involved, but the relative clause takes the place of an objective case element, supplying a pronoun referring back to the antecedent noun, is optional:
- Ha dyeni hu at dyedi (hasi) zamaj sa hya fiasi....The books I read (= them) last evening were all good (ones).
Free Relative Clauses
- Free relative clauses are introduced by a deictic pronoun or adverb followed by the relative complementizer hu as shown in the charts below.
RELATIVE PRONOUNS MIRAD...ENGLISH EXAMPLE THING(S) has hu...what/that which/the thing that
hasi hu...what/those which/the things that
hyes hu...whatever/anything that
hyesi hu...whatever/anything that/any things that
hyas hu...everything that/all that
hyasi hu...all (things) that
hyos hu...nothing (that)
hyosi hu...none of the things (that)
haas hu...which one
haasi hu...which ones
Has hu at da se vyaa....What I said is true.
Hasi hu it xa futepyenua at....What/the things he did angered me.
At xo hyes hu et do....I will do whatever/anything you say.
Et voy teeta hyesi hu at deuza....You didn't hear any of the things I sang.
Hyas hu at fe se poos....All I want is peace.
At akxa hyusi hu at fa....I achieved all the things I wanted.
At testa hyos hu et da....I understood nothing you said.
Hyosi hu et iyfe ifue at....None of the things you like appeal to me.
At te voy haas hu at gwafe....I don't know which one I like best.
At te haasi hu at gwofe....I know which ones I like least.
PERSON(S) hat hu...who//the person (who)
hati hu...those who/the ones who
hyet hu...whoever/anybody who/that
hyeti hu...whoever/any people that/who
hyat hu...everyone that/everybody who
hyati hu...all (people) who
hyot hu...nobody (that/who)
hyoti hu...no people (that/who)
haat hu...which one
haati hu...which ones
Hat hu et teata pia....The person you saw left.
Hati hu at tye yantexe....The people I know agree.
At teapo hyet hu at fe....I will visit whomever I wish.
Et voy teata hyeti hu at teata....You didn't see any of the ones I saw.
Hyat hu at ijtya sa fiyena....Everyone I met was nice.
At fida hyati hu at yeyfa....I praised all the people I was supposed to.
At testa hyot hu at teeta....I understood nobody I heard.
Hati hu et ijtyaxa sa fuyena....The ones you introduced were ill-mannered.
At te voy hati hu ifpot his se....I don't know whose pet this is.
At te voy haat hu at gwafe....I don't know which one (person) I like best.
At te haati hu at gwofe....I know which ones (people) I like least.
RELATIVE ADVERBS MIRAD ADVERB...ENGLISH ADVERB EXAMPLE PLACE ham hu...where
hu...bi ham...from where, whence
hu...bu ham...to where, whither
Yat teje ham hu ha malyem se ema....We live where the weather is mild.
At fu per hyem hu et po....I'd like to go wherever you go.
Hyam hu et pe, su bikaya....Everywhere you go, be careful.
Ha dom hu at upe bi ham se gla oga....The town from where I come (Lit: that I come from it) is very small.
Ha memi hu at popeyo hami se gle jiba....The countries where I am going to be traveling are quite distant.
TIME haj hu...when
Du at haj hu et puo....Tell me when you arrive.
Hyej hu iyt se iva, iyt deuze....Whenever/anytime she is happy, she sings.
Hyaj hu at yabteaxe, et yobteaxe....Every time I look up, you look down.
MANNER/KIND hayen hu...how, in what way, as
hyeyen hu...however, in any way, in whatever manner
hyiyen hu just as, the same way as
At utdide hayen hu it xa hus....I wonder how he did it.
Hyeyen hu xwa se kos....However it happened is a mystery.
Xu has hyiyen hu at xe has....Do it the same way as I do it.
DEGREE hagla hu...how, to what extent
hyigla hu...as, to the same degree as
Et hyoj to hagla hu iva at se....You'll never know how happy I am.
At yofe poper hyigla yib hu et yafe....I cannot travel as far as you can.
QUANTITY hagla hu...how much, how many
hyegla hu...however much, however many
hyigla hu...as much/many as
Duhev et te hagla nas hu it bayse?...Do you know how much money he has?
Yet dida yat hyegla tami hu yat sexa....You guys asked us however many houses we built.
Et niso hyigla nas hu at xe....You will earn as much money as I do.
REASON avhas hu...why, for what reason
avhyes hu...why ever, for whatever reason
Duhev et te avhas hu it xa hus....Do you know why he did that?
Yat voy teste avhyes hu et xu hus....We don't understand why ever you'd do that.
- If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
- RESTRICTIVE: Ha mar hu yata mer zyupe has dyunuwe ha amar. The star that our planet goes around (Lit: it) is called the sun.
- NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ha amar, hu yata mer zyupe has, se vay anay hea mar. The sun, which our planet goes around, is really only a star.
Indirect and Direct Discourse
- As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.
- Sentences that have a main clause of communication or knowledge, followed by a subordinate clause with an indirect indication of what was said or known, use the positive complementizer hav (that, the fact that) to introduce the subordinate clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, where the that can often be omitted, the Mirad hav complementizer can never be omitted.
- At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would (= will) come.
- Ata ted da hav it yexe hya ita tej gel fufut..... My father said that he had worked (= he worked) all his life as a plumber.
- Se vyaa hav at gra tele..... It is true that I eat too much.
- At jada hav et puo jwa..... I predicted that you would (= you will) arrive early.
- The conditional complementizer hev if, whether and the negative complementizer hov lest, don't, that...not are discussed in later sections.
- Direct discourse works exactly as in English. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
- Iyt da, "At voy fe per." She said, "I don't want to go."
- At dida it, "Hot sa eta ted?". I asked him, "Who was your father?"
- Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
- Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
- Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE xer do ser be agxer grow (something) agser grow (up) amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up puxer throw puser jump per go ber put aber put on aper get on yaber raise yaper rise poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop yuber bring yuper approach yeber insert yeper enter
- At agxe vobi..... I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
- Ha vobi agseye ig..... The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
- Poxu ha par!.... Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
- Ha par posa..... The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
- At yaba ha mis..... I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
- Ha amar yapaye..... The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].
Marking -jer Verbs for Transitivity
- Note the following verbs, whose stems end in j are hard to pronounce with intransitive s and transitive x, so these two endings are placed with p and b, respectively, although the presence of the p is optional, i.e. it's presence or absence can slightly change the meaning from static to dynamic, eg. tujer to sleep vs. tujper to fall asleep.
INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE Ha mes yija....The door opened.
Ha nasyef yijpa....The purse came open.
At yijba ha mes....I opened the door. Ha mes yuja.....The door closed.
Ha yanup yujpa.....The meeting adjourned.
At yujba ha mes.....I closed the door. Ha dezun ijaye.....The play has started.
Ha par ijpa boy poys.....The car started up immediately.
At ijba ata tul.....I started my meal. Ha dezun ujaye.....The play has ended.
Ata yex ujpaye.....My work has come to an end.
A ujba ha dyen.....I finished the book. Ha tob toja zomoj.....The man died yesterday evening.
Ha tob tojpa.....The man dropped dead.
Hot tojba ha tob?....Who killed the man? Teju.....Live!.
Yat efe tejber ha tob.....We need to revive the man. Ha tobob taja zojub.....The baby was born yesterday. Iyt tajba awa tobob zojub.....She gave birth to a baby boy yesterday. At tija jwe.....I woke up on time.
It voy tijpa.....He did not come to..
At tijbo et jwa.....I will wake (you) up early. At tujeya.....I was sleeping.
At tujpeya.....I was falling sleep.
At tujbo it.....I will put (him) to sleep..
- The transitive voice of verbs like those in the above chart can be made passive with w:
- Ha tob tojbwa zomoj.....The man was killed last evening.
- Ha tobob tajbwo bey ha bekut.....The baby will be delivered by the nurse.
- Ha bukwat voy yafe tejbwer.....The injured person cannot be saved.
- Ha mis yijbwa je ha moj.....The window was opened during the night.
- Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
- At tujboye atut..... I am going to kill myself.
- Tu etut!.... Know thyself!
- It gorba itut bay gorbar..... He cut himself with a knife.
- Ot yefe yuxer otut..... One must help oneself.
- Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
- uttujber.... commit suicide
- utboler.... support oneself
- Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
- Et efe vyimiler etut..... You need to wash up [= wash yourself]. (or)
- Et efe utvyimiler.....You need to wash up.
Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs
- Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
PREPOSITION-INCORPORATING VERB EXAMPLE per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home., It pa Paris. He went to Paris. der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name., Du at has. Tell it to me. peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me. buer give (to) Buu at hua dyes. Give me that book.
- As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu has bu at. Give it to me.
Transitive/Causative and Intransitive/Inchoative Verbs
Derived from Adjectives
- Adjectives can be converted into transitive/causative and intransitive/inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive (taking an object), while inchoative verbs are intransitive (not taking an object). English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
- To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer.
ADJECTIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE/TRANSITIVE -xer LITERAL IDIOMATIC aga
to copy, equate
- To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
ADJECTIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE INCHOATIVE/INTRANSITIVE -ser LITERAL IDIOMATIC aga
to get bigger
to unite, become united
to become separate
- Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
- Ansu ey yet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
- At otadsa haj hu at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
- Hisi agaxo has hu et teate. These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
- Hia tobot agseye ig. This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
- Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom. My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]
Derived from Nouns
- Transitive/causative/active and intransitive/inchoative/passive verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make be X and of the latter, to become X.
NOUN TRANSITIVE/CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE INTRANSITIVE/INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE mog ash mogxer
to become ashes
yan collection yanxer
to get together
tad spouse tadxer
to get married
yom ice yomxer
to freeze/make ice
to freeze/become ice
mag fire magxer
to burn, set fire to
to burn, get burned
uk void ukxer
become empty, empty out
Derived from Verbs
- Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
- At gorbuxo ata tayeb zamaj..... I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
- Et voy yafe puxer at..... You cannot make me go.
- It tojbuxa yit..... He had them killed.
- At efe vyilxuxer ata par..... I need to have my car washed.
- Et upuxwa him avhes..... You were made to come here for some reason.
- At bakambuxo et..... I will have you hospitalized.
- Et voy yafe deuzuxer at..... You cannot make me sing.
- At ivteuduxwa..... I was tickled (= made to laugh).
- Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat..... Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
- Hav het ivasuxu et..... May someone get you to be happy.
- The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
SUBJECT-DIRECTED OBJECT-DIRECTED bier to take buer to give nier to consume nuer to supply nyier to order nyuer to deliver nunier to buy nunuer to sell nazunier win a prize nazunuer award a prize noysier pay off noysuer charge ojbier borrow ojbuer lend tadier get married taduer marry off papier take flight papuer send off flying pipier set sail pipuer dock simbier take a seat simbuer offer a seat tampier leave home tampuer arrive home tamier settle in tamuer shelter nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell telier to eat teluer to feed gonbier to participate gonbuer to share tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show taxier to memorize taxuer to remind alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak ifier to enjoy ifuer to please dier to ask duer to suggest tier to learn tuer to inform pier to depart puer to arrive kebier to choose kebuer to distribute tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill byier to originate byuer to target mempier to take off mempuer to land sinier visualize sinuer display xier to result xuer to cause yifier to get up the courage yifuer to encourage yafonier to gain power yafonuer to empower tyier to become acquainted with tyuer to acquaint tepizier to pay attention to tepizuer to draw attention to
Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes
- Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
PREPOSITION/ADVERB TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB ab on aber apply aper get on, mount ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount eb between eber block eper intervene yab up yaber raise yaper rise yob down yober take down yoper descend yub near yuber bring near yuper approach yib far yiber take away yiper go far away yeb in yeber insert yeper enter yeb in yepuxer throw in yepuser jump in oyeb out oyeber expose oyeper exit oyeb out oyepuxer eject oyepuser jump out zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper revolve zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour av for avdaler plead avper pursue ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene yan together yanber compose yanper meet yon apart yonber separate yonper separate iz direct izber lead izper head uz curved uzber divert uzper diverge yuz around yuzbexer surround yuzper circulate yiz beyond yizber transfer yizper surpass
- The prefix eej- anew, again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
- ember to position → eejember to reposition, replace
- der to say → eejder to repeat
- sanxer to shape, form → eejsanxer to reshape, reform
- The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
- saxer to build, construct → losaxer to destroy, deconstruct
- yonxer to unite → loyonxer to disunite
- xer to do → loxer to undo
- The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
- nadxer to align → vyonadxer to misalign
- der to say → vyoder to misstate, lie
- utbier to appropriate → vyoutbier to misappropriate
- The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
- exer to operate → yanexer to cooperate
- tamer to dwell → yantamer to cohabit
- napber to put in order → yannapber to coordinate
- The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
- teaper to visit → zoyteaper to revisit
- uper to come → zoyuper to return, come back
- buxer to push → zoybuxer to repel, push back
- puxer to throw → zoypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison
- The prefix az- (from aza strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
- yujber to close → azyujber to lock
- der to say → azder to emphasize
- duer to suggest → azduer to urge
- dizeuder to laugh → azdizeuder to guffaw
- By contrast, the prefix oz- (from oza weak) is used as a softener, eg.:
- der to utter → ozder to whisper
- duer to suggest → ozduer to hint
- dizeuder to laugh → ozdizeuder to chuckle
- uvteuder to moan → ozuvteuder to whimper
- The prefix ja- before is used as the English prefix pre-, fore-, or ante-, eg.:
- der to tell → jader to foretell, predict
- teater to see → jateater to foresee, preview
- ter to know → jater to presage, have foreknowledge of
- yever to judge → jayever to prejudge
- juder to date → jajuder to antedate
- By contrast, jo- after is used as the English prefix post-, eg.:
- juder to date → jojuder to postdate
- texer to think → jotexer to reflect on, review
- der to say → joder to mourn, regret
- ibler to obtain → joibler to inherit
- The prefix gra- too much is used for actions that are excessive, eg.:
- telier to eat → gratelier to overeat
- fer to want → grafer to cover
- der to say → grader to exaggerate
- daler to talk → gradaler to yammer
By contrast, the prefix gro- to little is used for actions that are underdone, eg.:
- fyinder to value → grofyinder to underestimate
- mageler to cook → gromageler to undercook
- Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.
Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs
- Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
POSITIVE NEGATIVE afer may
efer need ofer may not
oyfer might not
fer want ufer hate
yafer can, be able
yayfer might, could
yefer must, have to
yeyfer ought, should
yoyfer could not, might not
yifer dare yufer be afraid yiver have a right, be free yuver be bound
- If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
- At fe per..... I want to go.
- At fu per..... I would like to go.
- Et yafe aker..... You can win.
- Et yafu aker..... You could win.
- Yet yefe iper..... You must leave.
- Yet yefu iper..... You ought to leave.
- Post-iotating the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
- At ife et. ....I love you.
- At iyfe et. ....I like you.
- Et yefe iper..... You must leave.
- Et yeyfe iper..... You should leave.
- Iyt yafe aker..... She can win.
- Iyt yayfe aker..... She might win.
- At ufa uda tuz..... I hated that art.
- At uyfa uda tuz..... I disliked that art.
- By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
- Hua toyb yufxa at..... That woman scared me.
- Hua toyb yulfxa at..... That woman intimidated me.
- Hua toyb yurfxa at..... That woman terrorized me.
- Hia yex efwo..... This work will be necessary.
- Hia yex elfwo..... This work will be critical.
- Hia yex erfwo..... This work will be indispensable.
- Su yifa..... Be brave.
- Su yilfa..... Be bold.
- Su yirfa..... Be heroic.
- Et yuve buer nas..... You are supposed to give money.
- Et yulve buer nas..... You are bound to give money.
- Et yurve buer nas..... You are absolutely compelled to give money.
- Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
- Et afe oyeper ay ifeker..... You may go out and play.
- Yat efa tujer..... We needed to sleep.
- Ot ofe mavier him..... One is prohibited to smoke here.
- Mavier him ofwe..... Smoking here is prohibited.
- At ife dyeer..... I love to read.
- He et fe yebuper?.... Do you want to come in?
- At fu teaper et edjub..... I would like to visit you some day.
- It ufaye hyaj teaxwer..... He has always hated being looked at.
- Duhev et iyfe per tilami?.... Do you like going to bars?
- At uyfe tijer gra jwa..... I dislike waking up too early.
- Et yafe xer hyes hu et fu..... You can do whatever you like.
- Et yefer xer ad vyaas..... You must do the right thing.
- Et yeyfe voy daler huyen azay..... You should not talk so loud.
- At yeyfa ter ga fi..... I should have known better.
- At voy yifu der hyea fuas..... I would not dare say anything bad.
- Hov yufu der has hu et tesde..... Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
- Et yive dier yevanavdut..... You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
- Yat voy yuve kyoejer..... We are not bound to stick around.
Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms
- All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented." The participial adjective yafa able is subject-oriented and refers to a person, whereas the passived adjective yafwa possible is patient-oriented and refers to a thing or event. Here is a chart of the principal modal verbs and corresponding participial adjectives with this subject/object-orientation distinction shown:
MODAL TYPE SUBJECT-ORIENTED SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED VERB ADJECTIVE VERB ADJECTIVE PERMISSION afer.... may afa.... allowed afwer.... be permitted afwa.... permissable NECESSITY efer.... need efa.... needful efwer.... be necessary efwa.... necessary, required PROHIBITION ofer.... be unallowed ofa.... prohibited ofwer.... be prohibited ofwa.... banned POSSIBILITY yafer.... be able yafa.... able yafwer.... be possible yafwa.... possible OBLIGATION yefer.... must yefa.... obliged yefwer.... be obligatory yefwa.... obligatory DUTY yeyfer.... should yeyfa.... supposed, duty-bound yeyfwer'.... be supposed yeyfwa.... due IMPOSSIBILITY yofer.... be unable yofa.... unable yofwer.... be impossible yofwa.... impossible VOLITION fer.... want fa.... willing fwer.... be desirable fwa.... desirable, wanted LOVE ifer.... love ifa.... enamored ifwer.... be loved ifwa.... lovable HATE ufer.... hate ufa.... averse ufwer.... be hated ufwa.... odious RISK yifer.... dare yifa.... daring, brave yifwer.... be safe yifwa.... safe FEAR yufer.... be afraid yufa.... afraid yufwer.... be a danger yufwa.... frightening JOY iver.... enjoy iva.... glad ivwer.... be a joy ivwa.... enjoyable SORROW uver.... be sorry uva.... sorry, sad uvwer... be a shame uvwa.... regrettable
- Examples of subject-oriented forms:
- At se yafa xer hes..... I am capable of doing anything.
- Et ofe teater hia dyezun..... You are not allowed/are prohibited to see this film.
- Duhev at afe per hum?.... Am I allowed to go there?
- Yat fu ter eta dyun..... We would like to know your name.
- Piti ufe beser be mel..... Fish hate to remain on dry land.
- At ajay ifa dazer..... I once loved to dance.
- Et se iva, at yife der..... You are beautiful, I dare say.
- At yeyfa xer has ga ig..... I should have done it sooner.
- Hov yufu; At yupeye..... Fear not; I am coming.
- Et yefe puer ja eymaj..... You must arrive before noon.
- Yet yofe daler je ha dezun..... You must not talk during the performance.
- Yat yeyfe (= se yeyfa aker..... We should (= are bound/supposed/due) to win.
- At ive teater et bakser..... I'm glad to see you get better.
- Su iva..... Be happy.
- Yat uvu teater et iper..... I would be sad to see you leave.
- Examples of patient-oriented forms:
- Afwe (= se afwa) mavier him..... It is permissible to smoke here.
- Ofwe (= se ofwa*) puxer fyumul him..... It is prohibited to throw litter here.
- Fwe (= se fwa) hav yet dolu..... It is desired that you stop talking.
- Voy yafwe beser him gajob..... It is not possible to remain here any longer.
- Yofwa av at ivteuder..... It was not possible for me to laugh.
- Yefwe hav et piu ig..... It is essential that you leave quickly.
- He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi?.... Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
- Ga yux efwo..... More help will be needed.
- Yurx se ufwa xetyen..... Slavery is an odious practice.
- Uvwe hav it oka..... It's a shame that he lost.
- *Ofawa is used for unwanted for disambiguation purposes.
Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems
- Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
SUBJECT-ORIENTED PATIENT-ORIENTED afxer allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer permit (something to be done) efxer require efwaxer necessitate ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant
Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes
- Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yafa able to X, -able -yofa unable to X, un-X-able PATIENT-ORIENTED -yafwa possible to X -yofwa impossible to X SUBJECT-ORIENTED -ifa fond of Xing, Xophile -ufa averse to Xing, Xophobic SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yika hard of Xing -yuka comfortable Xing PATIENT-ORIENTED -yikwa hard to X -yukwa easy to X SUBJECT-ORIENTED -efa in need of Xing PATIENT-ORIENTED -efwa necessary to X SUBJECT-ORIENTED -yufa afraid of Xing PATIENT-ORIENTED -yufwa frightening to X'
- This table shows some of these modal suffixes applied to actual verb and noun stems:
POSITIVE ADJECTIVE POSITIVE VERB NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE NEGATIVE VERB SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyafer be able to see teatyofa blind teatyofer be blind PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa visible teatyafwer be visible teatyofwa invisible teatyofwer be invisible SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyafer be able to hear teetyofa deaf teatyofer be deaf PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa audible teetyafwer be audible teeyofwa inaudible teeyofwer be inaudiable SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa able to speak dalyafer be able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb dalyofer be mute, dumb SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa patriotic doabifer be patriotic doabufa rebellious doabufer rebel SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa sensitive tosyafer be able to feel tosyofa insensitive tosyofer be numbed PATIENT-ORIENTED tayotyafwa palpable tayotyafwer be palpable tayotyofwa numb tayotyofwer be impalbable, numb PATIENT-ORIENTED testyukwa easy to understand testyukwaxer make easily understood testyikwa hard to understand testyikwaxer make hard to understand SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa thirsty tilefer be thirsty SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa hungry telefer be hungry PATIENT-ORIENTED tejefwa vital tejefwer be vital
- Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern, as the following chart shows:
|RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE||teater see||teeter hear||teiter smell||teuter taste||tayoter feel|
|RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE||teatwer be seen||teetwer be heard||teitwer be smelled||teutwer be tasted||tayotwer be felt|
|STATIVE||teaser seem||teeser sound||teiser smell||teuser taste||tayoser feel|
|DYNAMIC/ACTIVE||teaxer look at||teexer listen||teixer sniff||teuxer taste||tayoxer touch|
|DYNAMIC/PASSIVE||teaxwer be looked at||teexwer be listened to||teixwer be sniffed||teuxwer be tasted||tayoxwer be touched|
|CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE||teatuer show||teetuer make hear||teixuer make smell||teuxuer offer a taste||tayoxuer make feel|
|CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE||teatuwer be shown||teetuwer be made to hear||teituwer be made to smell||teutuwer be given a taste||tayotuwer be made to feel|
catch sight of
|teetier catch the
|teitier get a whiff of||teutuer get a taste of||tayotier get the sensation of|
|INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE||teatiwer be perceived||teetiwer be heard||teitiwer be whiffed||teutiwer be tasted||tayotiwer be felt|
|teatyofer be blind||teetyofer be deaf||teityofer be unable to smell||teityofer be unable to taste||tayotyofer be insensitive|
|teatyofwer be invisible||teetyofwer be inaudible||teityofwer be undetectable
|teityofwer be insipid||tayotyofwer be undetectable|
|NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE||teatyofxer blind||teetyofxer deafen||teityofxer desensitize
|teutyofxer desensitize to
|NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE||teatyofwaxer make invisible||teetyofwaxer make inaudible||teityofwaxer make odorless||teutyofwaxer render tasteless||tayotyofwaxer numb|
- Examples of usage:
- At teatyofxwa bey ha mani. I was blinded by the lights.
- Ha xeus sa teetyofxyea. The noise was deafening.
- Hia tit se gla teatiyea. This pupil is very perceptive.
- Hua bekil se teityofwa. That medecine is odorless (impossible to smell).
- Teatyofwaxu ha vyuni. Make the spots invisible.
- Ha magmeb yonpyerx tayotyafwa zya ha mir. The volcano eruption could be felt throughout the world.
- Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.
- Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE SPATIAL ab on, upon eb between ob off, off of ayb over, above eyb among, amid oyb under, below bu to be at bi from, of byu as far as, up to byi since, starting with ub toward ib away from za in front of ze at the middle of zo behind, in back of zu (to the) left (of) zi (to the) right (of) zye through TEMPORAL ja before je during, while jo after ju until ji since RELATIONAL bay with bey by boy without av for vyel than, as, compared to, about ov against ay and ey or oy but, except MATHEMATICAL gab plus, + gob minus, - gal times, × gel like
gol, ÷ divided by gar to the power of, ˆ gor to the root of,√
- Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
- Ha dyes se ab ha sem..... The book is on the table.
- Hov et pyosu ob ha abtamas!.... Don't fall off the roof!
- Ha pati papa ayb ata tam..... The birds flew over my house.
- It kosa oyb ha yagsim..... He hid under the bench.
- Simbiu eb hut ay at..... Take a seat between that person and me.
- Yat teje eyb fiati..... We live among good people.
- Hos se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston?.... What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
- His se ifek bi kyen..... This is a game of luck.
- Duvas et sa be hua duzun zomoj?.... Were you at that concert last night?
- Yit se embwa be ha zenod bi ha mapil..... We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
- Iyt tyoyapa byu ha mis..... She walked up to the door.
- Ha tob tojbwa bey gobar..... The man was killed with/by a knife.
- Et xu ga fiay ser bay at ev boy at..... You would do better to be with me than without me.
- Teaxu ib ha amar..... Look away from the sun.
- Hov teaxu iz ub ha man..... Don't look directly toward the light.
- Iyt simpa za at. .... She sat in front of me.
- Et yeyfe simbier zo hua toyb..... You should sit in back of that woman.
- Embu has zu ha mis..... Put it to the left of the door.
- At simpo zi et..... I will sit to the right of you.
- Ha pat poosa ze ha tim..... The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
- Mil upeye zye ha mes..... Water is coming through the door.
- His xwo ja zajub. .... This will happen before tomorrow.
- Esa mapil je ha moj..... There was a storm during the night.
- Ju zamaj..... Until tomorrow morning.
- At voy teataye et ji zoyejub..... I have not seen you since last week.
- Diwe xu hes av at..... Please do something for me.
- Hia dyen se din vyel ewa fiuti..... This book is a story about two lovers.
- Datan se ga fia vyel nas. Friendship is better than money.
- Hos se ge fua vyel has hu yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
- Yit yexeya ov yat..... They were working against us.
- Et ay at yeyfe ser dati..... You and I should be friends.
- Hot ako, et ey at?....Who will win, you or I?
- Hyat oy hut ta ha dud..... Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
- Et voy se gel at..... You are not like me.
- Et se hyagla ogel at..... You are totally unlike me.
- E gab e gese u..... Two plus two equals four.
- U gob e gese e..... Four minus two equals two.
- E gal e gese u..... Two times two equals four.
- E gol e gese a..... Two divided by two equals one.
- U gar e gese asya..... Four squared equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
- Alya gor e gese u..... The square root of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the root of two...)
Phrasal Prepositions Using Adverbs
- There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming phrasal prepositions, but cannot act as prepositions in and of themselves:
yub near yib far yuz around yiz beyond iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout yab up yeb in
yob down yaz along yez flush (with) yoz perpendicular (to) zay forward, ahead zey across zoy back
- The next chart lists some phrasal prepositions using the above adverbs:
PHRASAL PREPOSITION EXAMPLE yub bi near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et..... I want to sleep close to you. yib bi far from Ha amar se yib bi ha imer..... The sun is far from the earth. yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ha mam..... He would like to fly up to the sky. yab bi up from Su yab bi ha sim..... Get up from the bed. yab bey up (along) Yat tyoyapo yab bey ha meab..... We will walk up the hill. yab be up on Ha yipet kaxwa yab be ha abtammmas..... The cat was found up on the roof. yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ha obmos..... Run down to the cellar. yob bi down from Ha tat upa yob bi ha mam..... The angel came down from the sky. yob bey down from Iyt igtyoyapa yob bey ha meab..... She ran down the hill. yob be down on Ha dyes kase yob be ha oybmas..... The book is down on the floor. yob ab down on top of Has kawa yob ab eta oybmos..... It was found down on your floor. yeb be in, inside Eta teyd se yeb be ha tam..... Your mother is in(side) the house. yeb bu into It pyasa yeb bu ha mip..... He jumped into the river. yeb bi in from Upu yeb bi ha oma oyebem..... Come in from the cold outdoors. yaz bi along He tob tyoyapa yaz bi ha mip.....The man walked along the river. yez bi flush with Ha simi se yez bi ha mas..... The chairs are flush with the wall. yoz bi perpendicular to Ha mampar pyosa yoz bi ha mel..... The plane fell perpendicular to the ground. yuz bi around Ha pati papa yuz bi yata tam.....The birds flew around our house. yiz bi beyond, past Et paye yiz bi ha yuznad.....You have gone beyond the perimeter. iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fyomir! ....Go straight to hell! iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ha yexim..... He came right back from the office. zay bu on to, forth to, ahead to Ha naadpar popa zay bu zona doym..... The train traveled on to the next town. zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat..... She sat across from us. zey bi across Et yefe per zey bi hia mip..... You must go across this river. zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ha yexim..... I am back from the office.
Phrasal Prepositions Using Nouns
- The following chart shows how prepositions and directional adverbs can be joined with the spatial ending -(e)m meaning place (or others) to be form spatial nouns, which, in turn, can be used in idiomatic prepositional phrases:
PREPOSITION OR ADVERB SPATIAL NOUN ab on abem top
abned upper surface
eb between ebem interstice
ob off obem bottom
obned lower surface
ayb above aybem area above
oyb below oybem area below
yab up yabem upstairs, upper area
yabneg top level
yob down yobem downstairs, lower area
yobneg bottom level
yeb in yebem inside, interior, indoors
yebnig inner space
oyeb out yobem outside, exterior, outdoors za in front of zam front, foreground
ze in the middle of zem middle
zenod center, hub
zo behind zom back, rear, background zi right zim right area
zikum left side
ziizon right direction
zu left zum left area
zukum left side
zuizon left direction
iz straight izmep direct route
uz indirectly uzmep detour
yub near yubem vicinity
yubkum near side
yubaj recent past
yib far yibem distance
yibkum far side
yiboj distant future
yuz around yuzem perifery
yiz beyond yizem area beyond
- The following chart shows phrasal prepositions that can be created with the use of the spatial nouns in the previous section or other nouns. These phrases are considered idiomatic, because they are abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ha in front of the noun:
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of bi eybem bi from the midst of be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of be zim bi at the right of bu zim bi to the right of bi zim bi from the right of be zum bi at the left of bu zum bi to the left of bi zum bi from the left of be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route be yebem bi on the inside of, inside be oyebem bi on the outside of, outside bu oyebem bi to the exterior of bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of be nod bi at the point of be yebem bi at the interior of, inside be oyebem bi at the exterior of, outside be nad bay in line with be uznod bi alongside be tes bi in the sense of be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of be avson bi on behalf of be vyeson bi on the subject of bay yux bi with the aid of
- Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. They are divided into coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Also some conjunctions consist of a combination of words.
- This chart shows the coordinating conjunctions used in Mirad:
ay and ey or oy but oey nor
- Usage examples:
- At oveko ay at ako. I will compete and I will win.
- Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et. Be still or I will spank you.
- It yeka oy it oka. He tried but he lost.
- At voy tilo oey at telo. I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.
Correlative Coordinating Conjunctions
- The above coordinating conjunctions can be associated in correlative pairs, as follows:
hyaewa...ay both...and hyeawa...ey either...or hyoawa...oey neither...nor voy hyawa...oy (gay) not only...but (also)
- At hyaewa dyede ay dre Mirad..... I both read and write Mirad.
- Et yafe hyeawa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun..... You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
- Yat hyoawa move oey tile..... We neither smoke nor drink.
- At voy hyawa deuze oy gay at daze.....I not only sing but also I dance.
- Subordinating Conjunctions introduce a dependent clause. All subordinating conjunctions must consist of at least one of the five so-called complementizers in the following chart. These complementarizers function in two ways:
- as a clause linker, where the complementizer introduces a clause that is a statement of FACT or CONDITION, or
- as a clause introducer, where the complementizer introduces a sentence that is a command/wish, a prohibition, or a yes-no question. Some of these complementizers can act in either or both roles.
- There are six complementizers, which, in and of themselves, are subordinating conjunctions:
TYPE COMPLEMENTIZER CLAUSE LINKER STATEMENT INTRODUCER POSITIVE / HORTATIVE hav that, the fact that May... (something happen), Let... (something happen) CONDITIONAL hev if, whether -- NEGATIVE / PROHIBITIVE hov lest, that...not Don't ANTI-CONDITIONAL ohev unless -- INTERROGATIVE Duhev...? -- Is it true that, say whether..., do(es)? RELATIVE hu that, which, who(m) --
- Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
- At ta hav et upo..... I knew that you would come.
- At xa has hav et testu..... I did it so that you would understand.
- At voy ta hev et upo..... I did not know whether you would come.
- Hev et te ha dud, du has..... If you know the answer, say it.
- At yufa hov et upu..... I feared lest you come.
- At voy upo ohev et upo gay..... I will not come unless you come, too.
- Example of these conjunctions introducing different types of statements:
- Hav yat fadilu..... Let us pray. (HORTATIVE, i.e., A WISH)
- Hav yit teliu avol!.... Let them eat bread.
- Hav ad edeb yagteju..... May the king live long.
- Duhev et te ad dud?.... Do you know the answer? (YES/NO QUESTION)
- Duhev et se tadsa..... Say whether you are married.
- Hov (et) yufu..... Don't (you) be afraid. (PROHIBITIVE, i.e., AN INJUNCTION)
- Hov ud xwu..... Let that not happen.
- The sentence-initial interrogative complementizer Duhev (Is it true that?) is used to introduce a yes/no question. The word can be analyzed as a command meaning Say whether....
- Duhev et se tadokayt?.... Are you a widow? (= Say whether you are...).
Conjunctions with hav
- Other conjunctions are formed with two or more morphemes, the last being a complementizer. These contain an a preposition or adverb of place, time, cause, etc., followed by the positive complementizer hav or sometimes, the conditional complementizer hev. English can use a bare preposition as a conjunction, as in the sentence "He will grow up before you notice it." However, Mirad requires the hav or hev complementizer, much as in French, where "avant" (before) must be accompanied by "que" when followed by a clause ("Il se grandira avant que tu ne le remarque.") Here is a chart showing the most important of these conjunctions:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES ja hav.... before Du hay ja hav et pio..... Say hi before you leave. je hav.... while Je hav at so him, at xo gle yex av et..... While I'm here, I'll do some work for you. jo hav.... after At buo et has jo hav et nuso..... I will give it to you after you pay. ju hav.... until Yat voy ijo ju hav et puo him..... We won't start until you get here. ji hav.... since At voy teataya huyenas ji hav et sa hum..... I had not seen such a thing since you were there. gey hev.... even if Gey hev et yontexe, at bolo et..... Even if you disagree, I'll support you. gel hev.... as if Yat yeyfe axer gel hev yat teata yod..... We should act as if we saw nothing. gey ov hav.... even though Gey ov hav ha pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia has.....Even though the movie was too long, I enjoyed it. ov hav.... (al)though At po ov hav at voy fe..... I'll go, although I don't want to. av hav.... so (that) It utifbua av hav hyuti yafu tejer..... He sacrificed himself so that others might live.
- If the conjunction contains a deictic adverb like where, when, how, etc., then the relative complementizer is attached, as in the following examples:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES haj hu.... when
(Lit: the time that...)
Haj hu et pua, ha iv ija..... When you arrived, the fun began. ham hu.... where
(Lit: the place that...)
At voy te ham hu it pa..... I don't know where he went. av has hu.... why
(Lit: for the thing that...)
Duhev et te av has hu it xa his?.... Do you know why he did it? av has hu.... because
(Lit: for the thing that...)
It xa has av has hu it fa teatuer yat hes..... He did it because he wanted to show us something. hayen hu....how, as, in the way that
(Lit: the way that...)
Xu hayen hu et fu hav hyuti alxu ub et..... Do as you'd want others to act toward you.
- In other cases, the conjunction is really just a relative adverb, and often ends in hus that:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES jo hus.... then Yat deuza jo hus hyat daza..... We sang, then everyone danced. je hus.... meanwhile Je hus, at ujba hyas..... Meanwhile, I finished everything. av hus.... so, therefore It vuda at, av hus at pia..... He insulted me, so I left. (gey) ov hus.... nevertheless, even so, despite that, yet, however At yexa kyotepay, ov hus, at ujoka.....I work diligently, yet I failed. gey hus.... likewise, also, similarly At daze. Gel hus, at deuze.....You dance; likewise, I sing. ogey hus.... otherwise, else Du hes, ogey hus, piu.....Say something, otherwise, leave.
- There are some common conjunctions that need no complementizers:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLES ay....and It upa, it teata, ay it akra.....He came, he saw, and he conquered. ey (hyuyen)....or (else) Yexu kyotepay ey (hyuyen) et ujoko.....Work hard or (else) you'll fail. oy....but It tyoyafa oy iyt pa bey par.....He walked but she went by car. hyiyen....likewise, and so It aka; hyiyen at.....He won; and so did I. hyuyen....otherwise, else Xu has; hyuyen dolu.....Do it; otherwise shut up.
- Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
va yes ve maybe, perhaps vo* no
- * Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, it voy se tadsa. He is not married.
- Va. At se otadsa..... Yes. I am unmarried.
- Va. At se vay otadsa..... Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
- Va, vay..... Yes, indeed.
- Va ay vo. Hus vey se vyaa..... Yes and no. That may be true.
- Va ey vo?.... Yes or no?
- Ve. At te voy valay..... Maybe. I don't know for sure.
- Vo. At voy vatexe et..... No. I don't believe you.
- Vo! Dilwe hov xu has..... No! Don't do it.
- Et se Amerikama, va vo?.... You're American, yes or no?
- Hev va, xu has..... If so, do it.
- Hev vo, wo xu has..... If not, don't do it.
- Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
INITIAL GREETING hay! Hello!, Hi! VOCATIVE GREETING hey! Hey!, O!, Oh! TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye! PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is... DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is... POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hyay! Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!,Hurrah!, Thanks! SURPRISE EXCLAMATION hyey! What a...!, Oh!, Well!, You're welcome! NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hyoy! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!, Sorry!
- Hay! Ata dyun se Johan.....Hi! My name is John.
- Hey, Johan! Hoyen et xeye?....Hey, John, how are you doing?
- Hey, Tot! O, God!
- Hoy. At teato et zajub.....Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
- Hiy ha dyen et dila..... Here's the book you requested.
- Hiy Tobyan..... Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
- Hiy ata dyundraf..... Here's my caling card.
- Huy! Se xawa..... Voilà! It's done.
- Huy hos at yaka..... There's what I expected.
- Hyay et!.... Good for you!
- Hyay! Et utnaze his...... Bravo! You deserve this.
- Hyay! Et sa gla fitipa......Thanks.! You were very kind.
- Hyey via imaj! ....Oh, what a beautiful morning!
- Hyey At ta voy hav et upo..... Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
- Hyoy at..... Woe is me.
- Hyoy! Ga fia fikyen jonay..... Pity!. Better luck next time.
- Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.
- There is a class of words in Mirad which are called alternating directionals, which are abbreviated combinations of opposite morphemes that mean something and something else or something or something else. For example, in English, swinging is "rocking BACK-AND-FORTH", or, questions can be of the type "YES-OR-NO". The vowels in these directionals are, for euphonic purposes, ao, eo, or ui. These alternating expressions are often used as adverbs or verbal prefixes. Here is an incomplete list of such expressions, the elements decomposed, and examples of their usage:
ABBREVIATED ALTERNATING DIRECTIONAL DECOMPOSITION EXAMPLES yaob....up-and-down yab (up) + yob (down) yaobur....elevator (up-and-down machine)
yaopyaser....jump up and down
yeob....in-and-out yeb (in) + oyeb (out) yeobar....piston (in-and-out-device) zao....front-and-back / north-and-south za (front) + zo (back) zaobaser....rock
zui....left-and-right / east-and-west zu (left) + zi (right) zuinada....horizontal
bui....to-and-fro // give-and-take bu (to) + bi (from) buinax....round trip fare
aob....off-and-on ab (on) + ob (of) aoper....get on and off
aober....take on and off
vao....yes-and-no / yes-or-now va (yes) + vo (no) vaoder....decide
yuij....open-and-shut yuj- (shut) + yij- (open) yuijer....blink teoj....life-or/and-death tej (life) + toj (death) teoja ebyem....life-and-death situation huim....here-and-there hum (there) + him (here) huimpoper....travel here and yon huis....this-and-that hus (that) + his (this) huisbier....select (between this and that) hyaos....all-or-nothing hyas (everything) + hyos (nothing) hyaoson....all-or-nothing matter hyuit....one another hyut (another) + hyit (the same person) hyuita....mutual
hyuitifer....love one another
- Keep in mind that if an alternative directional ends in b, the b assimilates to the first consonant of per (go) and ber put words, such that -b + b becomes b and -b + p becomes p. Thus, aob + per becomes aoper. This follows the regular manner of assimilation between any prepositional prefixes ending in -b before per and ber verbs and their derivatives.
Greetings and Other Polite Expressions
MIRAD ENGLISH Hay! Hello! Hey! Hey! Hoy! Bye! Hiy... Here is / Here comes... / Voici Huy... There's... / There goes... / Voila Hway!* Great! / Good for you! / Thanks! / Congratulations! Hwey! Oh my! / Goodness gracious! / Well! / Your're welcome! Hwoy! Too bad! / What a shame! / Sorry!' Fijub! Good day! Fimaj! Good morning! Fimoj! Good evening! Hoyen et xeye? How are you? (Lit. How are you doing?) Fi. Ay et? Fine. And you? Iftaxwo.
Thank-you. (Lit. (It) will be fondly remembered.) Toxu.
You're welcome. (Lit. Forget (it).) Diwe. Please. (Lit. It is asked.) Yovobu (at).
Excuse (me). Fipop! Bon voyage! Su valta! Be safe! Igbaksu! Get well soon! Yanivtos!
Congratulations! (Lit: together-happy-feeling) Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday! Yanuvtos!
My condolences! (Lit: together-sad-feeling)
- hw is pronounced in Mirad like a wh in English words.
- In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings have been attached to consonants and various values have been ascribed to vowels.
- The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of core words and derived words.
Guiding Principles for Word Formation
- The vocabulary is built on root morphemes, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
- The meaning of each letter of the word.
- The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
- How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
- The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
- The logic of its composition.
- The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
- The words derived from root morphemes in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules.
- Root morphemes are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. These root morphemes are divided into two groups:
- 1st Group: consisting of nouns
- 2nd Group: consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs.
- Root Morphemes of the 1st Group (nouns) are composed of three letters:
- The first, a consonant called the classifier
- The second, a vowel1 called the ordinal
- The third, a consonant called the generic
CLASSIFIER ORDINAL GENERIC MEANING t o b man d o t society f a b tree
- 1. A vowel in this case includes pre-yodified vowels like ya, ye, etc.
- Root Morphemes of the 2nd Group (Adjectives, Verbs,and anything but nouns) are composed of a consonant+vowel or vowel+consonant, such as the following:
ab....on ob....off bu....to bi....from if-....love uf-....hate fi-....good fu-....bad va....yes vo....no vya-....true vyo-...false
- In a few cases, a 2nd group root morpheme consists of just a single consonant or just a single vowel:
b-....put p-....go s-....be x-....do t-....know d-....say f-....want w-....[passive marker] i....[plural marker] o....un- a....[adjective marker] -t...person
Consonants and Their Meanings
- The classifier and generic letters in 1st group root morphemes are consonants. Also, 2nd group root morphemes almost always have one consonant. So, you need to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
CONSONANT 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 2nd Group Root Morphemes Numeric Value INITIAL
INITIAL OR FINAL IN NUMBERS b organ, health, body, etc.
gesture, putting -- p animal, vehicle
motion, going -- s thing, furniture
form, thing hundred x action
action, doing, making -- d society
reading, writing, saying -- t human
intelligence, knowing -- f vegetation
volition, attributes -- v plant, color
veracity, attributes -- g quantity
quantity, attributes -- k --
change, attributes -- j time
time -- z --
spatial, attributes l --
(intensifier) ten m nature
place, building, furniture, metal
ml = million n merchandise
(abstract) (abstract) r --
(intensifier) thousand, mr = billion y (intensifier/minimizer/feminizer) (intensifier/minimizer) w -- (passivizer, intensifier substitute) (enumerator) h (deictic formant) -- --
- The letters l and r are used after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word. The letter y, if used before a stem vowel intensifies the semantics of the word, but mitigates the semantics if it follows the stem vowel.
- The letter h is used only in certain interjections, conjunctions, and determiners and has no semantic identity.
- The letter w has no semantic identity of its own, but is used only to form the passive of verbs and to form a counter morpheme used in numbers, and sometimes to substitute for y when the latter letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants eg. jwo late, instead of jyo).
1st Group Root Morphemes
- The ordinal vowels of noun morphemes have certain values:
- Numeric Values:
- The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-iotated vowels.
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu alo ala ale 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve
- A vowel with a numeric value is sometimes prefixed to nouns to form a hierarchy of nouns:
adeb emperor adob empire edeb king edob kingdom ideb prince idob principality udeb duke udob duchy yodeb marquis, margrave yodob marquisate yadeb earl, count yadob county, earldom yedeb lord, vassal yedob dominion yideb viscount yidob viscountcy yudeb baron yudob barony alodeb tribal chief alodob tribe
- Sometimes the numeric vowel falls inside the word after the ordinal vowel. This happens with days of the week, as shown here:
juab Monday jueb Tuesday juib Wednesday juub Thursday juyob Friday juyab Saturday juyeb Sunday
- Positional Values:
- The positional value of vowels is shown below (Rule nr. 10):
a.... up, superior, north, ahead, on u.... left, west, near e.... center, middle i.... right, east, away o.... down, inferior, south, back, off za.... front, ahead zu.... left ze.... middle zi.... right zo.... back zamir.... north zumir.... west zemir.... equator zimir.... east zomir.... south ab.... on ib.... away eb.... between ub.... toward ob.... off yab.... up yib.... far yeb.... in yub.... near yob.... down ja.... before ji.... since je.... during ju.... until jo.... after
- Geophysical Values:
o outer space, nature a air, gas, sky e land, soil, earth i liquid, water, juice u underground, minerals
- Some examples:
mol nature mom outer space poper travel pot animal mop orbit dop military mal air mam sky paper fly pat bird map wind dap air force mel soil mem land peper ride pet land animal mep road dep army mil water mim sea piper sail pit fish mip river dip marines mul mineral mum underground puper burrow put bug mup tunnel dup submarine force
- The meaning of the 1st Group root morphemes comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the generic consonant, as show in the chart below. Most often, the root morphemes have a zeroth element in which the ordinal vowel is o. Related, usually hierchically subordinate, words are created by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel.
ROOT MORPHEME CLASSIFIER CONSONANT GENERIC CONSONANT tob man t = human, animal b = organism tod family t = human, animal d = society tof clothes t = human, animal f = tissue tov lingerie t = human, animal v = linen tol food t = human, animal l = fluid, substance vob plant v = plant b = organism tom building t = human, animal m = place dob state d = social b = organism dom city d = social m = place dop military d = social p = movement som furniture s = thing m = place pot animal p = movement t = human, animal
- Chart of 1st Group root morphemes:
syofab....red current tree
|tyad.... grandfather |
yem ....enclosed space
lavos....lily of the valley
livoz.... lemon yellow
| pyot....wild animal
2nd Group Root Morphemes
- The vowels of 2nd Group Root Morphemes also have certain values:
- Positive-Intermediate-Negative Values:
- POSITIVE a, ya oppose NEGATIVE o, yo
- INTERMEDIATE e, ye
- POSITIVE i, yi oppose NEGATIVE u, yu
- Some examples:
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE ag- big eg- normal og- small az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak va yes ve maybe vo no ak- win ek- play ok- lose hyas everything hyes anything hyos nothing ig- fast ug- slow im- wet um- dry fi- good fu- bad kyi- heavy kyu- light
- Directional Values:
VOWEL CONTACT DIRECTION EXAMPLE a- free movement from above onto aber apply -a movement with contact from above onto baer lean ya- free movement upward yaper rise -ya movement with contact upward pyaser jump o- free movement from below upward ober remove -o movement with contact from below onto boer uphold yo- free movement downward yoper descend -yo movement with contact fall pyoer fall u- free movement toward the center uper come -u movement with contact toward the center buer give yu- free movement near yuber bring -yu movement with contact near byuer touch i- free movement away iper leave -i movement with contact away bier take yi- free movement far away yiper move far away -yi movement with contact far away pyier originate e- stop eper intervene -e pause peser wait ye- in yeper enter -ye in byexer contain
- Special Values of Certain Vowels:
- The prefixes a-, an- have to do with one, single, singular and are opposed to:
- The prefixes ya-, yan- meaning together, plural.
- The prefix yan- contrasts with yon- meaning apart.
- Some examples:
auta individual, private yauta communal at I, me yat we, us anla singular yanla plural yanper join yonper separate yanmel continent yonmel island hat the person hyat everybody
- The 2nd Group root morphemes, containing roots other than nouns, come from a combination of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel (which is sometimes zero). The vowel can be pre- or post-iotated and modified with the scalar enhancer consonants r, l, and w. Here is a chart showing the principle root morphemes of this group. The root morpheme itself is in boldface, sometimes followed by derived words incorporating that root.
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE OPPOSITE ja before, pre-
jo after, post-
jwe on time
→koder cover up
→okler go down in defeat
→okrer suffer disaster
→ikber fill up
→ukber empty out
→kyoser stand still
→kyiaxer weigh down
yok- be surprised
→baer lean on
bay with bey by boy without ab on
→aber put on
→ober take off
→yuber bring near
→byiser spring from
byu up to
→paxer move (tr.)
→poxer stop (tr.)
pi- motion away
pu- motion toward
pya- strong upward motion
→pyaser jump up
pye- strong inward motion
→pyeser bump into
pyo- strong downward motion
→pyoxer knock down
pyi- strong motion away
pyu- strong motion toward
za in front of
→zaper get ahead
ze in the middle of
→zoper lag behind
→izper go straight
→yazber stand upright
→yezber lay flat
→doler be silent
→tajer be born
→tin doctrine, -ism
→tun science, -ology
→tyen craft, occupation
→tyeer be familiar with
→tyier get acquainted
→son thing (abstract)
→iser be the result
→user be the cause
→xuer bring about
→xyier wear out
→oxer be idle
hav so that hev whether hov lest hay hi hey hey hoy bye hiy voici huy voila hyay bravo hyey thanks hyoy what a shame ha- the he- some ho- which? hi- this hu- that hya- every hye- any hyo- no hyi- same hyu- other
Note that that in 2nd Group core words there is a three-way contrast with the root vowels a, e, o and a two-way contrast with the root vowels i and u, as in the chart below, where the root vowels are underlined:
PATTERN TYPE POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE 3-WAY (a-e-o) aza strong eza medium oza weak 2-WAY (i-u) fia good -- fua bad
Meaning of the Classifier Consonant
- Most human qualities are presented in the 2nd Group root morphemes that contain the consonants f or v.
- Root morphemes relating to time all have the letter j.
- The letters g and k relate mostly to physical qualities, measurements, and actions.
Parallelism in Root Morphemes
- Root morphemes exhibit both vertical and horizontal parallelism in meaning as shown in some sample charts below:
aza za va vyaa yava strong front yes true innocent eza ze ve vyea yeva moderate middle maybe relative fair oza zo vo vyoa yova weak back no false guilty ja jwa aja kaer aker before early past find win je jwe eja keer eker during on time present seek play jo jwo oja koer oker after late future hide lose fia via vyia fyia iva yiva ifer good beautiful clean proud happy free to love fua vua vyua fyua uva yuva ufer bad ugly dirty ashamed sad bound to hate tab tib tub tyob tayob tayeb tyab body trunk arm foot skin hair ovary fab fib fub fyob fayob fayeb fyab tree tree trunk branch root bark leaf fruit vab vib vub vyob vayob vayeb vyab plant stem twig root peel leaf seed
Ordered List of Root Morphemes
|ba- lean on
byu as far as
|bak health||bek treatment
|bik care||buk wound|
|do- be silent||dal- speak
|dab government||deb leader
|dib administration||dub minister|
|dom city||dam airport||dem park
|dim fountain||dum well|
|dop military||dap air force||dep army||dip marine|
|dot society||dat friend||det mate||dit citizen||dut gentleman|
|daz dance||dez theatre
|diz comedy||duz music|
|f- want||fi- good
|feb fruit||fib trunk||fub branch|
|fyo- profane||fya- holy||fyi- worth||fyu- waste|
|gin point||gun angle|
|gyo- thin||gya thick||gyi- solid||gyu- delicate|
jwe on time
|jib month||jub day|
|jod occasion||jud date|
|jog- young||jag- old|
|ko- hide||ka- find||ke- seek||ki- slant||ku- side|
|kyo- fixed||kya- mobile||kye- random||kyi- heavy||kyu- light|
|lo- (dis-)||-l- (tens marker)||-ml- (millions marker)||-l- (intensifier)|
|mon dark||man light|
|mob cliff||meb mountain||mub promontory|
|mof galaxy||maf cloud||mef brick||muf pole|
|mog ash||mag fire||meg stone||mug metal|
|moj night||maj day|
|mok cosmic dust||mak electricity||mek dust||muk mineral|
|mol nature||mal air||mel soil||mil water||mul matter|
|mom space||mam sky||mem land||mim sea||mum underground|
|mop orbit||map wind||mep road||mip river||mup tunnel|
|mor universe||mar star||mer planet||mir world||mur satellite|
|mos floor||mas wall||mes door||mis window||mus stairs|
|mov smoke||mav flame||mev porcelain||muv rod|
|moz- black||maz- white||mez- crystal|
|nod point||nad line
|ned plane||nid volume||nud column|
|naf cloth||nef web
|neg level||nig space
|u four |
|-o (future tense)||-a (past tense)
|-e (present tense)||-i (plural)||-u (hypothetical mode)|
|ob off||ab on||eb between||ib away||ub toward|
|of- must not||af- may||ef- need to||if- love||uf- hate|
|og- small||ag- big||eg- normal||ig- fast||ug- slow|
||ij beginning||uj end|
|ok- lose||ak- win||ek- play||ik- full||uk- empty|
|im- wet||um- dry|
|-om building||-am house||-em place||-im room|
|-on (issue)||-an (abstract quality||-en (present gerund)||-in (-ism)||-un (thing)|
|op- get off||ap- get on||ep- stay||ip- go away||up- come|
|os- be absent||as- become||es- exist||is- be the result||us- be the cause|
|ot one||at I||et you||it he||ut self|
-ut one who
|ov against||av for||ev- neutral||iv- happy||uv- sad|
|ox- be idle||ax- act||ex- operate||ix- result||ux- cause|
|oy but||ay and||ey or|
|-oy -less||-ay -ful|
|oz- weak||az- strong||ez- moderate||iz- straight||uz- curved|
|pop- travel||pap- fly||pep- drive||pip- sail||pup- burrow|
pyot wild beast
|pat bird||pet land animal
|-r- (thousands marker)||-mr- (billions marker)||-r- (intensifier)||-er (infinitive)|
|som furniture||sam armoire||sem table||sim chair||sum bed|
|s- be||sin image
|syob base||syab summit||syeb container|
tyob leg-t person
|tib trunk||tub arm|
|tod family||tad spouse||ted parent||tid sibling||tud child|
|tef hat||tif vest||tuf sleeve|
|toj death||taj birth||tej life||tij- awake||tuj sleep|
|tom building||tam house
|top spirit||tap physique||tep mind||tip sentiment||tup member|
|tos- feel||tas-||t- know
|ti- learn||tu- inform|
|tox- forget||tax- remember||tex- think||tix- study||tux- teach|
|toz- skin color||taz- scupture||tez- culture
|vi- beautiful||vu- ugly|
|veb bean||vib stem||vub twig|
|vyo- false||vya- true||vye- relative||vyi- clean||vyu- dirty|
|-w- (passive voice)||wa (counter)|
|xo-||xa- execute||x- do
|xi- result||xu- affect|
|yob down||yab up||yeb in||yib far away||yub near|
|yof- cannot||yaf- can||yef- should||yif- dare||yuf- fear|
|yog- short||yag- long||yig- hard||yug- soft|
|yij- open||yuj- close|
|yok- surprise||yak- expect||yek- try||yik- difficult||yuk- easy|
|yon- apart||yan- together||-yen manner|
|yop- descend||yap- ascend||yep- enter||yip- move away||yup- approach|
|yot they||yat we||yet you (all)||yit they||yut selves|
|yov- guilty||yav- innocent||yev- just||yiv- free||yuv- bound|
|yox- be idle||yex- work||yix- use||yux- serve|
|yoz- concave||yaz- convex||yez- horizontal||yiz beyond||yuz around|
|zo behind||za before||ze middle||zi right||zu left|
|zoy back||zay ahead||zey across|
|zyo- narrow||zya- wide||zye through||zyi- flat||zyu- round|
Rules for Deriving New Words
- Derived words, that is, words that are built from root morphemes and other words, are formed following certain very simple rules of vocabulary-building:
- These word-building rules govern:
- Combining whole words
- Scaling Words through numerically-ordered Vowels
- Combining partial words
- Word-building by adding ordinal vowels
- Swapping endings
- Scientific word-building
- Feminizing words
- Geophysical vowel codification
- Directional and positional vowel codification
- Mnemonic markers
- Creating nuances of meaning
Rule #1: Combining Whole Words
- Compound words are formed by the combination of two or more words. When compounding, the determining word is placed very simply in front of the determined word.
- mar star + tun science → martun astronomy
- mag fire + meb mountain → magmeb volcano
- tul meal + dras writeup → tuldren menu
- nax cost + aga big → naxaga expensive
- nax cost + oga small → naxoga cheap
- amar sun + yap ascent → amaryap sunrise
- amar sun + yop descent → amaryop sunset
- mam sky + par vehicle → mampar airplane
- map wind + yaf power → mapyaf windpower
- dom city + teas view → domteas cityscape
- tej life + tun science → tejtun biology
- man light + tam house → mantam lighthouse
- Such compounds sometimes consist of more than two agglutinated words, for example:
- mam sky + pur vehicle + tam house → hangar
Rule #2: Affixation
- Affixes can be prefixed or suffixed to verbs, nouns, and other parts of speech.
- Adverbs and prepositions can serve as prefixes, especially for forming new verbs, eg.:
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUNDED VERB go less ber put gober subtract yeb in ber put yeber* introduce oyeb out ber put oyeber* oust yuz around ber put yuzber surround ob off ber put ober* remove ig fast xer do igxer accelerate ug slow xer do ugxer brake ja before xer do jaxer prepare je during xer do jexer continue oj future xer do ojxer plan ab on per go aper1 get on yeb in per go yeper* enter oyeb out per go oyeper* exit zay ahead per go zayper advance zoy back per go zayper retreat ja before per go japer precede jo after per go joper follow yuz around per go yuzper circulate va yes der say vader affirm vo no der say voder deny fi good der say fider praise fu bad der say fuder malign ja before der say jader predict ja before dren writing jadren preface jo after dren writing jodren postscript
- *Note: If the prefix is an adverb or preposition ending in b and is being affixed to the verb per go or ber put, then the b of the prefix is dropped. See the next section for this:
Prefixes Ending in b with Verbs per and ber
- Prepositional prefixes ending in b lose the b before verbal elements based on per (go) and ber (put), as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX BASE VERB NEW VERB ya bup ber put yaber raise (NOT: yabber) ya bup per go yaper rise (NOT: yabper) a bon ber put aber put on, apply a bon per go aper get on, mount yo bdown ber put yober take down yo bdown per go yoper descend o boff ber put ober take off, remove o bon per go oper get off, dismount ye bin bux a push yebux impulse ye bin pyoser fall yepyoser collapse
Prefixing with Whole or Clipped Words
- The two or three first letters of a root morpheme can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
PREFIX BASE VERB COMPOUND VERB oza weak der say ozder whisper yaga long der say yagder ramble aja past der say ajder evoke yoga short der say yogder summarize tyoyab foot per go tyoyaper walk dreer write sar tool dresar pencil tuyob hand dren writing tuyodren manuscript mam sky mil water mamil rain
- 1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs.
Prefixing with Prefixes Per Se
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES o- un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendly → odata unfriendly lo- un-, same as o but used where o is not clear gla many → logla rare yo- un-, same as o but more intense dat friend → yodat enemy av- pro- fyatin religion → avfyatina pro-religious ov- anti-, counter- dropek war → ovdropeka anti-war hyas- all-, pan-, omni- tea aware → hyastea omniscient, all-knowing ja- before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj birth → jataja pre-natal jo- after, post- judrer to date → jojudrer post-date yiz- beyond, meta- tapa physical → yiztapa metaphysical ey(n)- semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate eg- re-, again eganxer reunite, egder repeat, egvader reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad
- Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
ENGLISH PREFIX MEANING ORIGIN ENGLISH EXAMPLE MIRAD EXAMPLE a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza ab- away LATIN absence ibsen ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub- after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut bi- two GREEK bicameral entima by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober de- down LATIN descend yo( b)per < yob + per deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag di- two GREEK diode enmep dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun ex-, e- out LATIN extract oye( b)bixer extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yizega fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat- fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous hyusauna hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea homo- same GREEK homogeneous hyisauna hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza inter- between LATIN international ebdooba intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa intro- into LATIN introduce yebber iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir mid- middle LATIN midday zejub milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat non- not LATIN nonentity oseas nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun omni- all LATIN omniscient hyastea ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler pan- all GREEK pantheon hyastotyan para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yeztesder penta- five GREEK pentagon yoongun per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan post- after LATIN postscript jodren pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za- pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan re- again LATIN redo eejxer rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gwadoobina un- not LATIN untie oyanxer under- below LATIN underarm oybtub under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya uni- one LATIN unicycle anzyus
- Mirad has semantic suffixes, grammatical suffixes, and part-of-speech-changing suffixes
- Semantic Suffixes
- Semantic suffixes are generally formed from the two last letters of a root morpheme. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIX SUFFIXED DERIVATIONS mil water -il liquid teabil tear < teab eye teubil saliva < teub mouth tayebil sweat < tayeb skin mamil rain < mam sky tam house -am house apatam chicken coop < apat chicken apelatam beehive < apelat bee melyexam farmhouse < melyex agriculture datibam hostel < datib guest-reception nem place -em place vobyexem plantation, farm < vob plant + yex work vabem field < vab grass abem top, surface < ab above, upper obem bottom < ob below nof cloth -of material tof clothes < t- human misof curtain < mis window faof wood < fa(b)- tree tayof leather < tayo(b) skin sar tool -ar instrument par vehicle < p- motion zyupar rotor < zyup turn gorbar knife < gorb cut syaagar computer < syaag computation sun thing -un thing dun word < d- utter, say gorfun piece, scrap < gorfer rip, shread, tear zyiun plaque, plate < zyia flat vyun spot < vyua dirty tin doctrine -in -ism totin theism, religion < tot- god Kristin Christianity < Krist Christ vyisatin puritanism < vysiat puritan, clean person otofin nudism < otofa nude fuf pipe -uf cylinder object manuf candle < man light tiibuf artery < tiib heart miluf toilet < mil water movuf cheminee < mov smoke yel oil -yel oil, gel, wax, pulp kafyel olive oil < kaf olive apelatyel wax < apelat bee levyel jam, jelly, confiture < leve sugar, sweet bekyel salve < bek care, treatment megyel cement < meg stone yanyel paste < yan together
- Grammatical Suffixes
- Mirad has only a few grammatical or derivational (non-inflexional*) suffixes:
DERIVATIONAL SUFFIX BASE WORD → SUFFIXED DERIVATION -er (verb infinitive) sag- cipher → sager to count
nab rank → naber to rank
yex work → yexer to work
-n (deverbal or deadjectival noun) yexe works → yexen working
via beautiful → vian beauty
yuba near → yuban proximity, nearness
-a (adjective) yib- far away → yiba remote
mor universe → mora universal
ake wins → akea winning
-y (deadjectival adverb) iga- quick → igay quickly
yiba remote → yibay remotely
- *Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
- Augmentative Suffixes
AUGMENTATIVE SUFFIX ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIXED DERIVATION -ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion -ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair -yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
- Diminutive Suffixes
DIMINUTIVE SUFFIX ROOT MORPHEME SUFFIXED DERIVATION -og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut -oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage -yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack
- Suffixes Forming Nuanced Adjectives
ADJECTIVAL SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION -aya full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekaya dusty -oya empty of, -less, -free vyun spot vyunoya spotless -ika full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekika dusty -uka empty of, -less, -free miek dust miekuka dust-free -ea (present active particple) doing X, -ing, -ant, -ent ilp flow ilpea flowing, fluent -yea given to doing X, -ive vyod lie vyodyea mendacious, given to lying -wea (present passive participle) being Xed vyixer to clean vyixwea being cleaned -yena like, -ly, -ic tat angel tatyena angelic -(a)wa (past passive participle) Xed oter to ignore otwa or otawa unknown -uwa (potential passive participle) -able, liable to be Xed teater to see teatuwa visible
- Other Suffixes
SUFFIX MEANING BASE WORD SUFFIXED DERIVATION -an abstract quality, -ness, -hood, -ity iva happy ivan happiness via beautiful vian beauty ama hot aman heat -at person who has the quality of yova guilty yovat guilty party oga little ogat little person -ut agent, practitioner, one who does X, -er, -ant, -ent yuxer to help yuxut helper, assistant vyoder lie vyodut liar -eat one who does X vyixeat cleaning person -(a)wat one who has been Xed tujber to kill tujbwat or tujbawat murder victim -(a)was what is/was Xed ter to know twas or tawas what is known, fact -et a person a level down ted father tedet son tid uncle tidet cousin tad spouse tadet brother -es item of lesser importance nas money nases change, coin -ob child of, offspring tob man tobob infant apet horse apetob foal -un < sun concrete thing viber decorate vibun ornament -on < son abstract thing kyiser weight down kyison problem ifer to love ifon love -tun science, ...ology tej life tejtun biology tob man tobtun anthropology -in < tin doctrine, -ism tot god totin theism, religion dot society dotin socialism -yan collection, aggregate fab tree fabyan forest mar star maryan constellation -ar < sar instrument, tool, device per go par vehicle teab eye teabar eyeglasses -ur < sur machine yalb lift yalbur elevator
- Many of the above suffixes and prefixes can be combined as in the following example:
- ov- against, anti- + dot society + -in ism + -at person having the quality of + -yena like, -ish → ovdotinatyena anti-socialistic
Rule #3: Scaling Words through Numerically-ordered Vowels
- Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to root morphemes of the 1st group. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the root morpheme stem as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
- First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant som furniture tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree sam armoire teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop sem table tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk sim chair tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum cell dub ministry fub branch sum bed tyob leg jyob* hour fyob root jyab* minute jyeb* second
- * Easier to pronounce as jwob, jwab, and jweb.
- Second-level Ordinal Scaling
- A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle tuyab hand tyoyab foot tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel tuyib palm tyoyib sole tuyub finger tyoyub toe tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
- Third-level Ordinal Scaling
- A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
...tuyub tuyub finger atuyub thumb etuyub index ituyub middle finger utuyub ring finger yotuyub pinky
- So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = man FIRST-LEVEL tub arm SECOND-LEVEL tuyub finger THIRD-LEVEL atuyub thumb
- Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
- We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
...dob ...pet ...mer dob state pet animal mer planet adob empire apet horse Amer Mercury edob kingdom epet bull Emer Venus idob principality ipet ass Imer Earth udob duchy upet ram Umer Mars yodob marquisate yopet goat Yomer Jupiter' yadob county yapet pig Yamer Saturn yedob dominion yepet dog Yemer Pluto
Rule #4: Portmanteau Compouding
- When forming a compound word, the generic consonant (the last one) of the determinant (first word) is the same as the classifier consonant (first) of the determined (2nd word), the generic consonant is suppressed so as to avoid two of the same consonants in a row. This is also called portmanteau compounding.
- dom city + mep way → domep boulevard
- pat bird + teub mouth → pateub beak
- pat bird + tub arm → patub wing
- teb head + bok illness → tebok headache
- When forming a compound word, the principal word has one or two prefixed vowels, this vowel or these vowels come at the beginning of the compound word.
- tuyub finger → atuyub thumb → iatuyub right thumb
Codifying the Negative and Opposite Senses
- In the codification of core words and derived words of the 1st group, the negative sense or opposite sense is obtained by adding the prefixes o and yo, the latter being more intense.
- mola natural → omola unnatural, artificial
- tobyena humane → otobyena inhumane
- data friendly → yodata inimical
- poos peace → yopoos turmoil
- In the codification of core words and derived words of the 2nd group, the opposite sense is obtained by prefixing lo dis-, un-, de- if followed by a consonant, or ol if followed by a vowel, eg.:
- fwa wanted → lofwa unwanted
- yuvxer to tie up → loyuvxer to untie
- axaxer to activate → olaxaxer to deactivate
- afwa allowable → olafwa disallowed
Rule #5: Codification by the Addition of Ordinal Vowels
- a) When you wish to form a compound word with words from a same family of vowels, if the ordinal vowel is an o, you replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING a d o b republic d e b leader a d e b president NUMERAL PREFIX CLASSIFIER CONSONANT ORDINAL VOWEL GENERIC CONSONANT MEANING i d o b kingdom d e b leader i d e b king
- b) If, on the other hand, the two words are already subordinate, then the vowel of the determinant is placed between the ordinal vowel of the determined and the generic consonant.
- mil water ↗ mal air ⇒ mial steam, vapor
- mel soil ↗ mil water ⇒ meil mud
- tul meal ↗ til drink ⇒ tuil soup
- c) You can also form new compound words by applying the Rule # 6 above (a and b).
- adob republic ↘ dab government ⇒ adab government of the republic
- adab government of the republic ↘ deb leader ⇒ adaeb president of the republic
- (Applying Rule #8 on feminizing words by post-iotation) ⇒ adaeyb Madam President of the Republic
Rule #6: Swapping Endings
- When the generic consonant of a core word is replaced by that of another core word, all of the vowels of this latter word undergo the transformation required by the new generic consonant.
- man ↘
- NOF ↗
- foot ↘
- NOV ↗
BODY PART APPAREL CLOTH/LINEN tob man tof clothes tov lingerie tab body taf suit tav robe teb head tef hat tev scarf teab eye teaf blinder teav eye patch teeb ear teef ear phone teev ear muff teib nose teif noseguard teiv handkerchief teub mouth teuf muzzle teuv mask teyob neck teyof necktie teyov collar tib trunk tif waistcoat tiv sweater tiab chest tiaf vest tiav shirt tyob leg tyof pants tyov underwear tyoyab foot tyoyaf shoe tyoyav sock tyoyib knee tyoyif knee pad tyoyiv knee sock tyoyob ankle tyoyof ankle bracelet tyoyov ankle sock tuyob wrist tuyof cuff tuyov wristband tuyab hand tuyaf glove tuyav mitten
Rule #7: Scientific Vocabulary-building
- The names of chemical elements are formed from a number representing the element's atomic number (number of electrons), followed by a letter combination indicating whether it is a metal or metalloid, and followed, if pertinent, by a combination of letters indicating whether it is a gas or liquid. The table that follows shows how this composition works:
ELEMENT ELECTRON COUNT METAL GENERIC = m silver 47 = ulye ulyem aluminum 13 = ali alim iron 46 = elya elyam gold 79 = yelyum yelyum copper 29 = elyu elyum tin 50 = yolo yolom METALLOID GENERIC = ms phosophorus 15 = alyo alyoms carbon 6 = ya yams GAS = al LIQUID = il hydrogen 1 = a amsal nitrogen 7 = ye yemsal oxygen 8 = yi yimsal mercury 80 = yilo yilomsil
- The words amsal, yemsal, and yimsal each carry three pieces of information.
- The first letter indicates their classification by number of electrons.
- The two following letters: mc indicates metalloids; The two last letters: al indicates that they are a gas.
- The word yilomil also carries three pieces of information:
- The three first letters: yi-l-o show classification by number of electrons.
- The fourth letter, m, indicates that it's a metal.
- The two last letters, il, indicates that it's a liquid.
Other Non-elemental Substances
- Non-elemental natural and man-made substances and alloys are formed using mnemonic components.
- steel = elyamyig < elyam iron + yig(a) hard
- plastic = sanyel < san- shape + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- rubber = yugyel < yug- soft + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- glass = zyev < zy(e) (see) through + (m)ev porcelain
- bronze = elyumyig < elyum copper + yig(a) hard
- paint = vozil < voz color + -il liquid
- ink = dril < dr(er) write + -il liquid
- coal = yamsun < yams carbon + -un substance
- glue = yanil < yan together + -il liquid
- paste = yanyel < yan together + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- resin = defabyel < defab pine tree + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- wood = faof < fa(b) tree + (n)of material, tissue
- leather = tayof < tayo(b) skin + (n)of material, tissue
- cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- concrete = megyelyig < meg stone + -yel viscous matter + yig hard
- tar = movgyin < mov smoke + gyin solid
- lava = magmebil < mag fire + meb mountain + -il liquid
- fuel = magil < mag fire + -il liquid
- shampoo = tayel < taye(b) hair + -(y)el oil, wax, gel, gum
- detergent = vyunobil < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -il liquid
- soap = vyil < vyi(a) clean + -(i)l liquid
- cheese = bilyig < bil milk + yig(a) hard
- butter = bilyug < bil milk + yug(a) soft
- syrup = gyalevil < gya extremely + lev(el) sugar, sweet + -il liquid
- gravy = taobil < taob flesh, meat + -il liquid
- alcohol = fil < (levaf) ferment + -il liquid
- wax = apelatyel < apelat bee + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
- honey = apelatil < apelat bee + -il liquid
- brick = mef < m(el) earthen + (no)f hard material
- porcelain = mev < m(el) earthen + (no)v soft material
- gem = mez < m(el) earthen + (no)z value, precious
Atomic and Subatomic Particles
- From the word mul matter, substance, stuff, we get the following derivatives:
- mul matter, substance, stuff
- mula material, substantial, physical
- omula immaterial, unsubstantial, non-physical
- ovmul anti-matter
- omul nothingness, void, nihil
- omulxer anihilate
- moza mul black matter
- multun physics
- multuna physics-related
- multut physics scientist
- mulog particle
- muloga particulate
- mulogxer crush, crumble, pulverize
- vamulog proton
- omulog neutron
- vomulog electron
- vomuloga electronic
- vomulp electricity
- vomulpa electric, electrical
- vomulpaxer electrify
- mules element
- mulesa elemental
- mulesyan compound
- yanmul mix, mixture, chemical
- yanmula chemical
- yanmultun chemistry
- yanmultuna chemical
- yanmultut chemist
- gwomul atom
- gwomula atomic
- obgwomula subatomic
- zemul nucleus
- zemula nuclear
Rule #8: The Feminization of Words
- To form the feminine of a word or to indicate that an object or thing belongs to females, post-iotate (append a y) to the ordinal vowel of the word.
MALE-RELATED FEMALE-RELATED tob man toyb woman tad spouse, husband tayd wife tadet brother taydet sister ted father teyd mother tedet son teydet daughter tid uncle tiyd aunt tidet cousin tiydet female cousin apet horse apeyt mare epet bull epeyt cow tiav shirt tiayv blouse tyof pants tyoyf skirt tulyuxut waiter tulyuxuyt waitress
- Note that personal pronouns can be feminized as well. The unfeminized form is either masculine or neutral with respect to gender.
MASCULINE FEMININE at I / me ayt we / us women et you eyt you gals it he / him iyt she / her yat we / us yayt we females / us women yet you guys yeyt you gals yit they / them yiyt they / them (f.)
- This process works for the possessive adjective derivatives of these pronouns:
- iyta her
- yeyta you gals'
- The animate demonstrative pronouns (animate deictic determiners) can also be feminized:
- huyt that female person, she, her
- huyti these females, they, them
- The generic pronouns ot one, yot they (generic) and (y)ut are not normally feminized.
Rule #9: Geophysical Vowel Coding
- Geophysical vowel coding, as it's name indicates, occurs on vowels by giving them a particular geophysical meaning.
- a = air, gas, skyward
- e = soil, ground
- i = water, liquid, juice, etc.
- u = concrete thing, material, mineral, underground
- o = abstract thing, initial item, outer space
- This codification occurs on the ordinal vowel of 1st Group core words only.
m...m m...p d...p p...t m...l p...p mom outer space mop galaxy dop military pot animal mol nature pop travel mam sky map wind dap air force pat bird mal air pap flight mem land mep way dep army pet (land) animal mel soil pep ride mim sea mip river dip navy pit fish mil water pip sea voyage mum underground mup tunnel dup submarine force mul mineral pup tunneling
- Vowel coding also allows for arriving at other combined-concept word categories by placing a vowel having the value ascribed to it by Rule # 9 just a before the generic consonant of the initial word. (See Rule #5)
COMBINED-CONCEPT WORD CODIFICATION pait aquatic bird pat bird + liquid / sea piat flying fish pit fish + skyward / air diap naval aviation dip navy + skyward / air meil mud mel soil + liquid / sea
Rule #10: Directional and Positional Vowel Coding
- Directional and positional vowel coding works along lines of the charts below. Those vowels preceded by a y (iotated vowels) are, for this analysis, considered to be vowels pure and simple. Those vowels that are capitalized are positional in nature and serve as prefixes to 1st group words. Those vowels that are italicized are directional as prefixes to 2nd group words. The vowels that are underlined are directional in nature and are infixed just after the classifying consonant of 2nd group words, mostly verbs.
A a a ya ya U u u yu u E e e ye ye I i i yi yi O o o yo yo VOWEL FUNCTION ATTACHMENT MEANING EXAMPLE A positional 1st group prefix above, north zamer north a directional 2nd group prefix on, onto aber put on, ab on a directional 2nd group infix on, onto baer lean on ya directional 2nd group prefix up yaber lift up, yab up ya directional 2nd group infix upward pyaser jump up O positional 1st group prefix under, south zomer south o directional 2nd group prefix off, under, below ober take off, ob off o directional 2nd group infix from below, downward boer support yo directional 2nd group prefix down yober lower, yob down yo directional 2nd group infix down with contact pyoser fall down U positional 1st group prefix left, west zumer west, utuyab left hand u directional 2nd group prefix toward uper come, ub toward u directional 2nd group infix to, toward with contact puer arrive, bu to yu directional 2nd group prefix near yuber bring, yub near yu directional 2nd group infix up to, as far as byuer touch, byu up to, as far as I positional 1st group prefix right, east zimer east, ituyab right hand i directional 2nd group prefix away iper go away, ib away from i directional 2nd group infix away with contact pier depart, bi to yi directional 2nd group prefix far away, far from yiper go far away, yib far yi directional 2nd group infix since, starting from byier originate, byi since E positional 1st group prefix center, middle equator zemer equator, eb between e directional 2nd group prefix staying in the middle, between eper stay e directional 2nd group infix stopped in the middle, at beer hold, be at ye directional 2nd group prefix inside yeber contain, yeb in ye directional 2nd group infix inside byeer keep
- Examples of verbs undergoing the rules of directional coding:
- With ber put (transitive):
aber put on eber hold ober take off iber receive uber send yaber raise yeber contain yober lower yiber put away yuber bring baer lean on beer have boer hold up bier take buer give byaer lift byeer keep byoer hang byier obtain byuer reach for
- With per go (intransitive):
aper get on eper stay oper get off iper go away uper come yaper rise yeper enter yoper descend yiper put away yuper bring paer stand peer wait poer fall pier depart puer arrive pyaer get up pyeer stick around pyoer get down pyier originate pyuer reach
Rule #11: Codifying Mnemonic Markers
- By changing the classifying or generic consonant of a derived word, a new, but related meaning can be obtained. Also, the classifying consonant can be replaced with an entire or partial word. The relationship among the altered word forms is therefore mnemonic. Here are some examples:
- teub mouth → teud cry (d = communicate, utter, social)
- → teuz voice (z = precious, art, etc.)
- → deuz song (d = communicate, utter, social)
- teub mouth → teud cry (d = communicate, utter, social)
- tayab fat → fayab vegetable fat (f = vegetable)
- → mayab mineral fat (m = nature, mineral)
- tayab fat → fayab vegetable fat (f = vegetable)
- tub arm → fub branch (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- → vub twig (v = plant, flower, etc.)
- → dub minister (d = communicate, utter, social)
- → xub department (x = do, work)
- → patub wing (pat = bird)
- → pitub fin (pit = fish)
- tub arm → fub branch (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- tayob skin → fayob bark (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- → vayob peel (v = plant, flower, etc.)
- → piyetayob shell (piyet = mollusk)
- → pitayob scale (pit = fish)
- → epeytayob cowhide (epeyt = cow)
- tayob skin → fayob bark (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- tayeb hair → fayeb leaf (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- → pitayeb scale (pit = fish)
- → potayeb fur (pot = animal)
- → patayeb feather (pat = bird)
- → vosayeb petal (vos = flower)
- → mayeb foil (m = nature, mineral)
- → gorbayeb blade (gorb = cut)
- tayeb hair → fayeb leaf (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- taob flesh, meat → faob wood (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- → vaob hay (v = plant, flower, etc.)
- → epeytaob beef (epeyt = cow)
- → kovaob thatch (ko = cover + v = plant)
- → fyaob pulp (fy(ab) = fruit )
- → faof board, plank (f = vegetable, tree, etc. )
- taob flesh, meat → faob wood (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
- teater see → teaxer look (x = do, teab = eye)
- → teaper visit (p = go)
- → teaser seem (s = be)
- → teader testify (d = communicate, utter, social)
- → izeader indicate (iz = direct )
- → izteaxer aim (x = do)
- → beaxer watch (b(eer) = keep)
- → abeaxer survey (ab = over)
- → yoneater discern (yon = apart, t = know )
- → vyaleaxer check (vyal = accurate )
- → yageaxer stare (yag = long )
- teater see → teaxer look (x = do, teab = eye)
Suppressing Syllables for Brevity
- Sometimes, syllables of longish words can be omitted for brevity as long as no confusion of meaning results. Here are some examples:
- vafil wine < vafyabil (vafyab grape + -il liquid)
- bil milk < tilabil (tilab breast + -il liquid)
- ateuder neigh < apeteuder (apet horse + (t)euder emit a cry)
- iteuder bray < ipeteuder (ipet donkey + (t)euder emit a cry)
- bilyig cheese < tilabilyig (tilab breast + -il liquid + yig(a) hard)
Rule #12: Creating Nuances of Meaning
- Words following Rule #12 are those that relate to one another through similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances indicated by phonetic devices that activate these nuances.
- These nuances are obtained by:
- a) Adding a sub-ordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal:
- a for a and ya
- e for e and ye
- i for i and yi
- o for o and yo
- u for u and yu
NORMAL NUANCED valay surely vaalay assuredly nad line naad rail dab government daab administration dob state doob nation tam house taam home vyab rule vyaab regime, system job time joob era, time period
- b) Post-iotating ordinal vowels and subordinal vowels. Often, the meaning of the word with the post-iotated vowel is a mitigated nuance of the word without the iotated vowel:
NORMAL DIMINISHED NUANCE nad line nayd ray vua ugly vuya plain ifer love iyfer like iva happy iyva content tam house taym cottage ab on ayb over ob off oyb under en- two- eyn- half- ud that uyd such ama hot ayma warm
- c) Adding the sense-augmenting consonants l and r, the latter being the stronger.
NORMAL AUGMENTED NUANCE FURTHER-AUGMENTED NUANCE iva happy ivla glad ivra delighted via beautiful vila magnificent vira marvelous yifa brave yilfa courageous yirfa heroic fua bad fula awful fura horrendous alo hundred aro thousand amso million yufxer intimidate yulfxer frighten yurfxer terrorize aga big agla huge agra tremendous
- Note: Sometimes the l or r nuance-enhancing consonants come after the generic consonant.
- d) Adding consonants other than l and r as generic consonants. Sometimes, more than one nuance-altering consonant is added in the same word:
- vala = sure
- valta = safe
- fua = bad
- futa = evil [t usually refers to people or animals]
- vyaa = true
- vyala = authentic
- vyafa = precise
- vyama = real [m usually refers to nature, minerals, etc.]
- vyava = exact [v usually refers to veracity]
- vyalva = right
- vyaba = regular [b usually refers to an organization or organism]
- vyada = frank [d usually refers to communicating, talking, writing, etc.]
- vyata = reliable
- vyasma = concrete
- You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
NOUN ADJECTIVE taam home taama domestic doob nation dooba national tej life teja vital tyoyapyaf ability to walk tyoyapyafa ambulatory martun astronomy martuna astronomical PRONOUN ADJECTIVE at I, me ata my etut yourself etuta your own hiyen this kind hiyena this kind of hot? who? hota? whose? GERUND ADJECTIVE ifeken recreation ifekena recreational VERB FORM ADJECTIVE (= PARTICIPLE) teje (he) lives tejea living tojo will die tojoa moribund, about to die tojbu would kill tojbua lethal twe is known twa known
- Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
SUFFIX MEANING NOUN ADJECTIVE -aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly voz color vozaya colorful futax resentment futaxaya resentful tiibil blood tiibilaya bloody yilf courage yilfaya courageous -oya bereft of, -less, un- voz color vozoya colorless, pale tajyaf talent tajyafoya untalented -ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya) map wind mapika windy -uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya) nas money nasuka broke, penniless -yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of tobob child tobobyena childish, infantile tot god totyena divine, godly pit fish pityena fish-like, fishy -wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE t- know twa or tawa known dal- speak dalwa or dalawa spoken, oral nisbu- sell nisbuwa sold -ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE ot- not know otea ignorant tej- live tejea living, alive tuj- die tujea dying -yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE tujb- kill tujbyea murderous tex- think texyea pensive, thoughtful tox- forget toxyea forgetful ax- act axyea active -uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE ex- operate exuwa operable tos feel tosuwa palpable tex- think texuwa conceivable tel- eat teluwa edible -yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyafa sightful, able to see dyed- read dyedyafa literate -yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyafwa visible tax- remember taxyafwa memorable teet- hear teetyafwa audible tel- eat telyafwa edible -yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyofa blind tyoyap- walk tyoyapyofa lame teet- hear teetyofa deaf dal- speak dalyofa dumb, incapable of speaking -yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED teat- see teatyofwa invisible teet- hear teetyofa inaudible tox- forget toxyofa unforgetable dal- speak dalyofa unspeakable -ifa fond of, -phile ( NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE pot animal potifa pet-friendly hyitoob- same-gender hyitoobifa homophile tobot child tobotifa pedophile fitel food fitelifa gourmand doob nation doobifa patriotic -ufa adverse to, hating, miso- NOUN STEM ADJECTIVE tob human tobufa misanthropic hyut- other person hyutufa xenophobic toyb- woman toybufa misogynist
- The sense of an adjective can be negated with the prefix o or the more intensive yo.
- vlea probable → ovlea improbable
- vyafa perfect → ovyafa imperfect
- twa known → otwa unknown
- bosa calm → yobosa worried
Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes
- As in English, the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin. Here are the most common:
ENGLISH PREFIX MIRAD ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES un-, a(n)-, in-, non- o- obaka unhealthy, oyezyebeya incontinent, oyelpea non-invasive, ototina atheist anti-, counter- ov- ovzuina anti-leftist, oviztida counter-intuitive pseudo- kovyo- kovyotepina pseudo-intellectual all-, pan-, omni- hyas- yadtea all-knowing, omniscient re- yeg- yegtajbwa re-born mis- vyo- vyoseudwa mispronounced semi-, half- eyn- eynlevelaya semi-sweet, eyntija half-awake ultra-, super- yiz-, gwa- gwadoobina ultra-nationalist, yizmola supernatural under-, hypo- gro- grojaga under-aged over-, hyper-, uber- gra- graagxwa overgrown, gratoseya hypersensitive miso- [see suffixes] multi-, many-, poly- gla- glakuma multilateral, glatadaya polygamous mal-, ill- fu- futeyenxwa ill-conceived, fusanxwa malformed well- fi- fitofabwa well-dressed quasi- yuyb- yuybdaba quasi-governmental pre-, (a)fore-, pro- ja- jateyenxwa pre-conceived, jaigdawa aformentioned post- jo- jodropeka post-war
English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison
- Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
ENGLISH SUFFIX MEANING MIRAD SUFFIX ALTERED ADJECTIVE EXAMPLES -ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya colorful, tuzika skillful -ous full of -aya, -ika nazika precious, milaya aqueous -filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoke-filled -y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoky, -ous of, like -a totina religious, vyosa erroneous -ly like -yena totyena godly, toybyena womanly -like like -yena patyena bird-like -ish like -yena tobobyena childish -y like -yena fyabyena fruity -ic like -yena tuzyena artistic, silyena acidic -ic of, related to -a tuna scientific, , beka therapeutic -ical of, related to -a zyunida spherical, iztexa logical -ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna biological -ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina militarist(ic), nasyanina capitalist(ic) -ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa xenophonic, tobyanufa misanthropic -ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobobifa pedophilic, tobifa philanthropic -al like -yena pyotyena bestial -al of, pertaining to -a teja vital, amana thermal -less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka lifeless, toboboya childless -free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka ice-free, vyosoya, error-free
- Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-iotating the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
ADJECTIVE ADVERB fia good fiay well vyaa true vyaay truly gyua easy gyuay easily iga quick igay quickly auta personal autay personally
- For brevity's sake, the stem of deadjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
- It tyoyape ig. He walks fast.
- Yit xa ad fi. They did it well.
- Mirad has special adverbs that are not derived from adjectives and may or may not end in -ay.
- Here are the principal such adverbs:
SPECIAL ADVERB vay.... indeed, really, certainly, do (cf. va.... yes) vey.... possibly, may, might (cf. ve.... maybe) voy.... not (cf. vo.... no) ga.... more (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb) gay.... also, moreover, further, still ge.... as, equally (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb) gey.... even go.... less (modifying an adjective, adverb, or verb) goy.... no longer, no more gla.... very glay.... quite, rather, so gle.... so glo.... not very, not so gra.... too gre.... enough, sufficiently, over- gro.... not...enough, inadequately, under- gwa.... most, super- gwe.... average gwo.... least, sub-
- The first three adverbs in the above chart are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
- AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa..... Yes, I am indeed married.
- DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa..... Her response is possibly wrong.
- NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yurxut..... I am not your slave.
- The adverbs above beginning with g are quantitative adverbs and modify an adjective, verb, or another adverb:
- Et se gla via.....You are very beautiful [=ADJECTIVE].
- Et peya gra ig.'.... You were going too fast [=ADVERB].
- It gra dale.'.... He talks [=VERB] too much.
- Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all be used in multi-word prepositions:
SPECIAL ADVERB EXAMPLES yab up Ad pat papa yab bu ha mam. The bird flew up to the sky. yob down Teaxu yob bu ha mel. Look down to the ground. yub near Pesu yub bi ha mas. Stay near the wall. yib far Ad tobi igpia yib bi ha yovbyokam. The men fled far from the prison. ib away Teaxu ib, diwe. Look away, please. ub this way Tyoyapu ub. Walk toward this way. yeb in, inward, inside Kyedu hot ogja tyoyapa yeb! Guess who just walked in! oyeb out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye ha zama mes. He walked out through the front door. yuz around Yit daza yuz bi yat. They danced around us. yiz beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz bi hia titam av yux. You must look beyond this school for help. iz....directly, straight Pu iz bu hat. Go right up to him. zi....right Uzpu zi! Turn right! zu....left Hat uzpa zu. He turned left.
- There are also adverbial expressions that are agglutinated with deictic and quantitative morphemes to produce what are known as pro-adverbs. These include interrogative pro-verbs like hom? (where?), hoyen? (how?), hoj? (when?), hogla (to what extent?), and their answers, such as hum (there), heyen (somehow), and hyoj (never), hugla (so, to that extent). These words are discussed under the chapter on Determiners in Deictic Pro-adverbs.
- Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.
Forming Verbs from Nouns
- Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
NOUN VERB syag count syager to count tof clothes tofer to dress tam house tamer to dwell, live, reside dyun name dyuner to name, call teud cry, shout teuder to cry, shout, exclaim taj birth tajer to be born tej life tejer to live toj house tojer to die ej present ejer to continue ij beginning ijer to begin uj end ijer to end yuj sleep tujer to sleep
- Sometimes an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
- -ser to be usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
- -xer to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
- -per to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
- -ber to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
- -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefitting the agent (eat = take food)
- -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefitting the patient (feed = give food)
- -der to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
- -ter to know, verbs of the perception and knowledge (teater = see_
NOUN AUXILIARY VERB OR VERB STUB VERB yav innocence der to say yavder to acquit yov shame, guilt aber to apply, put on yovaber to shame, accuse yov shame, guilt ober to remove, take off yovober to excuse, exculpate tof clothes aber to apply, put on tofaber to dress, don tof clothes ober to remove, take off tofober to undress, strip det associate ser to be, become detser to associate dat friend xer to do, make datxer to befriend san form ser to be, become sanser to form (intransitive) san form xer to do, make sanxer to form (transitive) tel food (b)ier to take telier to eat, consume tel food (b)uer to give teluer to feed, nourish if pleasure (b)ier to take ifier to enjoy if pleasure (b)uer to give ifuer to please taj birth (b)uer to give tajuer to give birth tej life (b)ier to take tejier to come alive tej life (b)uer to give tejuer to bring to life toj death (b)ier to take tojier to drop dead toj death (b)uer to give tojuer to kill tij wakefulness (b)ier to take tijier to wake up tij wakefulness (b)uer to give tijuer to awaken tuj sleep (b)ier to take tujier to fall asleep tuj sleep (b)uer to give tujuer to put to sleep tax memory (b)ier to take taxier to recall tax memory (b)uer to give taxuer to remind yev justice der to say, tell yevder to judge vyan truth der to say, tell vyander to tell the truth vyon falsehood der to say, tell vyonder to tell a lie il liquid aker to gain ilaker to take on liquid il liquid oker to lose iloker to leak, lose liquid il liquid (b)ier to take ilier to soak up il liquid (b)uer to give iluer to pour, water il liquid ikser to get full ilikser to be soaked (intransitive) il liquid ikxer to fill up ilikxer to flood, soak (transitive) il liquid ukser to become empty ilukser to drain (intransitive) il liquid ukxer to empty ilukxer to flush (transitive) il liquid ser to be, become ilser to liquify, melt (intransitive) il liquid xer to do, make ilxer to liquify, melt (transitive) il liquid aber to apply, put on ilaber to wash (transitive) il liquid aper to get on ilaper to float (intransitive) il liquid per to go ilper to flow (intransitive) il liquid zyaber to spread ilzyaber to spray, shower (transitive) il liquid zyober to squeeze ilzyober to squirt (transitive) il liquid pyexer to strike ilpyexer to splash (with liquid) il liquid yujer to close ilyujer to plug
- Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are causative (making someone do something).
Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser
- The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser to be, become.
- The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB aza strong azaxer fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser get strong oza week ozaxer weaken ozaser grow weaker kyia heavy kyiaxer weigh down kyiaser grow heavy kyua light kyuaxer lighten, make lighter kyiaser get lighter yana together yanaxer bring together yanaser get together
- The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
ADJECTIVE TRANSITIVE VERB INTRANSITIVE VERB aga big agaxer magnify agaser get big agxer grow agxer grow up, mature iga fast igaxer accelerate igaser speed up igxer rush igser hurry up baka healthy bakaxer make healthy bakaser get healthy bakxer heal bakser heal sana formal sanaxer formalize sanaser become formal sanxer form, shape sanser form, take shape
Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per
- Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
TRANSITIVE GESTURE VERB INTRANSITIVE MOTION VERB ab on aber apply, put on aper mount, get on eb between eber block eper intervene ob off ober remove, take off oper dismount, get off ib away iber receive iper leave ub toward uber send uper come yab up yaber raise yaper rise yeb in
yob down yober lower yoper descend yib far yiber take away yiper move away yub near yuber bring yuper approach zay forward zayber advance zayper advance, go forward zey across zeyber take across, transfer zeyper cross, go over, transit zoy back zoyber set back, return zoyper retreat, go back, return iz straight izber guide izper aim for uz crooked uzber divert uzper turn, diverge yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper pass by yuz around yuzber take around yuzper go around
- More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers y, l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity: s for intransitive and x for transitive. Prepositions can also be prefixed to change the direction of the gestures or motions.
GESTURE VERB GESTURE VERB MOTION VERB MOTION VERB INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE ber put
per go baer lean on baler press
yobaler depress, suppress
baser gesticulate baxer make a gesture
abaxer caress, pat
paser move paxer move byaser stand up byaxer set up, erect pyaser jump up pyaxer shoot, launch balser budge balxer rouse
palser get excited palxer excite
barser shake balxer shake
aparxer brush beser stay bexer hold
yobexer detain, hold down
peser wait pexer trap byeser behave byexer hit pyeser run into, bump into pyexer strike, knock
yopyexer knock down
balser adhere balxer retain pelxer pound, beat
yonpelxer shatter, burst
perxer blast, bomb boser calm down
boxer quieten, quell poser stop
poxer stop byoser hang byoxer hang pyoser fall
pyoxer drop, throw down
biser originate bixer pull
yebixer push in
pixer catch bilser spring bilxer yank pilxer snag, capture
buser be destined buxer push, drive
apuser assault puxer throw, thrust
byuser bump into byuxer touch
pyuser run into pyuxer crash bulser swoop bulxer shove pulser lunge, pounce pulxer thrust
- Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
PREFIX VERB baxer gesture, make a bodily motion ab on abaxer caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub iz straight izbaxer point teb head tebaxer nod va yes vatebaxer nod yes vo no votebaxer nod no ve maybe vetebaxer shrug tuyab hand tuyabaxer wave tub arm tubaxer flail, swing teubab tongue teubabaxer lick teab eye teubaxer wink patub wing patubaxer flap tiyub tail tiyubaxer wag baser gesticulate ig- fast igbaser jerk zay forward igzaybaser lurch zoy back zoybaser recoil yob down yobaser bow, bend down ku- side kubaser slide ig- fast igkubaser slip iz straight + uz curved izuzbaser sway, swagger, swish zi right + zu left zizubaser wiggle, wobble, totter
Forming Frequentative Verbs
- A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by affixing the syllable eg to the verb stem. Here are some examples:
REGULAR VERB FREQUENTATIVE VERB paser move paseger shake, shudder pyaser jump pyaseger bounce paper fly papeger flutter, flit braser shake braseger shudder, quivver, vibrate teupixer bite teupixeger nibble ilzyaber spray ilzyabeger sprinkle
Forming Verbs and Other Words with Alternating Component Expressions
- Expressions with alternating components like back-and-forth, up-and-down, etc. are formed in a peculiar, hybrid way. The following table shows this formation and how such words can be used, especially as prefixes on verbs:
ALTERNATING COMPONENTS HYBRID EXPRESSION EXAMPLES yab up + yob down yao(b)- up-and-down yaoper fluctuate, yaopuser bounce zay forth + zoy back zayo(b)- back-and-forth zayobaser swing za front/north + zo back/south zao(b)- front-back/north-to-south zaonada vertical, zaobaser rock bu to + bi from bui- to-and-from buipar shuttle, buipop round-trip ab on + ob off ao(b)- on-and-off aoper get on and off yuj- closed + yij- open yuij- open-and-shut yuijbar switch, igyuijer blink uj- stop + ij- start uij- stop-and-start uijparpan stop-and-go traffic yeb in + oyeb out yeo(b)- in-and-out igyeoper run in-and-out yub near + yib far yui(b)- near-and-far yuipoper travel near-and-far ub toward + ib away ui(b)- toward-and-away uipen coming and going hum there + him here huim here-and-there huimkexer search high-and-low (here-and-there) hus that + his this huis this-and-that huisyexer do odd jobs, work at this-or-that hyut other person + hyit same person hyuit one another hyuitifer love one another, hyuita mutual, reciprocal
- The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
- This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub mouth:
ceux sound xeus noise xeuz tune teuz voice deuz song seuz tone deus accent
- Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
teb head deb leader xeb boss feb treetop tub limb dub minister xub subsidiary fub branch vub twig patub wing petub paw pitub fin teub mouth pateub beak peteub muzzle tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale fayeb leaf vosayeb petal potayeb mane tayob skin tayof leather petayob hide fayob bark vayob peel tyob leg fyob root vyob plant root tib trunk fib tree trunk vib stem tulob nail petulob claw fulob thorn defulob needle mulob pin, prick tiibuf artery fuf pipe muf stick, rod movuf cheminee fauf log manuf candle til drink teabil tear teubil saliva dril ink mil water mamil rain tayobil sweat bil milk
The xer (Do) Family
- The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this core word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).
- This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
axer act exer function oxer abstain ixer effect uxer cause alxer activate elxer operate olxer fail ilxer react ulxer influence arxer perform xaer execute xeer exercise xoer undergo, submit xier result xuer affect xeyer behave xaler accomplish xeler practice xoler fail xiler undertake xuler achieve yexer work yoxer be idle yixer use, hire yuxer help, serve yerxer struggle yorxer resign yirxer exploit yurxer slave
Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes
- Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
- Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
PREFIX + BASE DERIVATION ana single + xer make anaxer unify an- one- + xer make anxer unite yan together + exer operate yanexer cooperate yan together + yexer work yanyexer collaborate yon apart + xer make yonxer split ge equal + xer make gexer copy ja before + xer make jaxer prepare je while + xer do jexer continue ig- fast + xer do igxer rush ug- slow + xer do ugxer delay oj future + xer do ojxer plan eej- re- + xer do eejxer redo sa(n) shape + xer make saxer create se(n) being + xer make sexer build lo- un- + sexer build losexer destroy mel soil + yexer work melyexer plough tea(b) eye + xer do teaxer look o- un- + yirxer hire oyirxer fire mag fire + xer cause magxer burn yuf fear + xer cause yufxer frighten dofun crime + xer do dofunxer commit a crime gra too much + xer do graxer exaggerate eej- re- + axer act eejaxer react fu- bad + xeyer behave fuxeyer misbehave
Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives
- Unlimited transitive verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
ADJECTIVE VERB aga.... big agaxer.... magnify goa.... lesser goaxer.... diminish fia.... good fiaxer.... improve jwoa.... late jwoaxer.... retard uva.... sad uvaxer.... sadden via.... beautiful viaxer.... beautify ebdooba.... international ebdoobaxer.... internationalize
- Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
- The passive of xer, xwer to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
- Hoj hus xwa? When did that happen?
- At uvaxwa ham hu at teata ha tobob. I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.
Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms
- The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
- xer deuz.... to perform a song
- xer ifpop.... to take a cruise
- xer ebdid.... to conduct an interview
- xer yagigpek.... to run a marathon
- xer dazun.... to do a dance number
- xer dezekgon.... to play a role
- xer dovyabdras.... to enact a piece of legislation
The ser (Be) Family
- The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
aser become eser exist, there to be oser cease to be iser start out user end up
Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives
- The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
ADJECTIVE STATIVE VERB aga.... big agaser.... get big aga.... big agser.... grow uza.... curved uzaser.... curve, bend, bow kyaa.... mobile kyaser.... change, vary mayna.... clear maynaser.... clear up iga.... fast igaser.... become fast, accelerate iga.... fast igser.... rush, hurry
- Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
- It agxe vafyabi..... He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
- Vafyabi voy agse fiay him..... Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
- His kyaxa yata teji..... This changed our lives.
- Yata teji kyasa hujub..... Our lives changed on that day.
- Ha mapi uzaxa ha fabi..... The winds bent the trees.
- Ha fabi uzasa je ha mapilag..... The trees bowed during the storm.
- Hov igxu at..... Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
- Igsu!.... Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns
- The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
NOUN STATIVE VERB meg.... stone megser.... petrify, become rock abnod.... peak abnodser.... peak, climax mus.... scale, stair musser.... escalate yom.... ice yomser.... freeze maf.... cloud mafser.... cloud over il.... liquid ilser.... liquefy, melt
Creating Dynamic Verbs from Inherently Stative Verbs
- Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic counterparts end in -ber for transitive verbs and in -per for intransitive verbs. There is a table showing this:
STATIVE-INTRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-TRANSITIVE DYNAMIC-INTRANSITIVE tojer.... die tojber.... kill tojper.... drop dead tajer.... be born tajber.... give birth (to), bear tajper.... spring up tejer.... live tejber.... bring to life tejper.... come to life tijer.... be awake tijber.... awaken tijper.... wake up tujer.... sleep tujber.... put to sleep tujper.... fall asleep ijer.... begin ijber.... begin (something) ijper.... start up ujer.... end ujber.... finish, put an end to ujper.... come to an end yijer.... open up yijber.... open up (something) yijper.... come open yujer.... close yujber.... close, bring to a close yujper.... come to a close
The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families
- The core words ber to put and per to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.
Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels
|ab on||aber put on||aper get on||baer lean||paer stand|
|yab up||yaber raise||yaper rise||byaer lift||pyaer jump|
|ob off||ober remove||oper dismount||boer hold up||poer hang|
|yob down||yober lower||yoper descend||byoer hang||pyoer fall|
|ub toward||uber send||uper come||bu to||buer give||puer arrive|
|ib away||iber receive||iper go away||bi from||bier take||pier leave|
|yub near||yuber bring||yuper approach||byu up to||byuer touch||pyuer reach|
|yib far||yiber take away||yiper move far away||byi since||byier emanate||pyier originate|
|eb between||eber block||eper intervene||yeb in
|za front||zaber advance||zaper advance||zay forward||zayber promote||zayper proceed|
|zo behind||zober put behind||zoper follow||zoy back||zoyber put back||zayper return|
|ze middle||zeber balance||zeper mediate||zey across||zeyber transfer||zeyper cross|
|zu left||zuber put to the left||zuper go left||uz curve||uzber deviate||uzper turn|
|zi right||ziber put to the right||ziper go right||iz straight||ziber guide||izper head|
|zya all over||zyaber spread||zyaper tour||zye through||zyeber interject||zyeper permeate|
|zyu round||zyuber rotate||zyuper roll||yuz around||yuzber turn||yuzper circulate|
|yiz beyond||yizber take beyond||yizper surpass||zyag stretched out||zyagber stretch||zyagper stretch out|
|ja before||jaber prepare||japer precede||aj past||ajber pass||ajper pass|
|jo after||jober delay||joper follow||oj future||ojber postpone||ojper wait?|
|je during||jeber continue||jeper continue||ej present||ejber present||ejper present oneself|
|yan together||yanber assemble||yanper join||bay with||bayber impart||bayper accompany|
|yon apart||yonber take apart||yonper separate||boy without||boyber deprive||boyper go without|
|kia oblique||kiber bend||kiper slant||ika full||ikber fill||ikper become full|
|kua lateral||kuber set aside||kuper avoid||uka empty||ukber empty||ukper become empty|
The der (Say) Family
- Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
daler speak der say
doler be silent dier ask
droer erase dyeder read
dider ask duder answer deser pronounce
din story dun word
draf card dref paper
drof cardboard dyuf sheet
- Many saying verbs are created by prefixing elements to der to say, tell, eg:
va yes vader affirm vo no voder deny ve maybe veder guess vyaa true vyader swear vyoa false vyoder lie fyaa holy fyader bless fyoa profane fyoder curse oza weak ozder hint eej re- eejder repeat ve maybe + yova guilty veyovder indict va yes + yova guility vayovder convict ja before jader predict vao yes/no vaoder decide yev justice yevder judge fia good fider praise fua bad fuder disparage af permission afder authorize of prohibition ofder ban naz value nazder evaluate yov guilt yovder blame zyaa wide zyader broadcast yaga long yagder elaborate vyoa wrong + via beautiful vyovider flatter vyea relative vyeder relate va yes + oj future vaojder promise ut self + fia good utfider boast uv sorrow + tax memory uvtaxder regret tes meaning tesder mean ov against ovder object kyia heavy kyider emphasize jwa early jwader warn ja before + vo no javoder preclude yuj close yujder conclude ja before + nap order janapder preordain hyay hurrah hyayder congratulate hyey thanks hyeyder thank gra too much grader exaggerate diz comedy dizder joke dre- write dreder spell eb between ebder communicate eb between + di- ask ebdider interview eb between + tes meaning ebtesder interpret eb between + tex thought ebtexder decide ek- play ekder pretend
- Animal noise verbs are created by replacing the final -t of an animal name with der:
yepet dog yepeder bark yipet cat yipeder mew epeyt cow epeyder moo epat duck epader quack ipat turkey ipader gobble
Speaking in Languages
- Names of languages can be formed by replacing the final -m of the country name with -d. Then, the verb meaning to say in x language or speak in x language can be formed by adding -der or -daler, eg:
Anglam England Anglad English Anglader say in English Angladaler speak in English Fransam France Fransad French (language) Fransader say in French Fransadaler speak French
- The name of the language discussed in this book is Mirad, which comes from mira, meaning global, world. Thus, say in Mirad is Mirader and speak Mirad is Miradaler. A speaker of Mirad is a Miradut or Miradalut. Duhev et Mirade? Do you speak Mirad?. Hey Miraduti, ansu! Hey, speakers of Mirad, unite!
- Words for various communication art forms begin d- and end in -z, eg:
dazun....a dance dazut....dancer
dez....theater dezun....a play dezut....stage actor
diz....comedy dizun....a sketch dizut....comedian
drez....poetry drezun....a poem drezut....poet drezim....poetry salon duz....music
duzun....a musical piece duzut....musician
duzar musical instrument
dyez....cinema dyezun....a movie dyezut....screen actor
deuz....song deuzun....a song deuzut....singer duzam....auditorium
The ter (Know) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental states and activities like knowing, thinking, feeling, etc.:
tep mind, intellect
tyier get acquainted
tyenier train (oneself)
toxer forget tixer study tuxer teach tayoter feel teser mean
toser feel tier learn
- 1. Note that tyer recognize, know, be familiar with is used instead of ter know when referring to a person, much like Fr. connaître be familiar with (a person) vs. savoir know (a fact, how to), eg. It voy te hav at tye it. He doesn't know that I know him.
- Suffixing -tun science to words forms many -ology terms. An -ologist is rendered with -tut, eg:
tep mind teptun psychology teptut psychologist tieb lung tiebtun pneumology tiebtut pneumologist toj death tejtun thanatology tejtut thanatologist pat bird pattun ornithology pattut ornithologist pit fish pittun ichthyology pittut ichthyologist pot animal pottun zoology pottut zoologist mul matter multun chemistry ("materiology?") multut chemist ko- hidden, dren writing kodrentun cryptology kodrentut cryptologist
- Some -ology words in English refer to theories or pseudo-science and are translated into Mirad with the ending -tuin:
mar star martuin astrology (cf. martun astronomy) martuit astrologist sag number sagtuin numerology (cf. sagtun mathematics) sagtuit numerologist nif string niftuin string theory niftuit string theoretician
- Words in English referring to doctrines, dogmas, or -isms are translated into Mirad with the ending -tin, eg:
dot society dotin socialism Buda Buddha Budatin Bhuddism gwa most, fis good thing gwafistin optimism vyaa true vyatin orthodoxy, truism an- one, fyaat god anfyaatin monotheism
- The general word for school is titam (house of learning). The various levels of schools are translated with this word scalarized numerically.
atitam primary school etitam secondary school, high school, lycee ititam college utitam university
- The word pre-school, kindergarten is represented with jatitam (lit. pre-school), while post-graduate school is rendered with joutitam (lit. pre-university).
- Some other, related terms:
- enjab ititam two-year college
- dovyap titam law school
- yexyen titam trade school, vocational school
- zetitam middle school
- tutam academy
- tiut pupil
- tixut student
- tixutyan student body
- tuxut teacher
- tuut educator
- tuen education
- tut professor, scholar
- tit disciple, learner
- titameb principal
- ititameb dean
- tuxutyan faculty
- tuxim lecture hall, classroom
- tixim study hall
- tityan class
- tiun lesson
- tiundyes lesson book
- aa tinag first grade
- ea tinag second grade
The job (Time) Family
- Here are the most important words derived from job time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to a point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning frequency, translated by jod in Mirad.
Calendar Time Units
TIME SEASONS MONTHS DAYS OF THE WEEK job time jeab spring jiab January juab Monday jab year jeeb summer jieb February jueb Tuesday jeb season jeib autumn jiib March juib Wednesday jib month jeub winter jiub April juub Thursday jub day jiyob May juyob Friday jwob* hour jiyab June yuyab Saturday jwab* minute jiyeb July juyeb Sunday jweb* minute jiyib August jiyub September jilob October jilab November jileb December OTHER yejab week asojab century amlojab millennium
- * These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.
Times of Day
TIMES OF DAY maj daytime ijmaj dawn imaj morning eymaj noon joeymaj afternoon ujmaj dusk umaj evening moj night eymoj midnight
General Time Words
GENERAL TIME WORDS job time jod time, instance, occasion xag frequency jud date jag age
Scalar Time Periods
SCALAR TIME PERIODS joob eon joab era joeb period joib epoch joub age joyob chron joyab term
Some Parallel Time Terms
taj birth aj past ja before jana previous ajna former, old jaga old jwa early jwana pre-mature tej life ej present je during jena current ejna new jwe on time jwana mature, ripe toj death oj future jo after jona next ojna future joga young jwo late jwona stale tij wakefulness ij beginning ji since ijna initial jiga fresh, vibrant tuj sleep uj end ju until ujna final juga tired, jaded
Time, Frequency, and Age Questions
WHEN HOW OFTEN HOW OLD hoj? when? hoxag how often? hojaga? how old? haj hu when haxag hu as often as hajaga hu as old as hej sometime hexag sometimes hejaga of a certain age hij now hixag this often hijaga this old huj then huxag that often hujaga that old huyj at such a time huyxag so often huyjaga so old hyoj never hyoxag not once glejaga rather old hyaj always hyaxag at all times grajaga too old hyej anytime hyexag however often grojaga underaged hyij (vyel) at the same time (as) gexag (vyel) as often (as) gejaga (vyel) of the same age (as) hyuj (vyel) some other time (then) ogexag (vyel) not as often (as) ogejaga (vyel) not as old (as) be jobi at times awa jod once awa (jab) jaga one year old be hujobi in those times ewa jodi twice ewa (jabi) jaga two years old byu jobuj forever gla jodi many time alo (jabi) jaga ten years old byi huj since then aloni bi jodi hundreds of times gajaga (vyel) older (than)
- How old are you? is expressed as Hojaga se et?. A typical response is At se ali (jabi) jaga. I am thirteen (years old). If the quantity of time is months, than the answer would be like the following: Iyt sa ewa jibi (jaga). She was two months (old).
MALE FEMALE awajagat....one-year-old boy awajagayt....one-year-old girl alojagat....ten-year-old boy alojagayt....ten-year-old girl jogat....boy, youngster, youth jogayt....girl, damsel gwajogat....youngest boy/person gwajogayt....youngest girl gojagat....younger boy, cadet gojagayt....younger girl aloyjagat....teenager, teenaged boy aloyjagayt....teenaged girl grajogat....minor, boy too young grajogayt....minor female, girl too young grojagat / jwot.... minor, immature person/boy grojagayt / jwoyt....minor girl grejagseat / jwet.... adolescent (boy) grejagseayt / jweyt.... adolescent (girl) grejagat / jwat.... adult male, boy of age grejagayt / jwayt.... adult female, girl of age zejagat.... middle-aged person/man zejagayt.... middle-aged female/woman gajagat.... older person/man, elder, superior gajagayt.... older female/woman, elder, superior grajagat.... over-aged person/man, person/man too old grajagayt.... over-aged female/woman, woman too old jaygat.... youngish individual, youngish man jaygayt.... youngish female, youngish woman yiloyagat.... octogenarian yiloyagayt.... octogenarian woman, woman in her eighties yuloyagat.... nonagenarian yuloyagayt.... nonagenarian woman, woman in her nineties asoyagat.... centenarian asoyagayt.... centenarian woman, 100-year-old woman jagat.... oldster, veteran, old person, old man, elder jagayt.... old woman, old lady jaygat.... oldish person jaygayt.... oldish woman gwajagat.... oldest/senior-most/eldest person/man gwajagayt.... oldest/senior-most/eldest woman gwojagat.... the least young person/man gwojagat.... the least young woman
The sag (Number), xag (Frequency), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families
- The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.
...AG WORDS N..[DBP] WORDS ag.... size nod.... point sag.... number nad.... line syag.... count ned.... plane syaag.... calculation nid.... volume nog.... degree nab.... rank nag.... measure nap.... order neg.... level naab.... organization nig.... space naap.... system jag.... age nyap.... rule xag.... frequency nyed.... grid yag.... length
zyus.... circle zyuys.... oval zyunid.... sphere unizgun.... rectangle ungekun.... square ungun.... quadrangle unoizgun.... rhombus ingun.... triangle yoongun.... pentagon ginid.... cone yagunid.... cube inguginid.... pyramid fufnid.... cylinder amezsan.... diamond tosan.... cross uznad.... arc ilpsan.... wave gunsan.... wedge amarsan star
The tom (Building), em (Place) Families
- The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.
FULL WORDS ENDINGS tom building -em general place tam house -am indoor place tem hall -yem enclosed space tim room -im room tum cell -yeb container
Common Spaces with -(e)m
- The words in the following table refer to spaces or open places:
PLACE ROOT abem....top ab....on obem....bottom ob....base ebem....interval eb....between oyebem....outdoors oyeb....out yebem....indoors yeb....in yubem....vicinity yub....'near yibem....distance yib....far yabem....upstairs yab....up yobem....downstairs yob....down hom?....where? ho-....which zem....middle ze-....middle zam....front za....before zom....back zo....after kum....side kua....lateral kim....slope kia....diagonal byim....source byi....since byum....destination byu....up to bem....position be....at dem....park d(o)-....social dopekem....battleground dopek....battle melyexem....farm mel....soil + yex...work goynem....sector goyn....cut ijem....origin ij....start kosem....hideout kos-....hide kyosem....settlement kyos-....stay mem....country m-...natural things mimpuem....dock mim....sea + pu-....arrive obdobem....colony ob....off + dob....regime apem....wharf ap-....embark sexem....construction site sex....construction tojmelukem....cemetery toj....death + mel....soil + uk...vacuum tom....building to-....human ujem....terminus uj....end vobem....planation vob....plant xem....office x-....do yomyuglapem....iceskating rink yom....ice + yugla...smooth + p-....go
Common Places with -am
- These words refer to houses and buildings:
BUILDING ROOT nam....shop n-....commercial aajasnam....antique store aajas....antique apelatam....beehive apelat....bee apetigpekam....(horse) racetrack apet....horse + ig-....fast + pek....competition tam....house t-....human bektam....hospice bek....treatment bextam....castle bex-....keep + tam....house bekilnam....pharmacy bekil....medecine + nam....store saxam....factory sax-....make bilunsaxam....dairy bil....milk + -un....product + sax-...make datibam....hotel dat....friend + ib-....receive titam....school tit....learner doyevam....court do-....public + yev....justice doptam....barracks dop....military + tam....house dresam....bureau dres-....write bokam....hospital bok....sickness mamparam....hangar mam....sky + par....vehicle mogxam....crematorium mog....ash + x-....make posam....station pos-....stop 'taolgorbam....butcher shop taol....meat + gorb-....cleave tilam....bar til-....drink yibdubam....embassy yib....far + dub....minister
Common Containers and Enclosed Spaces with -yem
CONTAINER ROOT apetyem....corral apet....horse nyem....box n-....commercial syem....institution s-....exist milpyem....swimming pool milp-....swim nunyem....package nun....merchandise ponyem....suitcase po-....travel tebnyem....skull teb....head tuyabyem....pocket tuyab....hand vabijyem....pod vabij....seed tyem....residence t-....human tobijyem....ovary tobij....embryo tojnyem....casket toj....death ukyem....slot uk-....empty myem....plot of ground m-....natural things magilyem....fuel tank magil....fuel koyem....shelter ko-....hide
Common Rooms with -(t)im
- These words describe type of rooms (tim):
ROOM ROOT tim....room t-....human aybmostim....attic ayb-....upper + mos....floor oybmostim....basement oyb-....lower + mos....floor ebmostim....mezzanine eb....between + mos....floor avoliim....pantry avol....bread apetim....stall apet....horse beaxim....ward beax-....watch azla bikim....intensive care unit azla....intensive + bik....care belunim....cargo bay belun....cargo biktim....clinic bik....care datibim....lobby dat....friend + ib-....receive dyezim....screening room dyez....cinema doebdalim....conference room do-....public + eb....between + dal-....speak ebtim....corridor eb....between fyadilim....chapel fya-....holy + dil....request dokebidim....voting booth do-....public + kebi-....choice fyatim....sanctuary fya-....holy milufim....toilet mil....water + -uf....pipe movim....smoking den mov....smoke novim....linen closet nov....linen saxim....studio sax-....create sumtim....bedroom sum....bed teexutim....auditorium teexut....listener tulim....dining room tul....cuisine vaobim....hayloft vaob....hay vyakexim....laboratory vyakex....test zatim....antechamber za....front zyutim....rotunda zyu-....round yexim....office yex-....work
Locative Deictic Adverbs
- The locative deictic adverbs use the -m suffix of place, eg:
hom? where? ham hu the place where, where hem somewhere him here hum there hyom nowhere hyam everywhere hyem anywhere, wherever hyim (at) the same place hyum elsewhere, somewhere else
The a (One) yan (Together) Families
- The stems in this family are based on a one, and yan together and their opposites, o zero and yon apart.
SINGLE NULL a- one o- zero, un- awa one owa zero an- uni-, mono- on- non- yan- together, con- yon- apart, dis- hya- all hyo- none -aya -ful -oya -less ay and oy but
- The suffix -yan is used to form collective nouns. Here are some examples:
SINGLETON COLLECTION fab tree fabyan forest vyap rule vyapyan regimen, system vos flower vosyan bouquet uzun ring uzunyan chain ut person utyan group toom apartment toomyan apartment complex teyen idea teyenyan ideology tyen technique tyenyan technology tixut student tixutyan student body tit pupil tityan class telar eating utensil telaryan cutlery sir machine siryan machinery pat bird patyan flock
- An extension of yan is nyan, meaning stack, pile, accumulation, crowd, and so is a bit more intensive:
SINGLETON COLLECTION pet land animal petnyan herd ut person utnyan crowd dit citizen ditnyan populace taib bone taibnyan skeleton yaut public persona yautnyan commune dun word dunnyan list vaob hay vaobnyan haystack
- The following confusing terms should be kept distinct:
NOUN VERB aut individual, person auta personal anut private individual anuta private utyan group utyana collective autyan people autyana popular autyanin populism autyanina populist autyandab republic, democracy autyandaba republican, democratic yaut constituent, commoner yauta common, collective, public yautyan community, constituency, public yautyana communitarian yautnyan commune, collective yautnyana communal, collective yautin communism yautina communist dot society dota societal dotin socialism dotina socialist dit citizen dita civilian, civic dityan citizenry, population dityana of the citizenry, populational ditnyan populace ditnyana popular ditnyanin populism ditnyanina populist yanav party (political) yanava partisan yaniv party (fun) yaniva festive yanut associate yanuta general, public yanutyan association yanutyana associational
The tob (Man) Family
- The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism, body, or organ or p, having to do with the non-corporeal aspects of man, such as mind and emotion.
-B -P tob human, man top soul, psyche tab body tap physique teb head tep mind tib trunk tip sentiment, emotion tub arm tup member tyob leg
- All the names of the parts of the body are derived from these core words in a hiearchical fashion using stem vowel scalarization, as can be seen from the sample chart below of the body parts relating to arm and leg (not the parallelism):
Bodily Functions and Gestures
- The following chart shows how gestural and bodily movements and functions are derived from body parts:
ORGANISM GESTURES, MOVEMENTS, FUNCTIONS tob human tobser become human, tobxer humanize, tobtojber murder tobij embryo tobijier conceive, tobijuer impregnate, tobijer ovulate, tobijbeler gestate tab body tabazaxer work out, tabmelukxer entomb, tabteaxer autopsy tayeb hair tayebarer comb, tayeboker go bald, tayefarer brush, tayeborber shave, tayelber shampoo, tayevarer mop tayob skin tayobiler sweat, tayobober flay, tayoboser itch, tayoser feel like, tayoter feel, tayoxer palpate, tayobdriler tattoo, tayotyofxer numb teb head
tebabunober scalp, tebbaxer nod, tebober decapitate, tebzaner face teab eye
teaser seem, teater see, teatyofxer blind, teaxer look, teaxuer show, teazuer amaze, teabizer aim, teaper visit, teabyujiger blink
teababyexer bat an eyelash
teabiler tear up
teeb ear teeter hear, teeser sound like, teeper attend, teeder rumor, teeyofxer deafen, teexer listen teib nose teiter smell, teiser smell like, teitier take a whiff of, teituer reek, teixer smell, teseuxer snore, teizber perfume, teipulxer sneeze, teibalier sniff, teibalegier sniffle, teibiler run at the nose, teibukxer blow the nose teub mouth
teubier swallow, yijteuber yawn, teuser taste like, teuter taste, teutier sample, teutuer offer a taste, teuxer taste, teuder shout, ivteuder laugh, uvteuder groan, ivteuber smile, uvteuber frown,vyoivteuder mock, ufteuber scowl, uvseuxer grumble
teubiler salivate, teubiloker drool, teubilokeger dribble, teubiloyeber expectorate, teubilpuxer spew, teubiluer spit, teubilier slurp
deuzer sing, yandeuzer harmonize, yagdeuzer chant
seuxer ring seuxder pronounce, voyseuxder mispronounce
zoyteuzer echo, uvseuzer sigh
teuzuer vote, teuzier poll, teuzibarer telephone
toleuser taste like, toleuter taste, toleuxer savor, fitoleuser taste good, futoleuser taste bad
teubab tongue teubaxer wag the tongue, teubabaxer lick teubib gum teubixer chew, teubixeger ruminate teupib tooth teupixer bite, teupixeger nibble, yebteupixer crunch teubob lip teuboxer kiss, teuboxeger smooch, teubobaxer smack the lips teyob neck teyobabaxer neck, teyopixer collar, teyozyober choke , teyopyoxer hang tib trunk tibuzer bow tibuj tail
tiexer breath, tiebyujber suffocate, teibukxer cough
tiebalier inhale, tiebaluer exhale, tiebaloker belch
tiebbokier catch a cold
tiibiler bleed tiibiloker bleed out, tiibilglalser clot, tiibilier suck blood, tiibiluer let blood
tikebier digest, tikebukxer vomit tikyeb anus
tikyob bowels tikyobier ingest, tikyobober disembowel tub arm yantubier embrace, tubbaxer wave tuyab hand tuyaxer handle, tuyaber handle, tuyabalxer shake hand, tuyabexer manipulate, tuyabier grab, tuyabirer wrestle, tuyasiuner wave, tuyabuer hand out, tuyadrer write out longhand, tuyapixer clasp tuyapyexer clap tuyeb fist tuyepeker fistfight, tuyebalxer shake one's fist, tuyepyelxuer pound, tuyepyexer box tuyib palm tuyibabaxer pat, tuyibaber palm, tuyibuer palm off, tuyipyexer slap tuyob wrist tuyoxer wave tuyub finger tuyubarxer wag one's finger, tuyubifeker fiddle, tuyubizder point out, tuyuibeaxer indicate, tuyugiber poke, tuyupyexer tap, tuyuxer palpate tulob fingernail
tuloxer scratch, tuloxefer itch
patuloxer claw, patulober grip
tyoib knee tyoixer kneel, tyoiper crawl tyoyab foot tyoyabarer stomp, tyoyakyeper hobble, tyoyapyexer kick, tyoyapyexuer kick tyoyeb heel tyoyeber spurn tyoyib sole tyoyiber supplant tyoyub toe tyoyubaxeger wiggle one's toe, tyoyuzyuper pirouette
The bak (Health) Family
- Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:
NOUNS VERBS bak health
bakxer heal, bakser heal bek treatment
bekuer treat, bekier get treated
bokser get sick, bokxer sicken
bookser grow tired, bokxer tire out
bik care bikuer care for, bikier take care buk injury
bukser be injured, bukxer injure
byokuer inflict pain, byokier incur pain
The tod (Family) Family
- Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.
- Core words:
tod....family FEMALE tad....spouse, husband tayd....wife ted....father, parent teyd....mother tid....brother, sibling tiyd....sister tud....son, child tuyd....daughter
- Prefixes or word elements used to modify the above core words:
to-....god- (as in godson) ta-....-in-law, through marriage te-....father's ti-....sibling's tu-....child's taj-....birth-, real otaj-, ifbi-....foster, adopted ij-....first, original aj-....ex-, former ej-....current, step-, half- oj-....future, -to-be aa....first ea....second yiba....distant aa yiba....first-removed ea yiba....second-removed ota-....out-of-wedlock, bastard oyted-....orphan(ed), without parents oytad-....unmarried, without spouse oytud-....childless, without child, barren tiibil-....blood-
- Kinship Terms Formed from the Above Core Words and Prefixed Elements
MALE FEMALE tad....spouse, husband
ijtad....first spouse, first husband
ejtad....current spouse, step spouse
ojtad....spouse-to-be, husband-to-be, fiance
ejtayd...current wife, step-wife
ejted....stepfather, foster father, foster parent
ejteyd....stepmother, foster mother
otada tud....bastard child, bastard son
aa tetitud....first cousin
ea tetitud....second cousin
aa yiba tetitud....cousin first removed
otada tuyd....bastard daughter
aa tetituyd....first cousin
ea tetituyd....second cousin
aa yiba tetituyd....cousin first removed
- Suffixed -if gives you affectionate equivalents:
- tadif....darling husband, hubby
- taydif....darling wife, wifey-poo
- tedif....daddy, papa
- teydif....mommy, mama
- tudif....sonny, kid
- tuydif....darling daughter
- Other terms:
- todat....relative, sib
- tiibil todat....blood relative
- todatyan....kinfolk, clan
- todeb....pater familias
- todeyb....mater familias
- otatud....bastard, bastard son, bastard child
- otatuyd....bastard daughter
- oytetud....orphan, orphan son
- oytetuyd....orphan daughter
- oytadat....bachelor, unmarried man'
- oytadayt....spinster, unmarried woman, bachelorette
- oytudayt....childless woman
- glatidat....person with many siblings
- oytidat....person with no siblings
- otajted, ifbited....foster parent, adopting parent
- otajtud, ifbitud....foster child, adopted child
- otajteder, ifbiteder....foster, adopt
- otajtedwa, ifbitedwa....adopted
- teder....parent, raise
- tadier....get married, take on a spouse
- taduer....marry, preside over a marriage
- tood....ethnos, tribe, clan, race
- tooddin....folk story
- toos....gender, sex
- hyitoosa tadan....same-sex marriage
- tadyan....married couple
- jwaa tadien....shotgun wedding
The dot (Society) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.
dot society dat friend det comrade, mate dit citizen dut gentleman, sir dout bourgeois
- The prefix do- can be used to form words that are public in nature, eg:
COMBINED FORM SUFFIX dovyab.... law vyab....rule doyev.... justice yev-....just doyov.... crime yov....shame doyiv.... (civil) right yiv....license dobien.... coup d'etat bien....taking dodres....bulletin dres....document dokex.... (public) inquiry kex....search doval.... public safety val....safety dovaldib.... police dib....administration dotojben.... execution tojben....putting to death dosyag....census syag....count
The tof (Clothes) and nof (Textile)
- The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof cloth and nov lingerie. The words have to do with clothing. Post-iotating the root vowel produces something that relates to women.
BODY PART CLOTHING ITEM tob man tof clothing tab body taf suit, tayf dress teb head tef hat teyob neck teyof necktie tuab shoulder tuaf shawl tib trunk tif vest zetib waist zetif belt tiab chest tiav shirt, tiayv blouse tilab breast tilav bra tuyab hand tuyaf glove tyob leg tyof pants, tyoyf skirt
BASIC WORDDERIVATIVESnof textile, tissuenov linennofur loom, nofxer weavenofyank stitch, nofyanker sew, nofyankut seamsternofyonk rip, nofyonker rip, nofyonkar scissors, shearsnofyuj pleat, nofyujber foldnofzyiar iron, nofzyiarer ironnovyan lingerie, novim linen closetmisof curtain, obmasof carpet yebof sackfavof cotton, favoyf cotton woolfevof flaxfivof hempfuvof jutetayof leathernaf material, cloth, fabricnaaf drapenaef canvasnaif velvetnauf veilnayaf cordoroynef knitneof stitchneaf net, mesh, webneef laceneif braidneuf wickerneyof loopneyaf waleneyef strip, bandneyif plaitnayuf latticenefxer knit, neofxer stitch, neifxer braid neyofxer loopnefar knitting needlenefiaf sweatervinef embroideryyotayef goat's hair, wooltayef bristleutayef woolzyef pane of glass, zyev glassnyef bag, sackyebeaf mesh bagyebeuf wicker basketnif yarn, fiberniv threadniyf filament, stringniif twinenifur spinner, nifxer spin, nifun spider's webnifar needlenivar pinmugnif wireapeyetif silknuf buttonnufyujber buttonnufyijber unbuttonnufzyeg buttonholenufag knobnyaf knotnyafer tie, onyafer untie, unravelmugnyaf clasp, bucklenyef bag, sackzotibnyef backpacktolnyef grocery bagyignyef basketnyif ropemugnyif cablenyifog lace, cordnyuf packagenyufag crate
- The nof family words begin with n meaning commercial and end in f meaning textile. Here is a summary:
The mos (Floor) Family
- The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
MASONRY ROOT WORD DERIVATIVES mos floor omos ground floor
amos first floor
mas wall abmas roof
mes door zames front door
zomes back door
mesnufag door knob
mesyuznad door frame
mestuyar door handle
mis window miszyef window pane
mus stairs musnog step, stair rung
magmus fire escape
The som (Furniture) Family
- The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
FURNITURE DERIVATIVES som.... furniture somber.... furnish
mansom.... light fixture
milamsom.... water heater
sam.... armoire, chest telarsam.... china cabinet
tovsam.... chest of drawers
sem.... table semof.... table cloth
yuzsem.... round table
syagsem.... counter (cashier stand)
sim.... chair zaopsim.... rocking chair
zyupsim.... swivel chair
tobobsim.... high chair
maksim..... electric chair
teadutsim.... witness box
tujyagsim.... sleep sofa
yigsim.... hard chair
agsim.... arm chair
sum.... bed suam.... cushion
suav.... pillow case
suim.... box spring
eonsum.... twin bed
eynsum.... day bed
nyanxwa sum.... bunk bed
tabsum.... sleeping bag
pyoxwa sum.... hammock
summanar.... bed lamp
sumber....put to bed
sumper....go to bed
The sar (Tool) and par (Vehicle) Family
- Stems having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile.
STANDALONE WORD SUFFIX MEANING sar -ar instrument, tool, device (default) sir -ir apparatus, hand-driven machine sor -or machine, powered machine sur -ur motor, engine
- Note: the words and suffixes other than sar, -ar (the default) are used only to distinguish words like bicycle and motorcycle or needle and loom, etc.
- Vehicle words end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument, unless there is a need for further distinction, in which case, the ending may be -ir, -or, or -ur.
VEHICLES par vehicle, car
mampar airplane mempar automobile, land vehicle mimpar boat
mumpar subway mompar spaceship kyinpar truck
kyinpir cart, wagon
naadpar train yautpar bus enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle yuglapar sled
Tools and Machines
TOOLS AND MACHINES drar pencil
vyixur vacuum cleaner
The tol (Food) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
WORD DERIVATIVES tol nutrition tolnam grocery store
tolsam food buffet
tel food telier eat
til- drink tilsem bar
teilsyeb soup bowl
kyitilsyeb mug, stein
tul dish jatul appetizer
agtul main dish, entree
atulyan first course
etulyan second course
tularsam china cabinet
tamtuler dine at home
tulim dining room
tulagim banquet hall
tyal meal atyal breakfast
etyalier have lunch
etyaluer serve lunch
yomxwa tyal frozen dinner
STUB EXAMPLES -il liquid, drink teil soup
ilneyeb tank, reservoir
ilsyeb carafe, beaker, flask
-yal juice sefyal coffee
vafyal grape juice
-el food level sugar
elsyeb pot, pan
-yel gel, oil dofyel chocolate
tulyel cooking oil
magyelsyeb frying pan
leveyel jam, confiture
kafyel olive oil
gevyel corn oil
tulyel cooking oil
gavyel sunflower oil
-eil soup teil soup
-ol food avol bread
zyiavol flatbread, pita
yuzavol wrap, gyro, taco
uzavol twist, croissant
The mor (universe) and mom (outer space) Family
- The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc. The stem vowel indicates whether the term applies to the sky, ground, water, etc.
mor....universe mom....cosmos mol....nature mop....orbit moj....evening
mam....sky mal....air map....wind maj....day
mem....land mel....soil mep....road mef....brick
meb....mountain mir....world mim....sea mil....water mip....river mur....satellite
mum...underground mul....matter mup....tunnel muk....mineral
- A few important derivations:
- amar....sun ("number one star")
- amarnaap....solar system (the "sun system")
- amaryap....sunrise ("sun rise")
- amaryop....sunset ("sun descent")
- amarnad....sunbeam ("sun line")
- amarmap....solar wind ("sun wind")
- amarman....sunlight ("sun light")
- amur....moon ("number one satellite)
- amurned....lunar surface ("moon surface")
- amurmoyb....lunar crater ("moon depression")
- Imer....Earth ("third planet from the sun"
- imertun....geology ("earthscience"
- imerzyunad....earth's axis ("earth turn line"
- imermop....earth's orbit ("earth's orbit"
- marmaf....galaxy ("star cloud")
- Amarmaf....Milky Way ("number one galaxy")
- maryan....constellation ("collection of stars")
- marmeg....comet ("star rock")
- mommeg....meteor ("space rock")
- mammeg....meteorite ("sky rock")
- The following are vehicles and derivatives that are specific to one of the above physical spheres:
mompar....spaceship momper.... travel through space momput....cosmonaut, astronaut mampar....airplane mamper....fly mamput....flyer, pilot mempar....automobile memper....ride, drive memput....rider, driver mimpar....ship
mimper sail, navigate mimput sailor, navigator
mumpar....subway mumper.... tunnel, go by metro mumput....metro rider
Names of the Planets
- Here are the names of the planets in our solar system. Notice that Earth is the "third planet" from the sun.
mer....planet Amer.... Mercury Emer.... Venus Imer.... Earth Umer.... Mars Yomer.... Jupiter Yamer.... Saturn Yemer.... Uranus Yimer.... Pluto
DIRECTIONS mer....planet za....front zamer.... north zo....behind zomer....south zi....right zimer....east zu....left zumer....west
- Related terms:
- zamernod....north pole (nod = point)
- zomernod....south pole
- zaomernad....longitude (zao = north-south, nad = line)
- zuimernad....latitude (zui = east-west)
- zemernad....equator (ze = middle)
- merzyun....globe, sphere (planet-ball)
- eymerzyun....hemisphere (half-planet-ball)
Types of Clouds
maf....cloud maaf.... stratus maef.... nimbostratus maif.... cumulus mauf.... cumulonimbus mayof.... stratocumulus mayaf.... allocumulus mayef.... allostratus mayif.... cirrocumulus mayuf.... cirrostratus malof.... cirrus
Types of Roads and Paths
mep.... way, road, route
→ zeymep.... bridge, crossing
→ aybmep.... overpass, bridge
→ oybmep.... underpass
→ zyemep.... tunnel, throughway, thoroughfare
→ kumep.... side path
→ zomep.... back way
→ ebmep.... aisle
→ tyoyamep.... sidewalk, walkway
→ homep?'....which way?
→ yilpmep....escape route
→ vyamep....right way
→ vyomep....wrong way
→ izmep.... direct route, straight path, vector
→ yebmep.... entryway, entrance
→ oyebmep.... exit, way out
→ mummep.... subway
→ mammep.... air route
→ elyamep.... railroad, railway
→ mimmep.... sealane
→ agdomep.... highway
→ aagdomep.... main street
→ zyadomep.... broadway
→ igdomep.... expressway
→ uzmep.... byway, detour
→ yuzdomep.... beltway, loop
→ zyudomep.... roundabout, circle, rotary
→ anizona domep....one-way street
meap.... avenue meep.... boulevard meip.... lane
→ zimeip....right lane
→ zumeip....left lane
→ zemeip....median, middle lane
→ anmeip.... single lane
→ enmeip....double lane
→ mebmeup....mountain trail
→ tyoyameyp.... footpath
Types of Stones, Gems, etc.
STONE GEM OTHER EARTH SUBSTANCES meg .... stone mez .... gem mek .... dust meag .... marble amez .... diamond miek .... sand meeg ....slate emez .... topaz myek .... powder meig ....gramote imez .... ruby mel .... soil meug ....clay vamez .... emerald meil .... mud meyag ....chalk yamez .... amethyst megil .... cement meyeg ....limestone yomez .... sapphire myel .... plastic meyig ....alabaster mil .... water meyog .... china mial .... vapor meyug .... gypsum miil .... dew melag .... adobe mimol .... salt meleg .... terra cotta mamil .... rain melig .... marl mal .... air melug .... kaolin mayl .... gas melyag .... feldspar magil .... petroleum melyeg .... petunse mug .... metal melyig .... silica muk .... mineral melyog .... pegmatite mul .... matter melyug .... flint mag .... fire mieg .... coral mog .... ash mav .... flame mov .... smoke
am....heat ama .... hot ayma .... warm om....cold oma .... cold oyma .... cool im....moisture ima .... wet iyma .... humid um....draught uma .... dry uyma .... arid yom....ice yoma .... frozen yoyma .... chilly yam....fire yama .... burning yayma....fiery
mamyen .... weather mamil .... rain mamyom .... sleet mamyoym .... snow yoym .... frost yom .... ice mial .... steam miil .... dew maf .... cloud miaf .... fog mapil .... storm, windstorm xeusmapil .... thunderstorm mapilag .... tempest mimmapil .... hurricane map .... wind
maap .... puff
maep .... breeze
maip .... gust
maup .... gale
mayop .... typhoon
mapulz .... tornado, twister, cyclone mammanig .... lightning mamxeus .... thunder mamiluz .... rainbow jibim .... monsoon graim .... flood, deluge
mal .... air maal .... atmosphere mael .... troposphere mail .... stratosphere maul .... ionosphere mayol .... exosphere
Rivers and Streams
mip .... river miap .... stream miep .... brook miip .... rivulet miup .... tributary miyop .... creek miyap .... rill mipuj .... estuary mipkum .... river bank
Bodies of Water
mim .... sea mimag .... ocean miam .... lake miem .... lagoon miim .... pond mium .... pool, basin miumog .... puddle immem .... swamp ebmim .... strait zyomip .... canal
mem .... land meam .... region
meem .... territory
meim .... countryside
meum .... zone, district
meyom .... tract, parcel, acre
meb .... mountain
meyb .... mount
meab .... hill
meeb .... knob
meib .... mound
meub .... ridge
meyob .... bump
mimeib ... cape yabmimeib .... promontory, headland, bluff zyimeb .... plateau magmeb .... volcano mub .... chasm, precipice, cliff
muab .... gulf, gulch
mueb .... ravine, valley, dale
muib .... cave
muyob .... ditch
mimuib .... cove mimkum .... beach, seaside, coast uzmimkum .... bay zyimem .... plain ummem .... desert immem .... wetland, swamp zomem .... hinterland zyamem ....prairie memsin .... landscape yonmel .... island eynyonmel .... peninsula yanmel .... continent zyoebmel .... isthmus yijmem .... field, meadow
mir .... world, realm, domain jomir.... here-after, after-world, metasphere
yizmir....world beyond, spirit world
fyamir.... sacred world, paradise
fyomir....wicked world, hell
obmir....nether world komir....secret realms mor .... universe moreb....god
The pot (Animal) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with the letter p, denoting movement, and end in the letter t, denoting a living creature. Thus, the words have to do with animals.
pyot wild animal
IN THE AIR pat bird ON LAND pet land animal
IN WATER pit fish
ON LAND AND IN WATER pyeit amphibian
- Note that the vowels in the word stem indicates geo-spatial properties like a for in the air, e for on land, i for in the sea, u for underground, and ei for on land and sea (amphibian). Pre-iotation of the stem vowel creates a set of less domestic animals, while the letter l preceding or following the stem vowels is used similarly to divide animals into new groups. The initial ordinal vowels create a taxonomy, while initial consonants increase the taxonomic levels.
Principal Domestic Land Animals
MIRAD ENGLISH pet (land) animal apet horse epet ox ipet ass upet ram yopet goat yapet pig yepet dog yipet cat yupet rabbit
Principal Wild Land Animals
MIRAD ENGLISH pyot wild animal, beast rapyot lion repyot tiger ripyot leopard rupyot wolf ryapyot hyena tepyot bear tapyot orang-utan yapyot boar
MIRAD ENGLISH pat bird apat cock epat duck ipat turkey upat goose yopat guinea fowl yapat pigeon rapat eagle repat vulture fapat crow
Principal Marine Animals
- -it water only
- -iet water and land
MIRAD ENGLISH pit fish apit trout epit lobster ipit prawn upit crawfish lipit salmon ryepit tuna rapit shark repit dolphin fapit whale apiet seal epiet sea lion
MIRAD ENGLISH pyet reptile gapyet crocodile gepyet alligator kapyet lizard lopyet snake lapyet boa lepyet cobra fapyet grass snake fepyet slug fipyet leech vapyet snail
- -elt non-flying insects
- -elat flying insects
MIRAD ENGLISH pelt insect apelt spider kapelt louse kopelt vermin kepelt flea kipelt bug lepelt cobra apelat bee epelat wasp ipelat horsefly upelat fly yopelat mosquito lapelat cockchafer lepelat beetle tapelat cicada gapelat butterfly fapelt ant fepelt cockroach fapelt ant
Principal Ambphibians and Worms
MIRAD ENGLISH apyeit toad epyeit frog apyeat bat peyet worm apeyet silkworm
- The animal noise verbs are formed by replacing the final t of the animal's name to der (communicate, utter), as in the following chart:
ANIMAL SOUND VERB apet horse apeder neigh, whinny epet bull epeder bellow eopetob veal eopetoder bleat eopet ox eopeder low, moo, bellow epeyt cow epeyder moo ipet ass ipeder bray, hehaw ilapet llama ilapeder growl upet sheep upeder bleat yopet goat yopeder bray yapet hog yapeder grunt, snort, oink yepet dog yepeder bark yepyot wolf yepyoder howl yeypyot vixen yeypyoder yelp yipet cat yipeder mew, purr, meow yipyot tiger yipyoder growl yupet rabbit yupeder drum kapet squirrel kapeder squeak kyipet raccoon kyipeder chitter klepet mouse klepeder squeak eplet koala epleder wail rapyot lion rapyoder roar ryapyot hyena ryapyoder laugh ryaapyot jackal ryaapyoder howl tapyot ape tapyoder gibber tepyot bear tepyoder growl gapet elephant gapeder trumpet vepet reindeer vepeder bellow vyipet moose vyipeder bellow fapet camel fapeder grunt fipet giraffe fipeder bleat kepyet gecko kepyeder go to-key, make a gecko noise lepyet cobra lepyeder hiss apyeat bat apyeader screech epyeit frog epyeider rivet, make a frog noise apelat bee apelader buzz lepelat beetle lepelader drone tepelat cricket tepelader chirp pat bird pader chirp, tweet, coo, sing apat rooster apader crow, cockadoodle-doo apayt hen apayder cluck apatog chicken apatoder cheep epat duck epader quack ipat turkey ipader gobble yapat pigeon yapader coo rapat eagle rapader squawk repat vulture repader scream fapat raven fapader croak fepat crow fepader craw fipat chatter fipader chatter fupat hoot fupader hoot fyipat jay fyipader chatter gapat ostrich gapader bleep dapat swan dapader cry zapat swallow zapader squeal tapat parrot tapader parrot vapat nightingale vapader pipe fepat warbler fepader warble gapait penguin gapaider honk ipiet platypus ipieder chitter rupit walrus rupider groan ryopit porpoise ryopider whistle
- By suffixing the final t of the animal name with tam house, you get corresponding animal's living quarters:
ANIMAL LIVING SPACE apet horse apetam stable epet ox epetam cowshed yapet pig yapetam pigpen, pigsty yepet dog yepetam doghouse rapyot lion rapyotam den, lion's den fapelt ant fapeltam anthill apelat bee apelatam beehive pat bird patam nest, bird's nest apat hen apatam henhouse, chicken coop rupyot bear rupyotam lair pyot wild animal pyotam cage
- By changing the final letter of the animal's name to an l, you get the meat eaten from that animal:
ANIMAL MEAT eopet ox eopel beef vipet deer vipel venison yapet hog yapel pork yapetyoab hog's thigh yapetyoal ham uopet sheep uopel mutton eopetob calf eopetol veal vapyet snail vapyel escargot
- By adding yan aggregate or nyan crowd to the name of an animal, you get the animal grouping:
ANIMAL GROUPING pat bird patyan flock eopet ox eopetyan cattle pit fish pityan school pelt insect peltyan swarm pit fish pityan school apat hen apatyan poultry pot animal potnyan herd yopet goat yopetyan goatherd
- The baby of an animal ends in ob offspring:
ANIMAL BABY pat bird patob chick apet horse apetob foal eopet ox eopetob calf yepet dog yepetob pup yipet cat yipetob kitten apat hen apatob chick rapat eagle rapatob eaglet upat goose upatob gosling upet ram upetob lamb yopet goat yopetob kid
- The hair of an animal ends in tayeb hair:
ANIMAL HAIR pat bird patayeb feather apet horse apetayeb horsehair, mane yipet cat yipetayeb fur fapet camel fapetayeb camelhair pit fish pitayeb scale upat goose upatayeb down tepyot bear tepyotayeb fuzz uopet sheep uopetayeb wool, fleece
Female Counterparts of Animals
- The word for the female counterpart of an animal is created by post-iotated (i.e. adding a y to) the last vowel of the male animal's name:
ANIMAL FEMALE epet bull epeyt cow apet horse apeyt mare ipet ass ipeyt she-ass yopet goat yopeyt nanny goat yapet hog yapeyt sow yepet dog yepeyt bitch yepyot wolf yepyoyt wolverine yeypyot fox yeypyoyt vixen gapet elephant gapeyt cow elephant vipet buck vipeyt deer apat rooster apayt hen
Interesting Parallels in Animal Vocabulary
teub mouth pateub beak poteub mug mimeub bay teib nose poteib snout gapeteib elephant trunk meib promontory tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale petayeb fur fayeb leaf vosayeb petal uopetayeb wool, fleece tulob nail patulob claw apelatulob stinger fulob prick vulob thorn tyoyab foot apetyoyab hoof potyoyab paw meboyab foothills fyoyab stump vyoyab stub tayob skin potayob hide piyetayob shell mayob crust fayob bark vayob peel patijayob eggshell
The fob (Vegetation)and vob (Plant) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with f for vegetation or v for plant and end in b for organism. These words have to do with trees, fruits, nuts, vegetables, plants, grasses, and grains, as shown in this chart:
TREES, FRUITS, VEGETABLES PLANTS, GRAINS, LEGUMES fob vegetable vob plant fab tree vab grass feb fruit, nut veb tuft
fib trunk vib stem fub branch vub twig fayeb leaf vayeb bud fyob root vyob tendril
The vol (Edible Vegetable), vos (Flower), and voz (Color Family
vol edible vegetable vos flower voz color
- The names of common colors in Mirad are mnemonically based on flowers and other natural products that have distinctive colors. In the summary chart below, the mnemonic origin is given for each color term.
COLOR MNEMONIC ORIGIN voz color vos flower ovoza plain, blank o zero avoza white avos lily evoza yellow evos narcissus ivoza red ivos poppy uvoza pink uvos rose yovoza blue yovos blueberry yavoza mauve yavos hydrangea yevoza lilac yevos lilac yivoza violet, purple yivos violet lafyaza orange lafyab orange vaza green vab grass moza black mon dark maza white man light maoza gray man + mon meza brown mel soil
- The common colors consist of a mnemonic stub for a flower, plant, fruit, or other natural item exhibiting most vividly the color in question, followed by the suffix -za (reminiscent of voz color, itself reminiscent of vos flower), eg. va- (from vab grass) + z = vaza green.
- The most exotic or rare colors can be expressed by the numerical position in the alphabetized Wikipedia list of colors + -za. For example, the color Alabama Crimson is the tenth color in that list when alphabetized, so it's name is aloza.
- A color referring to one's skin or race is suffixed with -ata-, eg. mozata black-skinned, black, while the person of that skin color ends in -at, eg. mazat white person, a white. A person of mixed color is a eyvozat ('ey- half). A non-white is expressed with omazat.
- A color referring to one's hair is a combination of toz, preceded by the first vowel of the color, eg. i from ivoza red + toz yields itoza auburn, red-headed.
- If the stem vowel of the color term is post-iotated, then the meaning is the lighter version of the color, eg. ivoyza light red.
- If the stem vowel of the color term is pre-iotated, then the meaning is the darker or deeper version of the color, eg. ivyoza deep red.
- If the stem vowel of the color term is doubled, then the meaning is the brighter version of the color, eg. ivooza bright red.
- If the syllable yen is inserted between the stem and the adjectival ending a, then the meaning is -ish, eg. avozyena reddish.
- If the color word is preceded by gwa, it is of maximum intensity, eg. gwaivoza as red as can be.
The tuz (Art) Family
- This family includes words having to do with the arts, such as theater, sculpture, music, poetry, etc. Word stems ending in -z refer to something that is precious or artful. Stems with eu are mnemonic for teub mouth and refer to sound, singing, noises, etc.
THE ARTS tuz art
diz comedy, circus
The dob (State) Family
- The stems of the words in this family start with d for society and end with b for organization.
dob state, regime dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister
Regimes and Rulers
REGIME=dob MALE RULER=deb FEMALE RULER=deyb adob empire adeb emperor adeyb empress edob kingdom edeb king edeyb queen idob principality ideb prince ideyb princess udob duchy udeb duke udeyb duchess yodob marquisate yodeb marquis yodeyb marquise yadob count yadeb count yadeyb countess yedob domain yedeb lord yedeyb lady, dominatrix yidob barony yideb baron yideyb baroness alodob tribe, chiefdom, clan alodeb chief, tribal chief, chieftain alodeyb chieftaine
Governments and Leaders
GOVERNMENT=dab LEADER=deb ditdab republic, democracy ditdeb president andab autocracy andeb autocrat anadab dictatorship anadeb dictator nasdab plutocracy nasdeb plutocrat yabdab aristocracy yabdeb aristocrat fyaatdab theocracy fyaatdeb theocrat abdab dominion, fiefdom abdeb overlord, feudal lord, master obdab protectorate, subject state obdeb protector, subjugator yibdab colony yibdeb colonial master
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION domem province, state domeam department, county, prefecture domeem sub-prefecture domeim canton domeum commune
The nas (Money) Family
- The stems of the words in this family all begin with n for merchandise. All the words have to do with money, business, trade, and merchandise.
MONEY NOUNS MONEY VERBS nas.... money
naz value, worth
nazer be worth
nes.... savings nexer save
nis.... income, revenue nixer earn
nus.... payment, outlay
nun.... merchandise nuneker deal
nunam(per) (or) nam(per) shop
nyan.... stack nyaxer stack nyeun.... stores nyexer stock
nyember box up
nyis.... order nyixer demand nyos.... waste nyoxer waste nyus.... delivery nyuxer supply
The dop (Military) Family
- The stems of the words in this family begin with d social and end in p mobile and have to do with the military and war.
MILITARY SOME DERIVATIONS dop military dopeb commander of the armed forces
dopnab military rank
dopyaf military power
dopekut combat soldier
dopektof battle attire
dopteud battle cry
dopdeuz battle hymn
dopnad battle line
dopepem battle station
dap air force dapeb air force commander
dapur fighter jet
dep ground force, army depeb army commander
depet enlisted soldier
dip navy dipeb navy commander
adipur aircraft carrier
diep marine diepeb marine commander
diepat marine soldier
dieput ambphibious warship
WEAPONS dopar weapon
doparier take up arms
tuyab adopar handgun, pistol
zyup adopar revolver
edopar rifle idopar shotgun udopar musket dopir artillery adopir cannon edopir bazooka idopir howitzer dopur machine gun dopyonar bayonet
depat soldier dipat ensign dapat airman diepat private adepat private adipat seaman recruit adapat airman basic adiepat private edepat private 2 edipat seaman apprentice edapat airman ediepat private 1st class idepat private first class idipat seaman idapat airman first class idiepat lance corporal udepat army specialist udipat petty officer 3rd class udapat senior airman udiepat corporal yodipat petty officer 2nd class yodapat staff sergeant yodiepat sergeant yadipat petty officer 3rd class yadapat technical sergeant yadiepat staff sergeant yedipat chief petty officer obyedapat master sergeant yediepat gunnery sergeant abyedapat master sergeant with diamond yidipat senior chief petty officer obyidapat senior master sergeant yidiepat master sergeant abyidapat senior master sergeant with diamond obyudipat master chief petty officer obyudapat chief master sergeant yudiepat first sergeant ebyudipat fleet master chief petty officer alodiepat master gunnery sergeant abyudipat master chief petty officer of the navy abyudapat chief master sergeant with diamond aladiepat sergeant major adeplat warrant officer adiplat ensign adaplat 2nd lieutenant adieplat warrant officer edeplat chief warrant officer 2 ediplat lieutenant junior grade edaplat 1st lieutenant edieplat chief warrant officer 2 ideplat chief warrant officer 3 idiplat lieutenant idaplat captain idieplat chief warrant officer 3 udeplat chief warrant officer 4 udiplat lieutenant commander udaplat major udieplat chief warrant officer 4 yodeplat chief warrant officer 5 yodiplat commander yodaplat lieutenant colonel yodieplat chief warrant officer 5 yadeplat second lieutenant yadiplat captain yadaplat colonel yadieplat second lieutenant yedeplat first lieutenant yedieplat first lieutenant yideplat captain yidiplat ensign yidieplat captain yudeplat major yudieplat major adeprat brigadier general adiprat rear admiral lower half adaprat brigadier general adieprat lieutenant general edeprat major general ediprat rear admiral upper half edaprat major general edieprat colonel ideprat lieutenant general idiprat vice admiral idaprat lieutenant general idieprat brigadier general udeprat 4 star general udiprat commandant udaprat general air force chief of staff udieprat major general yodeprat 5-star general yodiprat fleet admiral yodaprat general of the AF yodieprat lieutenant general yadieprat general
The ab (On), yab (Up) Family
The af (Permission), yaf (Ability) Family
efa....in need of
ofer.... be prohibited
The aga (Big), yaga (Long) Family
The aj (Past), taj (Birth) Family
tejber....bring to life
The ak- (Win), yak- (Expect) Family
tejok....loss of life
yokxeus...sudden noise, boom
The av (For), yav- (Innocent) Family
ovon....liability, handicap, disadvantage
The az- (Strong), yaz- (Convex) Family
aza strong eza moderate oza weak yaza convex yeza flush yoza concave
yaz protrusion, bulge, mound, swelling, convexity, contusion
- yaza convex, mounded, bulged, swollen
- yazser swell, bulge, stick out, protrude, rise
- yazsea protruding, sticking out, swelling, bulging
- yanyaz pile, stack, accumulation
- yanyazaxer stack up, pile up, accumulate
- yanyazaxwa stacked, piled, accumulated
- yanyaxaseye cumulative
- yanyazaxer stack up, pile up, accumulate
- yazser swell, bulge, stick out, protrude, rise
- yazan convexity
- yazmem mound, hill, highland, rise
- yazmemika hilly
- yazmemikan hilliness
- yazmemika hilly
- yayz bump, pimple
- yayzika bumpy
- yayzer go bump
- yayzmem knob
- yeznad parallel line
- yeznada parallel
- yeznader parallel
- yez ha kum bi along the side of
- yeza flush
yoz hollow, concavity, depression, valley
- yoza concave, sunked, depressed, hollow
- yozser sink, dip, cave in
- yozxer dip, sink, depress
- yozaxer hollow out, excavate, dig
- yozaxen excavation
- yozaxwa excavated
- yozan concavity, sunkenness, hollowness
- yozmem valley, hollow, dale
- melyoz cave
- melyozyena cavernous
- melyozper explore a cave
- melyozpen cave exploration
- melyozput cave explorer
- melyoztamut cave-dweller
- melyoztob caveman, troglodyte
- melyoztuz cave art::
- yobmelyoz cavern
- melyozag cavern
- melyoyz hole, hole in the ground, pit
- yagmelyoyz ditch, furrow, trench
- petmelyoz burrow
- mop tunnel
- petmop burrow
- petmoper burrow
- petmop burrow
- milyoz well, water well, oasis, waterhole
- yoyz hole, cavity, depression
- yoyzika full of holes, riddled
- yoyzber put a hole in, knock a hole in
- yoyzog nick, dent, cavity
- yoyzogber nick, dent
- yoyzogbwa nicked, dented
- yoyzogbun indentation
The fya- (Holy) Family
fyaa holy fyoa profane fyamir heaven fyomir hell fyaat god fyoat devil fyaet angel fyoet demon afyaet archangel afyoet archdemon fyait saint fyoit evil person fyaut priest fyax sacrament fyox sacrilege fyaz miracle fyoz witchcraft fyaxin religion fyaxam church fyadab church hierarchy fyadeb church elder, clergyman afyadeb pope efyadeb cardinal ifyadeb archbishop obifyadeb bishop ufyadeb parish priest obufydeb deacon fyad blessing fyod curse fyadil prayer fyaxel ritual, mass fyoxel occult
The fi- (Good), fyi- (Useful) Family
fider....praise fuder....malign fyia....useful
The ga (More), gla (Much), gra (Too Much), gwa (Most) Family
gla....much, many, very gle....some, rather glo....little, few, slightly gra....too much, too gre....enough gro....too little, not enough gwa....most gwe....just gwo....least
The gi- (Sharp), gyi- (Solid) Family
The if (Pleasure), yif (Courage) Family
The ig- (Fast), yig- (Hard) Family
iga....fast uga....slow igar....accelerator ugar....brake igper....run ugper....amble yiga....hard
The ij (Beginning), yij (Opening), tij (Awakening) Family
ujper....come to an end
ujber....bring to an end
vabij....seed (√vab plant)
tabij....embryo (√tab body)
patij....egg (√pat bird)
texij....concept (√text thought)
milij....spring (√mil water)
manij....glimmer (√man light)
majij....dawn (√maj morning)
mojij....dusk (√moj evening)
kyeuj....fate (√kye- random)
dinuj....denouement (√din story)
mepuj....deadend (√mep road)
jobuj....eternity (√job time)
yujper...come to a close
yujber...bring to a close
tijtepa....conscious (√tep mind)
tujber....put to sleep
The ik-- (Full), yik- (Difficult) Family
ilaker....take on water
The iv- (Happy), yiv- (Free) Family
ivseuz....sigh of relief
uvseuz....sigh of sorrow
The iz (Straight), yiz (Beyond) Family
izper....go straight, head for
izmep....straight shot, beeline
iznad...vector straight line
izeaxer....indicate, point out
tilabuz....tit ring, nipple ring
doparuz....bow, arch, bow-and-arrow
The ja (Before), jwa (Early) Family
jey....on and on, forth
joy....afterwards, then, next
ji huj....since then
ju hij....until now
jwea....ready, timely, ripe
jwepuer....arrive on time
jwoa....tardy, mature, stale
The ka- (Find), kya- (Change) Family
kyekaxer....discover, stumble on
keter....wonder, be curious about
kop....going into hiding
kopuer....sneak up to
kyes....event, happening, incident
kyenek....game of chance
kyeyanuper...happen to meet
kyoa....fixed, static, still
The ki- (Slant), kyi- (Heavy) Family
The va (Yes), vya- (True) Family
va....yes ve....maybe vo....no vaa....affirmative vea....possible voa....negative vay....indeed vey....possibly voy....not vyaa....true vyea....relative vyoa....false
- Factive adverbs:
FACTIVE ADVERB EXAMPLE vay indeed, really, do/does Yat vay tide et..... We really do understand you.
Vay upu gajod..... Do come again.
vey.... may, maybe, perhaps, might Vey mamilo..... It may rain. voy.... not Et voy se ata xeb..... You are not my boss.
- Factive Responses
FACTIVE RESPONSE EXAMPLE va.... yes Va, at tide..... Yes, I understand. ve.... maybe, perhaps Ve. At voy te..... Maybe, I don't know. vo.... no Vo. Et yofe beer has..... No. You can't have it.
- Correlative conjunctions:
CONJUNCTION EXAMPLE ay.... and Et ay at po hum.....You and I will go there. ey.... or Yat yake mamil ey mamyoym.....We expect rain or snow. oy.... but At po oy at voy beso glajob.....I will go but I won't stay long. ay/ey.... and/or Ha duzun yebio X ay/ey Y.....The concert will include X and/or Y. hyaewa...ay.... both...and Hyaewa et ay at voduda..... Both you and I answered no.
Hyaewati voduda..... Both answered no.
Hyeawa...ey.... either...or Hyeawa et ey at ako..... Either you or I will win.
Hyeawat ako..... Either will win.
Hyoewa...ey.... neither...nor Hyoewa et ey at ako..... Neither you nor I will win.
Hyoewat (bi ha ewati) ako..... Neither (of the two) will win.
- Some derivatives of va, ve, and vo:
- vader.... affirm, assent, say yes, approve, ratify, vouch
- vaduder.... answer yes, reply affirmatively
- vaa.... positive, affirmative
- vatin.... optimism
- vatexer.... think so, believe, trust
- vafer.... hope, anticipate
- valder.... assure, promise
- veder hesitate, say maybe, suppose, guess
- Vea.... possible
- vetin.... skepticism
- vetexer.... wonder, be skeptical, hedge
- vefer.... have qualms about, vacillate
- veduder.... equivocate, reply neither yes or no, answer maybe
- velder.... bet, wager
- voder.... deny, negate, veto, say no, decline
- voa.... negative
- vofer.... reject, despair
- votin.... pessimism
- votexer.... doubt, think not, disbelieve
- voduder.... answer no, reply negatively
- volder.... warn
The vi- (Beautiful), vyi- (Clean) Family
via....beautiful vua....ugly viya....pretty vuya....nasty vila....magnificent vira....marvelous vria....glamorous vifa....elegant vufa....vulgar vita....classy vuta....wretched vioga....cute viaga....sumptuous vyia....clean vyua....dirty vyida....clear vyuda....muddled vyina....pure vyuna....stained vyita....chaste vyuta....sleazy vyiya....neat vyuya....foul
Chart of Group 2 Core Morphemes
- Here is chart showing all the group 2 core morphemes in Mirad:
POSITIVE INTERMEDIATE NEGATIVE POSITIVE OPPOSITE ab on
ab- put on
ib away from
ba- lean b- put
bo- support bi from
bay with bey by boy without bya- stand bye- behave byo- hang byi starting with byu as far as yab up yeb in
yob down yib far yub near yap- rise yep- enter yop- descend yip- flee yup- approach pa- move p- go, pe- stay po- rest pi- depart pu- arrive pya- jump pye- hit pyo- fall pyi- originate pyu- reach ap- get on ep- go between op- get off ip- go away up- come af- permit ef- need of- prohibit if- love uf- hate f- want fi- good fu- bad fya- holy fyo- profane fyi- useful fyu- harmful yaf- can yef- must yof- cannot yif- dare yuf- fear ga more ge- equal go less gi- point gu- angle gwa- most gwe- just gwo- least gya- fat gyo- thin gyi- solid gyu- fragile gla- much gle- rather glo- few gra- too gre- enough gro- inadequate ag- big eg- normal og- small ig- fast ug- slow yag- long yog- short yig- hard yug- soft ja before je during jo after ji since ju until jwa early jwe on time jwo late aj past ej present oj future ij beginning uj end yij- open yuj- close ka- find ke- seek ko- hide ki- oblique ku- lateral kya- change kye- haphazard kyo- fixed kyi- heavy kyu- light ak- win ek- play, risk ok- lose ik- full uk- empty yak- expect yek- try yok- surprise yik- difficult yuk- easy va yes ve maybe vo no vi- beautiful vu- ugly vya- true vye- relative vyo- false vyi- clean vyu- dirty av for ev- neutral ov against iv- happy uv- sad yav- innocent yev- fair yov- guilty yiv- free yuv- captive yaz- convex yez flush with yoz- concave yiz beyond yuz around za front ze middle zo behind zi right zu left zya- wide zye through zyo- narrow zyi- flat zyu- round zay forward zey across zoy back az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak iz- straight uz- curved taj* birth tej* life toj* death tij*- awake tuj* sleep hav that hev whether hov lest hay hello hey hey hoy goodbye hiy voici huy voila hya- every hye- any hyo- no hyi- same hyu- other ya(n)* together yo(n)* apart a one e two o zero
lo- un-, de-
i three u four ya six ye seven yo five yi eight yu nine ay and ey or oy but
- *Technically, not part of Group 2, but presented here to show the parallelism,
Chart of Group 1 Scaled Core Morphemes
- These group 1 core morphemes are mostly hierarchical in nature with the zeroth element being at the top of the scale:
o zero a one e two i three u four yo five ya six ye seven yi eight yu nine ot one at I et you it he ut self yot they yat we yet you yit they yut selves dob state dab government deb leader dib administration dub minister dom city dam metropolis dem park dim fountain dot society dat friend det mate dit citizen dut sir fob vegetation fab tree feb treetop fib trunk fub branch fyob root fyab fruit job time jab year jeb season jib month jub day jwob hour jwab minute jweb second mor universe mar star mer planet mir world mur moon mos floor mas wall mes door mis window mus stairs nod point nad line ned plane nid volume nud column nof cloth naf material nef weave nif wire nuf button nyaf knot nyef bag nyif rope nog degree nag measure neg level nig space som furniture sam armoire sem table sim chair sum bed tob human tab body teb head tib trunk tub arm tyob leg tod family tad spouse ted father tid uncle tud brother-in-law tyod father-in-law tyad grandfather tyed relative tyid god-father tyud tutor tof clothing taf suit tef hat tif vest tuf sleeve tyof pants tov lingerie tav robe tev scarf tiv shirt tyov underpants tol nutrition tel eat til drink tul dish tyal meal tom building tam house tem hall tim room tum cell vob plant vab grass veb tuft vib stem vub blade vyob root vyab seed
Chart of Group 1 Semantically-scaled Core Morphemes
- These group 1 core morphemes have a central vowel that distinguishes them in a directional or some other semantic way:
bak health bek treatment bok illness bik care buk injury byek cure byok pain byuk torture daz dance dez theater diz comedy duz music dyez cinema sar instrument sir machine sur apparatus syir motor nas- money
nes- save nos- spend ni- consume
nyi- order nyu- ship daf card def paper dof cardboard dyaf notebook dyuf sheet
af- allow ef need of- prohibit if- love uf- hate yaf- can yef- must yof- cannot yif- dare yuf- fear da- speak de- declare
do- be silent di- ask du suggest,word dyed- read dyi- telephone dyu- name
sa- create se- build so- issue si- image su- thing syi- photo syu- object tax- remember tex- think
ax- act ex- operate ox- malfunction ix- effect ux- cause yex- work yox- idle yix- use,hire yux- help,serve xa- execute xe- practice xo- undergo xi- result xu- bring about xye- occupy xyi- wear out xyu- proceed
Chart of Geo-physically Scaled Core Morphemes
- These group 1 core morphemes have a vowel that indicates something about the position in the world or its geo-physical nature:
mol nature mal air mel soil mil water mul mineral mom outer space mam sky mem land mim sea mum underground mop galaxy map wind mep road mip river mup tunnel mob chasm meb mountain mub cave oma cold ama hot ima wet uma dry mog ash mag fire
mov smoke mav flame
muf stick moj night maj day mon dark man life pot animal
pyot wild animal
pat bird pet land animal
pilt crustacean pyeit amphibian
dop military dap air force dep army dip navy
Charts of Words Showing Mnemonic Parallelism
- The words in the following charts share some commonality, which is evident in their similar phonetics:
tob teb tib tub tyob tayob tayeb man head trunk arm leg skin hair fob feb fib fub fyob fayob fayeb tree treetop trunk branch root bark leaf vob veb vib vub vyob vayob vayeb plant tuft stem twig root peel bud patob patub patayeb egg wing feather pit piteb pitub patayeb fish fishhead fin scale dob deb dib dub state leader administration minister
teub teus teud seux xeus deuz seuz xeuz mouth voice shout sound noise song tone tune tayob fayob vayob tayof skin bark peel leather tub fub vub fuf muf tiibuf movuf gimuf manuf fauf arm branch twig pipe rod artery (smoking) pipe skewer candle log teab eye teater see teaxer look teaser seem teaper visit egteaper revisit teader witness teazer notice teatier perceive teatuer show beaxer watch neaxer aim vyateaxer examine vyabeaxer inspect vyaleaxer check izteader indicate izteatuer point out izteaxer focus abteaxer survey yagteaxer stare igteaxer glance egteaser reappear yozteatuer display, expose jateater foresee jateaxer preview yonteater distinguish oteaser disappear vyateatuer prove zyeteaxer peek zyoteaxer peer ugteaxer gaze yuzteaxer look around yubteaxer scrutinize kyoteaxer glare yogteaxer glimpse joteaxer review zoyteaxer look back zayteaxer look ahead ojteader warn tepteatier consider kuteaxer observe ejeatuer present ejeaser show up, appear utejeaser represent ajteaxer review ojteaxer expect, envisage yoveater suspect kiteaxer look askance yizteaxer look beyond zeyteaxer look across fyateater respect vyoteas illusion vyamteaser seem true koteaxer sneak a peek ziteaxer look right zuteaxer look left eyteaxer squint zyateaxer peruse, scan fateaber blink teabigyujer wink teabiler weep, tear up nas teb tuyub tilab tuyob tun tab teub sin teeb nas teib vos drer ten money head finger breast wrist science body mouth image ear money nose flower write knowledge noz tebuz tuyuz tilaz tuyoz tuz taz deuz siz teebuz naz teiz voz drez tez jewel crown ring broche bracelet art statue painting song earring value perfume color poetry culture
Geographic Proper Names
- As in English, Geograpic names are capitalized, including languages (cf. French, where languages are lower cased).
Continents and Their Inhabitants
PLACE ADJECTIVE INHABITANT Asyam Asia Asyama Asian Asyat Asian Zamera Amerikam North America Zamera Amerikama North American Zamera Amerikat North American Zomera Amerikam South America Zomera Amerikama South American Zomera Amerikat South American Afrikam Africa Afrikama African Afrikat African Antarktikam Antarctica Antarktika Antarctic Antarktikat Antarctic Australyam Australia Australyama Australian Australyama Australian
Directional and Other Specifiers in Geographic Names
- Many geographic names are preceded with directional or other specifiers:
SPECIFIER Zamera North(ern) Zomira South(ern) Zimera East(ern) Zumera West(ern) Zea Central, Middle Yeba Inner Oyeba Outer Ejna New Ajna Old Yuba Near Yiba Far
- For example:
- Zomera Afrikam South Africa
- Zea Amerikam Central America
- Oyeba Mongolyam Outer Mongolia
- Yiba Imir Far East
- Ejna Englam New England
Countries, Inhabitants, and Languages
COUNTR ADJECTIVE INHABITANT LANGUAGE Afganam Afghanistan Afgana / Afganama Afghani Afganat Afghan -- Afrikam Africa Afrika / Afrikama African Afrikat African -- Albanam Albania Albana / Albanama Albanian Albanat Albanian Albanad Albanian Algeryam Algeria Algerya / Algeryama Algerian Algeryat Alergian -- Amerikam America Amerika / Amerikama American Amerikat American -- Andoram Andorra Andora / Andorama Andorran Andorat Andoran -- Angolam Angola Angola / Angolama Angolan Angolat Angolan -- Anxwa Doebi (bi Amerikam) United States (of America) ADAma U.S. ADAt U.S.citizen -- Anxwa Edab United Kingdom Anxwa Edaba of the UK Anxwa Edabat UK national -- Arabam Arabia Araba / Arabama Arabian Arabat Arab Arabad Arabic Argentinam Argentina Argentina / Argentinama Argentin Argentinat Argentinian -- Awstralyam Australia Awstralya Australian Awstralyat Australian -- Awstriyam Austria Awstriya / Awstriyama Austrian Awstriyat Austrian -- Bahraynam Bahrain Bahrayna / Bahraynama Bahraini Bahraynat Bahraini -- Belgam Belgium Belga / Belgama Belgian Belgat Belgian -- Bolivyam Bolivia Bolivya / Bolivyama Bolivian Bolivyat Bolivian -- Botswanam Botswana Botswana / Botswanama Botswanian Botswanat Botswanian -- Brazilam Brazil Brazila / Brazilama Brazilian Brazilat Brazilian -- Bretanyam Britain Bretanya / Bretanyama British Bretanyat Brit -- Bruneyam Brunei Bruneya / Bruneyama Brunei Bruneyat Bruneian -- Bulgaryam Bulgaria Bulgarya / Bulgaryama Bulgarian Bulgaryat Bulagian Bulgaryad Bulgarian Burmam Burma Burmama Burmese Burmat Burmese Burmad Burmese Cadam Chad Cada / Cadama Chadean Cadat Chadean -- Cekyam Czech Republic Cekya / Cekyama Czech Cekyat Czech Cekyad Czech Cileam Chile Cilea / Cileama Chilean Cileat Chilean -- Cinam China Cina / Cinama Chinese Cinat Chinese Cinad Chinese Cipram Cyprus Cipra / Ciprama Cypriot Ciprat Cypriot -- Danyam Denmark Danya / Danyama Danish Danyat Dane Danyad Danish Domenikam Domenican Republic Domenika / Domenikama Domenican Domenikat Domenican -- Egiptam Egypt Egipta / Egiptama Egyptian Egiptat Egyptian -- Ekwadoram Equador Ekwadora / Ekwadorama Equadorean Ekwadorat Equadoran -- Englam England Engla / Englama English Englat Englishman Englad English Eritram Eritrea Eritra / Eritrama Eritrean Eritrat Eritrean Eritrad Eritrean Estyam Estonia Estya / Estyama Estonian Estyat Estonian Estyad Estonian Etyopyam Ethiopia Etyopya / Etyopyama Ethiopian Etyopyat Ethiopian Etyopyad Ethiopic, Amharic Europam Europe Europa / Europama European Europat European -- Filipinam Philippines Filipina / Filipinama Philippine 'Filipinat Filipino -- Fijyam Fiji Fijya / Fijyama Fijian Fijyat Fijian Fijiad Fijian Finyam Finland Finya / Finyama Finnish Finyat Finn Finyad Finnish Fransam France Fransa / Fransama French Fransat Frenchman Fransad French Germanyam Germany Germanya / Germanyama Germany Germanyat German Germanyad German Grinlandam Greenland Grinlanda / Grinlandama Greenlandian Grinlandat Greenlander -- Gwatemalam Guatemala Gwatemala / Gwatemalama Guatemalan Guatemalat Guatemalan -- Haitiyam Haiti Haitiya / Haitiyama Haitian Haitiyat Haitian Haitiyad Haitian Helenam Greece Helena / Helenama Greek Helenat Greek Helenad Greek Helvetam Switzerland Helveta / Helvetama Swiss Helvetat Swiss -- Hindam India Hinda / Hindama Indian Hindat Indian Hindad Hindu Holandam Netherlands Holanda / Holandama Dutch Holandat Dutchman Holandad Dutch Indonesyam Indonesia Indonesya / Indonesyama Indonesian Indonesyat Indonesian Indonesyad Indonesian Irakam Iraq Iraka / Irakama Iraqi Irakat Iraqi -- Irlandam Ireland Irlanda / Irlandama Irish Irlandat Irish Irlandad Irish Islandam Iceland Islanda / Islandama Icelandic Islandat Icelander Islandad Icelandic Israylam Israel Israyla / Israylama Israyli Israylat Israeli Israylad Italyam Italy Italya / Italyama Italian Italyat Italian Italyad Italian Ejna Zelandam New Zealand Ejna Zelanda New Zealandese Ejna Zelandat New Zealander -- Jordanam Jordan Jordana / Jordanama Jordan Jordanat Jordanese -- Kampucam Cambodia Kampuca / Kampucama Cambodian Kampucat Cambodian Kampucat Cambodian Kanadam Canada Kanadamama Canadian Kanadat Canadian -- Kartvelam Georgia Kartvela / Kartvelama Georgian Kartvelat Georgian Kartvelad Georgian Kataram Qatar Katara Qatari Katarat Qatari -- Kazakam Kazakstan Kazaka / Kazakama Kazakh Kazakat Kazazh Kazakad' Kazakh Kenyam Kenya Kenya / Kenyama Kenyan Kenyat Kenyan -- Kenyam Kenya Kenya / Kenyama Kenyan Kenyat Kenyan Kenyad Kenyan Kirgizam Kirghistan Kirgiza / Kirgizama Kirghiz Kirgizat Kirghiz Kirgizad Kirghiz Kolombyam Columbia Kolombya / Kolombyama Columbian Kolombyat Columbian -- Kroatyam Croatia Kroatya / Kroatyama Croatian Kroatyat Croat Kroatyad Croatian Kubam Cuba Kuba / Kubama Cuban Kubat Cuban Kuwaytam Kuwait Kuwayta / Kuwaytama Kuwaiti Kuwaytat Kuwaiti -- Laotam Laos Laota / Laotama Laotian Laotat Lao Laotad Lao Latyam Latvia Latya / Latyama Latvian Latyat Latvian Latyad Latvia Lebanam Lebanon Lebana / Lebanama Lebanese Lebanat Lebanese -- Libyam Libya Libya / Libyama Libyanese Libyat Libyanese -- Litwam Lithuania Litwa / Litwama Lithuanian Litwat Lithuanian Litwad Lithuanian Luksemburgam Luxemburg Lusemburga / Lusemburgama Luxemburg Luksemburgat Luxemburger -- Madagaskaram Madagascar Madagaskara / Madagaskarama Madagascaran Madagaskarat Madagascarn -- Magyaram Hungarian Magyara / Magyarama Hungarian Magyarat Hungarian Magyarad Hungarian Malayam Malaysia Malaya / Malayama Malay Malayat Malaysian Malayad Malay Maltam Malta Malta / Maltama Maltese Maltat Maltese Maltad Maltese Meksikam Mexico Meksikamama Mexican Meksikat Mexican -- Mongolyam Mongolia Mongolya / Mongolyama Mongolese Mongolyat Mongol Mongolyad Mongolian Morokam Morocco Moroka / Morokama Moroccan Morokat Moroccan -- Mozambikam Mozambique Mozambika / Mozambikama Mozambican Mozambikat Mozambicam -- Namibyam Namibia Namibya Namibian Namibyat Namibian Nepalam Nepal Nepala / Nepalama Nepalese 'Nepalat Nepalese Nepalad Nepalese Nigeryam Nigeria Nigerya / Nigeryama Nigeria Nigeryat Nigerian Nigeryad Nigerian Niponam Japan Nipona / Niponama Japanese Niponat Japanese Niponad Japanese Norvegam Norway Norvega / Norvegama Norwegian Norvegat Norwegian Norvegad Norwegian Omanam Oman Omana / Omanama Omani Omanat Omani -- Pakam Pakistan Paka / Pakama Pakistanian Pakat Pakistani -- Paragwayam Paraguay Pargwaya / Pargwayama Paraguayan 'Paragwyat Paraguayan -- Persam Iran Persa / Persama Iranian Persat Iranian Persad Persian Peruvyam Peru Peruvya / Peruvyama Peruvian Peruvyat Peruvian -- Polam Poland Pola / Polama Polish Polat Pole Polad Polish Portugalam Portugal Portugala / Portugalama Portuguese Portugalat Potuguese Portugalad Portuguese Pwertorikam Puerto Rico Pwertorika / Pwertorikama Puerto Rican Pwertorikat Puerto Rican -- Romanyam Romanian Romanya / Romanyama Romanian Romanyat Romanian Romanyad Romanian Rusam Russia Rusa / Rusama Russian Rusat Russian Rad Russian Rwandam Rwanda Rwanda / Rwandama Rwandan Rwandat Rwandan Rwandad Kinyarwanda Salvadoram San Salvador Salvadora / Salvadorama Salvadoran Salvadorat Salvadoran -- Sawdam Saudi Arabia Sawda / Sawdama Saudi Sawdat Saudi -- Senegalam Senegal Senegala / Senegalama Senegalese Senegalat Senegalese -- Serbyam Serbia Serbya / Serbyama Serbian Serbyat Serb Serbyad Serbian Singaporam Singapore Singapora / Singaporama Singaporean Singaporat Singaporean -- Skotam Scotland Skota / Skotama Scottish Skotat Scotlander Skotad Scottish Gaelic Slovakyam Slovakia Slovakya / Slovakyama Slovak Slovakyat Slovak Slovakyad Slovakian Slovenyam Slovenia Slovenya / Slovenyama Slovene Slovenyat Slovene Slovenyad Slovenian Somalyam Somalia Somalya / Somalyama Somali Somalyat Somali Somalyad Somali Spanyam Spain Spanya / Spanyama Spanish Spanyat Spaniard Spanyad Spanish 'Sudanam Sudan Sudana / Sudanama Sudanese Sudanat Sudanese Sudanad Sudanese Suryam Syria Surya / Suryama Syrian Suryat Syrian -- Swedam Sweden Sweda / Swedama Swedish Swedat Swede Swedad Swedish Tanzanam Tanzania Tanzana / Tanzanama Tanzanian Tanzanat Tanzanian Tanzanad Tanzanian Tayam Thailand Taya / Tayama Thai Tayat Thai Tayad Thai Taywanam Taiwan Taywana / Taywanama Taiwanese Taywanat Taiwanese Taiwanad Taiwanese Tibetam Tibet Tibeta / Tibetama Tibetan Tibetat Tibetan Tibetad Tibetan Tunisyam Tunisia 'Tunisya / Tunisyama Tunisian Tunisyat Tunisian -- Turkam Turkey Turka / Turkama Turkish Turkat Turk Turkad Turkish Ugandam Uganda Uganda / Ugandama Ugandan Ugandat Ugandan Ugandad Ugandan Ukraynam Ukraine Ukrayna / Ukraynama Ukraine Ukraynat Ukrainian Ukraynyad Ukrainian Urugwayam Uruguay Urugwaya / Urugwayama Urugyuayan Urugwayat Uruguayan -- Vatikam Vatican State Vatika / Vatikama Vatican Vatikat Vatican -- Venezwelam Venezuela Venezwela / Venezwelama Venezuelan Venezwelat Venezuelan -- Vyetnam Vietnam Vyetna / Vyetnama Viet Vyetnat Viet Vyetnad Vietnamese Yemenam Yemen Yemena / Yemenama Yemeni Yemanat Yemeni -- Welxam Wales Welxa / Welxama Welsh Welxat Welshman Welxad Welsh Zambyam Zambia Zambya / Zambyama Zambian Zambyat Zambian -- Zamera Amerikam North America Zamera Amerikama North American Zamera Amerikat North American -- Zamera Koream North Korea Zamera Korea / Zamera Koreana North Korean Zamera Koreat North Korean Koread Korean Zayram Zaire Zayra / Zayrama Zairian Zayrat Zairian -- Zea Amerikam Central America Zea Amerikama Central American Zea Amerikat Central American -- Zimbabwam Zimbabwe Zimbabwa / Zimbabwama Zimbabwean Zimbabwat Zimbabwean -- Zomera Afrikam South Africa Zomera Afrikama South African Zomera Afrikat South African -- Zomera Koream South Korea Zomera Korea / Omira Koreama South Korean Zomera Koreat South Korean Koread Korean
- Here are some languages not associated with any particular country name:
- Swahilad Swahili
- Romad Roma (Gypsy)
- Kurdad Kurdish
- Mirad Mirad (World Language)
- Umerad Martian
- Klingonad Klingon
- Esperantad Esperanto
- Arabad Arabic
- Visauna Arabad Classical Arabic
- Ejyena Egona Arabad Modern Standard Arabic, Fus'ha, MSA
- Hebrad Hebrew (but also: Israelad)
- Fyadyesa Hebrad Biblical Hebrew
- Ajyena Hebrad ancient Hebrew
- Visauna Hebrad Classical Hebrew
- Swahilad Swahili
- Romanxad Romansh
- Latinad Latin
- Visauna Latinad Classical Latin
- Vutyana Latinad Latin Vulgate, Vulgar Latin
- Fyaxela Latinad Liturgical Latin
- Sanskitad Sanskrit
- Angla-Saksad Anglo-Saxon
- Persad Persian
- Prusyad Prussian
- Keltad Celtic
- Romansad Romance
- Baltad Baltic
- Aajna Hinda-Europad Proto-Indo-European
- Aajna-Slavad Proto-Slavic
- Ajyena Helenad Ancient Greek
- Vyisina Helenad Katharevusa, Puristic Greek
- Yasauna Helenad Demotic, Vulgar Greek
- Ejyena Helenad Modern Greek
- A book in Swahili would be called Swahilada dyen.
- The Arab-speaking world would be expressed as either Arabada mir or, more specifically, Arabadalea mir.
- The language nouns ending in -ad can be made into verbs with -adaler to speak language X and -ader to say/pronounce in language X, as follows:
- Fransad French (language) → Fransadaler speak French
- Kinad Chinese → Kinadaler speak Chinese
- Anglad English → Anglader say in English, pronounce in English
- Duhev et Angladale? Do you speak English?
- Et Miradale fi. You speak Mirad well.
- Miradu has. Say it in Mirad.
- A speaker of Spanish would be Spanyadalut, or more simply, Spanyadut.
- Country adjectives that end in -ama can be reduced to -a, espcially in country pairings like these:
- Kanadama → Kanada-Fransa vyeni Canadian-French relations
Cities and Their Residents
- Here are some key cities, their adjectival forms, and inhabitants. The adjective can end in -a or -yena.
CITY ADJECTIVE INHABITANT Paris Paris Parisyena Parisian Parisat Parisian Nuyork New York Nuyorka of New York Nuyorkat New Yorker Roma (Dom)* Rome Romayena Roman Roma Domat Roman Beijing Beijing Beijinga of Beijing Beijingat resident of Beijing Berlin Berlin Berlina from Berlin Berlinat Berliner
- * Without Dom City, Roma could be confused with Roma of Romany, Gypsy.
- Berlina diti dyunwe Berlinati. Berlin citizens are called Berliners.
- Bostonati bayse Bostonyena deus. Bostonians have a Bostonian accent.
Scalar Metric Prefixes
- The following charts show scalar metric prefixes in the macro and micro range:
MACRO VALUE (US/UK NAME) MACRO PREFIX MICRO VALUE (US/UK NAME) MICRO PREFIX 1 (one) an- * mono-, uni- 1/1 (whole) ayn- holo-, uni- 2 (two) en- bi 1/2 (half) eyn- demi-, di- 3 (three) in- tri- 1/3 (third) iyn- terci-