Mirad Version 2

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Mirad ( aka Unilingua ) is an artificially-constructed auxiliary language (conlang) developed and published by Paris-based author Noubar Agopoff as a serious medium for easy and logical international communication. Mirad, which means world speech, is categorized by constructed language experts as philosophical because its vocabulary is mapped letter-by-letter to a semantic ontology or thesaurus. Also, the word stock of Mirad is considered a priori, that is, there is no deliberate association with words or roots in existing natural languages. The vocabulary is from scratch, yet based on internal lexical and semantic rules that help the learner to construct and deconstruct derivations logically, mnemonically, and consistently.

The author claims in his book Unilingua -- Langue universelle auxiliaire that this language is well-suited for universal, logical communication because it is based on principles already exploited globally by sciences like mathematics and chemistry where symbolic formulas are constructed in accordance with strict rules and a limited sequence of symbols understood by all practitioners.
Mirad is constructed on the following principles:
  • Every vowel has numeric, vectorial, scalar, or semantic value.
  • Every consonant is meaningful either lexically or grammatically.
  • Word derivation is systematic, consistent, analogical, and mnemonic.
  • Words are as ontologically unambiguous as possible.
  • Words are as short and as easy to pronounce as possible.
  • Inflection and derivation of words is regular and predictable.
This book contains Version 2 of the language with additions and modifications to the original. The principal changes are:
  • The letter w was added, mainly to indicate the passive voice of verbs.
  • The letter s was changed to sound like the s in English sun
  • The letter x was changed to sound like the sh in English show
  • The letter c was changed to sound like the ch in English chair
  • The letter h was added, mainly to create some new grammatical particles.
  • Grammatical cases were eliminated and replaced by prepositions.
  • The determiners like "this, that, such, which" were modified and systematized.
  • Some prepositions and conjunctions were changed or added.
  • A definite article was introduced.
  • Much new vocabulary was added and some words were altered.
  • The writing system now consists only of letters, with no diacritics.


Mirad uses the Roman alphabet as English does, except that the letters Q and C are only used in foreign borrowings or attempts to spell foreign words or names. There is an upper case (majuscules or capital letters) and a lower case (miniscules or small letters). The upper case letters are used for capitalization exactly as in English (see Orthography). Mirad, at least for non-foreign words, uses no diacritic marks such as the breve, the grave accent, or the diairesis. The order of the alphabet is the same as in English.
LOWERCASE a b c* d e f g h i j k l m n o p q* r s t u v w x y z
NAME a ba ca da e fe ge he i ji ki li mi ni o po ko ro so to u vu wu xu yu zu
* Not used in "native" Mirad words.
Spelling a word means uttering the names in succession of the letters in the word. For example:
  • Miradmi i ro a da
  • anxwaa ni xu wu a
The letters w and h have only limited, functional (non-semantic) values in Mirad.


The letters in Mirad are consonant phonemes or vowel phonemes and have only one basic pronunciation, although the letter y represents a special case. The y acts as a consonaant in terms of syllabification, but can also be used to form what are known as pre-iotated and post-iotated vowel diphthongs (see Vowel Diphthongs, below).


  • Simple Vowels
The vowels are pronounced as they are in many European Latin-based languages. The table below gives their phonetic values and some examples.

a a mano la ah!
e e hecho é day (without the y-glide)
i i si oui see (without the y-glide)
o o no eau so (without the w-glide)
u u tu vous too (without the w-glide)
* IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet
  • Vowel Diphthongs
Vowels in Mirad can be post-iotated with the consonant y to produce five vowel diphthongs. These diphthongs are pronounced as such only at the end of a word or before a syllable beginning with a consonant. For example, igay and eyna contain post-iotated vowel diphthongs, but maraya (ma-ra-ya) does not.
ay English I or Spanish hay
ey English day (with y-glide) or French abeille
iy English see (with y-glide) or French fille
oy English boy or Spanish hoy
uy English gooey or Spanish muy
Syllables starting with a y (ya, ye, etc.) form a set of what are known as pre-iotated vowels. Vowels, pre-iotated vowels, post-iotated vowels, and circum-iotated vowels (that is, those beginning and ending with a vowel like yay, yoy, etc.) are sometimes considered a class of vowels in the grammar of Mirad.


The consonants in Mirad are pronounced not altogether differently from their English counterparts, except for x, which is sounds like English sh in ship and j which resembles the zh sound in Zhivago or mirage. However, the so-called stops p, t, and k sound more closely like their European equivalents in that they are not aspirated, i.e. their is no puff of breath following them as in English.
The consonants q and c are not native to Mirad and are used only to represent foreign names and expressions. In that case, c is used for the English ch sound in China.
The consonant w was not used before Version 2 of Mirad. It is now used to form the passive voice of verbs and is pronounced as English w or the ou in French oui. The letter h is also used in certain function words and is pronounced like English h in house, or alternately as a glottal stop, as in Cockney bottle
Here is a table showing the pronunciation of Mirad consonants:
b English boy
c English child
d English dog
f English frog
g English good (always hard, even before e and i)
h English house (or a glottal stop or other similar sounds like German Bach
j French je or English mirage
k English kite (without aspiration) or French comment
l English love or French bel (never a dark l as in English bell.
m English mother
n English nobody
p English pan (without aspiration) or French pas
q (Only used in foreign words, where it has various pronunciations)
r a dental flap as in Spanish mira or Italian Roma
s Always hard as in English safe (never a z sound as in Rose)
t English top (without aspiration) or French tous
v English very
w English water or French oui
x English shape or French cher
y English yard (except when post-iotating a vowel to create a vowel diphthong)
z English zone


Every syllable in Mirad contains one and only one vowel. A y when final or followed by a consonant is used to post-iotate or diphthongize the previous vowel and is therefore considered part of the syllable in which that vowel is the nucleus (see case 2, below). Similarly, the glides r, l, and w, when final or followed by a consonant are considered to be a part of the syllable where the preceding vowel is the nucleus (see case 4, below). Two vowels in a row form two syllabic nuclei (see cases 3, 6, and 7, below). Two non-glide or non-y consonants, are split between them (see case 8). How syllables are divided is important for determining where the stress accent goes in a word (see Stress, below).
1 ama hot a-ma
2 ayma warm ay-ma
3 aymsea warming up aym-se-a
4 pyerxwa exploded pyer-xwa
5 upayo will have come u-pa-yo
6 vyaa true vya-a
7 vyaay truly vya-ay
8 vyay (not a word) vyay
9 tambwa settled tam-bwa


Syllables in Mirad are shaped according to the following Consonant-Vowel patterns:
V[y] o, ay
C[lrwy]V va, xwa, gyo, gla, gre
V[y]C iyt, ad
C[lrwy]V[y]C dud, glas, glays, dren, toyb, xwer
V[lr]C yalp, yarp
Two non-glide consonants cannot appear together in the same syllable, except in foreign-imported words.


Stress in Mirad is not marked and is not phonemic, i.e. not semantically distinctive. However, in all words of more than one syllable, the stress is applied to the last, non-final vowel. In this case, y is treated like a consonant, and so a word ending in ay is stressed on that syllable (since the a is non-final). The following chart gives some examples:
Mirad Word With Stress and Syllabification Marked
teja vital te-ja
igay quickly i-gay
Mirad Mirad Mi-rad
booka sick bo-o-ka
bookan sickness bo-o-kan
tejea alive te-je-a


Orthography has to do with the way words are spelled.


Words in Mirad are capitalized as in English. That is:
  • The first word of a sentence is capitalized.
  • Proper nouns, including names of places and persons, inhabitants of those places, and the languages spoken there, are capitalized. (This contasts with usage in most European languages.)
  • All the letters of an acronym are upper case.
The following chart illustrates this:
Mirad English
Amerikam America
Amerikama American
Amerikat an American
Amerikad American English
Ivan Ivan
Dropek ay Poos War and Peace
At Mirade. I speak Mirad.
Yadut be ad mir Mirado glojo. Everyone in the world will speak Mirad soon.
Yat tameya Boston. We were living in Boston.
Id se Fransa vafil. This is a French wine.
Ad Anxwa Doobi gey dyunwe ad AD. The United Nations is also called the UN.


Punctuation and the rules governing it are the same as in English.


In Mirad, all common (not proper) nouns, in their singular form, end in a consonant. Only nouns per se are discussed here, while other words having substantive properties such as pronouns, proforms, gerunds, nominalizations of other parts of speech, etc. will be discussed in later sections. Proper nouns, including names of people, geographic entities, companies, languages, and the like are capitalized and may uses letters that are not seen in Mirad common nouns, such as c and q.
* Plural nouns end in the vowel i, see Pluralization, below.


In Mirad, there is only a definite article, ad the; no indefinite article like a / an is expressed. A noun is considered indefinite or general unless modified by the definite article ad (which in reality is a definite deictic determiner, discussed with other deictic determiners in the later section on Deictic Determiners). The definite article ad is positioned, as in English, before the noun and before any other adjectives or modifiers of that noun. It does not vary for gender, number, or case as in German or Latin. The definite article acts like its counterpart in English, as shown in the following chart:
tam a house indefinite, no article
ad tam the house definite
ad tami the houses definite, plural
tej life general, no article
tej axwa fiay a life well-lived indefinite, no article
ad tej the life (...I lead) specific
Fransad French general, no article
Ivan Ivan person's name, no article
Iflu yivan! Cherish freedom abstraction, no article
Ad yivani ha yat ifie. The freedoms we enjoy. abstraction specified
Yata yivani... Our freedoms... abstraction specified with possessive pronoun, no article
Speakers of French and other European languages should take note that general concepts like love, life, freedom do not employ the definite article unless they refer to a specific instance, such as in the phrases the love that dareth not speak its name or the life well-lived or the freedoms we possess. The names of languages and countries are also considered general, and so as in English, they do not take a definite article as they might in some European languages. Names of persons do not take the definite article as they do in modern Greek, unless in a phrase like "the Ivan I once knew."
Proper nouns, such as names of people, places, languages, etc., are capitalized as in English. The formation of country names and languages will be discussed in a later section. It can be said here, though, that country names for the most part end in -am; the inhabitants of those places end in -at or pl. -ati; and the languages they speak end in -ad. Country names take an indefinite article only in a few cases like Ad Anxwa Doemi the United States. Otherwise, a country name like Fransa does not take a definite article, just as in English.


A singular noun is made plural by suffixing the vowel i. So, the plural of par car is pari cars. Any noun modifiers, such as the definite article ad, are left unchanged, because, in Mirad, there is no agreement in gender, number, or case between the noun and its modifiers as there is commonly in many European languages like French, German, and Italian. If a noun is preceded by a numeric adjective above one, it is pluralized.
ad tam the house ad tami the houses
pat (a) bird pati birds
ad fia toyb the good woman ad fia toybi the good women
fia tob (a) good man fia tobi good men
awa epet one horse ewa epeti two horses

Modifiers: Placement and Agreement[edit]

Nouns can be modified by various qualitative, quantitative, and deictic adjectives, which all precede the noun. These modifiers come in the same order as in English. There is no gender or number agreement between the modifiers and the noun. A complete discussion of prepositions can be found in the section Prepositions.
Mirad English
ad ewa aga tami the two big houses
gla ifa taxi many pleasant memories
yad fia tob every good man
ad yaga via mepi the long, beautiful roads
gra vua sexen too much ugly construction
ata aja tej My past life

Conjoining Nouns[edit]

Nouns can be conjoined by connective morphemes like ay and, ey or, oy but not, as well as with prepositions like av for, bay with, bu to, and bi from. Connectives and prepositions come before the noun and before all other noun modifiers. More information on these connective words can be found in the sections on Prepositions and Conjunctions.
Mirad English
Ivan ay Maria Ivan and Maria
ad tam ey ad par the house or the car
yaduti oy ad toybi all but the women
boy eta dyun without your name
bi id domep bu ud domep from this street to that street
ja ad ujna osexen before the final destruction

Associating and Compounding Nouns[edit]

Nouns can be linked in a genitive association with the preposition bi of, from or nouns can simply be compounded or juxtaposed, in which case the base noun is last. Examples:
tej bi nasuk a life of poverty association with bi of
ad tam bi Maria Mary's house association with bi of
job bi aga ivan a time of great joy association with bi of
dom yautpar a city bus association by juxtaposition
tojvaf a death wish compounding of toj death + vaf wish
dropek jaxeni war preparations association by juxtaposition
jogatanyaf youth league compounding of jogat youth + anyaf league
The X bi Y construction must always be used for possession by a named person. The two methods of genitive association follow the English pattern in all other cases. Pronominal possession such as his car is discussed in the section on personal pronouns. The preposition bi of is used in partitive expressions like tilzyeb bi vafil a glass of wine (but: vafil tilzeb wine glass).

Other, Non-genitive Associations[edit]

Other associations like a book on science, a meal for two, the bridge across the Seine are expressed with various prepositions, which are discussion in the section on Prepositions.
Details on how noun vocabulary is derived appears in the section on Word Formation.

Noun Derivational Suffixes[edit]

Here is a list of noun endings from which are derived other nouns or parts of speech:
-yan collective, grouping, -ary noun tob mantobyan mankind
mar starmaryan constellation
fab treefabyan forest
dyen bookdyenyan library
-ut, -uyt (f.) agent, one who Xes, -er, -ant verb stem beker treatbekuyt nurse
poper travelpoput traveler
aker winakut winner
-en present gerund, -ing, -tion, -ment verb stem ifier enjoyifien enjoyment
deuzer singdeuzen singing
axer actaxen action, acting
-ob, -oyb (f.) offspring, baby of noun tob human beingtoboyb baby girl
apet horseapetob foal
yopet goatyopetob kid
-an abstact quality, -ness, -hood, -ity adjective stem via beautifulvia beauty
yeva fairyevan fairness, equity
toba humantoban humanity, humanness, manhood
-(s)(u)n object, thing various stems vyua dirtyvyun spot
tamber settletambun settlement
gorfer shredgorfun scrap, shred
yod not a singleyodsun not a single thing
-(s)on abstract thing, issue various stems ifer to loveifon love
ov againstovon obstacle
aza strong → azon force
-in doctrine, dogma, -ism various stems tot godtotin religion, theism
otofa nudeotofin nudism
yulf terroryulfin terrorism
-tun science of, -ology noun tot godtottun theology
tob mantobtun anthropology
vob plantvobtun botany
-es small item, part noun tom buildingtomes apartment
saun kindsaunes sample
dreuz poemdeuzes stanza
mek dust, powdermekes speck, gain
-et sub-level version of (persons only) noun tad fathertadet son
tuyd aunttuydet niece
tyud tutor → tyudet pupil
-s thing, something, object, the X one adjective aa first → aas first one, first thing
otwa unknownotwas mystery
tejea livingtejeas living thing
-t person adjective ea second → eat second one, second person
faa holyfaat holy one, saint
ujna lastujat last one, last person
Amerika AmericanAmerikat an American
-d language, speech, sound adjective and other stems Angla EnglishAnglad English (language)
Mira of the worldMirad Mirad (world speech)
apet horseaped neigh, whinny
-(e)m place various stems od? what? → odem? where?
yex workyexem worksite
ab on, aboveabem top, surface
kua lateralkum side
-(a)m place, house, building various stems nun merchanise → nunam store
til drink → tilam bar, tavern
fadiler to prayfadilam church
-im room, chamber various stems fadiler to prayfadilim chapel
mageler to cookmagelim kitchen
tofaber to dresstofabim dressing room
-[aou]r instrument, device, machine usu. verb stem per to gopar car
drer to writedrar pencil
gorber to cutgorbar knife
yalber to liftyalbur elevator, lift
dop militarydopur machine gun
-ag big noun tam house → tamag mansion
tyal mealtyalag banquet
tilar spoontilarag ladle
-ayg big and cute noun tam housetamayg cozy mansion
epet dogepetayg wolfie
-yag big and ugly noun tud uncletudyag dirty old uncle
toyb womantoybyag hag
-og little noun tab body → tabog corpuscle
apet horseapetog pony
tyal mealtyalog snack
gorbun cutgorbunog cutlet
-oyg little and cute noun tam housetamoyg cottage
apayt chickenapaytoyg chickadee
mimpar boatmirparoyg dingy
-yog little and ugly noun tam housetamyog shack
epat duckepatyog ugly duckling
kod secretkodyog little dirty secret
-ig sudden noun and verb stem man lightmanig flash
pyex strokepyexig swat
yopaper diveyopapig swoop
-if love of, -philia noun tel foodtelif gourmandise
doab homelanddoabif patriotism
dyen bookdyenif bibliophilia, love of books
-uf hate of, -phobia noun mil water → miluf hydrophobia
totin religiontotinuf hatred of religion
toyb womantoybud misogyny
-yuf fear of, -phobia noun lopyet snakelopyetyuf fear of snakes
-yaf ability to, power, -ability verb stem teater to seeteatyaf ability to see
texer to thinktexyaf cognition
tider to understandtidyaf comprehension
noser to spendnosyaf spending power
-yof inability to, disability verb stem teater to seeteatyof blindness
teeter to hearteetyof deafness
paser to movepasyof paralysis
tujer to sleeptujyof insomnia
-yef compulsion to, mania verb stem vyoder to lievyodyef compulsion to lie
kobier to stealkobiyef kleptomania, compulsion to steal


Adjectives can be descriptive, denominal, quantitative, pronominal, determinant, and deverbal. Only descriptive and denominal adjectives are discussed here in the section on adjectives. Quantitative and determinant adjectives are considered to be determiners and are discussed under that heading. Deverbal adjectives, such as participals, are treated in the section on Verbs, since they are formed from verbs. Pronominal adjectives are treated under both the section on Determiners and the section on Pronouns. Quantitative adjectives are treated in the section on Determiners.

Descriptive Adjectives[edit]

Descriptive adjectives ascribe some quality to a noun and include such words as big, white, tough, tall. All descriptive adjectives end in the suffix a, such as aga big, oza weak, and yaba high.

Denominal Adjectives[edit]

Denominal adjectives refer to a noun, such as dooba national, i.e. relating to a nation, or taama domestic, i.e. relating to the home.
The only reason denominal adjectives are distinguished here from descriptive adjectives, is that denominal adjectives are derived from nouns and, while normally ending in the adjectival suffix a, can sometimes omit this suffix and stand before another noun as a noun modifier or even be compounded with the base noun, eg.:
  • doba xeut state agent can also be expressed as dobxeut. Dob means a state.
  • pata bok avian illness or patbok, literally bird illness.
taam home taama domestic
tej life teja vital
tob man toba human
pat bird pata avian

Adjective Word Order[edit]

Adjectives immediately precede the noun they modify. They can be serial, as in English.
  • ad aga tami the big houses
  • fia tej a good house
  • ad oga pat the little bird
  • yata teja yivani our vital freedoms

Comparison of Adjectives by Degree[edit]

As in English, adjectives can be modified by degree. To do this, a quantitative determiner of degree (ga, ge, etc.) is placed before the adjective, producing positive / negative comparative, equalitative, superlative, and other degree expressions as in the following table. The quantitative determiners used in these comparative expressions are discussed in detail in a later section on Quantitative Determiners.
ga more ga fia better
ge as, equally ge fia as good
go less go fia less good
gla very gla fia very good
gle rather gle fia rather/quite good
glo not very glo fia not very/slightly good
gra too gra fia too good
gre enough gre fia good enough
gro not enough gro fia insufficiently good
gwa most gwa fia best
gwe average gwe fia good on average
gwo least gwo fiay least well, the worst
The relative morpheme ev is used to translate English as in an equalitative comparison; than in a non-equalitative comparison; or of / in in a superlative expression. Examples:
  • Ata tam se ga aga ev etas. My house is bigger than yours.
  • Id tam voy se ge aga ev atas. This house is not as big as mine.
  • Id se ad gya aga tam bi yata yubem. This is the biggest house in our neighborhood.
Unlike in English, where comparative forms can be irregular (smaller, more intense, better), there are no exceptions in the comparison of Mirad adjectives and adverbs.

Abstract Quality Nouns Derived from Adjectives[edit]

Nouns referring to abstract qualities can be derived from qualitative adjectives by suffixing the letter n. For example:
fia good fian goodness
yeva just yevan justice
uja final ujan finality
joga young jogan youth
teyda maternal teydan motherhood, maternity

Reversing the Semantics of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be negated by the prefixation of the vowel o (or ol before adjectives that begin with a vowel). This has the effect of English un- in words like unlike, unhappy, and undetermined or the Greek private prefix a(n)- in words like asymmetric or anomalous.
Prefixing the syllable yo has an even stronger semantic effect. It denotes the polar opposite of the adjective.
Here are some examples:
ega normal olega abnormal
twa known otwa unknown
geyla similar ogeyla dissimilar
iva happy oliva unhappy
tatyena angelic otayena unangelic, yotatyena devilish

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

All qualitative adjectives end in at least the suffix a.
The suffix yena makes a noun into an adjective having the meaning like, -ish, -ly, having the qualities of, eg.:
  • tot godtota divinetotyena godly, godlike
  • tob mantoba humantobyena virile, manly, human-like
  • pot animalpota animalpotyena bestial, animal-like
The suffix aya or ika means full of like the English endings -ful, -ous, -y, eg.:
  • mil watermilaya or milika watery
  • meb mountainmebaya or mebika mountainous
  • mel soilmelaya or melika soily, dirty
  • tex thoughttexaya or texika thoughtful
The opposite of this suffix is oya or uka meaning empty of, -less, eg.:
  • mil watermiloya or miluka waterless
  • teb headteboya or tebuka headless
  • ivan joyivanoya or ivanuka joyless
The suffix ina adds the notion of given to thinking like or an -ism much like English -istic, eg.:
  • tob humantobin humanismtobina humanistic
  • kyeoj fatekyeojin fatalismkeyojina fatalistic
  • yautin communismyautina communistic
The suffix tuna adds the notion of pertaining to the study of like English -ological, eg.:
  • tob humantobtun anthropologytobtuna anthropological
  • vob planttobtun botanyvobtuna botanical
The suffix ea, which makes an present active participle from a verb stem, is like English -ant, -ent, -ing, eg.:
  • agser to growagsea growing as in the growing grass
  • oker to loseokea losing as in the losing team
  • kyaxer to mutatekyaxea mutant as in a mutant gene
The suffix (a)wa, which makes a past passive participle from a verb stem, is like English -ed, eg.:
  • oker to loseokwa lost as in the lost child
  • akler' to defeat aklawa defeated as in the defeated enemy
  • anxer to uniteanxwa united as in the United States
The suffix oa, which forms a future active participle from a verb stem, means apt to, liable to, eg.:
  • tojer to dietojo will dietojoa moribund, about to die
  • puer to arrivepuo will arrivepuoa about to arrive, next
The suffix ua (active) or uwa (passive), which forms a conditional (hypothetical) participle from a verb stem, means "liable to, able to, eg.:
  • tojber to killtojbu would killtojbua lethal
  • teler to eattelwu would be eatenteluwa edible
  • belker to curebelkwu would be curedbelkuwa curable
The suffix yea adds a sense like the present active participle, but a more repetitive or habitual one like the English suffix -ive, eg.:
  • toxer to forgettoxyea forgetful
  • ifer to loveifyea amiable, loving
  • daler to talkdalyea talkative

Pronominalization of Adjectives[edit]

Adjectives can be pronominalized by adding s for things and t for persons. These, in turn, can be pluralized by suffixing the plural marker i.
fia good fias a good thing, fiasi good things fiat a good person, fiati good persons
aga big agas something big, agasi big ones agat a big person, agati big persons
joga young, new jogas, something new, novelty, jogasi new ones yogat young person, youth, yogati youngsters
jaga old jagas antique, jagasi, old ones jagat elderly person, jagati oldsters
  • Id tyoyaf voy gre aga. At fu ga agas. This shoe is not big enough. I'd like a bigger one.
  • Yat fu daler bay ad gya jogati. We would like to speak with the youngest ones.
  • At fe teaxer ad jogas, voy ad jagas. I want to look at the new one, not the old one.
  • Ad ujnati so ad aati. The last shall be the first.


Adverbs can be derived from adjectives by replacing the adjective ending a with ay.
fia good fiay well
yeva fair yevay fairly
uja final ujay finally
joga new jogay newly
teyda maternal teyday maternally
At the end of sentences or clauses, common adverbs can be shortened by removing the ay ending:
  • Iyt deuze fi. She sings well.
  • At upo ig. I'll come quickly.

Inherent Adverbs[edit]

There are some words in the language that are inherently adverbs and do not take the ay ending, because they are not formed from adjectives. Here are a few examples:
  • yab up
  • yob down
  • voy not
  • vey perhaps
  • ib away
  • zoy back
  • yib far
The above words are considered adverbial because they can modify verbs. For example:
  • At teaxa yab. I looked up.
  • He et yedjob upo zoy? Will you ever come back.
  • Et po yib be tej. You will go far in life.

Word Order of Adverbs[edit]

The word order of adverbs is fairly free, as in English. But, to avoid ambiguity, the adverb should be placed immediately before or after the sentence element it modifies, eg.:
  • It deuze viay. He sings beautifully.
  • Et yefe xer ad gya ig. You must do it as quickly as possible.
  • Et yodjob ako firxa ivan. You will never gain perfect happiness.

Comparison of Adverbs by Degree[edit]

Adverbs can be compared just as adjectives with the use of quantitative determiners:
fiay well ga fiay ev better than (Lit: more good-ly than)
igay quickly ge igay ev as quickly as (Lit: equally quick-ly as)
ugay slowly gwa ugay as quickly as possible (Lit: most quickly)
yikay easily go yikay less easily


Determiners are words that specify or point out nouns. They include the following types:
Quantitative more, less, very
Numerical one, half, first
Deictic the, this, some, every, which?, when
Pronominal my, anybody's, one's own
Furthermore, as far part of speech, determiners can be adjectives, pronouns, or adverbs. As adjectives, determiners can itemize or classify. As pronouns, they can refer to one or more persons (male or female) or things. As adverbs, they can specify time, place, degree, kind, age, frequency, and so forth.

Quantitative Determiners[edit]

Quantitative determiners specify singular nouns for relative amount and plural nouns for relative number, and as adverbs, modify adjectives, verbs, and other adverbs answering the question to what degree?. Derived from these are pronouns for persons and things. The pronouns are formed by adding s for things and t for persons, plus the plural ending i, if the referent is plural. The following table presents most of these word forms:
(+ ...big)?
(+ ...quickly)?
How much...(+ stuff)?
How many...(+ ...things)
How much (of it)? How many (things)? How many (people)?
ga more ga more gas more gasi many gati many
ge as ge as much/many ges as much gesi as many geti as many people
go less go less / fewer gos less gosi fewer goti fewer (people)
gla very gla much, many, a lot of glas much glasi many glati many
gle rather gle quite a lot of gles quite a lot glesi quite a lot qleti quite a few
glo slightly glo little / few glos a little bit glosi a few gloti few
gra too gra too much / too many gras too much grasi too many grati too many (people)
gre enough gre enough gres enough gresi enough (things) greti enough (people)
gro insufficiently gro too little / too few gros too little grosi too few groti too few (people)
gwa most gwa the most gwas the most gwasi the most gwati most people
gwe so gwe so much / so many gwes so much gwesi so many (things) gweti so many (people)
gwo least gwo the least amount of / the least number of gwos the least gwosi the least (number of) gwoti the least number (of people)

Numerical Determiners[edit]

Numerical determiners are number words that modify nouns, such as one, fifty, a hundred. They are based on the cardinal numbers, which are explained here:

Cardinal Numbers[edit]

The cardinal numbers are words used in counting. These words are based on the vowels of Mirad and are crucial to any hierarchical ordering of lexical concepts.
  • The units are formed from the plain and pre-iotated vowels:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
The numerals 5-9 are pre-iotated versions of the vowels that constitute 0-4.
  • The formative letter l + o zero is used to form the decades, seen below:
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
By changing the o zero in lo to other cardinal unit numbers, the numbers between the decades can be generated as follows:
alo elo ilo ulo yolo yalo yelo yilo yulo
ala 11 ela 21 ila 31 ula 41 yola 51 yala 61 yela 71 yila 81 yula 91
ale 12 ele 22 ile 32 ule 42 yole 52 yale 62 yele 72 yile 82 yule 92
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
alyu 19 elyu 29 ilyu 39 ulyu 49 yolyu 59 yalyu 69 yelyu 79 yilyu 89 yulyu 99
  • By changing the decades marker l to s, you get the hundreds:
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900
aso eso iso uso yoso yaso yeso yiso yuso
ten twenty thirty forty fifty sixty seventy eighty ninety
All the numbers in between the hundreds, can be generated by modifying the so ending, for example:
  • asa 101
  • asale 112
  • usyulyu 199
  • The thousands are generated with the formative letter r:
  • The millions are generated with the formative letters ml:
  • The billions are generated with the formative letters mr;
The numbers composed with r, ml, and mr keep the o and are separated from the other numbers by a space.
iro asyulyo 3,195
yamlo asyulyo 6,000,195
alomro yelyomlo asyilyaro yusele 10,075,186,922

Cardinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Cardinal numerical determiners are numbers that modify a noun as to quantity. In a sequence of adjectives, the numerical determiner goes first. Cardinal numerical determiners are the same in form as cardinal numbers, but a special counter morpheme wa is added to monosyllabic numbers simply to aid in the comprehension and disambiguation of the words. If the numerical determiner is 2 or more, then the noun is pluralized.
Mirad English
owa tamsingular! no houses, zero houses
awa tamsingular! one house, a house
ewa tamiplural! two houses
iwa tami three houses
uwa tami four houses
yowa tami five houses
yawa tami six houses
yewa tami seven houses
yiwa tami eight houses
yuwa tami nine houses
alo tami ten houses
ase tami a hundred two houses
ero iwa tami two thousand three houses
iro alo tami three thousand ten houses
Cardinal numerical determiners can be pronominalized as things and persons by suffixing s or t, respectively. These can, in turn, be pluralized by suffixing i. Furthermore, person pronouns can be feminized with a y before the t. The s suffix is short for sun thing or suni things. The t ending is short for aut person or auti persons. For example:
  • Et bayse awa tam. At gey bayse awas (= awa sun). You have one house. I have one too.
  • At baysa alo dresari. Idjob at bayse anay alosi (= alo suni). I had ten pencils. Now I only have two.
  • Esa asoti (= aso auti) asoyez ad duzam.There were a hundred people in the concert hall.
  • Yat yefe kebier eluyti (= elu auyti) bi uduti. We must choose twenty-four females from those people.

Ordinal Numerical Determiners[edit]

Ordinal numerical determiners like first, second, etc. are formed from the cardinal numbers by adding the adjectival ending a to the cardinal number.
Cardinal Number Ordinal Numerical Determiner
o zero oa zeroth
a one aa first
e two ea second
i three ia third
alo ten aloa tenth
asu 104 asua 104th
The word nap order can be inserted in these words to make them more comprehensible in speech:
  • anapa first, first in order
  • alanapa eleventh, eleventh in order
Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted into adverbs by adding the suffix y to the adjectival counterparts:
Adjective Adverb
aa first aay firstly
anapa first anapay firstly
ea second eay secondly
Ordinal numerical determiners can be converted to animate pronouns (persons) with the suffix t and inanimate pronouns (things) with the suffix s. These, in turn, can be pluralized with the suffix i. The person pronouns can also be feminized.
  • ad aas the first thing
  • ad aat the first person
  • ad aati the first people
  • ad aayt the first female
  • ad eas the second thing
  • eat another / a second person
  • ad anapa jubi the first days
  • ad aati so ujna the first shall be last
Again, in the sequencing of stacked adjectival elements, the order is as in English, that is: <deictic or pronominal adjective> | <ordinal numerical determiner> | <cardinal numerical determiner> | <adjective>
  • ud uwa aga tami those four big houses
  • ada aa alo wa oga tami the first ten little houses
  • ata aa ewa oga tobobi my first two little children

Fractional Numerical Determiners[edit]

Fractional numerical determiners like half and quarter are formed by adding -yn for those functioning as nouns, -yna for adjectives, -ynay for adverbs, or -y(n) for prefixes, to the respective cardinal number.
o zero oyn void, vacuum oyna non-existant -- oy(n)- devoid of oynaxer anihilate
a one ayn whole ayna entirely aynay entirey ay(n)- holo-, whole-, all- aynaxer integrate
e two eyn half eyna half eynay halfway ey(n)- half-, semi-, hemi-, demi- eynaxer halve
i three iyn third iyna third iynay by a third iy(n)- terci- iynaxer cut in third
u four uyn quarter uyna quarter uynay quarterly uy(n)- quadri- uynaxer quarter
alo ten aloyn tenth aloyna tenth aloynay by a tenth aloy(n)- deci- aloynaxer decimate
aso hundred asoyn hundredth, percent asoyna hundredth asoynay by a hundredth asoy(n)- centi- asoynaxer cut by a hundred
Here are some examples:
  • Id uxo ad oynaxen bi yata mir. This will cause the anihilation of our world.
  • Ad ayna mir te ayv et. The whole world knows about you.
  • Ad se gas ev ad ayn bi ada goni. It is more than the whole of its parts.
  • Fransad se ayndruna dalyen. France is a holophrastic language.
  • Et yafe bier eyn. You can take half.
  • Yat yefo eynaxer eta yexnix. We will have to halve your salary.
  • Ud sa eynvyan. That was a half-truth.
  • Eso eynzyunida dropek. There is going to a hemispheric war.
  • He id se eynexea dopar? Is this a semi-automatic weapon?
  • Iynaxu ud ableyavol. Cut that pie in thirds.
  • It yeyfe bixwer ay iynaxwer. He should be drawn and (be) quartered.
  • Id nas se aloyn bi adha yat boysa zojab. This money is a tenth of what we had last year.
  • Ad dep aloynaxwu. The army would be decimated.
  • Ewa asoyni bi ad dityan bakasa. Two percent (=hundredths) of the citizenry got sick.
  • Id tom se anay asoyngla aga ev adyuda tom. This building is only a hundredth as big as that building.
The fractional adverbs can be used as in these examples:
  • Et so aynay dudyefa av eta axi. You will be wholly accountable for your actions.
  • Iyt eynay tikabeloka. She almost (=halfway) threw up.

Multiple Numerical Determiners[edit]

Multiple numerical determiners like double, triple can be formed by adding -on to the respective cardinal number if the number is monosyllabic, otherwise just -n. These noun forms can be adjectivized with the suffix -a. They can also serve as prefixes on animate nouns, inanimate nouns, and prefixes, as the following chart shows. The prefix ending, -n is often dropped.
o zero oon null oona nil on- zero- onaxer cancel, zero out
a one aon single aona single aonay singly an- uni-/mono- anaxer unify
e two eon twosome, double eona double eonay doubly en- di-/bi- enaxer double
i three ion threesome, triplet iona triple ionay triply in- tri-- inaxer triple
u four uon quartet uona quadruple uonay quadruply un- quadri-/tetra- unaxer quadruple
yo five yoon quintet yoona quintuple yoonay quintuply yoon- quinti-/penta- yoonaxer quintuple
alo ten alon decade alona decadic alonay by a multiple of ten alon- deca- alonaxer multiply by ten
aso hundred ason hundredfold asona hundredfold asonay by a hundredfold ason- hecato- asonaxer multiply by a hundred
The multiple dozen is expressed by aleon.
  • Aleoni bi pati yizpapa. Dozens of birds flew by.
By adding the suffix -at to the noun multiple, we get groupings of people:
  • aonat solo, single
  • aonatser become single
  • eonat duo, pair, twosome, couple
  • eonatser couple up, copulate
  • ionat trio, threesome, trinity
  • Ionatin Trinitarianism
  • uonat quartet, foursome
  • yoonat quintet, group of five people
  • aonatser become single
  • eonatser couple up, copulate

By adding the suffix -un instead of -on, we get the following:
  • aun unit
  • auna unitary, individual
  • aunser unite
  • aunyan series
  • aunyana serial
  • eun pair
  • euna even, paired, binary
  • oeuna odd, non-binary, uneven, unpaired
  • oeunat odd man out
  • eunaxer even out
Some examples where the above multiple determiners and derivatives are used:
  • Yat vyaptyoyapa be eonati yez ad mep. We marched in twos (= pairs) down the street.
  • Asonati upo bay yat bu id ovdal. Hundreds (of people) will come with us to this protest.
  • Id ivxel xwe enyabay. This celebration happens biennially.
  • Iyt se untubokat. She is a quadriplegic. (Lit: x 4+limb+loss+person)
  • Diwe sagu ad auni. Please count the units.
  • Et gafisa aronay! You have improved a thousandfold!
  • Tob se eontyoyaba sat. Man is a bipedal creature.
Note: Sometimes the multiple prefix ending in -on in the numbers below ten is shortened to -n in common words:
  • enzyus bicycle
  • enteuboba bilabial
  • ingun triangle
However: The prefix for multiple of five, i.e. penta-, is kept as yoon- so as to avoid confusion with yon- meaning apart, dis-.
  • yoongun pentagon
  • yontexer disagree

Frequentative Determiners[edit]

Frequency expressions use the term jod occasion, instance, time or its plural form jodi times. The word jod is should be differentiated from the term job, which means time (that passes) and is not countable as jod is.
Here is a chart showing the most common jodsag frequency expressions:
odgla* jodi? how often?, how many times?
adgla jodi the many times
edgla jodi sometimes, on some occasions
idgla jodi this often, this many times
udgla jodi that often, that many times, so many times
udyengla jodi so often, so many times
yodgla jodi never, on no occasion
yadgla jodi always, at all times
yedgla jodi any number of times, however often
yidgla jodi as often, the same number of times
yudgla jodi not as often, some other number of times
ga jodi more often
ge jodi as many times
go jodi less often
gla jodi many times, often
gle jodi quite a few times, quite often
glo jodi not so many times, seldom
gra jodi too often
gre jodi often enough
gro jodi too seldom
gya jodi as often as possible, most often, most times
gye jodi an average number of times
gyo jodi least often, as seldom as possible
odjod(i)? on which occasion(s)?, which time(s)?
adjod(i) at the point(s), on the occasion(s)
edjod(i) at some point(s), on some occasion(s)
idjod(i) on this occasion, on these occasions
udjod(i) on that occasion, on those occasions
udyenjod(i) on such an occasion, on such occasions
yodjod(i) on no occasion, never, at no time(s)
yadjod(i) at every occasion, always, on all occasions
yedjod(i) at any moment, at any time, at whatever times
yidjod on the same occasion
yudjod on another occasion
bi jod bu jod from time to time, occasionally
ewa jodi twice
iwa jodi three times
owa jodi at no time, never, zero times
alo wa jodi ten times
ge jodi ev et fu as often as you would like
* Other alternatives: Odsag jodi? (Lit: What number (of) times or Od jodsag? What time-number?).

Arithmetical Expressions[edit]

The following chart shows verbs from which are formed derivative words relating to mathematical operations:
gaber add gab addition gabwas addend gabeas adder gab plus, + gabsin plus sign gabix sum
galer multiply gal multiplication galwas multiplicand galeas multiplier gal times, x galsin times sign galix product
garer exponentiate, raise gar power galwas number being raised gareas exponent gar raised to the power of galsin exponent galix raising result
gober subtract gob subtraction gobwas subtrahend gobeas subtractor gob minus, - gobsin minus sign gobix difference
goler divide gol division, fraction golwas dividend goleas divisor gol divided by, ÷ golsin division sign golix quotient
gorer cut, uproot gor cut, root gorwas radicand goreas radical gor lower to the power of, √ gorsin radical gorix root lowering result
geler equal gel equation gelwas thing being equated geleas equator gel equal to, as, like gelsin equal sign gelix equation results
Examples of mathematical expressions:
  • E gab e gele u. Two plus two equals four.
  • E gal i gele ya. Two times three equals six.
  • I gar e gele yu. Three to the second power equals nine.
  • E gob e gele o. Two minus two equals zero.
  • Yu gol i gele i. Nine divided by three equals three.
  • Yu gor i gele i. Nine cubed equals three.
  • Aso gor e gele alo. One hundred squared equals ten.

Deictic Determiners[edit]

Deictic determiners are words which point out or specify other words. They include demonstratives like this, that, those, indefinite specifiers like any, some, all, the, etc. Derived from these are animate and inanimate pronouns like this one, those things, something, everyone, etc. Also derived from these are adverbs of time like when, now; adverbs of place like there, here, somewhere; adverbs of manner like how, thus, somehow; adverbs of kind, age, direction, reason, and so forth.

Adjectival Deictic Determiners[edit]

There are ten deictic base morphemes used to generate many determiners, including prefixes, adjectives, pronouns, and adverbs.
Here is a table showing these deictic determiners used as prefixes and adjectives:
what kind of?
the kind of
the one's
some, a certain
some kind of, a certain kind of
this, these
this kind of, such (a), like this, like these
this one's
that, those
that kind of, such (a), like that, like those
that one's
not, not a, not any
no kind of, no such
every, all
yad awa the only
yad ewa both
every kind of, all kinds of
any, whatever
yed awa either
any kind of, whatever kind of
the same
the same
the same kind of
the same one's
the other
the other
some other kind of
someone else's
Note: The definite deictic determiner adjective ad is used as what is more commonly referred to as the definite article the. As mentioned before, if the definite article or any other deictic morpheme is omitted before a noun, than it has the effect of the English indefinite article a / an with a singular noun or some with a plural noun.
This is called zero determination. For example:
  • Yat tilia ad tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyeb bi vafil. We drank a glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ad tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia tilyebi bi vafil. We drank (some) glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank one glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad awa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the one glass of wine.
  • Yat tilia ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the two glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia yad ewa tilyebi bi vafil. We drank both glasses of wine.
  • Yat tilia owa tilyeb bi vafil. We drank no/zero glasses (=not a single glass) of wine.
  • Yat tilia ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank another/a second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad ea tilyeb bi vafil. We drank the second glass of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank second glasses of wine., vs.
    • Yat tilia ad ea tilyebi bi vafil. We drank the second glasses of wine.

Pronominal Deictic Determiners[edit]

Here is a table showing deictic determiners used as pronouns:
what (things)?
which one?
which ones?
who? (pl.)
who, whom?
who (pl.)?
whose (thing)?
whose (things)?
it, the thing
they, them, the things
the one
the ones
the one
the ones
the person, he, him
the persons, they, them
whose? (thing)
whose? (things)
some (things)
a certain one
certain ones
a certain one
certain ones
some (people)
some people's
this one
this one
this person, he, him
these people, they, them
this person's, his
this person's (things), theirs
that one
that one
those people, they
that person, he, him
those people, they, them
that person's, his
that person's (things), his
not a one
not a one
no people
nobody's (things)
everything, all
all things
each one
all of them
each one
all of them
all (people)
everyone's (things)
anything, whatever
whatever one
any of them
whichever one
whichever ones
anybody's (things)
the same thing
the same things
the same one
the same ones
the same one
the same one
the same person
the same people
the same person's
the same person's (things)
something else
other things
the other one
the other ones
the other one
the others
someone else
someone else's
someone else's (things)
Other pronominal deictic determiners can be derived from adjectival determiners of kind and numeric determiners:
what kind of thing?
what kind of things?
what kind of person?
what kind of people?
what two things?
what two people?
DEFINITE adyenas
the kind of thing
the kind of things
the kind of person
the kind of people
the two things
adewati the two people
some kind of thing
some kind of things
some kind of person
some kind of people
some two people
some two things
PROXIMAL idyenas
this kind of thing
these kinds of things
this kind of person
these kinds of people
these two things
these two people
DISTAL udyenas
such a thing
such things
such a person
such people
those two things
those two people
NEGATIVE yodyenas
no such thing
no such things
no such person
no such people
neither thing
neither person
every kind of thing
all kinds of things
every kind of person
all kinds of people
both things
both people
any kind of thing
any kinds of things
any kind of person
any kinds of people
yedewasi any two things yedewati any two people
IDENTICAL yidyenas
the same kind of thing
the same kinds of things
the same kind of person
the same kinds of people
the same two things
the same two people
some other kind of thing
other kinds of things
some other kind of person
other kinds of people
the other two things
the other two people

Selective vs. Non-Selective Forms[edit]

The pronominal deictic interrogative determiner odut? means who and contrasts with its selective counterpart odat?, which means which one?. All the selective determiners refer to one or more things or persons from a selectable pool of things or persons.
The following sentences illustrate the use of the above pronominal determiners:
  • Odut aka zajuba ek? Who won yesterday's game?
  • Odat bi ad akuti sa ada gya fiat? Which one of the winners was the best?
  • Oduta deuzi et gaife? Whose songs do you prefer?
  • Odutasi et gaife? Whose do you prefer?
  • Odi se eta gaifuni? What are your preferences?
  • Od deuzi se eta gyafiasi? Which songs are your best?
  • Odasi se eta gyafiasi? Which ones are your best?
  • Bi id deuzuti, odat et gafie? Of these vocalists, which one do you prefer?
  • Odati se gya fia?' Which ones are best?
  • Oduti et teexe gya jodi? Who (all) do you listen to the most often?
  • Odatha** at teexe gya jodi draye ejna deuz. The one I listen to the most has written a new song.
  • Ejna deuz? At voy tide odasha** et tede. New song? I don't understand which one you mean.
  • Idas. This one.
  • Vo. Udasi se ga fia. No. Those are better.
  • Id se jub av ivxelen. This is a day for celebration.
  • Va. id jub. At tede idjub. Yes. This day. To-day.
  • Udi sa ad jubi, ata dat! Those were the days, my friend!
  • Od se eta dyun? What is your name?
  • Odut aka ad igpek? Who won the race?
  • Yad uja fi. Everything ended well.
  • Yod yoka at. Nothing surprised me.
  • Yodut ta odut ako. Nobody knew who would win.
  • Oduti fu pier yefe. Those who would like to leave may.
  • Yedut yefe eker id ifek. Anyone can play this game.
  • Udyen utbyen voy afwo. Such behavior will not be permitted.
  • Ud tob voy taxe id tob. That man does not remember this man.
  • Uduti yanyexe fi. Those guys work well together.
  • At jay teataye idyenasi. I've seen such things before.
  • Udyen toyb voy vabiwu. Such a woman would not be accepted.

Placement of Deictic Determiners[edit]

In a sequence of adjectives before a noun, deictic determiners go first, as in English. For example:
  • Oduta ewa oga nyefi se idi? Whose two small bags are these?
In interrogative sentences, the interrogative word often starts out the sentence, as in English.
  • Od se eta dyun? What is your name?
  • Odut et teata aay idjub? Who(m) did you see first today?
Interrogative deictic determiners ('question words can also go at the end of sentence:
  • Eta dyun se od? What is your name? Lit. Your name is what?

Distributive Deictic Determiners Incorporating Numerical Information[edit]

Sometimes, a deictic determiner specifies numerical information. This chart shows those forms:
yadawa each yadawas each one yadawat each person
yadewa both yadewasi both (things) yadewati both (people)
yadiwa all three yadiwasi all three (things) yadewati all three (people)
yodawa not a single yodawas not a single thing yodawat not a single person
yedawa either yedawas either one yedawat either one (person)
yedewa any two yedewasi any two things yedewat any two people
yedowa neither yedowas neither one yedowat neither person
The above person pronouns and be converted into possessive adjectives by adding the adjective suffix a, eg.:
  • Yadawata tej se ge glatedea ev yudutas. Each one's life is as important as another's.
The preposition bi of, from can be used in an alternative expression of the above sentence:
  • Ad tej bi yadawat se... The life of each person is...

Adverbial Deictic Determiners[edit]

This tables shows a correlated set of adverbial expressions built on the basic deictic determiners. This is not all-inclusive, because their are other similary-constructed expressions relating to age, frequency, and so forth.
how?, in what way?
how?, to what degree?
the way, how
the place, where
the time, when
as, to the degree
somehow, in some way
ednog somewhat aved
for some reason
this way, so
so, this, to this extent
for this reason, hence
DISTAL udyen
that way, thus
so, that, to that extent
for that reason, therefore, so
in nowise
not at all
for no reason
totally, in every way
for every reason
anywhere, wherever
however, to any degree
for whatever reason
at the same place
at the same time
as, to the same extent
for the same reason
some other time
not as
for some other reason
It should be noted that all of these deictic forms, unless used as nouns, such as in the sentence Iyt iyfe idem. She likes this place (or) She likes it here., are really abbreviations of longer expressions with mostly the preposition be at. For example, At tameya udem., meaning I used to live there. is ignoring the preposition be from the longer, more explicit version At tameya be udem., lit. I used to live at that-place. The proper preposition must be explicitly present if something other than be at. For example, from where? is expressed as bi odem? Similarly, until then would be expressed as ji udjob.
Note: idyen is an abbreviated form that can be used adjectivally to mean like this, such a (idyena), adverbally to mean in this way, so (idyenay), and as a pronoun to mean this way, this manner, such.
  • Xu idyen. Do (it) this way/so
  • Su idyen. Amen. (=Let it be this way/thus.)
Here are some examples of how adverbial deictic determiners are used:
  • Odem et tame? Where do you live? (Equivalent to Be odem et tame? (At) what place...?)
  • At tame udem. I live there.
  • Et tame odem ad mep uje. You live where the road ends.
  • Udem* yet peye? Where are you guys going?
  • Et yafe per yedem et fu. You can go anywhere.
  • Bi odem et se? Where are you from?
  • Odjob et taja? When were you born?
  • At voy tajaya udjob. I had not been born then.
  • Et pia adev. He left for some reason.
  • Odyen et iyfe id vafil? How do like this wine?
  • Voy se fia axer idyen. It is not good to act this way.
  • Avod et tadsa udnog jwa? Why did you marry so late?
  • Ad tob pia avyod. The man left for no reason.
  • Odyen it xa ud? How did he do that? (Equivalent to Be odyen...? In what way...?)
  • Odyen et se? How are you?
  • Odnog iyfla et se! How nice you are! (=Odgla..., Odyen(ay)...)
* Bu odem (to where, whither) is not required here, since the verb per go (to) has the to idea built in.

Quantitative Deictic Determiners[edit]

The deictic prefixes can be combined with gla to form quantitative expressions acting as adverbial or adjectival determiners, and substantives (pronouns referring to things or people):
INTERROGATIVE odgla? how?/how much?/how many? odglas? how much? odglasi? how many odglati? how many (people)?
DEFINITE adgla how?/as much/as many adglas as much adglasi as many adglati as many (people)
INDEFINITE edgla somewhat/some/some edglas some edglasi some edglati some (people)
PROXIMAL idgla this/this much/this many idglas this much idglasi this many idglati this many (people)
DISTAL udgla that/that much/that many/so udglas that much udglasi that many udglati that many/so many (people)
NEGATIVE yodgla not at all/no/no yodglas none of it yodglasi none of them yodglati none
DISTRIBUTIVE yadgla totally/all/all yadglas all of it yadglasi all of them yadglati all
INDISCRIMINATE yedgla however/any/any yedglas any of it yedglasi any of them yedglati any number of them
IDENTICAL yidgla as/as much/as many, equally yidglas the same amount yidglasi the same number yidglati as many (people)
ALTERNATIVE yudgla not as much/not as much/not as many yudglas a different amount yudglasi a different number of things yudglati a different number of people
Here are some examples showing how these quantitative determiners are used:
  • Et deuze udgla fi. You sing so well.
  • At se edgla booka. I am somewhat tired.
  • Odgla pati et teata idjub? How many birds did you see today?
  • At teata vyavay udgla tami. I saw exactly that many houses.
  • Iyt fe yidglas ev et. She wants the same amount as you.
  • Odglati yantexe yet? How many (people) agree with you?
  • Yodglati yantexe. None agree.
  • Yit fu edglasi. They would like some (of them).
NOTE: The following determiners or synonymous and are therefore interchangeable:
  • edgla = gle (somewhat)
  • yidgla = ge (as, equally)

Pronominal Determiners[edit]

For a discussion of pronominal determiners ( = possessive adjectives) like my, mine, yours, our own, etc., see Possessive Adjectives under Pronouns.


Pronouns are words that substitute for explicit nouns. For example, the pronoun I stands for the person standing at this place. The pronoun this stands for the thing or person nearest.
In Mirad, pronouns can be:
  • personal or deictic
  • ordinary or reflexive
  • animate or inanimate
  • specific or generic
  • ungendered or feminine

Basic Personal Pronouns[edit]

Basic personal pronouns in Mirad have three person-levels (first, second, third), two numbers (singular, plural), and two genders (ungendered, feminine), and two specificities (specific and generic). Pronouns do not have case forms like English he / him or she / her but they can be adjectivized to form what are known as possessive adjectives in English like his or my or possessive pronouns like hers or mine. Here is two charts showing the basic personal, split into ungendered and feminine.
FIRST PERSON at....I, me
ayt....I, me (female)
yat....we, us
yayt....we, us (females)
eyt....you (female)
yet....you, you all
yeyt....you (females)
iyt....she, her
yit....they, them
yiyt....they, them (females)
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ot....one yot....they, them
The third person generic pronouns ot and yot are of common gender and are used as English one and they, people (means unspecifed persons), as in the following examples:
  • Ot yefe xer ad yakwas. One must do what is expected.
  • Yot de ha et vyode yodjob. They/People say you never lie.
The person specific ungendered pronouns refer by default to males, but can serve as gender-neutral pronouns referring back to either males or females. If the vowel stem is iotated with a y, the pronoun then refers specifically to a female.
The first person plural pronoun ya(y)t can be either inclusive or exclusive, i.e. it can mean "you and I" or "you and the others."
There is no distinction of case in Mirad, so at can mean I or me. For example:
  • Xu at fibun. Do me a favor.
  • At so eta dat. I will be your friend.
  • Ho tojbu it. Don't kill him/her.
  • At ta ha iyt upo. I knew she would come.
  • Fadilu av yayt. Pray for us (women).
Note: The English pronoun it is inanimate (refers to a thing or abstraction) and is not included in the above set of animate personal pronouns. This inanimate pronoun is explained later.

Reflexive Personal Pronouns[edit]

Reflexive personal pronouns like English myself, yourself, etc. are formed by prefixing the reflexive determiner yid as follows:
Reflexive Singular Plural
First yidat myself yidyat ourselves
Second yidet yourself yidyet yourselves
Third Specific yidit himself
yidiyt herself
yidyit themselves
Third Generic yidot oneself
The reflexive pronoun yidot oneself can sometimes be prefixed to a verb to form a reflexive version of that verb, or it can be prefixed to other parts of speech to mean auto-, or self-, eg.:
  • tojber kill yidot-tojber commit suicide
  • vixer clean yidot-vixer wash up, clean oneself, self-clean
  • exer function yidot-exer function automatically, self-run
  • izber pilot yidot-izber auto-pilot, self-drive
  • exut operator yidot-exut automaton
  • deber ruleyidot-debea autocratic, self-ruling
  • tejdin biographyyidot-tejdin autobiography
  • fider praiseyidot-fider boast (= self-praise)

Emphatic Personal Pronouns[edit]

Emphatic personal pronouns can be formed by following the personal pronoun with the corresponding reflexive personal pronoun form yid....t, as follows:
First at yidat I, myself yat yidyat we, ourselves
Second et yidet you, yourself yet yidyet you, yourselves
Third Specific it yidit he, himself
iyt yidiyt she, herself
yit yidyit they, themselves

Reciprocal Personal Pronouns[edit]

The reciprocal pronoun one another, each other is translated with yidyudut, eg. Yat yefe ifer yidyudut. We must love one another. The yudut in that expression means another, other person.
This reciprocal pronoun can be converted to a possessive adjective by the suffixation of a, eg. yidyuduta one another's, as in Yat yefe fiyzaxer yidyuduta foni. We must respect one another's wishes.
Love for one another = yidyudutif.
Altruism = yudutin.

Possessive Adjectives[edit]

Possessive adjectives, which can also be referred to as pronominal determiners, are derived from basic and reflexive personal pronouns by adding the adjectival ending a to the basic or reflexive personal pronoun, as follows:
FIRST PERSON ata my yata our yidata my own yidyata our own
SECOND PERSON eta your yeta your yideta your own yidyeta your own
iyta her
yita their yidita his own
yidiyta her own
yidyita their own
THIRD PERSON GENERIC ota one's yota people's yidota one's own yidyota people's own
The above possessive adjectives an be substantivized as pronouns by adding the suffix s thing possessed, or si things possessed, as follows:
FIRST SINGULAR POSSESSOR atas mine, my thing atasi mine, my things yidatas my own, my own thing yidatasi my own, my own things
SECOND SINGULAR POSSESSOR etas yours etasi yours, your (things) yidetas your own yidetasi your own, your own things
iytas hers
itasi his (things)
iytasi her (things)
yiditas his own
yidiytas her own
yiditasi their own (things)
yidiytasi their own
THIRD SINGULAR GENERIC POSSESSOR otas one's otasi one's , one's things yidotas one's own yidotasi one's own (things)
FIRST PLURAL POSSESSOR yatas ours yatasi ours, our things yidyatas our own yidyatasi our own (things)
SECOND PLURAL POSSESSOR yetas yours yetasi yours, your things yidyetas your own yidyetasi your own (things)
THIRD PLURAL POSSESSOR yitas theirs yitasi theirs, their things yidyitas their own yidyitasi their own (things)

The Concrete vs. Abstract Inanimate Pronoun it[edit]

The pronoun it is a special case in Mirad. When it refers back to a previously-specified inanimate object or non-human subject such as book or dog, the definite deictic determiner ad is used, or sometimes id for this or ud for that, for example:
  • At eke bay ad epet avadha at iyfe ad. I play with the dog because I like it.
  • At eke bay id epet avadha at iyfe id. I play with this dog because I like it.
  • At eke bay ud epet avadha at iyfe ud. I play with that dog because I like it.
The possessive forms of ad, id, and ud are ada, ida, and uda, respectively. For example:
  • At iyfe ad epet ay at ife ada dyun. I like the dog and I love it's name.
  • At iyfe id epet ay at ife ida dyun. I like this dog and I love it's name.
  • At iyfe ud epet ay at ife uda dyun. I like that dog and I love it's name.
If the pronoun they/them is just a plural of it, then the pronouns adi, idi, or udi can be used.
  • Ad epeti se via ay at ife adi.' The dogs are beautiful and I love them.
  • Id epeti se via ay at ife idi.' These dogs are beautiful and I love them.
  • ud epeti se via ay at ife udi.' Those dogs are beautiful and I love them.
The possessive forms of adi, idi, and udi are adia, idia, and udua, respectively, for example:
  • ad epeti se via oy adia dyuni se otwa. The dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
  • id epeti se via oy idia dyuni se otwa. These dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
  • Ud epeti se via oy udia dyuni se otwa. Those dogs are beautiful, but their names are unknown.
If it introduces a non-previously-mentioned abstraction in English or has no antecedent, then the it is left unexpressed in the Mirad equivalent sentence. For example:
  • Mamilo. It will rain. ( = Will rain.)
  • Se fia ha et upa. It is good that you came. ( = Is good that you came.)
  • Sa via jub bay et. It was a beautiful day with you. ( = Was a beautiful day...)
  • Voy se yuka yarper id meb. It is not easy to climb this mountain. ( = Is not easy...)

Referring to Third Persons with Deictic Determiners[edit]

The definite, proximal, distal deictic determiners can be used for third person pronouns. These forms can be animate or inanimate, masculine or feminine, singular or plural, definite, proximal (near to the speaker) or distal (remote from the speaker). The general forms of these specifiers are given in a previous section, but they are elaborated here for their use as third person pronouns:
  Thing Things Person Persons
DEFINITE ad it, the thing
ada its
adi they/them, the things
adia their
adut he/him, the person
aduta his
aduyt she/her
aduti they/them, them, the persons
adutia their
aduyti they/them, the girls'
PROXIMAL id it, this
ida its, this thing'
idi they/them, these things
idia their
idut he/him, this person
iduta his
iduyta her
iduti they/them, these people
idutia their
iduytia their, these girl's
DISTAL ud it, that
uda it's, that thing'
udi they, them, those things
udia their
udut he/him,that person
uduta his
uduyta her
uduti they/them, those people
udutia their, those people's
uduytia their, those womens'
By changing -ut to -uyt (post-iotating), the above person pronouns can be made feminine. For example, iduyt she, her. These pronouns can also be converted to possessive adjectives by suffixing the adjective ending a, for example, uduyta her. Furthermore, the possessive adjectives can be substantivized by suffixing s (s.) or si' (pl.) , for example, iduytas theirs, these women's or iduytasi theirs, these women's (things).
Here are some examples using the above pronouns:
  • Uduyt voy se tadsa. She (that woman) is not married.
  • At yodjub teataye iduti. I have never seen them (these people).
  • Udutasi se ga aga ev atasi. Theirs are bigger than mine.
  • Odem et oka ad? Where did you hid it (the thing)?
  • Odyen et ijtya adut? How did you meet him (the person)?
  • At tyaye uduyt yagjob. I've known her (=that female) for a long time.
The above pronouns answer the questions od?' what?, odi? what things?, odut? who(m)?, or oduti? what things?, but there is another set of deictic selective pronouns that answer the questions odat? which one?, odayti? which ones (of the females mentioned)?, odas? which one/thing?, and odasi? which ones/things?:
DEFINITE adas the one adasi the ones adat the one adati the ones
PROXIMAL idas this one idasi these idat this one idati these
DISTAL udas that one udasi those udat that one udati those
Here are some examples using these deictic selective pronouns:
  • He et fu idas ey udas? Would you like this one or that one?
  • Uduyt se odayt. She (that female person) is the one.
  • At iyfe idasi ganog ev udasi. I like these more than those.

Relative Pronouns[edit]

Relatives pronouns like who, whom, which, what, whoever, whichever, whose are discussed under Mirad_Version_2#Relative Clauses.


Verbs in Mirad are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive (see Infinitives), such as bayser to have. The infinitive minus the er ending is the stem. The stem is used as the base for all other verbal instantiations. The infinitive as listed in the dictionary is usually active in voice, but occasionally a passive infinitive ending in -wer will be lexicalized because of it is somehow special, and the stem is the infinitive minus the wer ending. All Mirad verbs are conjugated in the same way and there are no exceptions.
This shows how the STEM is derived:
bayser to have bays-
xer to do x-
poser to stop pos-
xwer to happen (PASSIVE) x-

Verb Categories[edit]

Conjugated forms of verbs can be described with the following morphological categories:
  • STATES: finite, non-finite
  • TENSES: present, past, future
  • ASPECTS: simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional
  • VOICES: active, passive
  • MOODS: indicative, hypothetical
  • PERSONS: 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd singular, 1st plural, 2nd plural, 3rd plural
In effect, the PERSONS category does not affect the morphology of the verb form itself, because the verb form stays the same for all PERSONS.
In addition, lexically, verbs can be described as stative, transitive, intransitive, reflexive, inchoative, causative, dynamic, autonomous, directional, of motion, gestural, and various combinations of these, etc.. For example:
STATIVE ser be
REFLEXIVE yidot-vyixer wash up
INCHOATIVE tujaser fall asleep
CAUSATIVE tujaxer put to sleep
GESTURAL baseger shake
OF MOTION oper get off
DIRECTIONAL iper go away
DYNAMIC yijber (perform an action to make something) open
AUTONOMOUS yijer open (by itself)

Non-finite Forms[edit]

Non-finite verb forms are not conjugated for person, cannot form a predicate, and do not have a subject. There are three kinds of non-finite verb forms in Mirad:
  • INFINITIVES: the dictionary reference form of a verb, ending in er
  • GERUNDS: verbal nouns, ending in en
  • PARTICIPLES: verbal adjectives, ending in a


Verbs are listed in the dictionary under the present infinitive form, which always ends in er and means to X, or sometimes the present passive infinitive form, which ends in wer and means to be Xed. The part of the verb form minus this er or wer ending is the VERB STEM.
agas er agaser to grow
agax er agaxer to magnify
p er per to go
xw wer xwer to happen, be done
The infinitive in Mirad is used just as its counterpart in English. The infinitive can be marked for two tenses (present, past) and two voices (active, passive), as shown in the chart below, where the respective endings are underlined:

PRESENT agaxer to magnified agaxwer to be magnified
PAST agaxayer to have magnified agaxawer to have been magnified


The gerund is a verbal noun like English mating in mating rituals. It is formed by suffixing en to the verb stem for the active voice and wen for the passive voice (The consonant w is used in Mirad for indicating the passive voice).
agaxer to magnify agax- agaxen magnifying agaxwen being magnified
per to go p- pen going (no passive voice)
saxer to create, make sax- saxen creating, creation saxwen being created
Some examples:
  • Ad saxen bi id mar efxa amroni bi jabi. The formation of this star took millions of years.
  • Iyta deuzen sa gla via. Her singing was very beautiful.
  • Popen se yika yex. Traveling is hard work.
  • Teetwen fiay se glatesina av dezuti. Being heard well is important for actors.


Participles are verbal adjectives and can modify nouns. Since they act as adjectives, they have the adjectival ending -a. Participles can be present, past, future, or hypothetical. They can also be active or passive. Here is a table of participles:
PRESENT ACTIVE deuzer to sing deuz- -ea deuzea singing ad deuzea pat the singing bird
PRESENT PASSIVE ebdaler to discuss ebdal- -ewa ebdalewa being discussed ad ebdalewa dyen the book being discussed
PAST ACTIVE pier to depart pi- -aa piaa departed ad piaa topi the departed souls
PAST PASSIVE azyujber to lock azyujb- -(a)wa azyujbawa locked ad azyubawa (or: azyubwa) mes the locked door
FUTURE ACTIVE tajber to give birth tajb- -oa tajboa about to give birth ad tajboa toyb the woman about to give birth
FUTURE PASSIVE osexer to destroy osex- -owa osexowa about to be destroyed ad osexowa tam the house about to be destroyed
HYPOTHETICAL ACTIVE tojber to kill tojb- -ua tojbua apt to kill tojbua til a lethal potion
HYPOTHETICAL PASSIVE tiler to drink til- -uwa tiluwa drinkable tiluwa mil potable water
Adverbial participles can be made from the above adjectival participles, by suffixing the letter y. Examples:
  • Iyt yepa ad tim deuzeay. She entered the room singing.
  • Ujbaway ad dodal, it pia. The speech having been finished, he left.
Also, the above participles can be nominalized by suffixing n. Examples:
  • tiluwa drinkabletiluwan potability
  • tojbua lethaltojbuan lethality
  • piaa departedita piaan his having departed...
Furthermore, these participles can sometimes be pronominalized with s for things and t for peoples. These forms can, in turn, be pluralized:
  • xwa knownxwas what is known, a fact
  • xwa knownxwasi facts, information
  • oxwa unknownoxwas what is not known, a mystery
  • osexea destroyingosexeas a destroyer
  • tojbua lethaltojbuas something lethal, a lethal thing
  • tojboa moribundsomeone about to die, a fatal case
  • tejea livingtejeat a living person
  • tejea livingtejeasi living things
There is a special nominalized animate participle used for agent nouns (English one who does something, Xer), which refer to person who habitually does some action, perhaps as a profession or trade. These participles end in ut.
  • sexut builder
  • nuut supplier
  • tojbut killer
  • ifut lover
  • akuti winners
Note: There is a slight difference of meaning between the tensed participial pronoun ad akeat the one winning and the non-tensed agent noun ad akut the winner.

Finite Forms[edit]

In Mirad, finite verb forms are those that can take a person subject, serve as a predicate, and be conjugated. Finite verb forms are conjugated by using suffixes indicating, through their presence or absence, the following categories:
  • two MOODS (indicative and hypothetical)
  • three TENSES (present, past, future)
  • five ASPECTS (simple, progressive, perfect, imminent, conditional)
  • two VOICES (active, passive)
Person and number are not marked on the verb form itself. For example, am, is, are, which change according to the person suject in English, are all expressed with the same verb form in Mirad: se. Thus, at se I am, et se you are, it se he is, etc.


There are two moods in Mirad: indicative and hypothetical.
  • Indicative Mood
The indicative form of the verb indicates an action or state that occurs in actual time, such as he went, he is going, he will go.
The indicative mood has three tenses, present, past, and future indicated by the suffixes -e, -a, and -o, respectively.
  • Hypothetical Mood
Wheras the indicative verb forms expresses actuality in time, the hypothetical mood expresses one of the non-actuality situations below:
  • a command , i.e. the IMPERATIVE (Go!)
  • a wish or suggestion, i.e. the HORTATIVE or JUSSIVE (May the king live long!, Let's celebrate!)
  • an imagined if-condition, i.e. the SUBJUNCTIVE (If I were a rich man...)
  • an imagined then-situation, i.e. the CONDITIONAL (I would be happy.)


There are four aspects in the Mirad verb system.
  • the SIMPLE aspect (default), i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, non-imminent, and non-conditional.
  • the PROGRESSIVE aspect, i.e. an action or state on-going in the particular tense.
  • the PERFECT aspect, i.e. an action or state anterior or already completed.
  • the IMMINENT aspect, i.e. an action or state about to happen.
  • the CONDITIONAL aspect, i.e. an action supposed to happen.
  • The Simple Aspect (default)
Unless specifically marked, the default aspect is simple, i.e. non-progressive, non-perfect, and non-conditional.
Here is a chart showing the simple, active voice instantiations of two Mirad verbs (saxer to create and ser to be) with the endings underlined:
INDICATIVE PAST SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxa. I created At sa. I was
INDICATIVE FUTURE SIMPLE ACTIVE At saxo. I will create At so. I will be
Ha yat saxu! Let's create! [HORTATIVE]
Saxu ad! Create it! [IMPERATIVE]
Ha yadut saxu! May everyone create! [JUSSIVE]
At su. I would be
Ha ad su. Let it be.
Su fia! Be good!
Ha yadut su iva! May everyone be happy!
  • The Simple Indicative Present Tense
The simple indicative present tense instantiation is marked with the vowel suffix e and has a non-progressive (habitual) aspect as in English I work or I live. Progressive aspect forms like I am studying are explained later.
  • The Simple Indicative Past Tense
The simple past tense intantiation is marked with the vowel suffix a and has a non-progressive (punctual) meaning as in English I did something at some particular point in time.
  • The Simple Indicative Future Tense
The simple indicative future tense is marked with the vowel suffix 'o and has the same meaning as in English I will do something at some particular point in the future.
  • The Simple Hypothetical Atemporal
A verb form ending in u like pu has no time value and is used to express unreal actions or states, such as the imperative, hortative, jussive, conditional, or subjunctive.
Generally, if a verb form ending in u begins a sentence, then it is an IMPERATIVE (a command). For example, Ipu!, Go away!. If the verb form has a subject not preceded by the subordinating conjunctions ha, he, or ho, than it is probably a CONDITIONAL predicate like At fu per. I would like to go.. If the subject of the verb is preceded by he if, then it is a SUBJUNCTIVE (unreal conditional) clause as in He at su nasikat... If I were a rich man.. If the subject is preceded by ha that/let/may or ho don't, then it is a HORTATIVE wish like Ha et yagteju. May you live long. or a JUSSIVE suggestion like Ha yat fadilu. Let us pray..


Mirad has two voices, ACTIVE and PASSIVE.
  • Active Voice
The default voice is active, i.e. the subject of the verb is doing the action.
  • Passive Voice
A verb form is converted from active to passive by inserting a w just before the last vowel of the verb form. The past passive particle ending awa can be reduced to wa (done is xawa or xwa).
The following chart shows the distinction between active and passive voice of various verbs:
INFINITIVE xer to do xwer to be done Ese yod xwer. There is nothing to be done.
PRESENT PARTICIPAL sexea constructing sexewa being constructed Id se sexewa. This is under construction.
PRESENT xe does xwe is done Idyeni yodjob xwe. Such things are never done.
PAST PARTICIPAL xaa having done x(a)wa done Yad se xwa. Everything is done.
PAST tojba killed tojbwa was killed Odjob it tojbwa? When was he killed?
HYPOTHETICAL bakxu heal bakxwu be healed Lav it bakxwu. May he be healed.
Sometimes, the passive voice is used to represent a medio-passive or reflexive. For example, ujwer to open is used medio-passively in the expression Ad mes ujwa. The door opened., because there is no overt subject, as if the door opened itself. Many intransitive verbs cannot be made passive. For example, tajer to be born is intransitive (takes no object) and has no passive voice form. However, the verb tajber to bear, give birth can be passive, as in Ad tobob tajbwa zajub. The child was born yesterday.

Aspects Revisited[edit]

Mirad verbs have the following aspects:
  • SIMPLE -- this is the default aspect, shown above, i.e. NON-PROGRESSIVE, NON-PERFECT, NON-IMMINENT, and NON-POTENTIAL.
  • PROGRESSIVE -- this is an aspect where the verb describes an on-going action or state spread over time.
  • PERFECT -- this presents the action or state as anterior, or completed prior to another action or state.
  • IMMINENT -- this describes an action or state about to happen.
  • POTENTIAL -- this refers to an action or state where something is possible.

The Simple Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Simple aspect. In the active voice, the tense vowels a, e, o, and u are affixed to the stem. In the passive voice, the passive marker consonant w is inserted between the stem and the final tense vowels. The simple present tense refers to actions or states that are habitual (I regularly go to school.), regular (The earth revolves around the sun.), or permanent (Blue is a color.). The simple past refers to actions or states that occurred at a fixed point in time (I did my homework last night.). The simple future refers to actions or states that will occur at some particular point in the future (The sun will rise tomorrow at dawn.). The simple conditional refers to an imagined action or state that has not be realized (You would make a good president.).
SIMPLE PRESENT at xe I do Ad xwe it is done
SIMPLE PAST at xa I did Ad xwa it was done
SIMPLE FUTURE at xo I will do Ad xwo it will be done
SIMPLE CONDITIONAL at xu I would do Ad xwu it would be done

The Progressive Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Progressive aspect. The present tense vowel e followed by a buffer consonant, are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE at xeye I am doing Ad xewe it is being done
PAST PROGRESSIVE at xeya I was doing Ad xewa it was being done
FUTURE PROGRESSIVE at xeyo I am going to be doing Ad xewo it will be happening
CONDITIONAL PROGRESSIVE at xeyu I would be doing Ad xewu it would be happening

The Perfect Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Perfect aspect. The past tense vowel a following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT PERFECT at xaye I have done Ad xawe it has been done
PAST PERFECT at xaya I had done Ad xawa it had been done
FUTURE PERFECT at xayo I will have done Ad xawo it will have been done
CONDITIONAL PERFECT at xayu I would have done Ad xawu it would have been done

The Imminent Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Imminent aspect. The future tense vowel o following by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT IMMINENT at xoye I am going to do Ad xowe it is going to be done
PAST IMMINENT at xoya I was going to do Ad xowa it was going to be done
FUTURE IMMINENT at xoyo I will be about to do Ad xowo it will be about to be done
CONDITIONAL IMMINENt (not used) (not used)

The Potential Aspect[edit]

The following chart presents Mirad verbs in the Potential aspect. The hypothetical vowel u followed by a buffer consonant are inserted between the stem and the final tense vowel. The buffer consonant is y in the active voice, or w in the passive voice.
PRESENT POTENTIAL at xuye I am to do Ad xuwe it is to be done, it is doable
PAST POTENTIAL at xuya I was to do Ad xuwa it was to be done, it was doable
FUTURE PERFECT (not used) (not used)
CONDITIONAL PERFECT (not used) (not used)

Putting It All Together: The Mirad Verb Conjugation System[edit]

The following chart presents the totality of the Mirad verb conjugation system using the verb xer to do and its passive xwer to be done, happen:
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PRESENT xe does xwe is done, happens
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE PAST xa did xwa was done, happened
FINITE INDICATIVE SIMPLE FUTURE xo will do xwo will be done, will happen
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL SIMPLE ATEMPORAL xu would do, do! xwu would be done, would happen, be done!
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PRESENT xeye is doing xewe is being done, is happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE PAST xeya was doing xewa was doing, was happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PROGRESSIVE FUTURE xeyo will be doing xewo will be happening
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL PROGRESSIVE ATEMPORAL xeyu would be doing xewu would be happening
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PRESENT xaye has done xawe has been done, has happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT PAST xaya had done xawa had been done, had happened
FINITE INDICATIVE PERFECT FUTURE xayo will have done xawo will have been done, will have happened
FINITE HYPOTHETICAL PERFECT ATEMPORAL xayu would have done xawu would have been done, would have happened
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PRESENT xoye is about to do xowe is about to be done, is about to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE IMMINENT PAST xoya was to be done xowa was to be done, was to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PRESENT xuye is supposed to do xuwe is supposed to be done, is supposed to happen
FINITE INDICATIVE POTENTIAL PAST xuya was supposed to do xuwa was supposed to be done, was supposed to happen
INFINITIVE     PRESENT xer to do xwer to be done, to happen
INFINITIVE     PAST xaer to have done xawer to have been done, to have happend
PARTICIPLE     PRESENT xea doing xewa being done, happening
PARTICIPLE     PAST xaa having done xawa or xwa done, happened
GERUND     ATEMPORAL xen doing, deed xwen being done, happening, event

Predicate Types[edit]

Predicate types, i.e. illocutions, refer to whether the verb, predicate, clause, or sentence is expressed as a question (INTERROGATIVE), a declaration (DECLARATIVE), a negation (NEGATIVE), affirmation (AFFIRMATIVE), or combinations of these.

Making Predicates Interrogative[edit]

To make a declarative predicate or sentence into a question, simply begin it with the Yes/No Question Introducer (same as the conditional subordinate conjunction) He Whether...? or any other interrogative pronoun or adverb such as od? what?, odut? who?, or odem? where?. Since he can also mean if, then sometimes it is preceded with Du say, tell (me), so that Duhe becomes a command, tell (me) whether....
Et se tadsa. You are married. Duhe et se tadsa? Are you married? (Lit: Say whether you are...)
Ad mari se maya. The stars are bright. He ad mari se maya? Are the stars bright? (Lit: Whether the stars are bright?
It aka. Odut aka? Who won?
It pa edem. He went somewhere. Odem it pa? Where did he go?
Note that the question words introduce the sentence and do not alter the word order as seen in the declarative. Also, a declarative sentence can be made interrogative simply by adding a question mark at the end in writing or raising the voice inflection at the end in speaking, eg:
  • Et tame ad yubem? You live in the neighborhood?

Affirming/ Doubting / Negating Declarations[edit]

The following set of interjections and adverbs can be used to affirm, cast doubt on, or negate declarations:
AFFIRMATIVE va yes vay indeed, really Va. At vay yantexe Yes, I indeed/do agree.
DUBITATIVE ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may... Ve. At vey po. Maybe. I may/possible will go.
NEGATIVE vo no voy not Vo. At voy su iva. No. I would not be happy.

Mixing Them Up[edit]

The above interrogative words and the words of affirmation / doubt / negation can be used in various combinations, for example:
  • Duhe et se voy tadsa? Aren't you married? (Lit: say-whether you are not married?)
  • Avod iyt se voy tadsa? Why isn't she married?
  • Vey voy mamilo. It may not rain.
  • At vay voy tadso iyt. I certainly will not marry her.
  • Et peyo, va ey vo? You will go, yes or no?
  • Vo. Ud ve vay se vyoa. No. That may indeed be wrong.

Imperative and Hortative Expressions[edit]

An imperative expression is a command. In Mirad, a verb in the hypothetical without a subject is assumed to an imperative referring to you. For example:
  • Ipu! Go away!
  • Tiju! Wake up!
  • Su fiat! Be a good person!
Hortative expressions, i.e. urging or wishing expressions like Let's go. or May he win., use the hypothetical form of the verb with the clause introduced by the positive subordinating conjunction ha that, may, let. In Arabic and some other languages, this is called the jussive' mood.
  • Ha yat fadilu. Let's pray. (Lit: That we would pray.)
  • Ha et aku id ifek. May you win this game.
  • Ha ad edeb yagteju. Long live the king. (Lit. That the king would long-live.)
The negative version of imperative and hortative expressions is introduced with the negative subordinating conjunction ho don't, lest, let's not.
  • Ho dalu at udyen. Don't speak to me that way.
  • Ho yit oku. May they not lose.
  • Ho yat toxu it. Let's not forget him.

Subjunctive Clauses[edit]

The hypothetical mood is also used in subjunctive clauses. A subjunctive clause is one in which an action or state is desired, requested, required, or wanted in some other way by the actor in the main clause. Here are some examples:
  • Ad ideb dila ha at tyoibu za it. The king asked that I kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa ha et upu gwa ig. It is urgent that you come as soon as possible.
  • Dirwa ha yadut dolu. It was ordered that everyone be silent.
All of the above sentences can be rephrased with an infinitive in order to avoid the subjunctive:
  • 'Ad ideb dila at tyoiber za it. The king asked me to kneel before him.
  • Se igefwa av et uper gwa ig. It is urgent for you to come as soon as possible.
  • Yadut dirwa doler. Everyone was ordered to be silent.

Conditional Expressions[edit]

A conditional clause is introduced with the conditional subordinating conjunction he if, whether. The if-clause can be a real tense or a hypothetical. If the if-clause is hypothetical, the then-clause is also hypothetical. Here are the possible variations:
  • He et pio [SIMPLE FUTURE], at so [SIMPLE FUTURE] uva. If you leave, I will be sad.
  • At voy ta [SIMPLE PAST] he it upo. [SIMPLE FUTURE]. I didn't know whether he would come.
  • He ot yexe [SIMPLE PRESENT] gla, ot akxe [SIMPLE PRESENT]. If one works hard, one succeeds.
  • He at su [SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL] nasika, at nusbiu [SIMPLE HYPOTHETICAL] aga tam. If I were rich, I'd buy a new house.
  • He at tayu [PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL]. at dudayu [PERFECT HYPOTHETICAL] yudyen. If I had known, I would have responded differently.
Note: If He begins a sentence without a subordinate clause, then it is assumed to be a yes-or-no question marker meaning Is it true that...?, eg. He et yexirpat? Are you a retiree? (meaning: Is it true that you are a retiree?).

Relative Clauses[edit]

There are two ways of constructing relative clauses. The positive subordinating conjunction ha that can be used as an invariable introducer to the relative clause. Or, the first letter of that conjunction, h can be prepended to the appropriate pronoun or adverb to make it relative. Relative pronouns/adverbs with -ever are expressed with the indiscriminate deictic form in yed-. Here is a table of relative pronouns and adverbs:
THING ad ha
adi ha
yed ha
yedi ha
yad ha
what, that which
what, the things that
whatever (things) (that)
all that, everything that
PERSON adut ha
aduti ha
yedut ha
yeduti ha
yadut ha
who, one who
those who
anyone who

all who
PLACE adem ha
yedem ha
yadem ha
where, the place that
everywhere (that)
TIME adjob ha
yedjob ha
yadjob ha
when, the time that
every time (that)
MANNER/KIND adyen ha
yedyen ha
how, the manner in which, the kind that
however, whichever kind that
DEGREE adgla ... ha
adnog ... ha
so ... that, to the degree that
so ... that, to the extent that
QUANTITY adglas ha
adglasi ha
adglati ha
adgan ha
adsag ha
how much, the quantity that
how many, the number of things that
how many (people) (that), the number of people that

how much
how many
REASON avad ha havad because, for the (reason) that (cf. Fr. parce que)
Here are some examples of usage (method A and method B):
Method A:
At voy te... I don't know...
  • ...adut ha xa ad doyov. ...who (= the person that) committed the crime.
  • ...adut ha iyt tadsa. ...whom she married.
  • ...adut ha yit pa bay. ...with whom they went. (Lit. the person that they went with.)
  • ...ad ha et xa. ...what (= the thing that) you did.
  • ...ad ha ad nazun so. ...what the prize will be.
  • ...ad ha it xa ad doyov bay. ...with what he committed the crime (= the thing that he did the crime with).
  • ...adem ha ad doyov xwa. ...where (= the place that) the crime took place.
  • ...adjob ha it upo. ...when (= the time that) he will come.
  • ...adjob ha mamileye ji. ...since when it has been raining. (= the time that [it] is raining since.
  • ...adyen ha et xa ad. ...how (= the manner that) you did it.
  • ...avad ha et xa ud. ...why you did that. (= what you did that for)
  • ...aduta par ha se pexwa udem. (= the person's car that is parked there.)
  • Ad toyb ha teapa at tye et. The woman who visited me knows you.
  • Ad yexuti ha uvda loyixwa. The workers who complained were fired.
  • Ud tobot ha iyt tajba agsa ser bektut. That child (that/which) she bore grew up to be a doctor.
  • Ad dun ha tesinde gwa se idas. The word that means the most is this one.
  • At dyeaye yad dyeni ha udut dra. I have read all the books (that/which) he wrote.
  • Ad tam ha it oyebupa osexaye. The house he came out of (= he exited) has been demolished.
  • Oduti ha xa id tobtojben se otwas. Who (pl.) committed this homicide is a mystery.
  • He et te aduta til ha id se? Do you know whose drink (= the person's drink that) this is?
  • Ad tami ha at teapa se nisbuwa idjob. The houses which I visited are now sold.
  • Ad toybi ha yiyti ixi sa fia zaynogsa. The women whose results (= that their results) were good advanced.
  • Ad toybi ha at dala yantexa at ayv yad. The women to whom I spoke (= that I spoke [to]) agreed with me about everything.
  • Yedut ha te ad dud, dalu. Whoever knows the answer, speak up.
  • Et yafe bier yedglasi ha et fu. You can take however many you'd like.
  • At bayse yod texyen bi adglati ha upo. I have no idea (about) how many will come.
  • He et te adnog fiay ha iyt Fransade? Do you know how well (= the degree well [to] which) she speaks French?
  • At tadsa iyt avad ha at ifa iyt. I married her because I loved her.
  • Yad ha et xe se firxa. Everything (that) you do is perfect.
  • Yed ha xwo, xwo. What(ever) happens, will happen.
  • Hey yata ted, ha se be Famir,... Our father, who art in Heaven,...
Method B:
At voy te... I don't know...
  • ...hadut xa ad doyov. ...who (= the person that) committed the crime.
  • ...hadut iyt tadsa. ...whom she married.
  • ...hadut yit pa bay. ...with whom they went. (Lit. the person that they went with.)
  • ...ahd et xa. ...what (= the thing that) you did.
  • ...had ad nazun so. ...what the prize will be.
  • ...had it xa ad doyov bay. ...with what he committed the crime (= the thing that he did the crime with).
  • ...hadem ad doyov xwa. ...where (= the place that) the crime took place.
  • ...hadjob it upo. ...when (= the time that) he will come.
  • ...hadjob mamileye ji. ...since when it has been raining. (= the time that [it] is raining since.
  • ...hadyen et xa ad. ...how (= the manner that) you did it.
  • ...havad et xa ud. ...why you did that. (= what you did that for)
  • ...haduta par se pexwa udem. (= the person's car that is parked there.)
  • Had toyb teapa at tye et. The woman who visited me knows you.
  • Had yexuti uvda loyixwa. The workers who complained were fired.
  • Hud tobot iyt tajba agsa ser bektut. That child (that/which) she bore grew up to be a doctor.
  • Had dun tesinde gwa se idas. The word that means the most is this one.
  • At dyeaye hyad dyeni udut dra. I have read all the books (that/which) he wrote.
  • Had tam it oyebupa osexaye. The house he came out of (= he exited) has been demolished.
  • Haduti xa id tobtojben se otwas. Who (pl.) committed this homicide is a mystery.
  • He et te haduta til id se? Do you know whose drink (= the person's drink that) this is?
  • Had tami at teapa se nisbuwa idjob. The houses which I visited are now sold.
  • Had toybi yiyti ixi sa fia zaynogsa. The women whose results (= that their results) were good advanced.
  • Had toybi at dala yantexa at ayv yad. The women to whom I spoke (= that I spoke [to]) agreed with me about everything.
  • Hyedut te ad dud, dalu. Whoever knows the answer, speak up.
  • Et yafe bier hyedglasi et fu. You can take however many you'd like.
  • At bayse yod texyen bi hadglati upo. I have no idea (about) how many will come.
  • He et te hadnog fiay iyt Fransade? Do you know how well she speaks French?
  • At tadsa iyt havad at ifa iyt. I married her because I loved her.
  • Hyad et xe se firxa. Everything (that) you do is perfect.
  • Hed xwo, xwo. What(ever) happens, will happen.
In colloquial speech and writing, ha can be reduced to h',and pronounced accordingly, before words that begin with a vowel, included pre-iotated vowels (ya, ye, etc.). For example:
  • At ta h' et upo. I knew (that)* you'd come.
  • He et te ad h' at fu? Do you know what I'd like?
  • Yat yafe xer yed h' yet yafe xer. We can do anything you all can do.
  • BUT: Ad tam ha nisbuwa se ga oga ev atas. The house that was sold is smaller than mine.
* Note: The that subordinating conjunction can sometimes be omitted in English relative clauses, but not so in Mirad. The ha or h' must be present at all times.
If the relative clause is restrictive (i.e. it cannot be omitted without violating the meaning of the sentence), then no commas are used, but if it is non-restrictive (i.e. it provides new information that can be omitted), then it is surrounded by commas, just as in English.
  • RESTRICTIVE: Ad mar ha yata mer zyupe dyunie ad amar. The star that our planet goes around is called the sun.
  • NON-RESTRICTIVE: Ad amar, ha zyupe yata mer, se vay yod ga ev mar. The sun, which our planet goes around, is really nothing more than a star.

Indirect and Direct Discourse[edit]

As in English, Mirad has both indirect discourse and direct discourse. Indirect discourse is when you know or say that something happened, whereas direct discourse is when you directly quote what someone has said.

Indirect Discourse[edit]

The positive subordinating conjunction ha that is used to introduce a subordinate that clause. The tense in the subordinate clause is a true tense, not a relative tense. Unlike in English, the ha conjunction cannot be omitted, but it can be reduced to h' before a word beginning with a vowel or pre-iotated vowel.
  • At ta h' et upo. I knew that you would (Lit: will) come.
  • Ata ted da h' it yexe yad ita tej gel fufut. My father said that he had worked (Lit: he worked) all his life as a plumber.
  • Se vyaa h' at gra tele. It is true that I eat too much.
The conditional subordinating conjunction he if and the negative subordinating conjunction ho lest, don't, that...not are discussed in other sections.

Direct Discourse[edit]

Direct discourse works exactly as in English. Double quotes are used to surround the directly quoted part of the sentence.
  • Iyt da "At voy fe per." She said "I don't want to go."
  • At dida it "Odut sa eta ted?". I asked him, "Who was your father?"


Verbs can be transitive, intransitive, or reflexive. Verbs in the passive voice are by nature intransitive.

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[edit]

Transitive verbs can take a direct object and oppose themselves to intransitive verbs, which do not take a direct object. Some verbs are marked overtly for transitivity.
Verbs that end in xer (to do, -ify, -ize) are by nature transitive, and often have intransitive counterparts in ser (to be, become, -ify, -ize). Likewise, verbs ending in ber (to put, take) are transitive and have intransitive counterparts in per (to go). Here are some examples:
xer do ser be
agxer grow (something) agser grow (up)
amxer heat, make hot amser become hot, heat up
buxer push buser jump
per go ber put
aber put on aper get on
yaber raise yaper rise
poxer stop (something) poser (come to a) stop
yuber bring near yuper approach
yeber insert yeper enter
  • At agxe vobi. I grow [TRANSITIVE] plants.
  • Ad vobi agseye ig. The plants are growing [INTRANSITIVE] fast.
  • Poxu ad par! Stop [TRANSITIVE] the car!
  • Ad par posa. The car stopped [INTRANSITIVE].
  • At yaba ad mis. I raised [TRANSITIVE] the window.
  • Ad amar yapaye. The sun has risen [INTRANSITIVE].
Note the following verbs that have intransitive and transitive forms. The transitive forms end in -ber.
ijer open
The door opened.
ijber open
I opened the door.
ujer close
The door closed.
ujber close
I closed the door.
tojer die
The man died.
tojber kill
Who killed the man?
iker fill up
The tub filled up with water.
ikber fill
Fill it up, please.

Reflexive Verbs[edit]

Reflexive verbs, where the object refers back to the subject, work just as in English, where the object is a reflexive pronoun, eg.:
  • At tujboye atut. I am going to kill myself.
  • Tu etut! Know thyself!
  • It gorba itut bay gorbar. He cut himself with a knife.
  • Ot yefe yuxer otut. One must help oneself.
Sometimes, verbs incorporate the reflexivity in the actual verb form using ut as the prefix:
  • uttujber commit suicide
  • utboler support oneself
Sometimes, verbs are used reflexively in Mirad even though they are used simply intransitively in English, eg.:
  • Et efe vyimiler etut. You need to wash up [= wash yourself].

Omission of Prepositions After Certain Verbs[edit]

  • Some verbs inherently incorporate a preposition and so it is not necessary to use that assumed preposition before what would normally be an indirect object.
per go (to) Pu tam! (Not: Pu bu tam!) Go home., It pa Paris. He went to Paris.
der say (to), tell Du at eta dyun. Tell me your name., Du at ad. Tell it to me.
peser wait (for) Pesu at. Wait for me.
buer give (to) Buu at ud dyen. Give me that book.
As in English, in omitting the inherent preposition in a sentence with both a direct object and an indirect object, place the indirect object before the direct object. If the direct object comes first, then the preposition must be overtly specified before the indirect object, eg. Buu ad bu at. Give it to me.

Causative and Inchoative Verbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into causative and inchoative verbs. A causative verb has the sense to make something have some quality, while an inchoative verb means to become or take on the quality of something. Causative verbs are always transitive, while inchoative verbs are intransitive. English causative / inchoative verbs often end in -ify like magnify, or -ate, liberate, or ize, like sensitize.
To derive a causative verb from an adjective, add the suffix xer to do to either the stem or the whole adjective (with the a ending). Whether you do the former or the latter depends on several factors, but the end result is slightly different in nuance. A verb with adjective stem + xer is slightly more idiomatic or less literal than the adjective stem + axer, such as justify, condensate, etc..
  • aga bigagaxer to magnify, make bigger, agxer to grow
  • ana oneanaxer to unify, make one, anxer to unite
  • yona apartyonaxer to separate, yonxer to divorce
To derive an inchoative verb from an adjective, add the suffix ser to be to either the stem or the whole adjective.
  • aga bigagaser to get bigger, agser to grow
  • ana oneanaser to come together as one, unify, anser to unite
  • yona apartyonaser to separate, break apart, yonser to divide, divorce
Be careful to use the transitive, causative verb form when you have a direct object, and the intransitive, inchoative verb form when no direct objects are present or possible, eg.:
  • Ansu ey yet yonxwo. Unite or you will be divided. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • At yonsa adjob at sa eta jag. I got divorced when I was your age. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Idi agaxo od et teate. These will magnify what you see. [TRANSITIVE]
  • Id tobob agseye ig. This child is growing up fast. [INTRANSITIVE]
  • Ata tayd agxe vosi be oyebzom.' My wife grows flowers out back. [TRANSITIVE]
Causative and inchoative verbs can also be formed from nouns. The sense of the former is to make someone be something and of the latter, to become something.
  • yuglal pulp, mashyuglalxer to crush, mash, pulp, malt, mill [CAUSATIVE]
  • mog ashmogxer to incinerate [CAUSATIVE]
  • vos flower, bloomvosser to bloom, flourish [INCHOATIVE]
Verbal causatives like have/get my car washed, make/force him go, get one's hair cut are formed by suffixing the causative verb stem ux (active) or uxw (passive) to the stem of the verb signifying the action to be arranged or caused, eg.:
  • At gorbuxer ata tayeb zamaj. I will get my hair cut tomorrow.
  • Et voy yafe puxer at. You cannot make me go.
  • It tojbuxa yit. He had them killed.
  • At efe milabuxer at par. I need to have my car washed.
  • Et upuxwa idem edav. You were made to come here for some reason.
  • At bakambuxo et. I will have you hospitalized.
  • Et voy yafe deuzuxer at. You cannot make me sing.
  • At ivteuduxwa. I was made to laugh.
  • Eta deuz ivteuduxa yat. Your song tickled us. (= Made us laugh.)
  • Lav edut ivasuxu et. May someone get you to be happy.

Directional Verbs[edit]

The directionality of some verbs can be distinguished by the ending ier for an action or motion toward the speaker and uer for an action or motion away from the speaker toward some object, eg.:
bier to take buer to give
nusbier to buy nisbuer to sell
telier to eat teluer to feed
gonbier to participate gonbuer to share
tilier to drink tiluer to water, give to drink
teubier to swallow teubuer to spit out
teatier to observe, watch teatuer to show
taxier to memorize taxuer to remind
alier to breathe in aluer to breathe out, expire
ilier to absorb iluer to leak, soak
ifier to enjoy ifuer to please
dier to ask duer to suggest
dider to question duder to respond
tamier to take up residence tamuer to lodge
tier to study tuer to teach
pier to depart puer to arrive
nier to consume nuer to supply
kebier to choose kebuer to distribute
tujier to fall asleep tujuer to put to sleep
tojier to fall dead tojuer to kill
byier to originate byuer to target
mempier to take off mempuer to land
simbier to take a seat, sit simbuer to seat
xier to result xuer to cause

Prepositions and Directional Adverbs as Verbal Prefixes[edit]

Prepositions and directional adverbs can be prefixed to verbs in order to change their semantics. A preposition ending in b will assimilate to p before the verb per to go and a preposition ending in b will lose the b before a verb beginning with b. Here are some examples:
ab on aber apply aper get on, mount
ob off ober remove oper get of, dismount
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yob down yober take down yoper descend
yeb in yeber insert yeper enter
yeb in yepuxer throw in yepuser jump in
oyeb out oyeber expose oyeper exit
oyeb out oyepuxer eject oyepuser jump out
zyu around zyuber rotate zyuper revolve
zya throughout zyaber spread zyaper tour
yub near yuber bring near yuper approach
ov against ovber oppose ovper countervene
yan together yanber compose yanper meet
iz direct izber lead izper head
uz curved uzber divert uzper diverge
The prefix yeg- again is used like the English prefix re-, eg.:
  • ember to positionyegember to reposition, replace
  • der to sayyegder to repeat
  • sanxer to shape, formyegsanxer to reshape, reform
The prefix lo- reverses the semantics of a verb and is like English dis-, de-, or un-, eg.:
  • saxer to build, constructlosaxer to destroy, deconstruct
  • yonxer to uniteloyonxer to disunite
  • xer to doloxer to undo
The prefix vyo- is used as the counterpart to the English mis-, meaning wrongfully, eg.:
  • nadxer to alignvyonadxer to misalign
  • der to sayvyoder to misstate, lie
  • utbier to appropriatevyoutbier to misappropriate
The prefix yan- together is used as the English co-, eg.:
  • exer to operateyanexer to cooperate
  • tamer to dwellyantamer to cohabit
  • napber to put in orderyannapber to coordinate
The prefix zoy- is used as the English re(tro)-, meaning back, eg.:
  • teaper to visitzoyteaper to revisit
  • uper to comezoyuper to return, come back
  • buxer to pushzoybuxer to repel, push back
  • puxer to throwzoypuxer to reject, throw back, jettison
The prefix az- (from aza strong) is used as an intensifier, eg.:
  • yujber to closeazyujber to lock
  • der to sayazder to emphasize
  • duer to suggestazduer to urge
  • dizeuder to laughazdizeuder to guffaw

Modal Verbs[edit]

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs that are usually followed by the main verb in the infinitive or a subjunctive dependent clause and have to do with wanting, permitting, prohibiting, being able, being unable, needing, being obliged to do something, etc.

Principal Modal Auxiliary Verbs[edit]

Here is a chart showing the main modal auxiliary verbs in Mirad:
afer may
ayfer might
efer need ofer may not
oyfer might not
ifer love
iyfer like
fer want ufer hate
uyfer dislike
yafer can, be able
yayfer might, could
yefer must, have to
yeyfer ought, should
yofer cannot
yoyfer could not, might not
yifer dare   yufer be afraid
yiver have a right, be free   yuver be bound
If the modal verb is in the hypothetic aspect (conditional), then the sense is somewhat mitigated, as in these examples:
  • At fe per. I want to go.
  • At fu per. I would like to go.
  • Et yafe aker. You can win.
  • Et yafu aker. You could win.
  • Yet yefe iper. You must leave.
  • Yet yefu iper. You ought to leave.
Post-iotating the stem vowel of the modal verb also reduces the strength, for example:
  • At ife et. I love you.
  • At iyfe et. I like you.
  • Et yefe iper. You must leave.
  • Et yeyfe iper. You should leave.
  • Iyt yafe aker. She can win.
  • Iyt yayfe aker. She might win.
  • At ufa uda tuz. I hated that art.
  • At uyfa uda tuz. I disliked that art.
By the same token, adding the intensifying consonants l and r add strength to the model verb sense:
  • Ud toyb yufxa at. That woman scared me.
  • Ud toyb yulfxa at. That woman intimidated me.
  • Ud toyb yurfxa at. That woman terrorized me.
  • Id yex efwo. This work will be necessary.
  • Id yex elfwo. This work will be critical.
  • Id yex erfwo. This work will be indispensable.
  • Su yifa. Be brave.
  • Su yilfa. Be bold.
  • Su yirfa. Be heroic.
  • Et yuve buer nas. You are supposed to give money.
  • Et yulve buer nas. You are bound to give money.
  • Et yurve buer nas. You are absolutely compelled to give money.
Here are some examples showing how these modal verbs are used as auxiliaries:
  • Et afe yezper ay ifeker. You may go out and play.
  • Yat efa tujer. We needed to sleep.
  • Ot ofe mavier idem. One is prohibited to smoke here.
  • Mavier idem ofwe. Smoking here is prohibited.
  • At ife dyeer. I love to read.
  • He et fe yezuper? Do you want to come in?
  • At fu teaper et edjub. I would like to visit you some day.
  • It ufaye yadjob teaxwer. He has always hated being looked at.
  • He et iyfe per tilami? Do you like going to bars?
  • At uyfe tijer gra jwa. I dislike waking up too early.
  • Et yafe xer yedha et fu. You can do whatever you like.
  • Et yefer xer ad vyaas. You must do the right thing.
  • Et yeyfe voy daler udyen azay. You should not talk so loud.
  • At yeyfa ter ga fi. I should have known better.
  • At voy yifu der yed fuas. I would not dare say anything bad.
  • Ho yufu der odha et tede. Don't be afraid to say what you mean.
  • Et yive dier yevanavdut. You have a right to ask for a lawyer.
  • Yat voy yuve kyoejer. We are not bound to stick around.

Subject-oriented vs. Patient-oriented Modal Verb Forms[edit]

All of these modal verbs can be passive, in which case they are "patient-oriented" rather than "subject-oriented", eg:
afer may afa allowed afwer be permitted afwa permissable
efer need efa needful efwer be necessary efwa necessary, required
ofer be unallowed ofa prohibited ofwer be prohibited ofwa banned
yafer be able yafa able yafwer be possible yafwa possible
yefer must yefa obliged yefwer be obligatory yefwa obligatory
yofer be unable yofa unable yofwer be impossible yefwa impossible
fer want fa willing fwer be desirable fwa desirable, wanted
yifer dare yofa daring, brave yifwer be safe yifwa safe
yufer be afraid yifa afraid yufwer be a danger yufwa frightning
  • Afwe (= se afwa) mavier idem. It is permissible to smoke here.
  • Ofwe (= se ofwa) puxer ofwasi idem. It is prohibited to throw litter here.
  • Fwe (= se fwa) lav yet dolu. It is desired that you stop talking.
  • Voy yafwe beser idem gajob. It is not possible to remain here any longer.
  • Yofwa av at ivteuder. It was not possible for me to laugh.
  • Yefwe lav et piu ig. It is essential that you leave quickly.
  • He yeyfwe ober ata tyoyafi? Is it obligatory to remove my shoes?
  • Ga yux efwo. More help will be needed.

Deriving Causatives from Modal Stems[edit]

Various causative verbs can be formed from modal stems, as shown in the chart below:
afxer allow (someone to do sthg.) afwaxer permit (something to be done)
efxer require efwaxer necessitate
ofxer prohibit ofwaxer prohibit
yafxer enable yafwaxer make possible
yefxer oblige yefwaxer make obligatory
yofxer cripple yofwaxer disable
yifxer embolden yifwaxer make safe
yufxer intimidate yufwaxer make frightening
ifxer please ifwaxer make pleasant

Creating Modal Verbs and Adjectives with Modal Stem Suffixes[edit]

Verb stems can be suffixed with modal participles to produce related modal verbs and adjectives. The first chart shows the modal participles themselves that can be suffixed to verb stems. Subject-oriented forms refer only to people, while patient-oriented forms (ending in -wa) refer only to things.
SUBJECT-ORIENTED yafa able to yofa unable to
PATIENT-ORIENTED yafwa possible to yofwa impossible to
SUBJECT-ORIENTED ifa fond of ufa averse to
SUBJECT-ORIENTED yika having difficulty Xing yuka having ease Xing
PATIENT-ORIENTED yikwa hard to yukwa easy to
PATIENT-ORIENTED efwa necessary to be Xed
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teatyafa able to see, sighted teatyafer be able to see teatyofa blind teatyofer be blind
PATIENT-ORIENTED teatyafwa visible teatyafwer be visible teatyofwa invisible teatyofwer be invisible
SUBJECT-ORIENTED teetyafa able to hear, hearing teetyafer be able to hear teetyofa deaf teatyofer be deaf
PATIENT-ORIENTED teetyafwa audible teetyafwer be audible teeyofwa inaudible teeyofwer be inaudiable
SUBJECT-ORIENTED dalyafa able to speak dalyafer be able to speak dalyofa mute, dumb dalyofer be mute, dumb
SUBJECT-ORIENTED doabifa patriotic doabifer be patriotic toabufa rebellious toabufer rebel
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tosyafa sensitive tosyafer be able to feel tosyofa insensitive tosyofer be numbed
PATIENT-ORIENTED tosyafwa palpable tosyafwer be palpable tosyofwa numb tosyofwer be impalbable, numb
PATIENT-ORIENTED tidyukwa easy to understand tidyukwaxer make easily understood tidyikwa hard to understand tidyikwaxer make hard to understand
SUBJECT-ORIENTED tilefa thirsty tilefer be thirsty
SUBJECT-ORIENTED telefa hungry telefer be hungry
PATIENT-ORIENTED xefwa necessary to be done xefwer to be necessary to be done

Sensing Verbs[edit]

Verbs involving the senses, such as sight or hearing, follow a similar pattern:
teab eye teeb ear teib nose teub mouth tayob skin
RECEPTIVE/ACTIVE teater see teeter hear teiter smell 'teuter taste tayoter feel
RECEPTIVE/PASSIVE teatwer be seen teetwer be heard teitwer be smelled teutwer be tasted tayotwer be felt
STATIVE teaser seem teeser sound teiser smell teuser taste tayoser feel
(or) toser
DYNAMIC/ACTIVE teaxer look at teexer listen teixer sniff teuxer taste tayoxer touch
(or) toxer
DYNAMIC/PASSIVE teaxwer be looked at teexwer be listened to teixwer be sniffed teuxwer be tasted tayoxwer be touched
(or) toxwer
CAUSATIVE/ACTIVE teatuer show teetuer make hear teixuer make smell teuxuer offer a taste tayoxuer make feel
(or) toxuer
CAUSATIVE/PASSIVE teatuwer be shown teetuwer be made to hear teituwer be made to smell teutuwer be given a taste tayotuwer be made to feel
(or) toxuwer
INCHOATIVE/ACTIVE teatier perceive,
catch sight of
teetier catch the
sound of
teitier get a whiff of teutuer get a taste of tayotier get the sensation of
INCHOATIVE/PASSIVE teatiwer be perceived teetiwer be heard teitiwer be whiffed teutiwer be tasted tayotiwer be felt
teatyofer be blind teetyofer be deaf teityofer be unable to smell teityofer be unable to taste tayotyofer be insensitive
teatyofwer be invisible teetyofwer be inaudible teityofwer be undetectable
teityofwer be insipid tayotyofwer be undetectable
by touch
NEGATIVE-MODAL/PATIENT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofxer blind teetyofxer deafen teityofxer desensitize
to smell
teutyofxer desensitize to
tayotyofxer desensitize
NEGATIVE-MODAL/OBJECT-ORIENTED/CAUSATIVE teatyofwaxer make invisible teetyofwaxer make inaudible teityofwaxer make odorless teutyofwaxer render tasteless tayotyofwaxer numb


Prepositions are words that connect and show a relationship between a noun or noun phrase and the rest of the sentence. In Mirad, prepositions are simple monosyllables or phrases. Prepositions, as in English, are positioned before the noun or noun phrase they connect.

Single-word Prepositions[edit]

Here is a chart of simple prepositions. Most are spatial, but some are temporal, relational, or mathematical.
ab on, upon eb between ob off, off of
ayb over, above eyb among, amid oyb under, below
bu to be at bi from, of
byu as far as, up to   byi since, beginning with
bay with bey by boy without
ub toward   ib away from
yub near (to) yeb in
oyeb out of
yib far (from)
yuz around   yiz beyond
za in front of ze at the middle of zo behind, in back of
zu (to the) left (of) zey across zi (to the) right (of)
zya throughout zye through  
ja before je during, while jo after
ju until   ju since
av for, about ev than, as ov against
ay and ey or oy but, except
gal times, x gel like
ogel unlike
gol, ÷ divided by
gar to the power of gor to the root of
Examples showing how these single-word prepositions are used:
  • Ad dyen se ab ad sem. The book is on the table.
  • Ho et pyosu ob ad abtamas! Don't fall off the roof!
  • Ad pati papa ayb ata tam. The birds flew over my house.
  • It kosa oyb ad yagsim. He hid under the bench.
  • Simbiu eb udut ay at. Take a seat between that person and me.
  • Yat teje eyb fiati. We live among good peeople.
  • Od se nax bi pop bu ay bi Boston? What is the cost of a trip to and from Boston?
  • Id se ifek bi kyen. This is a game of luck.
  • He et sa be ud duzun zomoj? Were you at that concert last night?
  • Yit se embwa be ad zenod bi ad mapil. We are positioned at the hub of this storm.
  • Iyt tyoyapa byu ad mis. She walked up to the door.
  • Ad tob tojbwa bey gobar. The man was killed with/by a knife.
  • Et xu ga fiay ser bay at ev boy at. You would do better to be with me than without me.
  • Teaxu ib ad amar. Look away from the sun.
  • Ho teaxu iz ub ad man. Don't look directly toward the light.
  • Et efe tyoyaper yuz ad ovon. You need to walk around the obstacle.
  • Yat yofe per yiz id nod. We are prohibited from going beyond this point.
  • Iyt simpa za at. She sat in front of me.
  • Et yeyfe simbier zo ud toyb. You should sit in back of that woman.
  • Embu ad zu ad mis. Put it to the left of the door.
  • At simbio zi et. I will sit to the right of you.
  • Ad pat poosa ze ad tim. The bird stayed in the middle of the room.
  • Diwe lav et poosu yeb ad tam. Please stay in the house.
  • At so oyebdom av yoga joob. I will be out of town for a short while.
  • Ad mimpar mimpa yaz ad mip. The boat sailed along the river.
  • Id xwa zya ad doob. This happened throughout the nation.
  • Mil upeye zye ad mes. Water is coming through the door.
  • Id xwo ja zajub. This will happen before tomorrow.
  • Esa mapil je ad moj. There was a storm during the night.
  • Ju zamaj. Until tomorrow morning.
  • At voy teataye et ji zoyejub. I have not seen you since last week.
  • Diwe h' et xu ed av at. Please do something for me.
  • Id dyen se din av ewa fiuti. This book is a story about two lovers.
  • Datan se ga fia ev nas. Friendship is better than money.
  • Yod se ge fua ev od yat soa zojab. Nothing is as bad as what we underwent last year.
  • Yit yexeya ov yat. They were working against us.
  • Et ay at yeyfe ser dati. You and should be friends.
  • Odut ako, et ey at? Who will win, you or I?
  • Yadut oy udut ta ad dud. Everyone but that guy knew the answer.
  • Et voy se gel at. You are not like me.
  • Et se yadgla ogel at. You are totally unlike me.
  • E gab e gese u. Two plus two equals four.
  • U gob e gese e. Four minus two equals two.
  • E gal e gese u. Two times two equals four.
  • E gol e gese a. Two divided by two equals one.
  • U gar e gese asya. Four squared equals sixteen. (Lit: Four to the power of two...)
  • Asya gor e gese u. The square root of sixteen is four. (Lit: Sixteen to the root of two...)

Directional Adverbs[edit]

There are certain directional adverbs that can play a part in forming complex prepositions:
yub near yib far
yab up yob down
zay forward, ahead zoy back
iz directly, straight uz indirectly, roundabout

Phrasal Prepositions[edit]

Phrasal prepositions contain one or more prepositions in some combination with either a noun or an adverb. This chart shows some examples:
yub bu near to, close to At fe tujer yub bi et. I want to sleep close to you.
yib bi far from Ad amar se yib bi ad meir. The sun is far from the earth.
yab bu up to It fu paper yab bu ad mam. He would like to fly up to the sky.
yab bi up from Su yab bi ad sim. Get up from the bad.
yob bu down to Igpu yob bu ad obmos. Run down to the cellar.
yob bi down from Ad tat upa yob bi ad mam. The angel came down from the sky.
yob ab down on top of Ad kawa yob ab eta oybmos. It was found down on your floor.
zay bu on to, forth to Ad elyanaadpar popa zay bu zona doym. The train traveled on to the next town.
zey bi across from Iyt simbia zey bi yat. She sat across from us.
zoy bi back from At se zoy bi ad yexim. I am back from the office.
iz bu straight to Pu iz bu fom! Go straight to hell!
iz zoy bi right back from It upu iz zoy bi ad yexim. He came right back from the office.

Idiomatic Prepositional Phrases[edit]

The following chart shows other prepositional phrases that are considered idiomatic, because they are somewhat abbreviated by the omission of the definite article ad in front of the noun in these phrases:
be abem bi at the top of bu abem bi to the top of bi abem bi from the top of
be obem bi at the bottom of bu obem bi to the bottom of bi obem bi from the top of
be ebem bi in the area between bu ebem bi to the area between bi ebem bi from the area between
be aybem bi above, over bu aybem bi to the area above bi aybem bi from the area above
be oybem bi below, under bu oybem bi to the area below bi oybem bi from the area below
be eybem bi amid zye eybem bi through the midst of yez eybem bi in the midst of
be zam bi at the front of bu zam bi to the front of bi zam bi from the front of
be zem bi at the middle of bu zem bi to the middle of bi zem bi from the middle of
be zom bi at the back of bu zom bi to the back of bi zom bi from the back of
be yubem bi in the vicinity of bu yubem bi to the vicinity of bi yubem bi from the vicinity of
be yibem bi at a distance from bey azon bi by dint of be avon bi in favor of
be ubem bi in the direction of bay ux bi with assistance from be byux bay in touch with
be yabem bi in the upper reaches of be vyen bu in relation to doytaxwa bay associated with
be yobem bi in the bottom area of be ned bi on the level of be mep bu on the way to, en route
bey mep bi by way of, via be kum bi beside, at the side of be ij bi at the start of
be uj bi at the end of bey uxun bi by means of be kunad bi at the edge of
be nod bi at the point of be yezem bi at the interior of, inside be yozem bi at the exterior of, outside
be nad bay in line with yaz kunad bi alongside be ted bi in the sense of
be teas bi in the guise of be san bi in the form of be yanx bi in conjunction with
be bol bi in support of be gab bu in addition to be dyun bi in the name of


Conjunctions are words that join or introduce clauses. They are divided into coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Also some conjunctions consist of a combination of words.

Coordinating Conjunctions[edit]

This chart shows the coordinating conjunctions used in Mirad:
ay and
ey or
oy but
oey nor
Usage examples:
  • At oveko ay at ako. I will compete and I will win.
  • Bosu ey at tuyapyexo et. Be still or I will spank you.
  • It yeka oy it oka. He tried but he lost.
  • At voy tilo oey at telo. I shall not drink, nor shall I eat.
The above coordinating conjunctions can be associated in correlative pairs, as follows:
ewa...ay both...and
awa...ey either...or
owa...oey neither...nor
he...ey whether...or
voy anay...oy (gay) not only...but (also)
  • At ewa dyede ay dre Mirad. I both read and write Mirad.
  • Et yafe awa beser ey pier. Se eta kebiun. You can either stay or leave. It's your choice.
  • Yat owa move oey tile. We neither smoke nor drink.
  • He mamilo ey voy, at upo. Whether it rains or not, I will come.

Subordinating Conjunctions[edit]

There are three subordinating conjunctions that either connect clauses, where the second clause is subordinate to the first, main, clause, or introduce a certain kind of statement.
POSITIVE ha that, so that May (something happen), Let (something happen)
CONDITIONAL he if, whether Is is true that...?, Do/does...?
NEGATIVE ho lest, that...not Don't
Examples of these conjunctions linking a main and subordinate clause:
  • At ta ha et upo. I knew that you would come.
  • At xa da ha et tesdiu. I did it so that you would understand.
  • At voy ta he et upo. I did not know whether you would come.
  • He et te ad dud, du ad. If you know the answer, say it.
  • At yufa ho et upu. I feared lest you come.
Example of these conjunctions introducing a sentence:
  • Ha yat fadilu. Let us pray. (HORTATIVE)
  • Ha yit teliu avol! Let them eat bread.
  • Ha ad edeb yagteju. May the king live long.
  • He et te ad dud? Do you know the answer?
  • Du he et se tadsa. Say whether you are married.
  • Ho (et) yufu. Don't (you) be afraid.
  • Ho ud xwu. <Let> that not happen.

Composite Conjunctions[edit]

Other conjunctions are formed with two or more words, which, because of their frequency, are usually written together as one word:
jaha before Du hay jaha et pio. Say hi before you leave.
jeha while Jeha at so idem, at xo gle yex av et. While I'm here, I'll do some work for you.
joha after At buo et ad joha et nuso. I will give it to you after you pay.
juha until Yat voy ijo juha et puo idem. We won't start until you get here.
jiha since At voy teataya uyd jiha et sa udem. I had not seen such a thing since you were there.
adjobha when Adjobha et pua, ad iv ija. When you arrived, the fun began.
joud then Yat deuza joud yadut daza. We sang, then everyone danced.
jeud meanwhile Jeud, at ujba yad. Meanwhile, I finished everything.
ademha where At voy te ademha it pa. I don't know where he went.
avadha why He et te avadha it xa id? Do you know why he did it?
avadha because It xa avadha it fa xer teatuer yat ed. He did it because he wanted to show us something.
geyhe even if Geyhe et yontexe, at boo et. Even if you disagree, I'll support you.
yidyenhe as if Yat yeyfe axer yidyenhe yat teata yod. We should act as if we saw nothing.
gelhe as if Yat yeyfe axer gelhe yat teata yod. We should act as if we saw nothing.
geyovha even though Geyovha ad pansin sa gra yaga, at ifia ad.
ovha (al)though At po ovha at voy fe. I'll go, although I don't want to.
avud so, therefore It vuda at, avud at pia. He insulted me, so I left.
avha so that It ozda avha yuduti voy teetu yat. He whispered so that others would not hear us.
The ha that ends a conjunction can optionally be written and pronounced as h before a word that begins in a vowel (including a pre-iotated vowel, i.e. one beginning with a y). This applies to relative pronouns and adverbs that end or are followed by ha. For example:
  • Yit pua jeh at daleya. They arrived while I was speaking.
  • Et yafe bayser yedh et fu. You can have whatever you'd like.
  • At ta h et upo. I knew (that) you'd come.
  • At ta h yit upo. I knew (that) they'd come.
In the last example, h yit, the h followed by y sounds like the h in English huge.


Interjections in Mirad include the words for yes, no and maybe:
va yes
ve maybe, perhaps
vo* no
* Not to be confused with voy, which translates the English adverb not, as in Vo, it voy se tadsa. He is not married.
  • Va. At se otadsa. Yes. I am unmarried.
  • Va. At se vay otadsa. Yes. I am indeed/really unmarried.
  • Va, vay. Yes, indeed.
  • Va ay vo. Ud vey se vyaa. Yes and no. That may be true.
  • Va ey vo? Yes or no?
  • Ve. At te voy valay. Maybe. I don't know for sure.
  • Vo. At voy vatexe et. No. I don't believe you.
  • Vo! Dilwe ho xu ad.' No! Don't do it.
  • Et se Amerikama, va vo? You're American, yes or no?
  • He va, du ad. If so, do it.
  • He vo, ho du ad. If not, don't do it.
Other interjections include greetings and non-vulgar expletives:
TERMINAL GREETING hoy! Goodbye!, Bye!
PROXIMAL SPECIFIER hiy! Voici!, Here is...
DISTAL SPECIFIER huy! Voila!', There is...
POSITIVE EXCLAMATION hya! Great! Wow!, Bravo!, Woopee!,Hurrah!
NEGATIVE EXCLAMATION hyo! What a pity!, It's a shame!, Woe is...!, Darn it!, Yikes!, Boo!
  • Hay! Ata dyun se Johan. Hi! My name is John.
  • Hey, Johan! Odyen et se? Hey, John, how are you?
  • Hey, Tot! O, God!
  • Hoy. At teaso et zajub. Bye. I will see you tomorrow.
  • Hiy ad dyen ha et dila. Here's the book you requested.
  • Hiy Tobyan. Behold Man. (Ecce Homo).
  • Hiy ata dyundaf. Here's my caling card.
  • Huy! Se xawa. Voilà! It's done.
  • Huy ad ha at yaka. There's what I expected.
  • Hya et! Good for you!
  • Hya! Et utnaze id. Bravo! You deserve this.
  • Hye via maj! Oh, what a beautiful morning!
  • Hye! At ta voy ha et upo. Oh! I didn't know you were coming.
  • Hyo at. Woe is me.
  • Hyo ud. Ga fia fikyen jonay. Pity!. Better luck next time.
Vulgar expletives are not offered here, but may arise naturally in daily speech.


[This page under construction]

Greetings and Other Polite Expressions[edit]

Hay! Hello!
Hey! Hey!
Hoy! Bye!
Fijub! Good day!
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fimoj! Good evening!
Odyen et se? How are you?
Fibaka. Ay et? Fine. And you?
Iftaxwo. Thank-you.
Sa yod. You're welcome.
Diwe. Please.
Yovobu at. Excuse me.
Fipop! Bon voyage!
Su valta! Be safe!
Yegbaksu ig! Get well soon!
Ivadwu! Congratulations!
Iva Tajjub! Happy Birthday!
Hya! Great! / Good for you!
Hye! Oh my!
Hyo! Too bad! / What a shame!
Hyay! Thanks! / You're welcome!
Hyoy! Sorry!

Word Formation[edit]

In order to facilitate word-building and to maximize comprehension and decipherability of words, certain meanings have been attached to consonants and various values have been ascribed to vowels.
The vocabulary of Mirad is composed of core words and derived words.

Guiding Principles for Word Formation[edit]

The vocabulary is built on root morphemes, that is, indivisible, building-block words. The choice of the root of these words (formed generally from two or three letters) is determined by:
  • The meaning of each letter of the word.
  • The importance of the group of ideas that this word evokes in its proper sense and in the sense that is directly opposite it, eg.: fixed vs. variable.
  • How frequently the word and its derivations are used in the language.
  • The geometric system of vocabulary construction (see a later section on what this is all about).
  • The logic of its composition.
  • The mnemonic associations this word suggests.
The words derived from root morphemes in turn follow very simple laws called vocabulary-building rules.

Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes are elements of vocabulary that cannot be broken down any further and which serve as the basis for many derived words in the language. These root morphemes are divided into two groups:
  • 1st Group:  consisting of nouns
  • 2nd Group:  consisting of prepositions, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and verbs.

Root Morphemes of the 1st Group: Nouns[edit]

All noun root morphemes are composed of three letters:
  • The first, a consonant called the classifier
  • The second, a vowel called the ordinal
  • The third, a consonant called the generic
t o b man
d o t society
f o b plant
The classifier and generic letters are consonants, so one needs to be familiar with the general meaning of the consonants in the Mirad alphabet, as shown in the following chart:
Consonants and Their Meanings[edit]
CONSONANT 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 1st Group Root Morphemes (NOUN) 2nd Group Root Morphemes Numeric Value
b organ, illness, body, etc. organism gesture, manner, movement
p animal, vehicle movement
s thing, furniture form, thing hundred
x do, action do, action
d society person, thing reading, writing
t person person intelligence, knowing
f vegetation clothing volition
v plant, color linen veracity
g measurement quantity
k condition, risk change, chance
j time time time
z jewel, precious, art spatial
l element, liquid ten
m nature place, building, furniture, metal ml = million
n mechandise abstraction
r tool, machine thousand, mr = billion
The letters l and r are used before or after vowels to intensify the semantics of a word. The letter y, if used before a stem vowel intensifies the semantics of the word, but mitigates the semantics if it follows the stem vowel.
The letter h is used only in certain interjections and conjunctions and has no semantic identity.
The letter w has no semantic identity of its own, but is used only to form the passive of verbs and to form a counter morpheme used in numbers, and sometimes to substitute for y when the latter letter would cause ambiguity or difficulty in pronunciation with other consonants.
Ordinal Vowels of the 1st Group Root Morphemes and Their Values[edit]
  • Numeric Values:
The numeric value of vowels is shown in the chart below. The vowels beginning with y are considered pre-iotated vowels.
o a e i u yo ya ye yi yu
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
zero one two three four five six seven eight nine
A vowel with a numeric value is sometimes prefixed to nouns to form a hierarchy of nouns:
adeb emperor adab empire
edeb king edab kingdom
ideb prince idab principality
udeb duke udab duchy
yodeb marquis, margrave yodab marquisate
yadeb earl, count yadab county, earldom
yedeb lord, vassal yedab dominion
yideb viscount yidab viscountcy
yudeb baron yudab barony
alodeb tribal chief alodab tribe
Sometimes the numeric vowel falls inside the word after the ordinal vowel. This happens with the names of the planets, as shown here:
Mear Mercury
Meer Venus
Meir Earth
Meur Mars
Meyor Jupiter
Meyar Saturn
Meyer Uranus
Meyir Neptune
Meyur Pluto
So, as you can see, Earth is the "4rth rock from the sun."
The word for star is mar, but sun is amar, the number one star, at least for us!
Similarly, the word for satellite is mur, but moon is amur, the number one satellite as far as we earth-bound citizens are concerned.
  • Positional Values:
The positional value of vowels is shown below (Rule nr. 10):
  a up, superior, north  
u left, west e center, middle i right, east
  o down, inferior, south  
Some examples:
  • amir north
  • omir south
  • umir west
  • imir east
  • emir equator
  • zu left
  • zi right
  • ze middle
  • yab up
  • yob down
  • yeb in
  • ayb over
  • oyb under
  • eyb among
  • Geophysical Values:
o outer space, nature
a air, gas, sky
e land, soil, earth
i liquid, water, juice
u underground, minerals
Some examples:
mol nature mom outer space poper travel pot animal mop galaxy
mal air mam sky paper fly pat bird map wind
mel soil mem land peper ride pet land animal mep road
mil water mim sea piper sail pit fish mip river
mul mineral mum underground mup tunnel
Ordinal Vowels of 2nd Group Root Morphemes and Their Values[edit]
  • Positive-Intermediate-Negative Values:
  • POSITIVE a, ya oppose NEGATIVE o, yo
  • POSITIVE i, yi oppose NEGATIVE u, yu
Some examples:
ag- big eg- normal og- small
az- strong ez- moderate oz- weak
va yes ve maybe vo no
ak- win ek- play ok- lose
yad everything yed anything yod nothing
ig- fast ug- slow
im- wet um- dry
fi- good fu- bad
kyi- heavy kyu- light
  • Directional Values:
a- free movement from above onto aber apply
-a movement with contact from above onto baer lean
ya- free movement upward yaper rise
-ya movement with contact upward pyaser jump
o- free movement from below upward ober remove
-o movement with contact from below onto boer uphold
yo- free movement downward yoper descend
-yo movement with contact fall pyoer fall
u- free movement toward the center uper come
-u movement with contact toward the center buer give
yu- free movement near yuber bring
-yu movement with contact near byuer touch
i- free movement away iper leave
-i movement with contact away bier take
yi- free movement far away yiper move far away
-yi movement with contact far away pyier originate
e- stop   eper intervene
-e pause   peser wait
ye- in   yeper enter
-ye in   byexer contain
  • Special Values of Certain Vowels:
  • The prefixes a-, an- have to do with one, single, singular and are opposed to:
  • The prefixes ya-, yan- meaning together, plural.
  • The prefix yan- contrasts with yon- meaning apart.
Some examples:
auta individual, private yauta communal
at I, me yat we, us
anla singular yanla plural
yanper join yonper separate
yanmel continent yonmel island
adut the one person yadut everybody

1st Group Root Morphemes and What They Mean[edit]

The meaning of the 1st Group root morphemes comes from the combination of the values of the classifier consonant and the generic consonant, as show in the chart below. Most often, the root morphemes have a zeroth element in which the ordinal vowel is o. Related, usually hierchically subordinate, words are created by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel.
tob man t = human, animal b = organism
tod family t = human, animal d = society
tof clothes t = human, animal f = tissue
tov lingerie t = human, animal v = linen
tol food t = human, animal l = fluid, substance
vob plant v = plant b = organism
tom building t = human, animal m = place
dob state d = social b = organism
dom city d = social m = place
dop military d = social p = movement
som furniture s = thing m = place
pot animal p = movement t = human, animal

2nd Group Root Morphemes and What They Mean[edit]

The 2nd Group root morphemes come from a combination of the classifier consonant and the stem vowel (which is sometimes zero). The vowel can be pre- or post-iotated and modified with the scalar enhancer consonants r, l, and w. Here is a chart showing the principle root morphemes of this group. The root morpheme itself is in boldface, sometimes followed by derived words incorporating that root.
ja before, pre-
jana previous
japer precede
je during
jena current
jeper continue
jo after, post-
jona next
joper follow
ji since
ju until
aj past
ajna old
ej present
ejna new
oj future
ojna next
ij beginning
ijna initial
uj end
ujna final
jyaa early
jyea punctual
jyoa late
yij opening
yija open
yijber open
yuj closure
juja closed
yujber close
ga more
gaber add
galer multiply
gra too much
gwa most
ge equal
geber equate
gean equality
gre enough
go less
gober substract
goler divide
gro insufficient
gwo least
gi- point
gin point
gia sharp
gu- angle
gun angle
gua dull
gya- fat
gyaxer fatten
gyo- thin
gyoxer emaciate
gyi- solid
gyian solidity
gyu- fragile
gyuan fragility
ag- big
agaxer magnify
agla huge
eg- normal
egaxer normalize
egan normality
og- small
ogaxer miniaturize
ogla tiny
ig- fast
igay quickly
igper rush
ug- slow
ugay slowly
ugper amble
yag- long
yagaxer lengthen
yeg- re-
yegxer re-do
yog- short
yogaxer shorten
yig- hard
yigaxer harden
yug- soft
ka- find
kaxer find
kader reveal
kaxwas trove
ke- seek
kexer seek
keder inquire
kexwas pursuit
ko- hide
koxer hide
koder cover up
koxwas stash
kia diagonal
kim slope
kua lateral
kun edge
kum side
ak- win
akun gain
ek- play
ekun risk
ok- lose
okun loss
ik- full
ikber fill up
uk- empty
ukber empty out
kya- variable
kyaser change
kye- random
kyeser happen
kyo- fixed
kyoser stand still
kyi- heavy
kyiaxer weigh down
kyu- light
kyuaxer lighten
yak- expect
yakwa expected
yek- try
yekwa attempted
yok- be surprised
yokwa unexpected
yik- difficult
yikan difficulty
yuk- easy
yukan ease
va- yes
vader affirm
ve- maybe
veder equivocate
vo- no
voder deny
vi- beautiful
vila gorgeous
vu- ugly
vula hideous
av- for
avon favor
ev- than
evon condition
ov- against
ovon hindrance
iv- happy
ivan happiness
uv- sad
uvan sadness
vya- true
vyan truth
vye- relative
vyen relation
vyo- false
vyon error
vyi- clean
vyisa pure
vyu- dirty
vyusa foul
yav- innocent
yavder acquit
yev- fair
yevder judge
yov- guilty
yovder accuse
yiv- free
yivxer release
yuv- captive
yuvxer capture
fa- holy
fader bless
f- want
fer want
fo- profane
foder curse
fi- good
fider praise
fu- bad
fuder malign
fya- proud
fyan pride
fyo- ashamed
fyon shame
fyi- useful
fyin worth
fyu- damaging
fyun harm
af- allow
afwa allowed
ef- need
efwa necessary
of- ban
ofwa prohibited
if- love
ifwa beloved
uf- hate
ufwa despised
yaf- able
yafer can
yef- obliged
yefer must
yof- unable
yofer cannot
yif- brave
yifer dare
yuf- afraid
baer lean on
baler press
barer crush
baxer shake
→abaxer stroke
→abalxer rub
ber put
be at
beser stay
bexer hold
beler keep
boxer carry
boler support
→oboler drop
bi from
bier take
bixer pull
bilxer yank
birxer uproot
bu to
buer give
buxer push
bulxer shove
burxer kick
bay with bey by boy without
ab on
aber put on
abem top
eb between
eber block
ebem gap
ob off
ober take off
obem bottom
ib away
iber receive
ilber obtain
ub toward
uber send
ulber deliver
yab up
yaber raise
yalber lift
yaper rise
yeb in
yeber introduce
yelber insert
yeper enter
yob down
yober lower
yolber down
yoper descend
yib far
yiber remove
yilber banish
yiper flee
yub near
yuber bring near
yolber abduct
yuper come
byaxer erect
byeer behave
byen manner
byoxer hang
byi since
byiser spring from
byu up to
byuser reach
pa- motion
paser move
paxer move (tr.)
per go
peser wait
pexer trap
po- rest
poyser pause
poser stop
poxer stop (tr.)
pi- motion away
pier leave
piser withdraw
pixer catch
pu- motion toward
puer arrive
puser jump
puxer throw
pya- strong upward motion
pyaser jump up
pyaxer launch
pye- strong inward motion
pyeser bump into
pyexer strike
pyo- strong downward motion
pyoser plunge
pyoxer knock down
pyi- strong motion away
pyiser spring
pyixer snatch
pyu- strong motion toward
pyuser pounce
pyuxer ram
za in front of
zaper precede
ze in the middle of
zeber balance
zo behind
zoper succeed
zi- right
zituyaba right-handed
zu- left
zutuyaba left-handed
zay forward
zayper advance
zey across
zoy back
zoyper recede
az- strong
aza strong
ez- medium
eza medium
oz- weak
oza weak
iz- straight
izper go straight
uz- curved
uzper turn
zya- wide
zyaber spread
zye through
zyeteatuwa transparent
zyo- narrow
zyober restrict
zyi- flat
zyixer flatten
zyu- round
zyuper rotate
yaz- vertical
yazber stand upright
yez- horizontal
yezber lay flat
yoz- perpendicular
yoza perpendicular
yiz- beyond
yizper surpass
yuz- around
yuzper surround
daler talk
der say
drer write
dryer print
deler declare
doler be silent
dier ask
dider question
diler request
direr demand
din story
duer suggest
duder answer
duler insist
durer prod
dun word
dyeder read
dyen book
dyier phone
dyuer call
dyun name
taxer remember
tajer be born
t- know
ter know
texer think
teder mean
teser sense
tejer live
toxer forget
tojer die
ti- learn
tier learn
tider understand
tixer study
tin doctrine, -ism
titam school
tijer wake
tu- teach
tuer teach
tuder explain
tuxer instruct
tun science, -ology
tutam institute
tujer sleep
tyan race
tyen craft, occupation
tyeer be familiar with
tryen industry
tyier get acquainted
tyuer acquaint
san form
saxer make
saun kind
ser be
son thing (abstract)
sat being
sexer build
soer undergo
sin image
siun sign
su- thing
sun thing
syan type
syen style
syin subject
syun object
aser become
eser exist
oser vanish
iser be the result
user be the cause
xaer execute
xaler accomplish
xer do
xen action
xeler conduct
xier result
xuer bring about
xuler provoke
xyen practice
xyel exercise
xyier wear out
xyuer proceed
axer act
alxer operate
exer function
oxer be idle
ixen effect
uxer cause
yexer work
yelx labor
yelx drudgery
yixer use
yilxer hire
yirxer exploit
yuxer help
yulxer serve
yurxer slave
naxer cost
neser save
noser spend
niser earn
nuser pay
ha so that he whether ho lest

Vowel Patterns in 2nd Group Root Morphemes[edit]

Note that that in 2nd Group core words there is a three-way contrast with the root vowels a, e, o and a two-way contrast with the root vowels i and u, as in the chart below, where the root vowels are underlined:

3-WAY (a-e-o) aza strong eza medium oza weak
2-WAY (i-u) fia good -- fua bad

Meaning of the Classifier Consonant in 2nd Group Root Morphemes[edit]

Most human qualities are presented in the 2nd Group root morphemes that contain the consonants f or v.
Root morphemes relating to time all have the letter j.
The letters g and k relate mostly to physical qualities, measurements, and actions.

Parallelism in Root Morphemes[edit]

Root morphemes exhibit both vertical and horizontal parallelism in meaning as shown in some sample charts below:
aza za va vyaa yava
strong front yes true innocent
eza ze ve vyea yeva
moderate middle maybe relative fair
oza zo vo vyoa yova
weak back no false guilty
ja jya aja kaer aker
before early past find win
je jye eja keer eker
during on time present seek play
jo jyo oja koer oker
after late future hide lose
fia via vyia fyia iva yiva ifer
good beautiful clean proud happy free to love
fua vua vyua fyua uva yuva ufer
bad ugly dirty ashamed sad bound to hate
tab tib tub tyob tayob tayeb tyab
body trunk arm foot skin hair ovary
fab fib fub fyob fayob fayeb fyab
tree tree trunk branch root bark leaf fruit
vab vib vub vyob vayob vayeb vyab
plant stem twig root peel leaf seed

Rules for Deriving New Words[edit]

Derived words, that is, words that are built from root morphemes and other words, are formed following certain very simple rules of vocabulary-building:
These rules govern:
  1. Combining whole words
  2. Affixation
  3. Scaling Words through Numerically-ordered Vowels
  4. Combining partial words
  5. Word-building by adding ordinal vowels
  6. Swapping endings
  7. Scientific Word-building
  8. Feminizing words
  9. Geophysical vowel codification
  10. Directional and positional vowel codification
  11. Mnemonic markers
  12. Creating nuances of meaning

Rule #1: Combining Whole Words[edit]

Compound words are formed by the combination of two or more words. When compounding, the determining word is placed very simply in front of the determined word.
  • mar star + tun sciencemartun astronomy
  • mag fire + meb mountainmagmeb volcano
  • tul meal + dren documenttuldren menu
  • nax cost + aga bignaxaga expensive
  • nax cost + oga smallnaxoga cheap
  • amar sun + yap ascentamaryap sunrise
  • amar sun + yop descentamaryop sunset
  • mam sky + par vehiclemampar airplane
  • map wind + yaf powermapyaf windpower
  • dom city + teas viewdomteas cityscape
  • tej life + tun sciencetejtun biology
  • man light + tam housemantam lighthouse

Rule #2: Affixation[edit]

Affixes can be prefixed or suffixed to verbs, nouns, and other parts of speech.
Adverbs and prepositions can serve as prefixes, especially for forming new verbs, eg.:
go less ber put gober subtract
yeb in ber put yeber* introduce
oyeb out ber put oyeber* oust
yuz around ber put yuzber surround
ob off ber put ober* remove
ig fast xer do igxer accelerate
ug slow xer do ugxer brake
ja before xer do jaxer prepare
je during xer do jexer continue
oj future xer do ojxer plan
ab on per go aper1 get on
yeb in per go yeper* enter
oyeb out per go oyeper* exit
zay ahead per go zayper advance
zoy back per go zayper retreat
ja before per go japer precede
jo after per go joper follow
yuz around per go yuzper circulate
va yes der say vader affirm
vo no der say voder deny
fi good der say fider praise
fu bad der say fuder malign
ja before der say jader predict
ja before dren writing jadren preface
jo after dren writing jodren postscript
*Note: If the prefix is an adverb or preposition ending in b and is being affixed to the verb per go or ber put, then the b of the prefix is dropped:
Prefixes Ending in b with Verbs per and ber[edit]
yab up ber put yaber raise
yab up per go yaper rise
ab on ber put aber put on, apply
ab on per go aper get on, mount
yob down ber put yober take down
yob down per go yoper descend
ob off ber put ober take off, remove
ob on per go oper get off, dismount
Prefixing with Whole or Clipped Words[edit]
The two or three first letters of a root morpheme can serve as prefixes. The adjective ending a is often dropped1, as is the er or prefixes taken from verbs. Longish noun prefixes are sometimes clipped.
oza weak der say ozder whisper
yaga long der say yagder ramble
aja past der say ajder evoke
yoga short der say yogder summarize
tyoyab foot per go tyoyaper walk
dreer write sar tool dresar pencil
tuyob hand dren writing tuyodren manuscript
mam sky mil water mamil rain
1: Sometimes, the adjective ending a is retained when an adjective is compounded with xer or ser. This device may be used to distinguished two differently nuanced verbs.
Prefixing with Prefixes Per Se[edit]
o un-, expresses negation, opposition, opposite meaning data friendlyodata unfriendly
lo un-, same as o but used where o is not clear gla manylogla rare
yo un-, same as o but more intense dat friendyodat enemy
av pro- fatin religionavfatina pro-religious
ov anti-, counter- dropek warovdropeka anti-war
yad all-, pan-, omni- tea awareyadyadtea omniscient, all-knowing
ja before, ante-, pre-, fore- taj birthjataja pre-natal
jo after, post- judrer to datejojudrer post-date
yiz beyond, meta- tapa physicalyiztapa metaphysical
ey(n) semi-, hemi-, half- eyseuz demi-tone, eylevelbaya semi-sweet, eyntepa half-wit
e(n)- bi-, duo-, two- ejaba biennial, entyoba biped, enteba two-headed
i(n)- tri-, three- invoza tricolor, ijib trimester, inzyun tricycle
u(n)- quadri-, four- untyoba quadriped, unkuma quadrilateral, ungona quadripartite
a(n)- uni-, singular anxer unite, asana special, auta individual, private
ya(n)- multi-, together, plural yanxer assemble, yasana general, yauta common, public
yo(n)- dis-, se-, apart yonxer separate, yoniler unstick, youta alone, isolate
yeg- re-, again yeganxer reunite, yegder repeat, yegvader reaffirm
Comparison of Prefixes in English and Mirad[edit]
Here is a chart of the most productive prefixes in English of Latin, Greek, and Germanic origin and their most common counterparts in Mirad:
a-, an- without, un-, -less GREEK atonal oseuza
ab- away LATIN absence ibsen
ab- not, un- LATIN abnormal olega, ozeta
ad- to, toward LATIN advent upen < ub-
after- after GERMANIC aftermath joxwas
anti- against GREEK antidote ovbokil
arch- chief, first GREEK archangel aatat
auto- self GREEK autocracy utdab
back- back GERMANIC backstairs zomus
bene- well LATIN benefactor fixut
bi- two GREEK bicameral entima
by- beyond GERMANIC bypass yizper
cent(i)- hundred LATIN century sojab
circ(um)- around LATIN circulate yuzper
co- together LATIN cooperate yanexer
con-, com-, cor-, col- with LATIN convene yanuper
counter-, contra- against LATIN contradict ovder
cross- across GERMANIC crosswind zeymep
de- un-, reverse LATIN desalinate omimolxer, mimolober
de- down LATIN descend yoper < yob + per
deci- ten LATIN decimeter alonag
di- two GREEK diode enmep
dia- throughout GREEK diachronic zyajoba
dicho- double GREEK dichotomy engorbun
di(s)- apart, un- LATIN disappear oteaser
dys- bad GREEK dysfunction fuexen
ec(to)- out GREEK ectomorph oyebsan
en-, em- in GREEK endemic yebdita
endo- within GREEK endomorphic yebsana
equi- equal LATIN equilateral gekuma
eu- good, nice GREEK euphemism vidun
ex-, e- out LATIN extract oyebixer
extra- outside LATIN extraordinary yozega
fellow- fellow LATIN fellow-traveler yanpoput, dat-
fore- front GERMANIC foreskin zatayob
gyro- round, wheel LATIN gyroscope zyunzebar
half- half GERMANIC half-dead eyntoja
hemi- half GREEK hemisphere eynzyunid
hect(o)- hundred GREEK hectometer asonak
hept(o)- seven GREEK heptogonal yeguna
hetero- different GREEK heterogeneous yudsauna
hexa- six GREEK hexagongal yaunguna
high- high GERMANIC high-flying yabpapea
homo- same GREEK homogeneous yidsauna
hyper- over, too much GREEK hyperactive graaxeya
hypo- under, too little GREEK hypothermia groaman
idio- peculiar GREEK idiopath asanbak
ill- poorly GERMANIC ill-mannered fubyena
in- in LATIN/GERMANIC incoming yebupea
in- not, un- LATIN inadequate ogrea
infra- below LATIN infrared oybivoza
inter- between LATIN international ebdooba
intra- amid LATIN intramural eybmasa
intro- into LATIN introduce yebber
iso- equal GREEK isometric genaga
kilo- thousand GREEK kilogram arokyik
macro- big GREEK macrometer agnagar
magn(i)- big LATIN magnify agaxer
mal- badly LATIN malformed fusana
many- many GERMANIC many-hued glavoza
maxi(m)- biggest LATIN maximize gyaxer
mega(lo)- big GREEK megacephalic agteba
meso- middle GREEK mesomorph zesanat
meta- beyond GREEK metaphysical yizmula
micro- little GREEK microcosm ogmir
mid- middle LATIN midday zejub
milli- thousand LATIN milligram arokyik
mini(m)- tiny LATIN miniskirt gyotyoyf
mis- wrongly LATIN misunderstand vyotider
multi- many LATIN multilateral glakuma
neo- new GREEK neophyte jogagsat
non- not LATIN nonentity oseas
nona- nine GREEK nonagon yuungun
oct(a)- eight GREEK octagon yigun
omni- all LATIN omniscient yadtea
ortho- correct GREEK orthodontist izteupibtut
out- better GERMANIC outplay gafieker
over- too much GERMANIC overeat grateler
pan- all GREEK pantheon yadtotyan
para- alongside GREEK paraphrase yaztuder
penta- five GREEK pentagon youngun
per- through LATIN/GREEK perpendicular zyepyonada
poly- many GREEK polyandry glatadan
post- after LATIN postscript jodren
pre- before LATIN preview jateaxer, za-
pro for LATIN pro-life avtejina
pro- forward LATIN progress zaynogper
pseudo- falsely GREEK pseudonym vyodyun
quadri- four LATIN quadrilateral unkuma
quasi- resembling, nearly LATIN quasi-scientific yubtuna
quint- five LATIN quintet younatyan
re- again LATIN redo yegxer
rect(i)- straight LATIN rectilinear iznada
retro- backwards LATIN retrogress zoynogser
semi- half LATIN semi-sweet eynlevelaya
sept- seven LATIN septempartite yegona
sext- six LATIN sextuplicate yaungeyxwas
sub-, sup-, sur- below LATIN submarine oybmimpar
super-, supra- above LATIN superscript aybdren
syn-, sym-, syl- with GREEK symphony yanduzutyan
tele- far GREEK telephone yibdalar
tetra- four GREEK tetragon ungun
trans- across LATIN transfer zeyber
tri- three GREEK/LATIN trigram indresin
ultra- beyond, extremely GREEK ultranationalist gyadoobina
un- not LATIN untie oyanxer
under- below LATIN underarm oybtub
under- not enough LATIN underactive groaxeya
uni- one LATIN unicycle azyus
Mirad has semantic suffixes, grammatical suffixes, and part-of-speech-changing suffixes
  • Semantic Suffixes
Semantic suffixes are generally formed from the two last letters of a root morpheme. They serve to put a word into some category, such as liquid, place, person, or material.
mil water -il liquid teabil tear < teab eye
    teubil saliva < teub mouth
    tayebil sweat < tayeb skin
    mamil rain < mam sky
tam house -am house apatam chicken coop < apat chicken
    apelatam beehive < apelat bee
    melyexam farmhouse < melyex agriculture
    datibam hostel < datib guest-reception
nem place -em place vobyexem plantation, farm < vob plant + yex work
    vabem field < vab grass
    abem top, surface < ab above, upper
    obem bottom < ob below
nof cloth -of material tof clothes < t- human
    misof curtain < mis window
    faof wood < fa(b)- tree
    tayof leather < tayo(b) skin
sar tool -ar instrument par vehicle < p- motion
    zyupar rotor < zyup turn
    gorbar knife < gorb cut
    syaagar computer < syaag computation
sun thing -un thing dun word < d- utter, say
    gorfun piece, scrap < gorfer rip, shread, tear
    zyiun plaque, plate < zyia flat
    vyun spot < vyua dirty
tin doctrine -in -ism totin theism, religion < tot- god
    Kristin Christianity < Krist Christ
    vyisatin puritanism < vysiat puritan, clean person
    otofin nudism < otofa nude
fuf pipe -uf cylinder object manuf candle < man light
    tiibuf artery < tiib heart
    miluf toilet < mil water
    movuf cheminee < mov smoke
yel oil -yel oil, gel, wax, pulp kafyel olive oil < kaf olive
    apelatyel wax < apelat bee
    levyel jam, jelly, confiture < leve sugar, sweet
    bekyel salve < bek care, treatment
    megyel cement < meg stone
    yanyel paste < yan together
  • Grammatical Suffixes
Mirad has only a few grammatical or derivational (non-inflexional*) suffixes:
-er (verb infinitive) sag- cipher sager to count
nab ranknaber to rank
yex work yexer to work
-n (deverbal or deadjectival noun) yexe works yexen working
via beautiful vian beauty
yuba near yuban proximity, nearness
-a (adjective) yib- far away yiba remote
mor universe mora universal
ake wins akea winning
-y (deadjectival adverb) iga- quick igay quickly
yiba remoteyibay remotely
*Derivational affixes change the part of speech of a base word, whereas inflexional affixes change the status of a word within a grammatical paradigm. Verb tense/mood/voice affixes and the plural marker -i fall under the latter category.
  • Augmentative Suffixes
-ag (augmentative) tam house tamag mansion
-ayg (affectionate augmentative) sem chair semayg big old chair
-yag (pejorative augmentative) apet horse apetyag nag
  • Diminutive Suffixes
-og (diminutive) tam house tamog hut
-oyg (affectionate diminutive) tam house tamoyg cottage
-yog (pejorative diminutive) tam house tamyog shack
  • Suffixes Forming Nuanced Adjectives
-aya full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekaya dusty
-oya empty of, -less, -free vyun spot vyunoya spotless
-ika full of, -ous, -y miek dust miekika dusty
-uka empty of, -less, -free miek dust miekuka dust-free
-ea (present active particple) doing X, -ing, -ant, -ent ilp flow ilpea flowing, fluent
-yea given to doing X, -ive vyod lie vyodyea mendacious, given to lying
-wea (present passive participle) being Xed vyixer to clean vyixwea being cleaned
-yena like, -ly, -ic tat angel tatyena angelic
-(a)wa (past passive participle) Xed oter to ignore otwa or otawa unknown
-uwa (potential passive participle) -able, liable to be Xed teater to see teatuwa visible
  • Other Suffixes
-an abstract quality, -ness, -hood, -ity iva happy ivan happiness
    via beautiful vian beauty
    ama hot aman heat
-at person who has the quality of yova guilty yovat guilty party
    oga little ogat little person
-ut agent, practitioner, one who does X, -er, -ant, -ent yuxer to help yuxut helper, assistant
    vyoder lie vyodut liar
-eat one who does X vyixeat cleaning person
-(a)wat one who has been Xed tujber to kill tujbwat or tujbawat murder victim
-(a)was what is/was Xed ter to know twas or tawas what is known, fact
-et a person a level down ted father tedet son
    tid uncle tidet cousin
    tad spouse tadet brother
-es item of lesser importance nas money nases change, coin
-ob child of, offspring tob man tobob infant
    apet horse apetob foal
-un < sun concrete thing viber decorate vibun ornament
-on < son abstract thing kyiser weight down kyison problem
    ifer to love ifon love
-tun science, ...ology tej life tejtun biology
    tob man tobtun anthropology
-in < tin doctrine, -ism tot god totin theism, religion
    dot society dotin socialism
-yan collection, aggregate fab tree fabyan forest
    mar star maryan constellation
-ar < sar instrument, tool, device per go par vehicle
    teab eye teabar eyeglasses
-ur < sur machine yalb lift yalbur elevator
Many of the above suffixes and prefixes can be combined as in the following example:
  • ov- against, anti- + dot society + -in ism + -at person having the quality of + -yena like, -ish ovdotinatyena anti-socialistic

Rule #3: Scaling Words through Numerically-ordered Vowels[edit]

Creating a hierarchy of scalar terms applies only to root morphemes of the 1st group. The hierarchy of scalar terms is built by increasing the numeric value of the ordinal vowel of the root morpheme stem as the importance or relevance of the word decreases from the topmost, zeroth object. This process is called first-level ordinal scaling.
  • First-level Ordinal Scaling
t...b m...r j...b m...s t...m d...b f...b s...m
tob man mor universe job time mos floor (1st,2nd,etc.) tom building dob state fob plant som furniture
tab body mar sun jab year mas wall tam house dab government fab tree sam armoire
teb head mer planet jeb season mes door tem hall deb leader feb treetop sem table
tib trunk mir earth jib month mis window tim room dib office fib tree trunk sim chair
tub arm mur moon jub day mus stairs tum wing dub ministry fub branch sum bed
tyob leg jyob* hour fyob root
    jyab* minute
    jyeb* second
* Easier to pronounce as jwob, jwab, and jweb.
  • Second-level Ordinal Scaling
A second-level hierarchy of scalar words can be creating by adding a vowel immediately after the ordinal vowel of the word stem.
mi...p me...p tu...b tyo...b
mip river mep way tub arm tyob leg
miap stream meap road tuab shoulder tyoab hip
miep brook meep path tueb upper arm tyoeb thigh
miip rivulet meip trail tuib elbow tyoib knee
miup torrent meup track tuub forearm tyoub shin
miyop trickle tuyob wrist tyoyob ankle
tuyab hand tyoyab foot
tuyeb fist tyoyeb heel
tuyib palm tyoyib sole
tuyub finger tyoyub toe
tulob fingernail tyolob toenail
  • Third-level Ordinal Scaling
A third-level hierarchy can be created by adding a third ordinal number vowel to the front of the word.
tuyub finger
atuyub thumb
etuyub index
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinky
So, to sum up, we have:
t...b tob = man
SECOND-LEVEL tuyub finger
THIRD-LEVEL atuyub thumb
  • Scaling with Prefixed Numbering
We can also obtain a very convenient classification for new words through prefixed numbering even though there is no first-level or second-level numbering.
...dob ...pet
dob state pet animal
adob empire apet horse
edob kingdom epet bull
idob principality ipet ass
udob duchy upet ram
yodob marquisate yopet goat
yadob county yapet pig
yedob dominion yepet dog

Rule #4: Compounding Partial Words[edit]

When forming a compound word, the generic consonant (the last one) of the determinant (first word) is the same as the classifier consonant (first) of the determined (2nd word), the generic consonant is suppressed so as to avoid two of the same consonants in a row. This is also called portmanteau compounding.
  • dom city + mep waydomep boulevard
  • pat bird + teub mouthpateub beak
  • pat bird + tub armpatub wing
  • teb head + bok illnesstebok headache
When forming a compound word, the principal word has one or two prefixed vowels, this vowel or these vowels come at the beginning of the compound word.


  • tuyub fingeratuyub thumbiatuyub right thumb
Codifying the Negative and Opposite Senses[edit]
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 1st group, the negative sense or opposite sense is obtained by adding the prefixes o and yo, the latter being more intense.
  • mola naturalomola unnatural, artificial
  • tobyena humaneotobyena inhumane
  • data friendlyyodata inimical
  • tat angelyotat devil
In the codification of core words and derived words of the 2nd group, the opposite sense is obtained by prefixing lo dis-, un-, de- if followed by a consonant, or ol if followed by a vowel, eg.:
  • fwa wantedlofwa unwanted
  • yuxer to tie uployuxer to untie
  • axaxer to activateolaxaxer to deactivate
  • afwa allowableolafwa disallowed

Rule #5: Codification by the Addition of Ordinal Vowels[edit]

a) When you wish to form a compound word with words from a same family of vowels, if the ordinal vowel is an o, you replace it with the ordinal vowel of the determinant word.
a d o b republic
  d e b leader
a d e b president
i d o b kingdom
  d e b leader
i d e b king
b) If, on the other hand, the two words are already subordinate, then the vowel of the determinant is placed between the ordinal vowel of the determined and the generic consonant.
  • mil watermal airmial steam, vapor
  • mel soilmil watermeil mud
  • tul mealtil drinktuil soup
c) You can also form new compound words by applying the Rule # 6 above (a and b).
  • adob republicdab governmentadab government of the republic
  • adab government of the republicdeb leaderadaeb president of the republic
  • (Applying Rule #8 on feminizing words by post-iotation) ⇒ adaeyb Madam President of the Republic

Rule #6: Swapping Endings[edit]

When the generic consonant of a core word is replaced by that of another core word, all of the vowels of this latter word undergo the transformation required by the new generic consonant.

tob man tof clothing tov lingerie
tab body taf suit  
teb head tef hat tev scarf
teib nose   teiv handkerchief
tib' trunk tif vest  
tiab chest   tiav shirt
tyob leg tyof pants tyov underwear shorts
tyoyab foot tyoyaf shoe tyoyav sock
tuyob hand tuyof glove  

Rule #7: Scientific Vocabulary-building[edit]

Chemical Elements[edit]
The names of chemical elements are formed from a number representing the element's atomic number (number of electrons), followed by a letter combination indicating whether it is a metal or metalloid, and followed, if pertinent, by a combination of letters indicating whether it is a gas or liquid. The table that follows shows how this composition works:
silver 47 = ulye ulyem
aluminum 13 = ali alim
iron 46 = elya elyam
gold 79 = yelyum yelyum
copper 29 = elyu elyum
tin 50 = yolo yolom
phosophorus 15 = alyo alyoms
carbon 6 = ya yams
    GAS = al LIQUID = il
hydrogen 1 = a amsal
nitrogen 7 = ye yemsal
oxygen 8 = yi yimsal
mercury 80 = yilo yilomsil
The words amsal, yemsal, and yimsal each carry three pieces of information.
The first letter indicates their classification by number of electrons.
The two following letters: mc indicates metalloids; The two last letters: al indicates that they are a gas.
The word yilomil also carries three pieces of information:
The three first letters: 'yi-l-o show classification by number of electrons.
The fourth letter, m, indicates that it's a metal.
The two last letters, il, indicates that it's a liquid.
Other Non-elemental Substances[edit]
Non-elemental natural and man-made substances and alloys are formed using mnemonic components.
  • steel = elyamyig < elyam iron + yig(a) hard
  • plastic = sanyel < m- shape + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • rubber = yigyel < yig- soft + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cement = megyel < meg stone + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • glass = zyev < zy(e) (see) through + (m)ev porcelain
  • bronze = elyumyig < elyum copper + yig(a) hard
  • paint = vozil < voz color + -il liquid
  • ink = dril < dr(er) write + -il liquid
  • coal = yamsmumun < yams carbon + mum mine + -un substance
  • glue = yanil < yan together + -il liquid
  • paste = yanyel < yan together + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • resin = defabyel < defab pine tree + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • wood = faof < fa(b) tree + (n)of material, tissue
  • leather = tayof < tayo(b) skin + (n)of material, tissue
  • concrete = yanmulmeg < yan together + mul matter + meg stone
  • tar = movyik < mov smoke + yik(a) solid
  • lava = magmebil < mag fire + meb mountain + -il liquid
  • fuel = magil' < mag fire + -il liquid
  • shampoo = tayevyiyel < taye(b) hair + vyi(a) clean + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • detergent = vyunobil < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -il liquid
  • soap = vyunobyel < vyu(a) dirty + -(u)n substance + ob(er) remove + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • cheese = bilyig < bil milk + yig(a) hard
  • butter = bilyug < bil milk + yug(a) soft
  • syrup = gyalevil < gya extremely + lev(el) sugar, sweet + -il liquid
  • gravy = taobil < taob flesh, meat + -il liquid
  • alcohol = fil < (levaf) ferment + -il liquid
  • wax = apelatyel < apelat bee + -yel oil, wax, gel, gum
  • honey = apelatil < apelat bee + -il liquid
  • brick = mef < m(el) earthen + (no)f hard material
  • porcelain = mev < m(el) earthen + (no)v soft material
  • gem = mez < m(el) earthen + (no)z value, precious
Atomic and Subatomic Particles[edit]
From the word mul matter, substance, stuff, we get the following derivatives:
  • mul matter, substance, stuff
  • mula material, substantial, physical
  • omula immaterial, unsubstantial, non-physical
  • ovmul anti-matter
  • omul nothingness, void, nihil
  • omulxer anihilate
  • moza mul black matter
  • multun physics
  • multuna physics-related
  • multut physics scientist
  • mulog particle
  • muloga particulate
  • mulogxer crush, crumble, pulverize
  • vamulog proton
  • omulog neutron
  • vomulog electron
  • vomuloga electronic
  • vomulp electricity
  • vomulpa electric, electrical
  • vomulpaxer electrify
  • mules element
  • mulesa elemental
  • mulesyan compound
  • yanmul mix, mixture, chemical
  • yanmula chemical
  • yanmultun chemistry
  • yanmultuna chemical
  • yanmultut chemist
  • gwomul atom
  • gwomula atomic
  • obgwomula subatomic
  • zemul nucleus
  • zemula nuclear

Rule #8: The Feminization of Words[edit]

To form the feminine of a word or to indicate that an object or thing belongs to females, post-iotate (append a y) to the ordinal vowel of the word.
tob man toyb woman
tad spouse, husband tayd wife
tadet brother taydet sister
ted father teyd mother
tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt
tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
apet horse apeyt mare
epet bull epeyt cow
tiav shirt tiayv blouse
tyof pants tyoyf skirt
tulyuxut waiter tulyuxuyt waitress
Note that personal pronouns can be feminized as well. The unfeminized form is either masculine or neutral with respect to gender.
at I / me ayt we / us women
et you eyt you gals
it he / him iyt she / her
yat we / us yayt we females / us women
yet you guys yeyt you gals
yit they / them yiyt they / them (f.)
This process works for the possessive adjective derivatives of these pronouns:
  • iyta her
  • yeyta you gals'
The animate demonstrative pronouns (animate deictic determiners) can also be feminized:
  • uduyt that female person, she, her
  • iduyti these females, they, them

The pronouns ot one, yot they (generic) and (y)ut are not normally feminized.

Rule #9: Geophysical Vowel Coding[edit]

Geophysical vowel coding, as it's name indicates, occurs on vowels by giving them a particular geophysical meaning.
  • a = air, gas, skyward
  • e = soil, ground
  • i = water, liquid, juice, etc.
  • u = concrete thing, material, mineral, underground
  • o = abstract thing, initial item, outer space
This codification occurs on the ordinal vowel of 1st Group core words only.
m...m m...p d...p p...t m...l
mom outer space mop galaxy dop military pot animal mol nature
mam sky map wind dap air force pat bird mal air
mem land mep way dep army pet (land) animal mel soil
mim sea mip river dip navy pit fish mil water
mum underground mup tunnel mul mineral
Vowel coding also allows for arriving at other combined-concept word categories by placing a vowel having the value ascribed to it by Rule # 9 just a before the generic consonant of the initial word. (See Rule #5)
pait aquatic bird pat bird + liquid / sea
piat flying fish pit fish + skyward / air
diap naval aviation dip navy + skyward / air
meil mud mel' soil + liquid / sea

Rule #10: Directional and Positional Vowel Coding[edit]

Directional and positional vowel coding works along lines of the charts below. Those vowels preceded by a y (iotated vowels) are, for this analysis, considered to be vowels pure and simple. Those vowels that are capitalized are positional in nature and serve as prefixes to 1st group words. Those vowels that are italicized are directional as prefixes to 2nd group words. The vowels that are underlined are directional in nature and are infixed just after the classifying consonant of 2nd group words, mostly verbs.
A a a ya ya
U u u yu u E e e ye ye I i i yi yi
O o o yo yo
A positional 1st group prefix above, north amir north
a directional 2nd group prefix on, onto aber put on, ab on
a directional 2nd group infix on, onto baer lean on
ya directional 2nd group prefix up yaber lift up, yab up
ya directional 2nd group infix upward pyaser jump up
O positional 1st group prefix under, south omir south
o directional 2nd group prefix off, under, below ober take off, ob off
o directional 2nd group infix from below, downward boer support
yo directional 2nd group prefix down yober lower, yob down
yo directional 2nd group infix down with contact pyoser fall down
U positional 1st group prefix left, west umir west, utuyab left hand
u directional 2nd group prefix toward uper come, ub toward
u directional 2nd group infix to, toward with contact puer arrive, bu to
yu directional 2nd group prefix near yuber bring, yub near
yu directional 2nd group infix up to, as far as byuer touch, byu up to, as far as
I positional 1st group prefix right, east imir east, ituyab right hand
i directional 2nd group prefix away iper go away, ib away from
i directional 2nd group infix away with contact pier depart, bi to
yi directional 2nd group prefix far away, far from yiper go far away, yib far
yi directional 2nd group infix since, starting from byier originate, byi since
E positional 1st group prefix center, middle equator emir equator, eb between
e directional 2nd group prefix staying in the middle, between eper stay
e directional 2nd group infix stopped in the middle, at beer hold, be at
ye directional 2nd group prefix inside yeber contain, yeb in
ye directional 2nd group infix inside byeer keep
Examples of verbs undergoing the rules of directional coding:
With ber put (transitive):
aber put on eber hold ober take off iber receive uber send
yaber raise yeber contain yober lower yiber put away yuber bring
baer lean on beer keep boer hold up bier take buer give
byaer lift byeer conserve byoer hang byier obtain byuer reach for
With per go (intransitive):
aper get on eper stay oper get off iper go away uper come
yaper rise yeper enter yoper descend yiper put away yuper bring
paer stand peer wait poer fall pier depart puer arrive
pyaer get up pyeer stick around pyoer get down pyier originate pyuer reach

Rule #11: Codifying Mnemonic Markers[edit]

By changing the classifying or generic consonant of a derived word, a new, but related meaning can be obtained. Also, the classifying consonant can be replaced with an entire or partial word. The relationship among the altered word forms is therefore mnemonic. Here are some examples:
teub mouth teud cry     (d = communicate, utter, social)
teuz voice     (z = precious, art, etc.)
deuz song     (d = communicate, utter, social)
tayab fat fayab vegetable fat     (f = vegetable)
mayab mineral fat     (m = nature, mineral)
tub arm fub branch     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vub twig     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
dub minister     (d = communicate, utter, social)
xub department     (x = do, work)
patub wing     (pat = bird)
pitub fin     (pit = fish)
tayob skin fayob bark     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vayob peel     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
piyetayob shell     (piyet = mollusk)
pitayob scale     (pit = fish)
epeytayob cowhide     (epeyt = cow)
tayeb hair fayeb leaf     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
pitayeb scale     (pit = fish)
potayeb fur     (pot = animal)
patayeb feather     (pat = bird)
vosayeb petal     (vos = flower)
mayeb foil     (m = nature, mineral)
gorbayeb blade     (gorb = cut)
taob flesh, meat faob wood     (f = vegetable, tree, etc.)
vaob hay     (v = plant, flower, etc.)
epeytaob beef     (epeyt = cow)
kovaob thatch     (ko = cover + v = plant)
fyaob pulp     (fy(ab) = fruit )
faof board, plank     (f = vegetable, tree, etc. )
teater see teaxer look     (x = do, teab = eye)
teaper visit     (p = go)
teaser seem     (s = be)
teader testify     (d = communicate, utter, social)
izeader indicate     (iz = direct )
izteaxer aim     (x = do)
beaxer watch     (b(eer) = keep)
abeaxer survey     (ab = over)
yoneater discern     (yon = apart, t = know )
vyaleaxer check     (vyal = accurate )
yageaxer stare     (yag = long )
Suppressing Syllables for Brevity[edit]
Sometimes, syllables of longish words can be omitted for brevity as long as no confusion of meaning results. Here are some examples:
  • vafil wine < vafyabil (vafyab grape + -il liquid)
  • bil milk < tilabil (tilab breast + -il liquid)
  • ateuder neigh < apeteuder (apet horse + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • iteuder bray < ipeteuder (ipet donkey + (t)euder emit a cry)
  • bilyig cheese < tilabilyg (tilab breast + -il liquid + yig(a) hard)

Rule #12: Creating Nuances of Meaning[edit]

Words following Rule #12 are those that relate to one another through similarity of meaning or quality. These words differ by nuances indicated by phonetic devices that activate these nuances.
These nuances are obtained by:
a) Adding a sub-ordinal vowel of the same type as the ordinal:
a for a and ya
e for e and ye
i for i and yi
o for o and yo
u for u and yu
valay surely vaalay assuredly
nad line naad rail
dab government daab administration
dob state doob nation
tam house taam home
vyab rule vyaab regime, system
job time joob era, time period
b) Post-iotating ordinal vowels and subordinal vowels. Often, the meaning of the word with the post-iotated vowel is a mitigated nuance of the word without the iotated vowel:
nad line nayd ray
vua ugly vuya plain
ifer love iyfer like
iva happy iyva content
tam house taym cottage
ab on ayb over
ob off oyb under
en- two- eyn- half-
ud that uyd such
ama hot ayma warm
c) Adding the sense-augmenting consonants l and r, the latter being the stronger.
iva happy ivla glad ivra delighted
via beautiful vila magnificent vira marvelous
yifa brave yilfa courageous yirfa heroic
fua bad fula awful fura horrendous
alo hundred aro thousand amso million
yufxer intimidate yulfxer frighten yurfxer terrorize
aga big agla huge agra tremendous
Note: Sometimes the l or r nuance-enhancing consonants come after the generic consonant.
d) Adding consonants other than l and r as generic consonants. Sometimes, more than one nuance-altering consonant is added in the same word:
vala = sure
valta = safe

fua = bad
futa = evil [t usually refers to people or animals]

vyaa = true
vyala = authentic
vyafa = precise
vyama = real [m usually refers to nature, minerals, etc.]
vyava = exact [v usually refers to veracity]
vyalva = right
vyaba = regular [b usually refers to an organization or organism]
vyada = frank [d usually refers to communicating, talking, writing, etc.]
vyata = reliable
vyasma = concrete

Forming Adjectives[edit]

You can form an adjective by adding the suffix a to a substantive, adverb, or preposition. By substantive is meant a noun, pronoun, or gerund. Any of these can be adjectivized.
taam home taama domestic
doob nation dooba national
tej life teja vital
tyoyapyaf ability to walk tyoyapyafa ambulatory
martun astronomy martuna astronomical
at I, me ata my
etut yourself etuta your own
idyen this kind idyena this kind of
odut? who? oduta? whose?
ifeken recreation ifekena recreational
teje (he) lives tejea living
tojo will die tojoa moribund, about to die
tojbu would kill tojbua lethal
twe is known twa known

Adjectival Suffixes[edit]

Various types of adjectives can be created with adjectival suffixes beyond just a.
-aya full of, having, -ous, -ful, -ly
voz color vozaya colorful
futax resentment futaxaya resentful
tiibil blood tiibilaya bloody
yilf courage yilfaya courageous
-oya bereft of, -less, un-
voz color vozoya colorless, pale
tajyaf talent tajyafoya untalented
-ika full of, -ous, -ful, -y (same as -aya)
map wind mapika windy
-uka bereft of, without, -less (same as -oya)
nas money nasuka broke, penniless
-yena -like, -ous, -ly, -y, -ish, -ic, -al, having the qualities of
tobob child tobobyena childish, infantile
tot god totyena divine, godly
pit fish pityena fish-like, fishy
-wa or -awa -ed, past passive participle (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
t- know twa or tawa known
dal- speak dalwa or dalawa spoken, oral
nisbu- sell nisbuwa sold
-ea -ing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
ot- not know otea ignorant
tej- live tejea living, alive
tuj- die tujea dying
-yea -ive, prone to Xing, given to X (added to verb stem) VERB STEM PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE
tujb- kill tujbyea murderous
tex- think texyea pensive, thoughtful
tox- forget toxyea forgetful
ax- act axyea active
-uwa -able, apt to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL PASSIVE PARTICIPLE
ex- operate exuwa operable
tos feel tosuwa palpable
tex- think texuwa conceivable
tel- eat teluwa edible
-yafa -able, capable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafa sightful, able to see
dyed- read dyedyafa literate
-yafwa -able, possible to be Xed (added to verb stem) VERB STEM POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyafwa visible
tax- remember taxyafwa memorable
teet- hear teetyafwa audible
tel- eat telyafwa edible
-yofa incapable of Xing (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL SUBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofa blind
tyoyap- walk tyoyapyofa lame
teet- hear teetyofa deaf
dal- speak dalyofa dumb, incapable of speaking
-yofwa un-X-able (added to verb stem) VERB STEM NEGATIVE POTENTIAL OBJECT-ORIENTED
teat- see teatyofwa invisible
teet- hear teetyofa inaudible
tox- forget toxyofa unforgetable
dal- speak dalyofa unspeakable

Negating Adjectives[edit]

The sense of an adjective can be negated with the prefix o or the more intensive yo.
  • vlea probable ovlea improbable
  • vyafa perfect ovyafa imperfect
  • twa known otwa unknown
  • bosa calm yobosa worried
  • tatyena angelic yotatyena diabolical

Altering the Sense of Adjectives with Prefixes[edit]

As in English, the sense of adjectives can be altered by a number of prefixes of Germanic, Latin, and Greek origin. Here are the most common:
un-, a(n)-, in-, non- o- obaka unhealthy, oyezyebeya incontinent, oyelpea non-invasive, ototina atheist
anti-, counter- ov- ovzuina anti-leftist, oviztida counter-intuitive
pseudo- kovyo- kovyotepina pseudo-intellectual
all-, pan-, omni- yad- yadtea all-knowing, omniscient
re- yeg- yegtajbwa re-born
mis- vyo- vyoseudwa mispronounced
semi-, half- eyn- eynlevelaya semi-sweet, eyntija half-awake
ultra-, super- yiz-, gwa- gwadoobina ultra-nationalist, yizmola supernatural
under-, hypo- gro- grojaga under-aged
over-, hyper-, uber- gra- graagxwa overgrown, gratoseya hypersensitive
miso- [see suffixes]
multi-, many-, poly- gla- glakuma multilateral, glatadaya polygamous
mal-, ill- fu- futeyenxwa ill-conceived, fusanxwa malformed
well- fi- fitofabwa well-dressed
quasi- yuyb- yuybdaba quasi-governmental
pre-, (a)fore-, pro- ja- jateyenxwa pre-conceived, jaigdawa aformentioned
post- jo- jodropeka post-war

English and Mirad Adjectival Suffix Comparison[edit]

Here is a chart showing a comparison between English adjectival suffixes and their Mirad counterparts:
-ful full of -aya, -ika vozaya colorful, tuzika skillful
-ous full of -aya, -ika nazika precious, milaya aqueous
-filled full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoke-filled
-y full of -aya, -ika movika / movaya smoky,
-ous of, like -a totina religious, vyosa erroneous
-ly like -yena totyena godly, toybyena womanly
-like like -yena patyena bird-like
-ish like -yena tobobyena childish
-y like -yena fyabyena fruity
-ic like -yena tuzyena artistic, silyena acidic
-ic of, related to -a tuna scientific, , beka therapeutic
-ical of, related to -a zyunida spherical, iztexa logical
-ological pertaining to the study of -tuna tejtuna biological
-ist(ic) pertaining to the doctrine of -ina doparina militarist(ic), nasyanina capitalist(ic)
-ophobic (and miso- prefix) hating, fearful of -ufa yudatufa xenophonic, tobyanufa misanthropic
-ophilic (and philo- prefix) loving -ifa tobobifa pedophilic, tobifa philanthropic
-al like -yena pyotyena bestial
-al of, pertaining to -a teja vital, amana thermal
-less without, empty of -oya, -uka tejuka lifeless, toboboya childless
-free without, empty of -oya, -uka yomuka ice-free, vyosoya, error-free

Forming Adverbs[edit]

Adjectives can be converted into adverbs by post-iotating the adjectival suffix a, in other words, by adding a y to the adjective. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
fia good fiay well
vyaa true vyaay truly
gyua easy gyuay easily
iga quick igay quickly
auta personal autay personally
For brevity's sake, the stem of deadjectival adverbs like those above can be used at the end of a clause or sentence. For example:
  • It tyoyape ig. He walks fast.
  • Yit xa ad fi. They did it well.

Special Adverbs[edit]

Mirad has special adverbs that may or may not end in -ay.
Three of these special adverbs are in the chart below:
va yes vay indeed, really, certainly, do
ve maybe, perhaps vey possibly, may, might
vo no voy not
The adverbs in the second column of the above table are used to affirm or emphasize, cast doubt on, or negate verb predicates as in the examples that follow:
  • AFFIRMATIVE: Va, at vay se tadsa. Yes, I am indeed married.
  • DUBITIVE: Iyta dud se vey vyosa. Her response is possibly wrong.
  • NEGATIVE: At voy se eta yurxut. I am not your slave.
Other special adverbs, which do not end in -ay, include the following, which can all double as spatio-directional prepositions:
yab up Ad pat papa yab bu ad mam. The bird flew up to the sky.
yob down Teaxu yob bu ad mel. Look down to the ground.
yub near Pesu yub ad mas. Stay near the wall.
yib far Ad tobi igpia yib ad yovbyokam. The men fled far from the prison.
ib away Teaxu ib, diwe. Look away, please.
ub this way Tyoyapu ub. Walk toward this way.
yeb in, inward, inside Kyedu odut ogja tyoyapa yeb! Guess who just walked in!
oyeb out, outside It tyoyapa oyeb zye ad zama mes.' He walked out through the front door.
yuz around Yit daza yuz yat. They danced around us.
yiz beyond Et yefe teaxer yiz id titam av yux. You must look beyond this school for help.

Forming Verbs[edit]

Verbs can be formed from various parts of speech.

Forming Verbs from Nouns[edit]

Verbs can often be formed from nouns simply by adding the verb infinitive suffix er:
syag count syager to count
tof clothes tofer to dress
tam house tamer to dwell, live, reside
dyun name dyuner to name, call
teud cry, shout teuder to cry, shout, exclaim
taj birth tajer to be born
tej life tejer to live
toj house tojer to die
ej present ejer to continue
ij beginning ijer to begin
uj end ijer to end
yuj sleep tujer to sleep

Verb Formants[edit]

Sometimes an auxiliary verb or verb stub is used to create various verbs from nouns. The most common such verb formants are in this chart:
  • -ser to be usually intransitive and stative (unite = become one)
  • -xer to do/make usually transitive and dynamic (unite = make one)
  • -per to go usually intransitive and a verb of motion (mount = get onto)
  • -ber to put usually transitive and a verb of gesture (apply = put onto)
  • -ier a stub from the verb to take, usually an action verb benefitting the agent (eat = take food)
  • -uer a stub from the verb to give, usually an action verb benefitting the patient (feed = give food)
  • -der to say, a verb of communication (affirm = say yes)
  • ....and others....
yav innocence der to say yavder to acquit
yov shame, guilt aber to apply, put on yovaber to shame, accuse
yov shame, guilt ober to remove, take off yovober to excuse, exculpate
tof clothes aber to apply, put on tofaber to dress, don
tof clothes ober to remove, take off tofober to undress, strip
det associate ser to be, become detser to associate
dat friend xer to do, make datxer to befriend
san form ser to be, become sanser to form (intransitive)
san form xer to do, make sanxer to form (transitive)
tel food (b)ier to take telier to eat, consume
tel food (b)uer to give teluer to feed, nourish
if pleasure (b)ier to take ifier to enjoy
if pleasure (b)uer to give ifuer to please
taj birth (b)uer to give tajuer to give birth
tej life (b)ier to take tejier to come alive
tej life (b)uer to give tejuer to bring to life
toj death (b)ier to take tojier to drop dead
toj death (b)uer to give tojuer to kill
tij wakefulness (b)ier to take tijier to wake up
tij wakefulness (b)uer to give tijuer to awaken
tuj sleep (b)ier to take tujier to fall asleep
tuj sleep (b)uer to give tujuer to put to sleep
tax memory (b)ier to take taxier to recall
tax memory (b)uer to give taxuer to remind
yev justice der to say, tell yevder to judge
vyan truth der to say, tell vyander to tell the truth
vyon falsehood der to say, tell vyonder to tell a lie
il liquid aker to gain ilaker to take on liquid
il liquid oker to lose iloker to leak, lose liquid
il liquid (b)ier to take ilier to soak up
il liquid (b)uer to give iluer to pour, water
il liquid ikser to get full ilikser to be soaked (intransitive)
il liquid ikxer to fill up ilikxer to flood, soak (transitive)
il liquid ukser to become empty ilukser to drain (intransitive)
il liquid ukxer to empty ilukxer to flush (transitive)
il liquid ser to be, become ilser to liquify, melt (intransitive)
il liquid xer to do, make ilxer to liquify, melt (transitive)
il liquid aber to apply, put on ilaber to wash (transitive)
il liquid aper to get on ilaper to float (intransitive)
il liquid per to go ilper to flow (intransitive)
il liquid zyaber to spread ilzyaber to spray, shower (transitive)
il liquid zyober to squeeze ilzyober to squirt (transitive)
il liquid pyexer to strike ilpyexer to splash (with liquid)
il liquid yujer to close ilyujer to plug
Note that verbs ending in -ser and -ier are intransitive (they take no object), while those ending in -xer and -uer are transitive. Also, -ier verbs are inchoative, while -uer verbs are causative (making someone do something).

Forming Verbs from Adjectives With -xer and -ser[edit]

The verbs that are formed from adjectives fall mainly into two groups, the transitive group with -xer to do, make, cause, and the intransitive group with -ser to be, become.
The following chart shows how these verbs are formed:
aza strong azaxer fortify, strengthen, make strong azaser get strong
oza week ozaxer weaken ozaser grow weaker
kyia heavy kyiaxer weigh down kyiaser grow heavy
kyua light kyuaxer lighten, make lighter kyiaser get lighter
yana together yanaxer bring together yanaser get together
The final adjective ending a is often dropped to form a verb with a slightly different meaning, usually somewhat more idiomatic. In some cases, dropping the a makes it clear that the verb is created from a noun rather than an adjective, as in the last example of the following chart:
aga big agaxer magnify agaser get big
agxer grow agxer grow up, mature
iga fast igaxer accelerate igaser speed up
igxer rush igser hurry up
baka healthy bakaxer make healthy bakaser get healthy
bakxer heal bakser heal
sana formal sanaxer formalize sanaser become formal
san form, shape sanxer form, shape sanser form, take shape

Forming Verbs of Gesture and Motion with -ber and -per[edit]

Verbs of gesture are formed with the transitive auxiliary verb ber to put, while parallel verbs of motion are formed with the intransitive auxiliary verb per to go. These verbs are usually paired and are often built from a prepositional base. If the prepositional base ends in b, the b is dropped. Here are some examples:
ab on aber apply, put on aper mount, get on
ob off ober remove, take off oper dismount, get off
yab up yaber raise yaper rise
yob down yober lower yoper descend
zay forward zayber advance zayper advance, go forward
zey across zeyber take across, transfer zeyper cross, go over, transit
zoy back zoyber set back, return zoyper retreat, go back, return
iz straight izber lead, direct, steer izper head, go straight
uz crooked uzber divert uzper turn, diverge
More elaborate verbs of gesture and motion can be formed by adding positional/directional ordinal vowels along with combinations of ser and xer, plus the intensifiers l and r. In this more complex world, the last letter of the stem determines the transitivity.
ber put per go
bixer pull pixer catch
buxer push puxer throw
buser aim for puser jump
byuser bump into pyuser tackle
bexer hold pexer trap
beser stay peser wait
byexer beat pyexer strike
byeser behave pyeser run into
baxer shake paxer move
baser gesture paser move
byaxer set up, erect pyaxer shoot, launch
byaser stand up pyaser leap, jump up
boxer calm down, quell poxer stop
boser calm down, rest poser stop
byoxer knock down poxer drop, throw down
byoser stumble pyoser fall, dive
Yet more complex verbs can be generated by adding directional and positional prefixes to the above verbs. Let's just take the one verb baxer (and its intransitive partner baser) as our base verb and generate many others through prefixation of prepositional and other words as shown in the following chart:
baxer gesture, make a bodily motion
ab on abaxer caress, pat, pet, stroke, rub
iz straight izbaxer point
teb head tebaxer nod
va yes vatebaxer nod yes
vo no votebaxer nod no
ve maybe vetebaxer shrug
tuyab hand tuyabaxer wave
tub arm tubaxer flail, swing
teubab tongue teubabaxer lick
teab eye teubaxer wink
patub wing patubaxer flap
tiyub tail tiyubaxer wag
baser gesticulate
ig- fast igbaser jerk
zay forward igzaybaser lurch
zoy back zoybaser recoil
yob down yobaser bow, bend down
ku- side kubaser slide
ig- fast igkubaser slip
iz straight + uz curved izuzbaser sway, swagger, swish
zi right + zu left zizubaser wiggle, wobble, totter

Forming Frequentative Verbs[edit]

A frequentative verb, that is, one that involves an action done quickly multiple times in succession, can be formed by affixing the syllable eg to the verb stem. Here are some examples:
paser move paseger shake, shudder
pyaser jump pyaseger bounce
paper fly papeger flutter, flit
braser shake braseger shudder, quivver, vibrate
teupixer bite teupixeger nibble
ilzyaber spray ilzyabeger sprinkle

Word Families[edit]

The core words serve as nuclei for the word families. The nuclei represent an idea, an element, a type, a gesture, a movement that can be categorized or classified. Thus, the word families formed according to word-building rules represent large word groups that have meaningful relationships among them.
This is a language where phonetics is used to present mnemonic relationships and analogy among words as in the following example, based on the word teub mouth:
ceux sound
xeus noise
xeuz tune
teuz voice
deuz song
seuz tone
deus accent
Here are some other examples where analogy and mnemonics are used to the maximum:
teb head deb leader xeb boss feb treetop
tub limb dub minister xub subsidiary fub branch vub twig patub wing petub paw pitub fin
teub mouth pateub beak peteub muzzle
tayeb hair patayeb feather pitayeb scale fayeb leaf vosayeb petal potayeb mane
tayob skin tayof leather petayob hide fayob bark vayob peel
tyob leg fyob root vyob plant root
tib trunk fib tree trunk vib stem
tulob nail petulob claw fulob thorn defulob needle mulob pin, prick
tiibuf artery fuf pipe muf stick, rod movuf cheminee fauf log manuf candle
til drink teabil tear teubil saliva dril ink mil water mamil rain tayobil sweat bil milk

The xer (Do) Family[edit]

The verb xer means to do. Many words are built from this core word using the postional/directional vowel coding rule. Words ending in xer contrast with those ending in ser, in that the former are transitive (taking an object), as opposed to intransitive (taking no object).

Core Words[edit]

This chart shows the core verbs in the xer family:
axer act exer function oxer abstain ixer effect uxer cause
alxer activate elxer operate olxer fail ilxer react ulxer influence
arxer perform
xaer execute xeer exercise xoer undergo, submit xier result xuer affect
xeyer behave
xaler accomplish xeler practice xoler fail xiler undertake xuler achieve
yexer work yoxer be idle yixer use, hire yuxer help, serve
yerxer struggle yorxer resign yirxer exploit yurxer slave

Creating Derived xer Words with Prefixes[edit]

Using prefixation, many other words can be built from these core words:
Keep in mind that xer can mean do, make, or cause in the following derived terms:
ana single + xer make anaxer unify
an- one- + xer make anxer unite
yana together + exer operate yanexer cooperate
yan- together + yexer work yanyexer collaborate
yon- apart + xer make yonxer split
ge- equal + xer make gexer copy
ja before + xer make jaxer prepare
je while + xer do jexer continue
ig- fast + xer do igxer rush
ug- slow + xer do ugxer delay
oj future + xer do ojxer plan
yeg- re- + xer do yegxer redo
sa(n) shape + xer make saxer create
se(n) being + xer make sexer build
lo- un- + sexer build losexer destroy
t...(p) mind + e (present tense) + xer do texer think
t...(p) mind + a (past tense) xer do taxer remember
t...(p) mind + o (future tense) + xer do toxer forget
mel soil + yexer work melyexer plough
tea(b) eye + xer do teaxer look
o- un- + yirxer hire oyirxer fire
mag fire + xer cause magxer burn
yuf fear + xer cause yufxer frighten
dofun crime + xer do dofunxer commit a crime
gra too much + xer do graxer exaggerate
yeg- re- + axer act yegaxer react
fu- bad + xeyer behave fuxeyer misbehave

Using xer to Build Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

Hundreds of verbs can be created with adjectives and xer as a suffix like -ify, -ate, -ize in English.
aga big agaxer magnify
goa lesser goaxer diminish
fia good fiaxer improve
jwoa late jwoaxer retard
uva sad uvaxer sadden
via beautiful viaxer beautify
ebdooba international ebdoobaxer internationalize
Note: Sometimes, the adjectival ending -a is dropped. This often produces a difference nuance. For example, agaxer means to magnify, make bigger, but agxer is more idiomatic and means to grow.
The passive of xer, xwer to be done can be used to mean to happen or to become. For example:
  • Odjob ud xwa? When did that happen?
  • At uvaxwa odjob at teata ad tobob. I became sad (=was saddened) when I saw the child.

Using xer for All-Purpose Idioms[edit]

The verb xer can be used as an all-purpose verb for actions which in English are expressed with a variety of idiomatic verbs, for example:
  • xer deuz to perform a song
  • xer ifpop to take a cruise
  • xer ebdid to conduct an interview

Derived Words[edit]

Here are some important derivations of the verb xer:

xer do

xen doing
xun deed
xut doer
xwa done
xwer be done, happen
xwen happening, event
xwas fact, happening, deed, event
xwasyan facts, news, happening, events
eja xwasyan current events
xwasdren fact sheet, log
xwasa factual, actual
loxer undo
loxen undoing
loxwa undone
yegxer redo
yegxwa redone
xeut agent
xeun business
xeem agency
xeon fact
xeona factual
xeoj case
xeoja casual
xej event
xeja eventual
xejay eventually
xejan eventuality
xejaya eventful
xejes incident
xejesa incidental
xejesay incidentally
xem studio, office, bureau
xemsem desk
xeb boss, manager, foreman
xag frequency
glaxaga frequent
glaxagay frequently, often
gloxagay seldom
odxag? how often?
yodxag never
edxag sometimes
gaxag more often
goxag less often
gexag as often
gexag ev yafwa as often as possible:::

axer act, perform

ax act, performance
axyan activity
oax inaction, non-action
axen action, performance
axea acting, performing
oaxea inactive
oaxean inactivity
jaaxea proactive
jaaxean proactivity
loaxer deactivate
loaxen deactivation
loaxwa deactivated
axeya active
oaxeya inactive
axar activator, on switch
loaxar deactivator, off switch
axut actor, performer
axun act, performance
joax followup

alxer operate

alxen operation
alxena operational
alxut operator
alxim operating room

exer operate, function, work

ex function
exa functional
oex dysfunction, breakdown
oexa dysfunctional, out of service
exen operation
exena operational, functional
exea operational, functioning, in service
oexea out of service, not operating, non-functioning, out of service
exean operating state
exuwa operable
oexuwa inoperable, disfunctional
exuwan operability
exut operator
exutyan operating staff
exeb chief, boss, manager, foreman

oxer be idle

oxen idling
oxea idling, idle

yexer work, labor

yex work, labor, job, employment
yexes task, job
yexen working
yexea working
yexut worker, laborer
yexem worksite
yexam workplace
yexim work room, laboratory, office, lab
yexsem desk
yexeb boss, task master
yextaf work attire
yexpox strike
yexpoxut striker
yexpoxer strike
yexirper retire
yexirpen retirement
yexirpa retired
yexirpat retiree
yexoya jobless
yexoyan joblessness
yexoyat jobless person
yexoyaser become jobless
yexorber fire, dismiss
yexorbwer be fired, be dismissed
yexorbwa fired, dismissed
yexorben firing, dismissal
tuyabyex manual labor
tuyabyexut manual laborer
yexwer struggle, work hard, try, endeavor
melyex farming, agriculture
melyexut farmer
melyexam farmhouse
melyexem farm
melyexa agricultural
gonjob yex part-time work
ganjob yex full-time work
yizjob yex overtime work
onus yex pro bono work
fanaya yex volunteer work
yurxwat yex slave work
yex jwobyan work schedule
azatay yexer work hard, work strenuously
azyexer work hard
azyexut hard worker
ozyexer slack off
ozyexut slackard
grayexut workaholic
grayexen workaholism
grayexea workaholic, overly industrious
groyexut slackard, underworker
groyexen slacking off, underworking
groyexea slackard, underworking, unindustrious
yanyexer cooperate, collaborate, work together
yanyexen cooperation, collaboration, working together
yanyexa cooperative, collaborative
yanyexeya cooperative
yanyexeyan cooperativeness
oyanyexeya uncooperative
yanyexut colleague, co-worker, collaborator
yexyan works
yonyexer work apart, compete
tamyexer work at home, telecommute, work domestically
tamyexut work-at-home, telecommuter, house worker
tamyexen working from home, telecommuting
tamyex house work, domestic chore
ebyexer interwork
ebyex interworkings, network, complex

xaer execute

xaen execution
xaeya executive
xaut executive

xaler accomplish

xal accomplishment
xalwa accomplished
xalaya accomplished, gifted
graxalaya very accomplished, very gifted

xeyer behave

xeyen behavior, comportment
xeyena behavioral

xelier busy oneself, occupy oneself, take on business xeluer busy, occupy

xel practice, rite
faxel sacrifice, mass, holy service, sacred rite
faxela ritual, ceremonial, sacrificial
faxeler perform the mass, perform a sacred service
faxelut celebrant, priest
ivxeler celebrate
ivxel celebration, feast, ceremony
ivxela celebratory, festive, ceremonial

xerer exercise, practice, profess

xeren practice, profession,, occupation
fuxeren malpractice
xerena practical, professional
xerenan practicality
xerut practicioner, professional

xena active

xenaxer activate
xenaxen activation
xenaxwa activated
oxenaxer deactivate
oxenaxen deactivation
oxenaxwa deactivated

xeut agent, author

xeem agency
xeon fact
xeoj case:
xeun business
xeunut businessman
xeunuyt businesswoman

xuer affect, bring about

xun effect, factor
xuen affecting
xuna affective
xuwa affected

xier result

xin result
xiea resulting
xina resultative
ge xin as a result
ge xin bi as a result of

uxer cause

ux cause, factor
uxen causation
uxa causal
uxwa caused
uxeya causative
bi odux? why?
bi adux lav because

ulxer influence

ulx influence
ulxwa influenced
ulxeya influential

uyxer motivate

uyx motive
uyxen motivation
uyxena motivational
uyxwa motivated

ix effect

ux ay ix cause and effect
ixeya effective, effectual
oixeya ineffectual, ineffective
ixeyan effectiveness

yuxer help, aid, assist, serve

yux help, aid, assistance, service
yuxut helper, aid, assistant, servant
yuxen helping, aiding, assisting, serving
yuxun means, aid
yuxwa helped, aided, assisted, served
yuxea helping, assisting, serving
oyuxea unhelpful
yuxeya helpful
yuxeyan helpfulness
fiyuxer benefit
fiyux benefit
fiyuxea beneficial
aayux first aid
igefyux emergency assistance
igefyuxut emergency assistance personnel

yulxer serve

yulx service, labor
yulxen serving
yulxut server, servant, laborer
yulxutyan service staff
yulxun means, agent
yulxam agency
yulxuwa serviceable

yurxer be a slave, slave

yurxen slavery
yurxut slave
yurxwa enslaved person, slave
yurxwat enslaved
yurxwan enslavement

yixer use, utilize

yix use, utility
yixen using, utilization
yixwa used, utilized
oyixwa unused
yixut user
yixun utility, tool
yixunyem toolbox
yixunyan equipment
fiyix good use, benefit
fiyixuwa beneficial
fiyixer put to good use
fiyixwa well-used
fuyix misuse, abuse
fuyixer misuse, abuse
fuyixut abuser
fuyixwa abused, misused:

yilxer employ, hire

yilx employment, hire
yilxen employment, hiring
yilxut employer
yilxwa employed, hired
yilxwat employee
oyilxwa unemployed
oyilxwan unemployment
oyilxuwa unemployable
oyilxwat unemployed person
yilxpar taxi, taxicab, cab

yirxer exploit

yirx exploit
yirxen exploitation
yirxena exploitational
yirxwa exploited
yirxuwa exploitable
yirxuwan exploitability
oyirxwa unexploited
oyirxwa unexploitable
oyirxwan unexploitability
yirxut exploiter
yirxeya exploitative
yirxeyan exploitativeness

jaxer prepare, ready

jaxen preparation, readying
jaxena preparatory
jaxwa prepared, ready
ojaxwa unprepared, not ready
jaxwan preparedness, readiness
jaxeya preparative
jaser prepare oneself, get prepared, get ready

jexer continue

jexen continuation
jexeya continual
jexea continuing, continual
jexwa continued
lojexer discontinue
lojexen discontinuation
lojexwa discontinued

gexer copy

gex copy
gexar copier
gexun copy
gexwa copied
gexut copycat

egxer re-do, repeat

egxen re-doing, repetition
egxwa re-done, repeated
egxeya repetitive

ojxer plan, project

ojxen planning
ojxun plan
ojxwa planned
olojxwa unplanned, spontaneous
ojxut planner

xeser organize

xes organ
xesa organic
oxes mess, disarray, disorganization
xesen organizing, organization
xesena organizational
loxeser mess up, disorganized
loxesen disorganization
xeswa organized
oxeswa disorganized
xesut organizer

egfiaxer fix, repair

egfiaxen reparation
egfiaxeya reparative
egfiaxena reparational
egfiaxwa repaired, fixed
egfiaxut repairman
egfiaxam repair shop
egfiaxuwas fixer-upper

loxer undo

loxen undoing
loxwa undone

igxer hurry, hasten, rush

igxen hurring, haste, rush
igxwa hurried, rushed
igser hurry up, rush, hasten

aaxer initiate

aaxen initiation
aaxwa initiated
aaxut initiator
aaxwat initiate

saxer make, fabricate, create, craft

saxun creation
saxut creator, manufacturer
saxen creation, fabrication, making, craft, manufacturing
saxwa created, fabricated, made, crafted, manufactured
tamsaxwa homemade, domestically crafted
saxem factory, plant
saxim studio, lab
saxwat creature
saxeya creative
saxeb manufacturer
tuyabsaxwa hand-made, hand-crafted, made by hand

sexer build, construct

sexun building
yabsexun skyscraper, highrise
sexen construction
sexeya constructive
sexeyan constructiveness
osexeya unconstructive
sexut builder, constructor
sexeb master builder
visextun architecture
visextut architect
visextuna architectural
sexem construction site
sexwa built, constructed
fisexwa well-built
fusexwa shoddy
osexer destroy
osexen destruction
osexeya destructive
osexut destroyer
osexwa destroyed

amber found

ambun foundation
ambut founder
ambea ted founding father
amben founding
ambwa founded
Note the following parallelism:
xyen industry byen manner tyen occupation syen fashion tryen profession

The ser (Be) Family[edit]

Core Words[edit]

The core verb ser means to be and is the base for many verbs having to do with being, becoming, and creating. Verbs ending in ser are intransitive (taking no object) and contrast with those ending in xer, which are transitive (taking an object). Verbs in ser often are stative, i.e. linking verbs.
aser become eser exist, there to be oser cease to be iser start out user end up

Creating Stative Verbs from Adjectives[edit]

The core verb ser can be postfixed to adjectives to form a class of verbs called stative, which have the meaning become X, and which contrast with parallel transitive verbs in xer. If the adjectival ending a is dropped, then the resulting stative verb has a more idiomatic sense.
aga big agaser get big
aga big agser grow
uza curved uzaser curve, bend, bow
kyaa mobile kyaser change, vary
mayna clear maynaser clear up
iga fast igaser become fast, accelerate
iga fast igser rush, hurry
Stative verbs in -ser are most often intransitive and contrast with dynamic, transitive verbs in -xer. Here are some comparative examples:
  • It agxe vafyabi. He grows grapes. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Vafyabi voy agse fi idem. Grapes do not grow well here. (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)
  • Id kyaxa yata teji. This changed our lives.
  • Yata teji kyasa udjub. Our lives changed on that day.
  • Ad mapi uzaxa ad fabi. The winds bent the trees.
  • Ad fabi uzasa je ad mapilag. The trees bowed during the storm.
  • Ho igxu at. Don't rush me. (TRANSITIVE/DYNAMIC)
  • Igsu! Hurry up! (INTRANSITIVE/STATIVE)

Creating Stative Verbs from Nouns[edit]

The above stative verbs were created from adjectives, but such verbs can also be formed from nouns and have the meaning to become X
meg stone megser petrify, become rock
abnod peak abnodser peak, climax
mus scale, stair musser escalate
yom ice yomser freeze
maf cloud mafser cloud over
il liquid ilser liquefy, melt

Creating Dynamic Verbs from Inherently Stative Verbs[edit]

Some verbs with stems ending in -j are inherently stative. Their dynamic/transitive counterparts end in -ber. Here are some examples:
tojer die tojber kill
tajer be born tajber give birth (to), bear
tejer live tejber bring to life
tijer be awake tijber awaken
tujer sleep tujber put to sleep
ijer begin ijber begin (something)
ujer end ijber finish, put an end to
yijer open up yijber open up (something)
yujer close yujber close, bring to a close

Derived Words[edit]

Here are some common words derived from ser:

saer form, represent, comprise

san shape, form, representation
sanaya shapely
sanayan shapeliness
sanxer form, shape [transitive]
sanxen formation, shaping
sanxena formational
sanxeya formative
sanxwa formed, shaped
fisanxwa well-formed
fisanxen reformation
fusanxwa poorly-formed, malformed, deformed, misshapen
fusanxen malformation, deformation, misshapening
egsanxer reshape, reform, shape up
egsanxen reshaping, reformation
egsanxwa reshaped, reformed
egsanxut reshaper, reformer
kyasanxer transform
kyasanxen transformation
kyasanxena transformational
kyasanxwa transformed, morphed
kyasanxar transformer
kyasanxeya transformative
sanser form, morph [intransitive]
kyasanser change shape, transform
egsanser shape up, get into shape
yansanser conform
yansanen conformity
yansanin conformism
yansanina conformist
yansaninat conformist
oyansanina non-conformist
oyansanin non-conformism
oyansaninat non-conformist
santun morphology
santuna morphological
santut morphologist
oyebsan aspect, outer form
oyebsana aspectual
sana formal
sanaxer formalize
sanaxen formalization
sanan formality
sanay formally
osana informal
osanan informality
sanin formalism
sanina formalistic
saninat formalist
ansana uniform
ansanan uniformity
anasana unique
anasanan uniqueness
sanoya formless
sanoyan formlessness
visana classic
visanyena classical
visantun classics
visantut classisist
vyasan original, true form
vyasana original
vyasanan originality
zyusan round shape, circle
ukunsan rectangle, rhombus
ukunsana rectangular, rhomboid
ugekunsan square, rectangle
ugekunsana square, square-shaped, rectangular
igunsan triangle
igunsana triangular
ugunsan tetragon
ugunsana tetragonal
yogunsan pentagon
yogunsana pentagonal
yagunsan hexagon
yagunsan hexagonal
yigunsan octagon
yigunsana octagonal
agvusan blob, big ugly shape
sandren formulation
sandrena formulaic
sandrer formulate
sandrun formula
yansaner constitute
yansan constitution
yansana constitutional
yansanea constituent

saun model, pattern, kind, genre, type, genus, species, sort

sauna generic, typical
saunaber classify, assign to a type, sort
saunaben classification, sorting
saunabwa classified, sorted
saunaser typify, be modeled after

salun specimen aasaun prototype, archetype, pattern, model

aasauna prototypical, archetypical

asauna special, especial, specific

asaunay especially, specially, specifical
asaunan speciality
asaunaxer specialize
asaunaxen specialization
asaunaxwa specialized

yasauna general

yasaunay generally
yasaunaxer generalize
yasaunaxen generalization
yasaunaxwa generalized

yansaun class anasauna unique

anasaunay uniquely

saunes sample

saunesier sample
saunesien sampling

utsaun example

utsauna exemplary

vyasaun original, original specimen

vyasauna original

vyosaun counterfeit, fake

vyosauna counterfeit, fake

visaun classic

visauna classic, classical, high-class

vusauna degenerate, low-class, base gesauna same kind of idsauna this kind of lusauna that kind of, such dulesauna? what kind of? yadsauna every kind of yedsauna any kind of, whatever kind of yodsauna no kind of, no sort of adsauna the kind of edsauna some kind of idsauna the same kind of, the very kind of udsauna another kind of, a different sort of ideyudsauna various kinds of: soer undergo, submit

soen submission
soeyea submissive

son matter, thing, subject, affair, issue

kyison important matter, grave matter, grave issue
kyisona important, grave
kyisonay importantly, gravely
kyisonan importance, gravity
kyuson triviality, trivial matter
kyusona trivial
kyusonay trivially
kyusonan triviality
dalson issue, topic, subject
zeson focus
zesoner focus
zesonwa focussed
ozesonwa unfocussed
gyison problem, difficult matter, hard issue
gyisona problematic, difficult
gyisonxer complicate
gyisonxen complication
gyisonxwa complicated
ogyisonxer uncomplicate, resolve
ogyisonxen resolution
oson non-issue, blank, nothingness, nihil
koson secret, mystery
kosona secret
kosonan secrecy
kosonaya secretive, mysterious
kason solution
kasoner solve, resolve
kanonen resolution
vyeson theme, subject, topic
vyesona thematic, topical, relevant
ovyesona irrelevant, immaterial, athematic
ifson pleasure, fun
ifsonuer please
ifsonuea pleasing, pleasant
ifsonier enjoy, have fun
ifsoniuwa enjoyable
yevson law case, court case, suit
doyevson civil case
ovson suit
evson contingency
avson cause, case
ivson comedy
ivsona comic
uvson tragedy
uvsona tragic
keson question, query
igefson emergency, crisis
igefsona critical
jeson situtation
jesona situational
kyeson imponderable matter

sin picture, image

sina pictorial
sinxer depict, describe
sinxun depiction, description
sinyuz picture frame
tepsin imagination
tepsina imaginary
tepsiner imagine
otepsinuwa unimaginable
sinier visualize, imagine
sinien visualization, imagination
siniwa imagined, imaginary
sinuer display, exhibit, show, depict
sinuun display, exhibit, show, depiction
sinuut display artist, exhibitor
sinuwa displayed, exhibited, depicted
sinuem scene, stage, exhibition site, display site
sinuwasyan scenery
sinuwasyana scenic
mansin photograph, photo, still shot
mansina photographic
mansinar camera, still camera
mansinxer photograph
passin movie, motion picture
passinam movie theatre, cinema
passinar movie camera
passinagat movie star
fasin icon, idol
fasina iconic
fasinxer iconify
fasinxen iconification
fasinxwa iconified
fasinifrer idolize
fasinifrun idol
fasinifren idolatry, idolization
tujsin dream
tujsiner dream
tujsinut dreamer, reverer
tujsinen dreaming, reverie
tujsina chimeric
tujsinaya dreamy
tujsinyena dream-like
otujsinwa undreamed of
pensin trace
pensiner trace
pensinwa traced
zoysin reflection
zoysiner reflect
zoysineya reflective
zoysinar reflector
zoysinwa reflected
tabsin figure
tabsina figurative
tebsin face
tebsina facial
tebsinay facially
tebsinuer face
tobsin portrait
tobsinut portrait artist
tobsinun portrayal
tobsiner portray
utsin character
utsiner characterize
utsinen characterization
utsinwa characterized
utsineya characteristic
olutsineya uncharacteristic
memsin landscape, scene
memsina scenic
memsinyan scenery

siun sign

siunmuf signpost
mansiun signal, light
tuyabsiun hand sign
tuyabsiuner wave
tebsiuner nod
siunar signal
siunarer signal
siunaren signaling
siundaf sign board
mepsiun road sign
siuner make a sign, give a sign, signal
siunen signing
dyunsiun signature
dyunsiuner sign
dyunsiunen signing
dyunsiunut signer, signatory
dyunsiunwa signed
odyunsiunwa unsigned

siyn mark

siyner mark
siynun marking
siynwa marked
osiynwa unmarked

sun thing

suna real
sunan reality
sunxer realize
sunxwa realized
sunxen realization
osun nothing, nihil, nil
osunxer anihilate
osunxen anihilation
osunxwa anihilated
osunin nihilism
osunina nihilistic
osuninat nihilist
sunyen structure
sunyena structural
sunyener structure
sunyenwa structured
osunyenwa unstructured::

syen style

syenxer style
syenxwa styled
syena stylistic
syeen fashion, manner, mode
be syeen bi a la mode, in the fashion of
syeenaya fashionable
syeena manneristic
syeeninat fashionista
utsyen genre
xesyen process
yixsyeen manner of use
syentun manners

syin subject

syina subjective
syinay subjectively
syinan subjectivity

syun object

syuna objective
syunay objectively
syunan objectivity
syunes article
syufi effects

eser exist, there to be

ese there is, there are, exists
esen existence
esea existant
eson entity

oser cease to exist

osea nonexistant
osean nonexistance
oson nonentity

syemer establish

syem establishment
yansyem corporation, company, firm
yansyema corporate
yansyemeb CEO, chief corporate office
syemwa established
syember install, set up
syemben installation
osyember uninstall
dosyem public institute, institution
dosyember institute
dosyemben institution
dosyema institutional

The ber (Put) and per (Go) Families[edit]

The core words ber to put and per to go, combined with positional/directional prefixes and various nuance-creating consonants, form many words having to do with positions, bodily gestures, and directional motions. Those ending in ber are transitive verbs, while those ending in per are mostly intransitive.

Common ber/per Verbs Built from Postional/Directional Prefixes and Vowels[edit]

ab on aber put on aper get on baer lean paer stand
yab up yaber raise yaper rise byaer lift pyaer jump
ob off ober remove oper dismount boer hold up poer hang
yob down yober lower yoper descend byoer hang pyoer fall
ub toward uber send uper come bu to buer give puer arrive
ib away iber receive iper go away bi from bier take pier leave
yub near yuber bring yuper approach byu up to byuer touch pyuer reach
yib far yiber take away yiper move far away byi since byier emanate pyier originate
eb between eber block eper intervene yeb in
oyeb out'
yeber inject
oyeber eject
yeper enter
oyeper exit
za front zaber advance zaper advance zay forward zayber promote zayper proceed
zo behind zober put behind zoper follow zoy back zoyber put back zayper return
ze middle zeber balance zeper mediate zey across zeyber transfer zeyper cross
zu left zuber put to the left zuper go left uz crooked zuber turn zuper detour
zi right ziber put to the right ziper go right iz straight ziber guide izper head
zya all over zyaber spread zyaper tour zye through zyeber interject zyeper permeate
zyu round zyuber rotate zyuper roll yuz around yuzber turn yuzper circulate
yiz beyond yizber take beyond yizper surpass zyag stretched out zyagber stretch zyagper stretch out
ja before jaber prepare japer precede aj past ajber pass ajper pass
jo after jober delay joper follow oj future ojber postpone ojper wait?
je during jeber continue jeper continue ej present ejber present ejper present oneself
yan together yanber assemble yanper join bay with bayber impart bayper accompany
yon apart yonber take apart yonper separate boy without boyber deprive boyper go without
ki oblique kiber bend kiper slant
ku side kuber set aside kuper avoid

The der (Say) Family[edit]

Words ending in der have to do with communicating, thus saying, talking, writing, reading.
daler speak der say doler be silent
dider ask drer write duder answer
dun word dyeer read dyun name
Here are the most common words in this family:

der say, tell, utter, communicate

den utterance, saying, telling
denyen diction, manner of saying
teypden proverb, saying
teypdena proverbial
teypdenay proverbially
teypdenaxer proverbialize
teypdenaxen proverbialization
teypdenaxwa proverbialized
otedden gibberish::
dwa uttered
dwas utterance
odwa unsaid
odwas something left unsaid
dut sayer, teller
vyandut truth-teller
vyondut liar
dun word
duna verbal
oduna non-verbal
dunxer verbalize
dunxen verbalization
dunika wordy, verbose
dunikan wordiness, verbosity
dunnyan list
dunnyanaber list, put on a list, register
odunnyanabwa unlisted, unregistered
dunnyanober de-list
dunnyanobwa de-listed
dunyan vocabulary, lexicon
dunyana lexical
dunyantun lexicology
dunyantuna lexicological
dunyantut lexicologist
dundyen dictionary
dundyentun lexicography
dundyentuna lexicographical
dundyentut lexicographer
dunnad sentence
dunnayd phrase
dunnayda phrasal
dunnaydyan phraseology
dunnadyan text
dunnadyana textual
fadun blessing
fodun curse
fudun bad word, epithet
fidun compliment
sundun noun
sunduna nominal
sundunxer nominalize
sundunxen nominalization
sundunxwa nominalized
xundun verb
zunduna verbal
vyendun preposition
vyenduna prepositional
sindrendun adjective
sindrenduna adjectival
byendun adverb
byenduna adverbial
yanardun conjunction
dungon syllable
dungona syllabic
dungonxer syllabicize
dungonxwa syllabicized
gladungona polysyllabic
andungona monosyllabic
endungona disyllabic
zadunes prefix
zadunesaber prefix, attach a prefix
zadunesaben prefixation
zodunes suffix
zodunesaber suffix, attach a suffix
zodunesaben suffixation
zedunes infix
zedunesaben infixation
abdunes affix
abdunesaben affixation
yuzdunes circumfix
dunsan morpheme
dunsana morphemic
dunsantun morphology
dunsantuna morphological
dunsantut morphologist
yuddunsan allomorph
dunseux pronunciation, sound of a word, enunciation, articulation
dunseuxer pronounce, enunciate, articulate, sound out a word
vyodunseuxer mispronounce
deser pronounce
desen pronunciation
vyodeser mispronounce
vyodesen mispronunciation
vyodesun mispronunciation, pronunciation error
vyadeser pronounce correctly, dictate, enunciate properly
vyadesyen diction
vyadesen dictation
vyadesar dictation device, dictaphone
odesuwa unpronounceable
dreser spell
dresen spelling
vyodreser misspell
vyodresun misspelling, spelling error
vyadreser spell correctly
vyadresyen orthography
vyadresyena orthographical
dresek spelling bee::
avder favor, advocate
avdwa favored
fander volunteer, express willingness
fandut volunteer
fader bless
fad blessing
fadwa blessed
foder curse
fod curse
fodwa cursed
layder greet, say hello, salute
loyder say goodbye
sagder count out loud, enumerate
sagden counting, enumeration
sagdwa enumerated
egder repeat, retell, say again
egdeya repetitive
egdeyan repetitiveness
egden repetition
ekder pretend
ekden pretending
ekdut pretender
ekdeya pretentious
ekdeyan pretentiousness
epader quack
epeder snort
epeyder moo
evfiader critique
evfiadut critic
evfiden critique
fepader warble, yodel
flider praise, eulogize
fliden praise, eulogy
fliduwa praiseworthy
fliduwan prasieworthiness
fiader recommend
fiaden recommendation
fiadwa recommended
fiaduwa recommendable
fider congratulation, bless
fiden congratulation, blessing
fivader approve, affirm
fivaden approval, affirmation
fivadwa approved, affirmed
frider brag, brag out, flatter, glorify
friden bragging, flattery, glorification
fridut bragger, bragadoccio, flatterer
flyuder insult
flyud insult
flyudea insulting
fruder blaspheme
frud blasphemy
frudut blasphemer
frudeya blasphemous
fruder castigate
fruden castigation
fryuder outrage
fryud outrage
fryudeya outrageous
fuader criticize, demean, malign
fuaden criticism, maligning
fuadeya critical, demeaning
fuder curse, damn
fud curse
fuden damnation
fudwa cursed, damned
fuivader mock
fuivaden mockery
fuvader condemn
fuvaden condemnation
fuvadwa condemned
ebder discuss
ebden discussion
ebdut discutant
gelder echo
grader exaggerate
graden exaggeration
gradwa exaggerated
groder underplay, minimize
groden minimization
gyapyoder laugh like a hyena
ivder thank
ivden thanks
ipader gobble
ipeder bray
ipeder hehaw
ivsader laugh
ivsaden laughter
ivsaduwa laughable, ridiculous
izder say frankly
izeader indicate
izeaden indication
izeadeya indicative
izeadar indicator
iznoder focus
jader predict, foretell
jad prediction
jadwa predicted
jaduwa predictable
ojaduwa unpredictable
jaduwan predictability
ojaduwan unpredictability
javeder guess
javed guess
jouvder mourn
jouvden mourning
jwader warn, forewarn
jwad warning
jwadwa forewarned
boy jwad: without warning
kader admit, confess
kad admission, confession
kebider vote
kebid vote
kebidut voter
kebidaf ballot
kebidafyem ballot box
kider hint
kid hint
klapeder squeek
koder deny
kod denial
okoduwa undeniable
okoduway undeniably
kuder remark, comment
kud remark, comment
kudut commentator
kyoder insist
kyoden insistence
kyodea insistent
lopyeder hiss
naxder cost out
nazder evaluate, estimate
nazden evaluation, estimate
nazdut evaluator, estimator
oder keep silent
oden keeping silent
ofder ban
ofden banning
ofdwa banned
ofivader disapprove
ofivaden disapproval
ofivadwa disapproved
ogelder disagree
ogelden disagreement
ojder foretell
ojden foretelling
ojdwa foretold
ovader contradict
ovaden contradiction
ovder object, oppose
ovden objection, opposition
ovduwa objectionable
ozder hint
ozden hint
pader chirp, tweet
poder make an animal noise
rapyoder roar
repyoder growl
rupyoder howl
tapader parrot
tapeder make monkey noises
tapelader chirp
tatader bless, sanctify
tataden blessing, sanctification
tatadwa blessed, sancified
teader witness
teaden witnessing
teadut witness
tepyoder growl
teuder scream, yell, shout
teud scream, yell, shout
teuden screming, yelling, shouting
tider understand
tid understanding
tidwa understood
vyotider misunderstand
vyotid misunderstanding
vyotidwa misunderstood
teder mean, signify, intend
ted meaning, intention
tedwa intentional
tuder explain, explicate, clarify
tud explanation, explication, clarification
tuda explanatory
otuduwa unexplainable, unexplicable
otuduwan unexplainability, unexplicability::
ujder conclude
ujden conclusion
ujdeya conclusive
upeder bleat
upeden bleating
uvader apologize
uvad apology
uvder complain
uvden complaint, complaining, plea
uvdut plaintiff
uzder say indirectly, equivocate
uzden equivocation
vaader affirm
vaaden affirmation
vaadwa affirmed
vader assent
vad assent
vadea assenting
valder assure
valden assurance
valdwa assured
volder threaten
volden threat
voldea threatenin
veder guess, suppose, speculate
ved quess
veden speculation
vedwa speculative
vetexder express doubt
viader compliment
viad compliment
viadeya complimentary
vikader express admiration
virader marvel
vodebder prohibit
voder deny
vod denial
vodwa denied
vuader malign, insult
vuad insult
vuadea insulting
vyader swear
vyad oath
vyaden swearing
vyadwa sworn
vyander tell the truth
vyandut truth-teller
vyoder lie
vyod lie
vyodut liar
vyodeya mendacious
yevder judge
yevden judgment
yevdut judge
yevdeya judgmental
yevdun verdict
yavder acquit, excuse
yavden acquittal
yavdwa acquitted, excused
yovder indict
yovden indictment
yovdwat indictee
yovduwa indictable
yokder improvise
yokden improvisation
yokdwa improvised
yokteuder exclaim
yokteud exclamation
yokteudwa exlamatory
yagder elaborate
yagden elaboration
yagdwa elaborated
igder mention, make note of
igden mention, notation
igdwa mentioned
nazea igdwer worth mentioning, notable
yapader coo
yapeder squeal
yepeder bark
yipder meow
yiypeder purr
apeder neigh
yogder summarize
yogden summary
yogdwa summarized
zyader announce, broadcast
zyad announcement
zyadut announcer
ozyadwa unannounced
afder permit, allow
afden permission, license
afdwa permitted
oafwa illicit
afdren permit, license
fuder decry, frown on, reject, reprove
fud rejection, reproval, objection
fudwa decried, reproved, rejected, frowned on
fuader badmouth, criticize, insult
fuad insult, criticism
fuadeya critical
fyuder insult
fyud insult
fyudea insulting
fyudwa insulted

daler' speak, talk

dal speech, talk
dalen speaking, talking
dalut speaker, talker, orator
dalutsem pulpit, dais
dalun speech, talk, oration
dalwa spoken, oral
odalwa unspoken
odalwas something unspoken
odaluwa unspeakable
odaluwas something unspeakable
daltuz rhetoric
daltuza rhetorical
daltuzut rhetorician
dalyen language
dalyena language-related, lingual
gladalyena multilingual
gladalyenut polyglot
dalyentun linguistics
dalyentuna linguistic
dalyentut linguist
dalyenes dialect
meama dalyenes: regional dialect
dalyenesa dialectal
dalyenestun dialectology
dalyenestuna dialectological
dalyenestut dialectologist
dalbyen manner of speaking, speaking style, figure of speech, idiom
dalbyena idiomatic
dalbyenay idiomatically
be dalbyen: in a manner of speaking
fadaler preach, sermonize
fadalut preacher
fadalun sermon
fadalsem pulpit
avdaler speak of behalf of, advocate, campaign for, defend, argue for, pitch, plead
avdal argument, defense, plea
avdalen advocacy, defense, pleading
avdalut advocate, defender
avdalutan advocacy, defense
ovdaler speak out against, protest, condemn, oppose, argue against, downplay
ovdalen protest, condemnation, opposition, counterargument
ovdalut protester, opponent, prosecutor
ovdalutyan prosecution
dodaler speak in public, orate, stump
dodalen speaking in public, oration
dodalun public speech, oration
dodalut orator, public speaker
dodalsem rostrum
izdaler address, speak directly
izdalun address, demarche
izdalwat addressee
ebdaler communicate, discuss
ebdal communication, exchange, linguistic exchange, discussion, discourse
ebdalun communique
ebdalut communicant, interlocutor, discutant
ebdaloger chat
ebdalog chat
ebdalogen chatting
glaebdalogut chatterbox
ebdaleya chatty
ozdaler mumble, murmur, mutter
gradaler yammer, talk too much, harangue
yagdaler ramble on, blab, speak at length
daleker debate
dalek debate
daleken debating
dalekut debator
dalekutyan debate team
dalekem debate forum::::

doler: be quiet, be mute, shut up, be silent

dol quiet, silent
dolxer shut up, muzzle, silence
dolxen muzzling, silencing
dolxwa muzzled, silenced
dolser stay quite, be mum, be silent
dolea mute, mum, silent
dola quiet, silent

dier ask, request

dien request
diut requester, asker
diun request

Diwe! Please!, it is requested

fadier pray
fadiun prayer
fadiena precatory
fadiim chapel
diler demand
dil demand
dilea demanding
dilun demand
direr require
dir requirement
odir option
odira optional
diren requirement
dirwa required
odirwa optional

did' question

dider question, interrogate
diden questioning, interrogation
didut questioner, interrogator
diduwa questionable
dida interrogative
didsiun question mark

din story, account, tale

dinder narrate, tell a story, relate
dinden narration, story-telling, recitation, narrative
dindut narrator, story-teller, reciter
yogdin short story, tale
yagdin novel
yagdinut novelist
ajdin history
ajdina historical
ajdinyena historic
ajdindren historiography
ajdindrena historiographical
ajdindrut historiographer
ajutbyendin tale of tradition, lore, tradition
ajutbyendina traditional, folkloric
ajutnyandin folklore, folk tale, lore, popular myth
ajutnyandina folkloric, mythical
dodin history, public record
dodina historical
dodindyen history book, public record
agdodin epic, saga, legend
agdodina epic, legendary
agdin epic, saga, legend, tall tale
agdina epic, legendary, epical
tejdin biography, life story, bio
tejdina biographical
tejdinut biographer
tojdin obituary, obit
ifondin love story, romance
ifondina romantic
ifondinaxer romanticize
ifondinaxen romanticization
ifondinaxwa romanticized
dezdin musical, musical story
dezdinog operetta
dezdinag opera
dezdinaga operatic
dezdinagifut opera buff, opera lover
dezdinagut opera performer
jubxwasdin news story, news account, news of the day, news article, daily news report
jubxwasdinut reporter, news reporter, journalist
jubxwasdinam news station
jubxwasdinen journalism
zyadinuer report, broadcast
zyadin report, rumor, broadcast
zyadinuut reporter, broadcaster
zyadinuen reportage, reporting, broadcasting
zyadinam broadcasting station
dinier catch a story, hear, receive a report
dinuer report, put out a story
dinuen reporting
dinuut reporter
dinuun report
kodin cover story
vyodin lie, false story, fabrication, fake news, tall story, slander, calumny
vyodiner lie, purjure oneself
vyodinen perjury, lying, calumny
vyodinuer spread a false story, slander
vyodinea slanderous, calumnious
eyvyodin white lie, fib
eyvyodiner fib
eyvyodiut fibber
eyvyodinen fibbing:::
zyudin rumor, story going around, story circulating
zyudinwer be rumored
zyudinut rumormonger
'kadin expose
kadiner expose
kadinen exposure
kadinwa exposed::
tyezdin saga, legend
tyezdina legendary
ivdin joke, funny story, comedy
ivdina comical, jocular
ivdinyena comedic
ivdiner joke, tell a funny story
ivdinen comedy, joking
ivdinut joke-teller, comedian, comic
uvdin sad story, dirge, tragedy
uvdina tragic
uvdinyena tragic, tragical
aguvdin tragedy
aguvdina tragic
uvivdin tragicomedy::
tujdin dream
tujdiner dream
tujdinyena dreamlike, dreamy
tujdinut dreamer
tujdinem dreamscape, dream world
vyomdin fantasy, fiction, fairy tale
vyomdina fantastic, ficticious
vyamdin prose, factual story
vyomdina factual, prosaic
podin fable, tale of animals
podina fabled
podinut fabulist
dofindin morality tale, fable, parable
todin myth, tale of the gods
todina mythical
todintun mythology
todintuna mythological
todintut mythologist
todiner mythologize
todinen mythologizing
agfindin myth, saga
agfindina mythical
agfindinyan mythology
agfindinyana mythological
kosdin mystery, mystery tale
kosdina mysterious
taxdin memoire
fadin gospel, sermon, hadith
fadinyan collection of holy tales, testament
fadina testimonial
fadiner preach, sermonize, testify
fadinut preacher, sermonizer

duer suggest, propose

duen suggestion, proposition
duun suggestion, proposal
dueya suggestive
duut suggester, proponent
duwa suggested, proposed
duwas something suggested, proposition
duuwa suggestible
duuwan suggestibility
ozduer hint
ozduun hint
ozduuwa hinted
azduer urge, strongly suggest
azduen strong suggestion, urging
azduuwa strongly suggested, urged
azdueya urgent
azdueyan urgency
azdueyay urgently
duler insist
dulen insistence
duleya insistant
dulut insister
dulwa insisted
oduler back off, resist
odulen resistance
oduleya resistant
odulut resistor
odulutyan resistance
durer prod, instigate, provoke, incite
duren instigation, provacation
dureya instigative, provocative
durut instigator, provocateur

dud answer, response

duder answer, respond
duden aswering, responding
dudut respondant
duduwa responsible
duduwan responsibility
oduduwa irresponsible
oduduwan irresponsibility
dudeya responsive
odudeya unresponsive
dun word, vocable, lyric, utterance
duna verbal, lexical
dunay verbally
dunan verbality
dunaxer verbalize
dunaxen verbalization
dunaxwa verbalized
gladuna multi-word
yanbwa dun compound word
fodun curse word, cuss word, curse
ebdun message
kudun remark
kodun code word
zadun foreword
erdun verb
erduna verbal
adun adjective
aduna adjectival
aydun adverb
ayduna adverbial
sundun noun
sunduna nominal
yanxdun conjunction
vyexdun preposition
yokdun interjection, exclamation
yokduna exclamatory
yokdunsiun exclamation point
dunaun lexeme
dunauna lexemic
dunyan list, verbiage, wordlist, collection of words, vocabulary
dundyen dictionary, lexicon
dundyena lexical
dundyenaxer lexicalize
dundyenaxen lexicalization
dundyenaxwa lexicalized
dundyentun lexicography
dundyentuna lexicographic
dundyentut lexicographer
be yuda duni in other words
dunes syllable
dunesa syllabic:
duyn term, lexeme
duyna lexemic
duynyan terminology, glossary, lexicon, term bank, vocabulary
duynyana terminological, lexical::
drun phrase, expression
druna phrasal, expressive
drunyan phraseology
drunyana phraseological
drundyen phrase book
druner phrase, express
drunen phrasing, expression
drunwa phrased, expressed
anutdrun idiom, idiomatic expression
anutdruna idiomatic
anutdrunay idiomatically
egdruner rephrase
egdrunen rephrasing
egdrunwa rephrased
ayndrun clause
ayndruna clausal, holophrastic
ikdrun sentence
ikdruna sentential

dyeder read

dyeden reading
dyedun passage, reading, lecture
dyeduner lecture
dyedunut lecturer
dyedunyan conference, series of lectures
dyedunyanem conference hall
gladyedea well-read
glodyedea unread, illiterate
dyedut reader
dyedutyan readership
gladyedut avid reader
dyedutem lecture hall
dyedutseym lecturn
dyedyafa literate, able to read
dyedyafan literacy
dyedyofa illiterate, unable to read
dyedyofan illiteracy
dyen book
dyenyan book collection
dyentam library
dyntamut librarian
dyennam bookstore
dyennamut bookseller
dyennames bookstall
dyenog libretto, pamphlet
dyenifut bibliophile
dyenifon bibliophilia, love of books
dyensam bookcase, bookstall
dyensamneg bookshelf
dyennyami stacks
dyenabdren book title, book label
dyendyun book title, book name
dyendyunyan bibliography, list of book titles
dyendyunyana bibliographical
dyudren title
dyudrer title
dyudrwa titled, entitled
dyudrena titular
dyenyena bookish
dyenyenat bookworm, nerd
dyenes volume, tome
dyenabun bookcover
dyensiundaf bookmark
dyenujun bookend
yixwa dyen used book
yixwa dyennam used book store
dyenem book gallery
dyen dodryenxut book publisher
dyen dodryenxen book publishing
dyen dodryenxam book publishing house, book publishing firm
dyes document, piece of literature
dyesyan literature, documentation, readings
vidyes work of literature
vidyesyan litterature, belles lettres
vidyesa literary
vidyesana literary
dodyes official document
dodyesyan official documentation, paperwork
dodyesgran redtape, bureaucracy

dyun name

dyuna nominal
dyunay nominally
dyuner call, name
dyunwa called, named, denominated
odyunwa unnamed, nameless
dyunen naming, calling, appelation, denomination
dyunwer be called, be named
At dyunwe... My name is...
dyunyan list
dyunyaner list
dyunyanwa listed
odyunyanwa unlisted
dyunder cite, address
dyunden citation, addressing
dyunaber assign a name, designate
dyunaben name assignment, designation
egdyuner rename
egdyunwa renamed
egdyunen renaming
dyunzayber nominate
dyunzayben nomination
dyunzaybwat nominee
emdyun address
emdyuner address
emdyunwa addressed
vyosemdyunwa misaddressed
dyundaf name badge, name card
zadyun first name, given name
zedyun middle name
zedyunij middle initial
abdyun surname, last name, family name:toda dyun: family name
tajdyun given name, birth name
yogdyun nickname, short name
auta dyun proper name
dodyun official name, public name
ijdresini bi ota dyun initials of one's name
nundyun trade name, label, commercial label, product name
lyudyun alias, alternate name
dezdyun stage name
drutdyun pen name
kodyun code name, secret name, hidden name
ifpota dyun pet name
yogjoba dyun temporary name

drer write, record

dren writing, script
drenyan scripture, collection of writings
vidrenyan literature
vidrenyana literary
jodren postscript
drenes article
dreyn text
dreyna textual
dreynnad line of text
dryeynxar editor
drenvyasaxer edit
drenvyasaxut copy editor
drenvyasaxen copy-editing
drenvyasaxwa edited
odrenvyasaxwa unedited
egdrer rewrite, revise
egdren rewriting
egdrwa rewritten, revised
egdrawa rewritten, revised
egdrun rewrite, revision
igdrer jot, scribble, scrawl
igdrawa jotten, scribbled, scrawled
abdrer inscribe, label, title
abdren inscription, label, title, superscript
tuyadrer write by hand
tuyadren manuscript, handwriting, chirography
yagtuyadren long-hand
yogtuyadren short-hand
yugtuyadren block script
vituyadren calligraphy
vituyadrut calligrapher
vituyadrena calligraphic
tuyadrwa handwritten
tuyadrawa handwritten
obdrer subtitle
obdren subscript, subtitle
sindrer describe
sindren description
sindrena descriptive
osindruwa indescribable
osindruway indescribably
ebdrer mail, post:
ebdren letter, post, missive, message
ebdrenyan mail, correspondence, post
ebdrenyanam post office
ebdrenuber mail, post
ebdrenubut mailman, postman, messenger
ebdrenyem post box, letter drop, mailbox
vyedrer correspond
vyedren correspondence
vyedrut correspondent
vyedrea corresponding
sandrer formulate
sandren formulation
sandrena formulaic
sandrun formula, form
dyudrer title
dyudren title
dyudrwa titled
yibdrer wire, telegraph
yibdren telegram
yibdrenuber send a telegram, wire, telegraph
yibdrur telegraph machine
dyundrer sign
dyundren signing, signature
dyundrwa signed
dyundrwa unsigned
dyundrut signatory, signer
obdyundrwat undersigned
tubdyundrer sign in, register, sign up
tubdyundren signing in, registration, signup
tubdyundrwa signed in, registered, signed up
tubdyundrwa unregistered
tubdyundrut registree
tubdyun member name
sardrer type, typewrite
sardrar typewriter
sardrwa typewritten
sardrawa typewritten
sardren typewriting
sardrun typewritten manuscript
sardrut typist, secretary
sardrutyan typist pool, secretary pool
bardrer print
bardren printing
bardrwa printed
bardrawa printed
bardrawas printed material, something printed
bardrut printer
bardrar printing press, press
bardrun printed copy, print
geldrer copy
geldren copying
geldrwa copied
geldrun copy
geldrar copier::
dreun document
dreunyan documentation
dreunxer document
dreunxen documentation
dreunxwa documented
odeunxwa undocumented
dreundyez documentary
dreundyezut documentarian
dreder report
dred report
dreden reporting
dredyan reportage
dredut reporter
dredwa reported
odredwa unreported
drut writer
drwa written, graphic
drawa written, graphic
drwas something written, notation, graph
drawas something written, notation, graph
odrwa unwritten
odrawa unwritten
drevyab grammar
drevyaba grammatical
odrevyaba ungrammatical
drevyabdyen grammar book
drebyen writing style
dres note, notation, missive
ifondres love note
dres bi uttujbut suicide note
dreser note
dresen notation
kudreser annotate
kudresen annotation, annotating
kudres annotation
kudreswa annotated
dodres bulletin
dresam office, bureau
dresem desk
dresim den, bureau, office
dresin design, draft, plan
dresiner design, draft, plan
dresinut designer, drafter, plan
dresinen designing, drafting, planning
domdresin urban design
dresinam design studio
dreyeb wallet
nodrer punctuate, dot
nodren punctuation, dotting
nodrun point, dot
nodrwa punctuated, dotted
siyn mark
nodren siyn punctuation mark
pos siyn period
pos nodrun period
pes siyn comma
pos pos siyn colon
pos pes siyn semi-colon
yok siyn exclamation point
yok nodrun exclamation point
'did siyn question mark
yebdun siyn hyphen
ebdun siyn dash
zenades dash
yebzenades hyphen

dryener print

dryenam printing plant
dryenut printer
dryenen print, impression
dryenar printing press
dryen print
jubdryen newspaper
jubdryenyan press
jubdryenut journalist, newspaperman
jubdryenutyan journalist pool
jubdryentun journalism
jubdryentuna journalistic
jubdryentut journalist
yejubdryen weekly magazine
jibdryen monthly magazine
deldryen advertisement, ad
sinjobdryen magazine, illustrated review
cindryen illustration
cindryener illustrate
cindryenwa illustrated
dryenes ticket, billet
dryenesam ticket office
dryenesar ticket machine
dryenesmis ticket window
dryenog ticket, billet
zyadryen poster
zyadryener post
dryesun type, printer's type, font character
dryesunyan font
dryesin letter, grapheme, glyph, character
dryesina litteral, graphemic, graphic, glyphic
dryesinay litterally
dryesinder spell
dryesinden spelling
vyodryesinder misspell
vyodryesindun misspelling
voyodryesindwa misspelled
vyadryesinden orthography
vyadryesindena orthographical
vyadryesindek spelling bee
dryesinyan alphabet
dryesinyana alphabetical
odryesinyana unalphabetic
dryessinyanxer alphabeticize
dryesinyanxen alphabeticization
dryesinyanxwa alphabeticized
dryesinij initial, initial letter
dryesinijber initialize
dryesinijbwa initialized
dryesinijben initialization
andryesin monograph
endryesin digraph
indryesin trigraph
fadryesin hieroglyph
fadryesinyan hieroglyphics
sindryes ideograph, pictorial character
sindryesa ideographic
dodryen publishing
dodryenyan publicity
dodryenxer publish
dodryenxen publication
dodryer publicize
dodryut publicist
dodryun publication

daf chart, card, badge

dafnyan stack of card, deck of cards
jabdaf calendar
judaf calendar
judar calendar
ekdaf playing card
ekdafyan deck of cards
mepdaf map, route map, street map
mepdafer map
mepdafwa mapped
mepdaftun cartography, mapmaking
mepdaftuna cartographic
mepdaftut cartographer
mircindaf atlas, world map, geographic map
jwobdaf schedule
jwobdafer schedule
jwobdafen scheduling
jwobdafwa scheduled
jonusdaf credit card
jonisdaf debit card
valdaf certificate, security badge
dyundaf name badge
ebdrendaf postcard
popdaf postcard, picture postcard

def paper

defyan paperwork, stationery
defnam stationery
defnamut stationery shopowner
defnyan stack of paper
milukdef toilet paper
defes scrap of paper, piece of paper

dof cardboard

dofnyem cardboard box
siundof signboard, sign, poster

dyof board

maksiundyof electronic signboard
ijujbar dyof: switch board

dyaf notebook

yagdyaf register
yagdyafut registrar
yagdyafer register
yagdyafen registration
yagdyafam registry
yafdryafwa registered
dyafes book

dyuf sheet, leaf of paper

dyufbuar sheetfeeder
dyufes leaflet

dyuv page

zyedyuver page through, leaf through, paginate
zyedyuven pagination
zadyuv front page
zodyuv back page
zedyuv middle page
dyuvsan page layout, layout
gladyuva many-paged, thick

drar pencil

draryeb pencil holder
drarer pencil, draw
drarun drawing
drarwa drawn
yilemdrar lead pencil, pencil
drasin drawing, illustration, picture, depiction
drasiner draw, illustrate, depict
drasinwa drawn, illustrated
drasinut illustrator
drasinam drafting studio, picture studio
drasintem picture gallery
tejdrasinen life drawing
tejdrasin life drawing
tejdrasiner draw from life
tejdrasinwat life drawing model
tejdrasinam life drawing studio
tebdrasin portrait
tebdrasinyan portraiture
tebdrasiner portray
tebdrasinut portrait artist
tebdrasinam portrait studio
tebdrasintem portrait gallery
tebdrasien portrayal
uttebdrasin self-portrait, selfie:

dril ink

drilar ink pen, pen
drilyeb inkwell
drilvyun ink stain
drilardyun pen name
drilarer pen
drilarwa penned

lodrer erase

lodrun erasure
lodrar eraser
lodrwa erased

drear feather pen

drearyeb feather penholder

vozdrar crayon meyagdrar chalk, stick of chalk meyagdyof chalkboard

The ter (Know) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t, meaning human and mental activities like knowing and thinking:
tep mind, intellect top soul
taxer remember
taxier memorize
taxuer remind
texer think
ter know
tyer recognize
tyier familiarize oneself
tyuer acquaint
tez culture
ten knowledge
tyen skill, craft
teyen idea
teyenier conceive of
teyenuer seed the idea
tijtep conscious mind
tujtep subconscious
vyatex reason
vyaten wisdom
vatex belief
vatexuer persuade
vetex suspicion
votex doubt
votexuer dissuade
toxer forget tixer study tuxer teach
taser feel
tayoter feel
teser mean
tesier infer
tesuer imply
tester understand
tesder explain
tiser learn
tin doctrine
iztis intuition
tuser inform
tun science
tuin theory
tuz art
Here are the most important words derived from ter to know:
ter know
ten knowledge
twer be known
twa known
fitwa well-known
zyatwa known all around, famous
zyatwan fame
glatwa much-known
twas known fact, fact, datum, something known
twasyan data, information, known facts, news
twassyagar computer, data calculator
oter not know, ignore
oten ignorance
otwa unknown, ignored
otwas mystery
otwasyena mysterious
otwasyenan mysteriousness
otea ignorant
otean ignorance
oteat ignorant person
yadter know everything, be omniscient
yadtea all-knowing, omniscient
yadtean omniscience
yadteat omniscient person
glater know a lot
glatea knowledgeable, savant
glatean knowledgeability
yekter be interested, be curious
yektea interested, curious
yektean interest, curiosity
tyek inquiry, question, curiosity, interest, interrogation, research
tyeker inquire, ask about, query, interrogate
tyeken inquiry, inquisition, questioning, interest
tyekut inquirer, inquisitor, questioner, interrogator, researcher
tyekeya inquisitive, interrogative
tyekeyan inquisitiveness
tefer want to know, be interested, be curious
tefea interested, curious
tefeat interested person, curious person
tef interest, curiosity
tefier take an interest in
tefuer interest, make curious
tefuea interesting
otef lack of interest
otefuwa uninterested
otefuwan boredom
tefder express interest, query, question, inquire
tefden expression of interest, inquisition, inquiry
tefdeya inquisitive
tefdeyan inquisitiveness:::
vyater see through things, be wise, possess insight
vyatea wise, sagacioius, witty
vyatean wisdom, sagacity, wit
vyaten wisdom, sagacity, insight
vyatut sage, wise man, wise person, wit
jater know in advance, be prescient
jatea prescient
jatean prescience
jaten foreknowledge
jatwa known beforehand, anticipated
ojatwa unanticipated, surprise
ojter see the future, foresee, anticipate
ojten foresight, anticipation
ojtut seer
ojtwa anticipated
ajter know the past, be wise
ajtea wise, sagacioius
ajten wisdom
ajtut sage
oter be unaware, not know, ignore
otea unaware, not knowing, ignorant, unfamiliar
otean ignorance, unfamiliarity
tyer be familiar with, know, recognize
tyen familiarity, recognition, acquaintanceship, skill, craft
tyea familiar, acquainted
otyer be unfamiliar with, fail to recognize, not know
yegtyer recognize
egtyen recognition
egtyawa recognized
egtyuwa recognizable
egtyuwa recognizability
oegtyawa unrecognized
oegtyuwa unrecognizable
tyawa known, familiar
tyawan familiarity, acquaintanceship
tyawat acquaintance, familiar person
otyawa unfamiliar, unknown, unrecognized
otyawan unfamiliarity
glatyawa famous, renown, illustrious
glatyawat celebrity, famous person
glatyawan celebrity, fame, renown
glatyawaxer celebrate
glatyawaxen celebration
glatyawaxena celebrational
glatyawaxwa celebrated
yagtyawa long-known
zyauvtyawa notorious, infamous
zyauvtyawan notoriety, infamy
zyauvtyawat notorious individual, infamous person
zyauvtyawaser gain notoriety, become infamous
tyuer familiarize, acquaint, introduce
tyuen familiarization, introduction
tyuwa familiarized, acquainted
tyier become familiar, get acquainted, become acquainted with
tyien acquaintance
tijter know consciously, be conscious, be aware
tijten consciousness, awareness
tijtea conscious, aware, alert
tijteay consciously
tijtean consciousness, awareness
otijtea unconscious, unaware
otijtean unconsciousness, unawareness
gratijtea hyperconscious
gratijtean hyperconsciousness
tijtuer alert, make aware, prompt
tijtier be alert, pay attention, keep oneself aware
tijtien attention, paying attention
tijtiea attentive, alert
tijtep conscious mind
tujten subconscious
tujtena subconscious
tujtep subconscious, subconscious mind
taxer remember, recall
tax memory
taxon memory, recall
taxun memory, recollection
taxos memory, seat of memory
taxen remembering, recollection
taxwa remembered
taxwas something remembered, recollection
taxuwa memorable
taxuwas keepsake, souvenir
otaxuwa unmemorable
taxdin memoir
taxbeler memorize, keep in one's memory, remember
taxbelen memorization
taxbelwa memorized
bi tax from memory
taxmeg monument, headstone
taxmega monumental
taxem memorial, memorial grounds
taxxel commemoration, memorial
taxxeler commemorate, memorialize
taxxela commemorative, memorial
taxxelen commemoration, memorialization
tajtax birthday
tajtaxxel birthday celebration, birthday party
xeler ota tajtax celebrate one's birthday
taxier recollect, recall, commit to memory, memorize, make a note of
taxien recollection, recall, memorization, notation
taxuer remind
taxuun reminder, memorandum, memo
taxkyoer memorize, fix in one's memory
taxkyoen memorization
taxkyowa memorized, fixed in one's mind
texer think, cogitate
tex thought, cognition
texa cognitive, cogitative
texen thinking, cogitation, cognition::
texij idea, notion, concept
texija ideational, notional, conceptual
kyotexij idee fixe, fixed notion
igtex quick thought, flash, sudden thought
texeya pensive, thoughtful
texeyan pensiveness, thoughtfulness
texier consider
texien consideration
otexieya inconsiderate
texuer make think, give the idea, suggest the thought, seed the thought
yagtexer ponder, reflect, meditate
yagtexen pondering, reflection, meditation
jayagtexer premeditate
jayagtexwa premeditated
ojayagtexwa unpremeditated
yantexer agree
yantexwa agreed
yantex agreement
yantexder consent, express agreement, assent
yantexdut consenter
yantexden consensus
yontexer disagree, dispute
yontex disagreement
yontexder dissent, express disagreement, contest, dispute
yontexdut dissenter, disputant
yontexden dissension, disputation
yontexdeya disputatious
yontexduwa disputable
oyontexduwa indisputable
oyontexduwan indisputability:
avtexer assent, favor
evtexer question, wonder, be neutral
ovtexer contest, oppose
vatexer think so, believe, expect
vatex belief, expectation
vatexut believer
vatexuwa believable, credible, expected
vatexuwan believability
ovatexuwa unbelievable, incredible
ovatexuwan unbelievablity
vatexuer make believe, persuade, convince
vatexueya convincing
vatexuuwa credulous, convinceable
vatexuuwat credulous person
vetexer suppose, guess, hypothesize
vetex supposition, guess, hypothesis
vetexena suppositional, hypothetical
vetexwa supposed, guessed, hypothesized
fuvetexer suspect
fuvetex suspicion
fuvetexea suspicious
ofuvetexea unsuspecting
fuvetexwa suspected, suspect
fuvetexwat suspect
fuvetexuer make suspicious, arouse suspicion
fuvetexuea suspicious
votexer think not, disbelieve, doubt
votex disbelief, doubt
votexea circumspect, doubtful
votexuwa dubious, doubtful
votexut disbeliever, doubter
ovotexuwa undoubtable, indubitable
ovotexway undoubtedly, indubitably
vyatep reason, seat of reason, logical mind
vyatexer reason, rationalize
vyatex reason, rationale, logic
vyatexa rational, logical, reasonable
vyatexen rationalization, reasoning
vyatexwa reasoned
vyatexuwa reasonable
vyatexea reasoning, rational
ovyatexa irrational, unreasonable, illogical
vyatextun logic, study of logic
vyatextuna logical
vyatextut master of logic
vyatexin rationalism
vyatexina rationalistic
vyatexinat rationalist
vyatexan rationality
ovyatexan irrationality
vyatexyaf faculty of reason, ability to reason
vyotexer think wrongly, err
vyotex wrong-headedness, fallacy, false reasoning
vyotexa wrong-headed, fallacious, irrational
iztex logic?
jatexer plan, think ahead, project, premeditate
jatex plan, project, forethought
jatexen planning, premeditation
jatexutyan planning staff, oroject committee, board
jatexwa planned, projected, premeditated
jatexdren plan, draft, blueprint
ojatexwa unpremeditated, unplanned
jotexer ponder the aftermath of, review
jotex afterthought, recollection, review
ivtexer be grateful, be thankful, appreciate
ivtex thanks
ivtexder express thanks, thank
Ivtexwe! Thanks!, Thank-you!
uvtexer regret, remorse
uvtex regret, remorse
uvtexder express regret, express remorse, apologize
uvtexden apology, expression of regret
uvtexdea apologetic, regretful
Uvtexwe! Sorry!, Excuse me!, My condolences!
futexer resent, harbor ill feelings
futex resentment
futexder express resentment
futexeya resentful
futexika resentful
futexikan resentfulness
futexaya resentful
futexayan resentfulness
futexwa resented
texuer persuade, convince, make thing, suggest
texueya persuasive, convincing, suggestive
texuen persuasion, suggestion
texier get the idea, conceive of
texien conception
texiun concept
texiuna conceptual
texiuwa conceived
otexiuwa inconceivable
otexiuwan inconceivability
teyxer opine, believe
teyx opinion, belief
oteyx disbelief
teyxdren opinion piece, editorial
kitex bias
kitexea biased
kitexuer bias, slant one's views, sway
texyen opinion, view, belief, way of thinking, mental bias
texyener opinion, have the opinion, be of the view, believe
texyender express the opinion, opine
texyenika opinionated, biased
texyenaya opinionated, biased
antexyena single-minded, biased
antexyen bias, single-mindedness
kitexyena biased, slanted
kitexyen bias, slant
kitexyenuer bias, slant, influence, sway
geltexyena like-minded, of a similar opinion
geltexyener think alike, be of a similar opinion
ogeltexyena of a different opinion
ovtexyena of the opposite opinion, opposed, contrary
ovtexyener believe the opposite, think the contrary, dispute
ovtexyeneya contrarian, disputatious
ovtexyeneyan contrarianism
ovtexyeneyat contrarian, disputant
entexyena of two minds, split in one's opinion, divided
aztexyender strongly opine, express a forceful opinion, argue vehemently
texyendek debate, crossfire, battle of opinions, arguing, dispute
texyendeker debate, argue, dispute
texyendekut debator
texyendekutyan debate team
texyendekuwa debatable
textun philosophy
textuna philosophical
textut philosopher
tep mind, intellect
tepa mental, intellectual
tepay mentally, intellectually
tepyen mentality, mental framework, mood, disposition, state of mind, attitude
tepyena attitudinal
fitepyena in a good mood, well-disposed
futepyena in a bad mood, ill-disposed
vatepyena optimistic, favorably-disposed
votepyena pessimistic, negatively-inclined
tepyenika moody
tepyenikan moodiness
kyetepyena volatile, given to swing moods
kyatepyena in an altered state of mind, distracted
kyotepyena in a fixed mood, stable-minded, attentive
tijtep conscious mind
tijtepa conscious, aware, alert
teptija mentally alert, conscious, attentive
teptijan altertness, consciousness, attention
oteptija unattentive, unalert, distracted
oteptijan unattentiveness, unaltertness
eyteptija semi-alert, semi-conscious
eyteptijan semi-alterness, semi-consciousness
tujtep subconscious mind
tujtepa subconscious
teptuja mentally asleep, unconscious
teptujan unconsciousness
tepaza smart, intelligent, mentally strong
tepazan smartness, intelligence
tepoza dumb, stupid, of weak intelligence, mentally weak
tepozan dumness, stupdity, weak intelligence
tepeza mentally normal
tepezan average mental competence
tepiga quick-witted, witty, sharp-minded
tepigan quick-wittedness, wittiness, sharp-mindedness
tepuga slow-witted, mentally slow, dull-minded
tepugan slow-wittedness, mental dullness
tepyiga stern, strict, hard-minded, stubborn, tough-minded
tepyigan sternness, strictness, stubbornness, tough-mindedness
tepyigat stickler, tough cookie
tepyuga lax, soft-hearted, lenient
tepyugan laxness, soft-heartednes, leniency
tepyija open-minded
tepyijan open-mindedness
tepyuja closed-minded
tepyujan closed-mindedness
tepava favorable, favorably disposed, pro
tepova unfavorable, contrarian, con
tepbaka sane, mentally sound, of sound mind
tepbak mental health
tepbakam mental health facility
tepbakan sanity, mental soundness
tepboka insane, mentally ill
tepbok mental illness
tepbokan insanity, mental illness
tepbokat mental ill person
tepbek psychiatry
tepbeka psychiatric
tepbekam psychiatric clinic
tepbekim mental ward
tepbekwat mental patient
tepbekut psychiatrist
teptun psychology
teptuna psychological
teptut psychologist
tepsin mental image
tepsiner imagine
tepsinen imagination
tepsinwa imaginary, imagined
vyotepsin illusion, hallucination
vyotepsina illusory
vyotepsiner hallucinate
vyotepsinen hallucination
vyotepsinwa hallucinatory, illusory
vyatepa wise, sagacious
vyatepan wisdom, sagacity
vyatepat sage, wiseman, wise person
vyotepa foolish
vyotepan folly
vyotepat fool
yotepa crazy
yotepat crazy person
yotepan craziness
anagtepa simple-minded
anagtepat simpleton
anagtepan simple-mindedness
tepaga broad-minded
tepagan broad-mindedness
tepagat broad-minded person
tepoga silly, narrow-minded, petty
tepogan silliness, narrow-mindedness, pettiness
tepogat silly person, narrow-minded person, petty person
gitepa mentally sharp, keen
gitepan mental sharpness, acuity, keenness
gitepat keen wit
gutepa dull-minded
gutepan dullness, stupidity
gutepat dullard
zyatepa broad-minded
zyatepan broad-mindedness
zyatepat broad-minded person
zyotepa narrow-minded, petty
zyotepan narrow-mindedness, pettiness
zyotepat narrow-minded person, petty person
vatepa optimistic, positive
vatepan optimisim
vattepat optimist, positive person
votepa pessimistic, negative-minded
votepan pessimism
votepat pessimist, negative person
tepiza straight-minded, focused, clearheaded
tepuza scatterbrained
tepyiva free-spirited
tepyuva close-minded
tepyeva fair-minded
tepiva cheerful
tepuva downcast, depressed'
kyatepa flexible-minded
kyatepan flexibility
kyotepa fixed-minded
kyotepa fix-mindedness
kitepa slanted, biased
okitepa unbiased
kutepa distracted
gyitepa easy-minded, forgiving, lenient
gyutepa hard-minded, tough-spirited
kotepa opaque-minded
kyitepa serious-minded, serious, grave
kyutepa light-hearted, frivolous, silly:::
tyep intelligence
tyepa intelligent
tyepay intelligently
otyepa unintelligent
tyepaga ingenious
tyepagan ingeniously
tyepagan genius, ingenuity
tyepagat genius
toxer forget
toxwa forgotten
toxwas forgotten item
toxuwa forgettable
toxuwan forgettableness
toxeya forgetful
toxeyan forgetfulness
taxun memory
taxuna mnemonic
tixer study
tixut student
tixutyan student body
tixen study
tit pupil
tityan class, body of pupils
tin doctrine, lesson, study
tina doctrinal
tinuer indoctrinate, brainwash
tinuen indoctrination, brainwashing
tinuwa indoctrinated, brainwashed
tuinn theory
tuina theoretical
tuinxer theorize
tuinxen theorization
tuinxut theoretician
tijob training course, course of study, course
titim classroom
titam school
titameb principal
titamdyen schoolbook, textbook
titamem schoolyard
titamper matriculate, go to school, attend school
atitam grade school, primary school
atitamut grade-schooler
aajaba atitamut first-grader, first-year grade school pupil
etitam high school, secondary school
etitamut high-schooler
ititam college
ititama collegiate
ititamut college student
utitam university
utitama university, of a university
utitamut university student
aajabat freshman
eajabat sophomore
iajabat junior
uajabat senior
joutitam post-graduate school
joutitamut post-graduate student
tuxer teach, inform
tuxut teacher, informant
tuxutyan faculty
tut scholar, scientist, doctor, -ologist
tun science, information, -0logy
tuna scientific, -ologic
tutam academy
tutama academic, scholarly, scholastic
tutaman academia
tutamat scholar, academician
tiser learn
tisen learning
tisut learner
tisutyan class
tisun lesson, class
tisundyen lesson book
eftisun homework
tisim classroom
tisem lecture hall
tin doctrine
tina doctrinal
tit doctor
tuser inform
tusut informant
tusun information
fituswa well-informed
tas feeling, sense
taspan emotion
taspana emotional, emotive
taspaner emote, express emotion
taspanier get excited, get aroused
taspanuer move, excite, arouse
taspanuea moving, exciting, emotional, rousing
taspanuen exicitement, excitation
taspanuwa excited, aroused
taspanuuwa excitable
taspanuuwan excitability
tes meaning, significance, sense
teser mean, signify
tesaya meaningful, significant, important
tesayan meaningfulness, significance, importance
tesoya meaningless, insignificant, unimportant
tesoyan meaninglessness, insignificance, unimportance
tesier infer, understand, apprehend, comprehend
tesuer imply
tester understand, comprehend
otestuwa incomprehensible
tesder explain
otesduwa unexplainable
glatesaya important
tesaya meaningful, significant
tesoya unmeaningful, senseless
tayoter feel, physically feel
tayotun feeling, sensation
tayoxuwa palpable
tayoxuwan palpability
tayoxer feel, sense
tayoxar feeler, sensor
tayoxer touch, contact, palpate
tayoxen touching
tayoxena tactile
tayoser feel
fitayoser feel good
futayoser feel bad
tayosyea sensitive
tayosyean sensitivity
otayosea numb
otayosean numbness
tayosober numb
tayosobwa numbed
tayosobeya numbing:
tuser inform
tusut informant, lecturer
tusen instruction, lecturing
tusun information
tusuna informational
tusundyen information manual
tusunyan information
tusam institute
tusama institutional
tusim classroom
tusem lecture hall
tuseya instructive
tester understand, comprehend, apprehend
testen undertanding, comprehension, apprehension
bay testen ha with the understanding that
testwa understood, comprehended
otestawa not understood
testuwa understandable, comprehensible
otestuwa incomprehensible
otestuwan incomprehensibility
vyotester misunderstand
vyotesten misunderstanding
vyotestwa misunderstood
fitestwa well-understood
futestwa poorly-understood
eytestwa half-understood
iztesten intuition, direct apprehension
iztester intuit, directly apprehend, get it off the bat
oiztesten lack of intuition
bey iztesten through intuition
iztestyea intuitive
iztestyean intuitiveness
iztestwa intuitive
iztestwan intuitivness
iztestwas something intuited
iztestway intuitively
oiztestwa unintuitive
tesuer 'imply, suggest
tesuen implication, suggestion
tesuwa implied, suggested
otes nonsense
otesa nonsensical
glatesea meaningful, important, great significance
glatesean meaningfulness, importance, great significance
glotesea of little important, not very meaningful
glotesean unimportance, insignificance:
tesun symbol
tesuna symbolic
tesuner symbolize
tesunen symbolization
tesunyan symbology
tesier infer, get the sense, take it
tesien inference
tesieya inferential
tesder explain, explicate, clarify
tesden explanation, reason, rationale, explication, clarification
tesdena explanatory, rational
bay owa tesden with no explanation
boy tesden without explanation
tesden explaining, explanation
tesdawa explained, explicit
otesdawa unexplained, unclear
otesdawas something unexplained, mystery
otesduwa inexplicable
otesduwan inexplicability
otesduwas something inexplicable
bey tesin bi by reason of, by dint of
bay tesin ha because
tesdier seek an explanation, ask why
tesduer suggest an explanation, explain why
bay od tesin? Why?
tez culture
teza cultural
tezay culturally
tezyena cultured
otezena uncultured, uncouth
otezenan uncouthness
tezuer acculturate
tezuen acculturation
tezuwa acculturated
tezier acculturate oneself, get accustomed
tezien acculturation, accustomization
teziwa accultured, accustomed
tezxer cultivate
tezxen cultivation
tezxwa cultivated
yobtez subculture
yobteza subcultural
yabtez high culture
yabtezut a person of high culture
teyz cult
teyza cultic
teyzin cultism
teyzina cultist
teyzinat cultist
koteyz occult
koteyza occultic
koteyzat occultist
fateyz magic, wizardry
fateyza magical
fateyzer practice magic
fateyzut magician, wizard
foteyz witchcraft, sorcery
foteyza of witchcraft
foteyzer practice witchcraft
foteyzut witch, sorcery
foteyzuyt witch, sorcerer
xetyen practice
xetyena practical
xetyener practice
xetyenut practitioner
xetyenem practice venue
xyen industry
xyena industrial
xyenaxer industrialize
xyenaxen industrialization
xyenaxwa industrialized
xyenem industrial site
xyenam industrial plant
xyeneb plant manager
yexyen occupation, trade
yexyena occupational
yexyentitam trade school
yexyenijer start a trade, intern
yexyenijut intern, rookie, novice, freshman
xetun practice
xetuna practical
xetunan practicality
xetunaber apply a practice
xetunabut practicioner
tetun technique
tetuna technical
otetuna non-technical
tetut technician
tetunyan technology
tetunyana technological
tetunyanut technologist
tetunaber apply a technique
tuz art, skill, craft, practice
tuza art, of art, artificial
tuzam art museum
tuzem art fair, art exhibition
tuzut artist, practicioner
tuzyena artistic, skillful
tuzyen artistry, skill
tuzaya skillful, skilled
tuzayan skillfulness
tuzoya unskilled
tuzun artifact, piece of art, art object, objet d'art
tuzunyan art collection
tuzunyanam museum of art
tuzier gain skill
tuzuer teach a skill
tuzunxer craft
tuzunxen crafting
tuzunxut craftsman
tuzunxun craftiwork
tuzunxwa crafted, artificial
tuyz artisanry, craft
tuyza artisanal
tuyzyena crafty, artisanal
tuyzut artisan, crafter
tuyzun piece of artisanship
tuzyan set of skills
vituz art, fine art
vituz of fine art
vituzam fine arts museum
vituzyan beaux arts, fine arts
vituzut fine artsman, artist
vituzyena finely crafted, artistic
vituzaya artful, artistic
tuyatuz handicrafts
tuyatuzun handiwork, handcrafted item, knick-knack
tuyatuzunswa handicrafted, made by hand
tuyatuzut hand craftsman
teyen idea, concept
teyena conceptual, ideal, abstract, ideational, notional
teyenser conceive, conceptualize
teyenxer conceptualize, conceive
teyenxen conceptualization, conception
teyenxwa conceived, conceptualized
teyenier get the idea, abstract, get the notion
teyeniun abstraction
teyeniwa abstracted, abstract
teyenuer give the idea, suggest
teyenueya suggestive
teynueyan suggestiveness
teyenuen suggestion
teyenyan ideology, set of ideas
teyenyana ideological
teyenyanut ideologue
teyenin idealism
teyenina idealistic
teyeninat idealist
teyentun philosophy
teyentuna philosophical
teyentut philosopher
kyoteyen idee fixe, fixed idea
koteyen hidden concept
ijteyen initial concept, germ of a notion
agteyen grandiose idea, grande idee, grand ideal
teyentun philosophy
teyentuna philosophical
teyentut philosopher
obteyen underlying notion, basic idea
abteyenxer abstract
abteyena abstract
abteyenxen abstraction
abteyenxwa abstracted
zeyteyen metaphor, crossover notion
zeyteyena metaphorical, transnotional
izteyen direct concept
tyen technique, skill
tyena technical, skilled
tyenay technically
tyenan technicality
tyenson technicality, technical issue
tyenar technical device, tool
tyenarut technician
tyenaryan toolset, equipment, technology
tyenaraya equipped
tyenaram tool shop
tyenijut apprentice
tyenijutan apprenticeship
tyeneb master technician
tyentun technology
tyentuna technological
tyentut technologist
tyenyan industry, skillset, technology
tyenyana industrial, technologal
tyenyanxer industrialize
tyenyanxen industrialization
tyenyanxwa industrialized
jatyenyana pre-industrial
jotyenyana post-industrial
tyenyanem industrial site
eytyenyana semi-industrial
tyenier train, take training, master
tyenien training, learning a skill, mastery
tyeniut apprentice, trainee
tyenuer train, supply training, school, familiarize
tyenuut trainer, master
tyenuam training facility
tyenuuwa trained
tyenuwat trainee
tyenmep career
tajtyen talent, in-born skill
tajtyenaya talented
tajtyenoya untalented, talentless
kotyen hidden skill, secret technique, hidden power
tyez magic, wizardry, divination
tyeza magical
tyezay magically
tyezer perform magic, divine, charm
tyezut magician, wizard, diviner, enchanter, charmer
tyezun charm, magical object
tyezil magic potion
fatyez miracle, thaumaturgy
fatyeza miraculous, thaumaturgical
fatyezay miraculously
fatyezer perform a miracle
fatyezut miracle-worker, shaman, thaumaturge
fotyez witchcraft, sorcery
fotyeza of witchcraft
fotyezer perform witchcraft
fotyezut witch
fotyezuyt witch, sorceress
fotyezil witch's brew
kotyez occult
kotyezin occultism
kotyeza occultic
kotyezer practice occult
kotyezut occultist

The job (Time) Family[edit]

Here are the most important words derived from job time. Bear in mind that, in English, there are two meanings for time. One refers to time as it passes, which is translated by job in Mirad, and the other refers to an point in time, an instance or occasion, i.e. a countable noun concerning 'frequency', which is translated by jod in Mirad.

Calendar Time Units[edit]

job time jeab spring jiab January juab Monday
jab year jeeb summer jieb February jueb Tuesday
jeb season jeib autumn jiib March juib Wednesday
jib month jeub winter jiub April juub Thursday
jub day jiyob May juyob Friday
jwob* hour jiyab June yuyab Saturday
jwab* minute jiyeb July juyeb Sunday
jweb* minute jiyib August
jiyub September
jilob October
jilab November
jileb December
yejab week sojab century amlojab millennium
* These would normally be jyob, jyab, and jyeb, but there are hard to pronounce and difficult to hear, so the y is replaced by a w.

Times of Day[edit]

maj daytime
ijmaj dawn
imaj morning
eymaj noon
joeymaj afternoon
ujmaj dusk
umaj evening
moj night
eymoj midnight

General Time Words[edit]

job time
jod time, instance, occasion
jodsag frequency
jud date
jood period
jag age

Some Parallel Time Terms[edit]

taj birth aj past ja before jana previous ajna old
tej life ej present je during jena current ejna new
toj death oj future jo after jona next ojna future
tij wakefulness ij beginning ji since ijna initial
tuj sleep uj end ju until ujna final

Time Questions and Answers[edit]

odjob? when? odgla jodi? how often? odgla jaga? how old?
adjob at the time adgla jodi as often adgla jaga' of the age
edjob sometime edgla jodi sometimes edgla jaga' of some age
idjob now idgla jodi this often idgla jaga' this old
udjob then udgla jodi that often udgla jaga that old
uydjob at such a time uydgla jodi so often uydgla jaga so old
yodjob never 'yodgla jodi never gle jaga rather old
yadjob always 'yadgla jodi at all times gla jaga very old
yedjob whenever yedgla jodi however often gra jaga too old
yidjob at the same time ge jodi as often gro jaga' under-aged
yudjob some other time oge jodi not as often ge jaga as old, of the same age
be jobi at times awa jod once awa jab jaga one year old
be udjobi in those times ewa jodi twice yuwa jabi jaga two years old
byu jobuj forever gla jodi very often alo wa jabi jaga ten years old
byi udjob since that time aloni bi jodi hundred of times ga jaga ev et older than you

Words in the job Family[edit]

job time
joba temporal
ponjob vacation
ivjob leisure time
yogjob short time
yogjoba temporary
yagjob long time
yagjoba chronic
jejoba chronic
gonjob part-time
gonjoba part-time
joob epoque
jooyb era
ejjoba contemporary, present-day
ebjob interval
jobuj end of time
byu jobuj until the end of time, forever
ojobuj eternity
ojobuja eternal
ojobujay for eternity, eternally
jobij beginning of time
byi jobij since the beginning of time, forever, always
igjobay soon
glojo soon, not long after
odjob when...?
byu odjob until when...?
byi odjob since when...?
byu odgla job for how long...?
byi odgla job for how long...?
bye odgla job for how long...?
adjob when, at the time (that)
edjob sometime (when)
idjob now, at this time
byu idjob up to now, so far, heretofore
byi idjob from now on, henceforth, hereafter
idjobi these days
udjob then, at that time
byu udjob until then
byi udjob since then
udjobi in those days
udyenjob at such a time
udyenjobi at such times
yadjob always
yadawa jod each time, every time
yadjod each time, every time
yadjodi at all times
yedjob at any time, whenever, at any time whatever, at whatever time
yidjob at the same time, at the very time
yudjob some other time, at another time
yudjobi at other times
yodjob never, not at any time, at no time
yodawa jod on no occasion, never, not a single time
gajob longer, yet, more time, still
Iyt yexe idem gajob She still works here.
Iyt voy yexeyo idem gla gajob She won't be working here much longer.
voy gajob no longer
gojob less time
glajob a lot of time, much time, a long time
ja glajob a long time ago
gla ajay long ago
be yuba aj in the recent past
glojob a little time, a short while
jo glojob soon, in a short while
glo ojay very soon
be yuba oj in the near future
bi job bu job from time to time
jod point in time, instance, moment, occurrence, occasion, time, instant
jodsag frequency
glajoda frequent
glajoday frequently
odgla jodi how often? (lit: how many times?]
idgla jodi this often
udgla jodi that often
udyengla jodi so often
gle jodi somewhat often
ga jodi more often
ga jodi ev more often than
ge jodi as often
ge jodi ev as often as
go jodi less often
go jodi ev less often than
gla jodi very often
gle jodi rather often
glo jodi not so often, seldom
gra jodi too often
gre jodi often enough
gro jodi not often enough
gya jodi most often, as often as possible
gyo jodi least often, as seldom as possible
ajod once
awa jod once, one time
be awa jod at one time
awa ga jod one more time, again, once again
ejodi twice
ewa jodi twice, two times
be ewa jodi on two occasions
ewa ga jodi two more times
ga jod again
awa ga jod again, once again, one more time
be awa ga jod at one more point in time
ewa ga jodi two more times
Eku ud gajod, Sam! Play it again, Sam!
idjod this time
be ida jod at this moment
idjodi on these occasions, at these times
udjod that time
be uda jod at that moment
udjodi on those occasions, at those times
udyenjod at such a time
be udyena jod at such a moment
yodjod never, at no point in time
be yoda jod on no occasion
yadjod every time, always
be yada jod at every occasion
yadawa jod each time, on each occasion
yadjodi at all times, on all occasions
yedjod at any moment, any time
be yeda jod at any point in time
ed jodi on some occasions, at times
be eda jodi at certain times, at times, on occasion
odjod at what point?
odjodi on what occasions?
eg- re-, again, over
egxer redo, fix
egteaxer review
egtajwa reborn
egder repeat
jab year
jaba annual, yearly
jabay annually, yearly
sojab century
idjab this year
udjab that year
yadjab every year
axagay lyajab once a year
je ad jab during the year
eynjaba semiannual
eynjabay semiannually
ejaba biannual
ejabay biannually
jabjea year-long
jabij new year's
jeb season
jeba seasonal
jeab spring
jeeb summer
jeib autumn, fall
jeiba autumnal
jeub winter
jeuba hibernal
jeuber hibernate
jib month
jiba mensual
ijib trimester
yajib semester
jiab January
jieb February
jiib March
jiub April
jiyob May
jiyab June
jiyeb July
jiyib August
jiyob September
jiyub October
jilab November
jileb December
jibjea month-long
jub day
juba diurnal, daily
edjub someday
idjub today
udjub that day
yadjub every day
yad ea jub every other other
ejodi yadjub twice a day, two times a day
yedjub any day, whatever day
yidjub the same day
yudjub another day, the other day, some other day
odjub which day
zajub tomorrow
zajub imaj tomorrow morning
zajub umaj tomorrow evening
zajub moj tomorrow night
zojub yesterday
yejub week
yejuba weekly
yejubuj weekend
ojna yejub next Monday
ajna yejub last Monday
id yejub this Monday
juab Monday
be juab on Monday
ja juab before Monday, by Monday
ji juab since Monday
ju juab until Monday
jueb Tuesday
juib Wednesday
juub Thursday
juyob Friday
juyab Saturday
juyeb Sunday
jozajub the day after tomorrow
jazojub the day before yesterday
Fijub! Good day!
ivjub feast, holiday
ivjuber celebrate
ivjuben celebration
ivjuba festive
ivjuban festivity
jabjub anniversary
tajjub birthday
fatajjub Christmas
zoybitojjub Easter:
jwob hour
jwoba hourly
jwobar watch
tuyojwobar wrist watch
jwobur clock
sagzyiun dial, face, screen
jwodar hour hand
jwadar second hand
jwobder tell time
jwab minute
jwayb moment
jwayba momentary
jweb second
jweyb instant
jweyba instantaneous
maj daytime
imaj morning
imaja matinal, morning
jimaj dawn
eymaj noon
joeymaj afternoon
umaj evening
ujmaj dusk
Fimaj! Good morning!
Fijoeymaj! Good afternoon!
Fiumaj! Good evening!
moj night
moja nocturnal, nightly
mojob nighttime
eymoj midnight
Fimoj! Good night!
jud date
judrer date
judrawa dated
ojudrawa undated
jojudrer post-date
jojudrawa post-dated
jajudrer ante-date
jajudrawa ante-dated
judar calendar
dulojud? on what date?
Dulojud se idjub? What date is today?
tajjud date of birth
Od se eta tajjud? What is your date of birth?
ujjud deadline, end date
judnab date range
jag age
Odjaga et se? How old are you?
Du eta jag? How old are you?
At se elijaga I am twenty-three years old.
jaga old, aged, year old, elderly
jagan old age, seniority, senility
jagat old person, oldster, senior, elder
jagser get old, grow old, age
jagsen growing old
ajaga one-year-old
ajagat a one-year-old baby
alojaga ten years old
aloyjaga teenaged
aloyjagat teenager
aloyjagan teens
yilojaga octogenarian
gyejaga adult
gyajagan adulthood
grojaga minor
gyojagat minor
zejaga middle-aged
zejagat middle-aged person
jagyena elderly, old-acting, senile
joga young
jogan youth
joganika youthful
joganik youthfulness
joganoker lose one's youth
jogat youngster, boy, young man, neophyte, newbie, rookie
jogayt girl, young lady
jogtob young man
jogtoyb young woman, young lady
egjogaxer rejuvenate
egjogaxen rejuvenation
egjogaxwa rejuvenated
jogyena youthful, youngish
jogyen youthful manner
ajna old, olden, ancient, stale
ejna new, current, modern, young, fresh
ojna not out yet, future

The sag (Number), nog (Measure), nod (Point) Families[edit]

The words in this family have to do with numbers, measurements, degrees, points, lines, etc.
ag size nod point
sag number nad line
syag count ned plane
syaag calculation nid volume
nog degree nab rank
nag measure nap order
neg level naab organization
jag age naap system
xag frequency nyap rule
yag length
sag number, cypher
saga numeric
sager count
sagder enumerate, number
sagdawa numbered
osagdawa unnumbered
sagaya numerous
sagtun mathematics
sagtuna mathematical
sagtut mathematician
asagtun arithmetic
asagtuna arithmetical
asagtut number cruncher
esagtun geometry
esagtuna geometric
esagtut geometrist
isagtun trigonometry
usagtun algebra
yosagtun calculus
syag count, computation, tally
syaga computational
syager count, compute
syagar computer
syagartun computer science
syagartut computer scientist
osyaguwa countless
syagdyen account
syagdyentun accounting
syagdyentut accountant
syagsem counter
jag age
jaga aged, old, stale
zejaga middle-aged
yilojaga octogenarian
jagoya ageless
jagser get old, age
jagxer age, make old
jagan oldness, age, antiquity
jagat elder, oldster, old person
jagatam elder care facility, old folks' home
joga young, new
jogan youth, newness
jogat youngster, young person
jogas novelty, something new
jogaser become young
jogaxer rejuvenate
jogaxen rejuvenation
jogaxwa rejuvenated, renewed, refreshed
ag size
aga big, large, great
agan' bigness, largness, greatness, size
agaser get big
agaxer magnify
agaxwa magnified
agaxen magnification
agaxar magnifier
agxer grow
agser grow up
agsa grown, adult
agsat grown-up, adult
agsatan adulthood
agseat adolescent
agseatan adolescence
yabaga tall
yobaga deep
yaboga short
yabaga shallow
yag length
yaga long
yagan longness, length
yagaxer lengthen
yagxer stretch
yagxwa stretched
yagjob long while, long time
yagdin novel
yagder narrate
ja yagjob a long time ago
jo yagjob a long time from now
yagjoba long-term
yoga short
yogaxer shorten, abbreviate
yogdun abbreviation
yogdin short story
yogder summarize
yogxer cut, clip, snip
yogjob short while, short time
ja yogjob a short while ago
jo jogjob soon, a short time from now
yogjoba temporary, short-term

nog degree
musnog step
musnogar ladder, step ladder
finnog grade
tyoyanog step, pace, stoop
tyennog degree
tyennogier get one's degree, graduate
tyennoguer graduate, give out a degree
duznog pitch
duzijnog key
yabnog step up
yabnoga high-grade, upscale
yobnog step down
yobnoga downscale, low-grade
amnog degree of temperature
nogder grade
nogper escalate, climb
nogpen escalation
onogber de-escalate
onogben de-escalation
noga gradual
yignoga steep
yugnoga gradual
anoga primary
enoga secondary
inoga tertiary
unoga quaternary
zanoger graduate, advance
yobnoguer downgrade, degradate, downscale
yobnogier become degraded, step down
yabnoguer upgrade, upscale
yabnogier go up in grade, advance, step up
yabnogper climb, scale
yabnogput climber
anoga primary
enoga secondary
odnog how (to what degree)?
adnog to the degree
ednog somewhat
idnog this, to this extent
udnog that, to that extent
uydnog so, to such an extent
yodnog in no way
yadnog completely
yednog in any degree, however
yidnog just as
yudnog to a different extent
nogyan scale
nogyana scalar
nogyena gradual
nogyenay gradually
noog stage
nag measure, measurement
naga metric
nager measure
nagder measure
nagdar meter
amnagdar thermometer
barnagdar barometer
ignagdar speedometer
yabnagdar bathymeter
nayg dimension
nayga dimensional
anayga one-dimensional
enagya two-dimensional
inayga three-dimensional
neg level
glanega multilevel
negser level out
negxer level
ebnegar elevator
nig space, room
niga spatial
yeznig inner space
yoznig outer space
yuznig environment
yuzniga environmental
yuznigtin environmentalism
yuznigtinat environmentalist
nigay spatially
yonnigxer space apart
yonnigxwa spaced apart
gloniga cramped
glonigaxer cramp
glaniga roomy
nod point, tip
nodxer punctuate
nodxwa punctuated
noda punctual
uknod hole, puncture
uknodxer puncture, create a hole
uknodxwa punctured
zenod midpoint, focus, center point, hub, bull's eye
zenoder focus, target
abnod summit, top, tiptop, peak, vertex
obnod zenith, bottom point, nadir
yabnod highpoint, climax, peak
yabnoda climactic
yabnoder climax, top out
yobnod lowpoint, ebb
yobnoder ebb, bottom out
ijnod starting point, origin
ujnod end point, target, destination, pole
drenod dot
drenoder dot
drenodwa dotted
abdrenod diacritic
drunod punctuation mark
ujdrunod period
poysdrunod comma
eyndrunod semi-colon
eondrunod colon
yokdrunod exclamation point
diddrunod question mark
drunoder punctuate
drunoden punctuation
mepnod mile marker
byinod original
byunod destination, direction, target
ebnod intersection, node
ebnoda nodal
ebnodyan grid
ebnoder intersect
amir north
yibamir north pole, far north, extreme north
amira northern
aomira north-south
omir south
'yibamir south pole, far south, extreme south
omira southern
imir west
imira western, occidental
iumira east-west
umir east
umira eastern, oriental
emnod locus
kyonod fixed point
kyanod moving target
emnoder locate, spot
zenod focus, nucleus, hub
zenoda focal, nuclear
zeynod crosspoint, intersection, crossing
mepzeynnod highway intersection
mirnod pole
mirnoda polar
amirnod north pole
omirnod south pole
yibnod extremity, pole
yibnoda polar
yibnodan polarity
yibnodaxer polarize
yibnodaxen polarization
yibnodaxwa polarized
zyupnod pivot, hub, fulcrum
ozoypnod point of no return
dalnod talking point
gyisonnod sticking point, point of difficulty
nodeaxer point out, point, demonstrate, show, aim, target, pinpoint, focus
nodeaxar pointer
iznoder point to, focus, aim, target, pinpoint
ginod sharp point, apex
nad line
nada linear
nadan linearity
onada non-linear
onadan non-linearity
ebnad line in-between
ebnada interlinear
be nad bay in line with
zenad midline, median, line down the middle
yuznad border, frame, outline, circumference, periphery
yuznader frame, outline
yuznadwa framed, outlined, bordered
zyunad circle
zyunada circular
be zyunad bi around, circling
iznad straight line, vector, bee-line, direction
iznada vectorial, directional
be iznad bu on a straight path to
uznad curve, curved line, crooked line, arc
uznada curved, curvilinear
uznader curve, arc, arch
uznadwa curved, arched
uznadea curving
uznadaya curvaceous
aonad vertical line, vertical, north-south line
aonada vertical, along a north-south line
aonadan verticality
iunad horizontal line, horizontal, east-west line
iunada horizontal, along an east-west line
iunadan horizontality
zyenad perpendicular line, perpendicular
zyenada perpendicular
zyenadan perpendicularity
zeynad transverse line, transverse
zeynada transversal
zeynader cut across, transverse
kunad edge, frontier, sideline
be kunad bi on the edge of, bordering on
zakunad front edge
gikunada sharp-edged
ogikunada blunt-edged
zyokunad brink, narrow edge
be zyokunad bi on the brink of, on the verge of
yuz kunadi bi around the edges of
kunadyuba close to the edge
kunadyuban brinkmanship
kinad diagonal line, slant, slope, slash
kinada diagonal
kinader slope, slant
kinadwa sploped, slanted
eykinad radius
eykinada radial
eykinader radiate
eykinaden radiation
yankunad parallel line, parallel
yankunada parallel
yankunadan parallelism
yankunader parallel
be yankunad bay on a parallel with
mamnad skyline, horizon
mamnada horizontal
elyanad rail, rail line
elyanadpar train, locomotive
elyanad posam railroad station, train station
ijnad starting line
ujnad limit
yoza ujnad outer limit
ujnader limit
ujnaden limitation
ujnadwa limited
oujnadwa unlimited, absolute
oujnadway without limitation, absolutely
ujnadoya limitless
abnad upper limit, maximum
obnad lower limit, minimum
oyebnad outline
fufnad pipeline
yelfufnad oil pipeline
milfufnad water pipeline
aomirnad longitude
aomirnada longitudinal
iumirnad latitude
iumirnada latitudinal
eymirnad equator
eymirnada equatorial
nadxer align
nadxen alignment
vyonadxer misalign
vyonadxen misalignment
vyonadxwa misaligned
mipkunad river bank
mimkunad sea coast
nadgorber score
nadgorbwa scored
yaknad queue, waiting line, line
yaknader queue up, line up
jopnad line of succession, sequence, lineup
izuznada snaky, serpentine
naad lane, file
annada single-file, single-lane, one-way lane
ned plane
neda planar
nedes facet
domned plaza, place, public square
glanedesa multifaceted
abned surface, top, roof
abneda superficial, top
obned bottom, base, floor, lower surface, foundation, lower plane
obneda basic, fundamental, bottom
kuned side, lateral surface, wall, face, flank
kuneda lateral
kuneder flank
zaned front, front side, face, frontal plane
zaneda frontal
zoned back, dorsal plane, rear, backside
zoneda rear, dorsal, back
zyagned expanse, area, field
zyagneder expand, spread out
ebneda interplanar
geneda even, smooth, level
genedxer even out, smooth over
ogeneda uneven
ogenedan unevenness
nid volume
nidaya voluminous
zyunid sphere, globe, ball
zyunida spherical, global
eyzyunid hemisphere
zyunidog globule, droplet, bead
nyefnid cube
yakumnid cube
yakumnida cubic
igunid pyramid
zyuginid cone
defyabnid cone
defyabnida conical
nab rank
nabder rank
granabdwa over-ranked
gronabdwa under-ranked
nabxer arrange
nabxen arrangement
nabxwa arranged
nabyan array, grid, pattern, matrix
debnabyan hierarchy
debnabyana hierarchical
onab disarray
dopnab military rank
yobnaba low-ranking
yabnaba high-ranking
zenaba mid-ranking
abnaba superior in rank, ranking
obnaba inferior in rank
genaba equal in rank
ogenaba unequal in rank
aanaba first-ranking, top
eanaba second-ranking
eanabat runner-up
nabuer assign a rank, rank
nabier take on a rank, rank
aonab column
'aonaba columnar
iunab row
be aonabi ay iunabi in rows and columns
nap order
napa ordinal
be nap bi in order of
napyena orderly
onapyena disorderly
napber put in order, arrange
napbwa ordered, arranged
finapbwa well-ordered
onapbwa unordered, random, mixed
funapbwa disordered, messy, poorly organized
vyonapbwa misordered, out of order, mixed up, discombobulated
ebnapber mix up, shuffle, intersperse
ebnapbwa mixed up, shuffled, interspersed
napder ordain, order, command
napdut one giving the orders, commander
napden ordinance, order, commandment
donapden public ordinance, public mandate
dota napden social ordinance
dopa napden military order
onap disorder, mess
yonap utter mess
onapa messy, disordered
onapxer mess up
onapxwa messed up
donap public order
janap priority
janapa prior, last, previous
jonap sequence
jonapa sequential, next
glajonap' series
glajonapa' serial
napbyen discipline
napbyena disciplinary
napbyenier discipline
naab organization
naaba organizational
naabser organize
naabxer organize
onaabxwa unorganized
naabaya organized
naaboya unorganized
naap system
naapa systematic
naapay systematically
naapyena systemic
naapaxer systematize
naapaxen systematization
naapaxwa systematized
nyap rule
nyapa regular
aanyap principle, standard
aanyapaya principled
utnyap discipline
utnyapaya disciplined
utnyapber impose discipline, discipline
nyapbyen' rule of law, legal discipline
nyapdyen rulebook
nyapber impose a rule
nyapder decree, rule, dictate
'nyapden decree, regulation, dictat
nyapdena regulatory
'nyapdut governor, ruler
nyapyan regime
donyap law
donyapa legal
doynyapa licit
odoynyapa illicit
odoynyapan illiciteness
doynyapa legitimate
doynyapan legitimacy
odonyaypa illegitimate
odonyaypan illegitimacy
odonyapa illegal
donyapan legality
donyapay illegally
odonyapan illegality
donyapaxer legalize
donyapaxen legalization
donyapyan constitution
donyapyana constitutional
odonyapyana unconstitutional
odonyapyanan unconstitutionality
donyapxer legislate
donyapxut legislator, parliamentarian, deputy
donyapxutyan legislature, parliament
donyapxutim chamber of deputies, congress
donyaptun jurisprudence
donyaptut doctor of jurisprudence
donyaptuna juridical
donyaptitam law school
donyapxeen practice of law
donyapxeut lawyer
donyapxeam law office


zyus circle
zyuys oval
zyunid sphere
unizgun rectangle
ungekun square
ungun quadrangle
unoizgun rhombus
ingun triangle
yoongun pentagon
ginid cone
yagunid cube
inguginid pyramid
fufnid cylinder
amezsan diamond
tosan cross
uznad arc
ilpsan wave
gunsan wedge
amarsan star
san shape, form, figure
sana formal
osana informal
sanaxer formalize
sanaxen formalization
sanan formality
sanser form
sanxer form, shape
yegsanxer reform, re-shape, reconfigure
yegsanxen reformation, re-shaping, reconfiguration
yegsanxwa reformed, re-shaped, reconfigured
sanxen formation
fisanxwa well-formed
fusanxwa malformed
fusanxen malformation
fusanxun malformation
fisan good form, good figure
fusan bad form
sandren formula
sandrena formulaic
sandrun formula
sandruna formulaic
sandrunxer formulate
sandrunxen formulation
gin sharp point
gun angle
unizgunsan rectangle
ungekunsan square
ingunsan triangle
ungunsan quadrangle
unoizgunsan rhombus
ginid cone
ingunginid pyramid
yagekunid cube
nyem box
zyusan circle, circular shape
zyusana circular
zyusanan circularity
zyusandrer draw a circle
eyzyusan semi-circle
eyzyusana semi-circular
zyus cycle, wheel, circle
anzyus unicycle
enzyus bicycle
inzyus tricycle
unzyus four-wheeler
yazyus six-wheeler
zyusun tire
yigyelzyusun tire, rubber tie
ozyusa wheelless
zyusa cyclical
'ozyusa uncyclical
zyuysan oval
zyuysana oval-shaped
patijsan oval, egg-shape
patijsana egg-shaped, oval
fufsan cylinder
fufsana cylindrical
zyuf wrinkle
zyozyes slit, groove, slot
yagmeluk furrow, ditch, trench
mob chasm, precipice, dropoff, cliff, abyss
moab gulf, gulch
moeb ravine, valley, dale
moib cave, cavern
moibog cavity
moub ditch, furrow, trench
moyab dimple, depression, dip
moyeb hole, hollow, pit, depression, well, shaft
meb mountain
mebyan mountain chain
mebnad mountain range
mebaya mountainous
mebika mountainous
meyb mount
zyimeb plateau
zyiabmeb plateau
meab hill
meabaya hilly
meabog hillock
meeb knob
meib mound, protrusion, swell, tumor
meibser swell, protrude
meibsa swollen
meub ridge, fold
meyob bump
meyobika bumpy
omeyoba smooth
meyab pimple
nod point
zenod hub, focus, center-point, mid-point
ijnod starting point
ujnod endpoint, extreme, pole
ujnoda polar
ujnodan polarity
ujnodaxer polarize
ujnodaxen polarization
ujnodaxwa polarized
enujnoda bipolar
zyenod intersection, throughpoint
zyenoder intersect
zeynod cross point, crossover point
ebnod junction
abnod peak, tip, zenith, summit, top
abnodser peak
obnod lowpoint, bottom, nadir
obnodser bottom out
yabnod highpoint, summit, peak
yobnod lowpoint, bottom, nadir
yannod point of convergence, meeting point
yonnod point of divergence, split off point
drenod dot
drenodber dot
drenodbwa dotted
andrunod period
endrunod colon
eydrunod semi-colon
iznod' target, aim, focus
kyonod fixed point, target, focus, pinpoint
kyanod variable point, moving target
kelnod goal, target
byunod destination, goal
nad line
nada linear
nadan linearity
onada non-linear
ijnad starting line, threshold
ujnad finish line, limit
yuznad border, fence, frame, periphery, circumference
kunad edge, border, boundary
mimkunad coast
yankunad parallel
yuzkunad frame, periphery
mesyuzkunad door frame
obmisyuzkunad door threshold, door sill
misyuzkunad window frame
obmisyuzkunad window sill
zakunad front edge
zokunad back edge
mepkunad road shoulder
mipkunad river bank
yankunad parallel line
kinad slope, slant, diagonal
eykinad radius
iznad vector, straight line, bee-line, direction
iunad horizontal line
aonad vertical line
iumirnad latitude
aomirnad longitude
mamnad horizon, skyline
manad ray, beam
abnad upper limit
obnad lower limit
uznad curve, arc, arch, bend, bow, crook
mamuznad rainbow
oyebnad outline
fufnad pipeline
jopnad line of succession
dreznad verse, verse of poetry
elyanad rail, iron way, railroad
emirnad equator
dobnad frontier, border
amarnad sunray, sunbeam
ebnad separating line
dunnad sentence, line of text
jobujnad time limit, deadline
mebnad mountain chain
besnad queue, wait line
fabnad treeline
teasnad line of sight
tejnad lifeline
zanad frontline
zonad rearline
zyenad penpendicular line
zenad median, mid-line
zeynad transverse
ned plane, level, story
neda planar
glaneda multiplanar, multi-level, multi-story
anneda uni-level, single-story
enneda bi-level, split-level, two-story
abned surface, top, upper plane
obned bottom, lower surface, nether plane
zaned front, foreplane, face
zoned back, rear, dorsal plane
ebned interplane
yebned inner plane
oyebned outer plane
yabned raised surface, platform, stage
kined sloped plane
geneda even, level
ogeneda uneven, unlevel
kuned lateral plane, side
nid volume
zyunid sphere, ball
ugunid cube

The tom (Building), em (Place) Families[edit]

The stems in this family end mostly in -m, meaning place. The family includes areas, places, locations, buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and containers.
tom building -em general place
tam house -am indoor place
tem hall -yem enclosed space
tim room -im room
tum cell -yeb container
tom building, structure, edifice
toma structural
tomxer build, construct
yegtomxer rebuild, reconstruct
yegtomxen rebuilding, reconstruction
yegtomxwa rebuilt, reconsructed
tomxen construction
tomxut builder, construction engineer
tomxem construction site
otomxer destroy, demolish
ootomxen destruction, demolition
otomxwa destroyed
otomxeya destructive
otomxeyan destructiveness
otomxuwa indestructible
otomxuwan indestructibility
tomyofwa indestructible
tomtun architecture
tomtuna architectural
tomtut architect
tomsan structure
tomsana structural
tomyan complex, block, building complex
toom residence, residential building, habitat, habitation, apartment building, dwelling
tooma residential, habitational
toomer reside, inhabit, live, dwell
toomut resident, inhabitant
tomof tent
tomofem campground
tomofsum sleeping bag
tomes apartment, flat
tomesyan apartment complex
tomfaob timber
tombelut concierge
zyutom tower
jobnuer lease, let, rent out
jobnuut lessor
jobnuwat lessee
jobnuwa rental
jobnier rent
jobnien rental
jobniut renter
jobniuta yantexdren rental agreement, lease
fatom church, temple, mosque, sacred building
tomog abode
beer have, own, possess
beut owner, possessor, proprietor
beutan owernership, proprietorship
bewa own
bewaxer take ownership of, repossess
obewa unowned
obewaxer disown, appropriate, dispossess
obeer let go, release
bewas property, possession
bewaseb property manager, lord, proprietor
tam house, domicile
tama domiciliar
tamog hut
tamoyg cottage
tamyog shack, shanty, hovel
vutamog shack, ramshackle
tamyogdom shantytown, slum
tamag mansion
mebtam cabin
domtam brownstone, townhouse
vitamag palace
vitamaga palatial
tamaz castle
vitamaz chateau
tambeut homeowner
tamoya homeless
tamoyat homeless person
tomoyan homelessness
taam home, household, domain
taama domestic, tame
taamxer domesticate, tame
taamxen domestication, taming
taamxwa domesticated, tamed
otaamxwa undomesticated, untamed, wild
tamer live, dwell, inhabit
tamut inhabitant, dweller
tamier settle
tamien settlement
tamiut settler
tamuer house, shelter
tamuen housing, sheltering
tamuwa housed, sheltered
tamyan block of houses, block
tamyex house work, domestic chores
tamyexer work at home, telecommute
tamyexut domestic, work-at-home
tamyuxut house servant, domestic
tamyuxuyt maid, house maid
tamper go home
tampier leave home
tampuer arrive home
tampet pet
tampettel pet food
tampeta tame
tapetxer tame, housebreak
tampetxwa tamed, domesticated, housebroken
otampetxwa untamed, undomesticated, unhousebroken
tamtyal in-home meal, take-out
tamsaxwa home-made
tamoyeper go outdoors
tamyeper go indoors
yebtama indoor
tamtuler dine at home
tamtulxwa home-cooked
tamkum side yard
tamzam front yard
tamzom backyard
tambeser stay at home
tambesut stay-at-home
tameb head of household, master, lord
tameyb mistress
tameber dominate, master, lord over
tameben dominance, mastery, lording over
tambeya domineering, dominant
tamab domain
tamber settle, take up residence
tamkyaxer move, change residence
tamkyaxen moving
tamober uproot
tamkeler house hunt
tamkelut house hunter
tamkelen house hunting
tamyuva house-bound
titam school
jatitam pre-school, kindergarten
atitam grade school
etitam high school
ititam college
utitatam university
joutitam post-graduate school
donyaptitam law school
tutam academy, institute
totam church, house of God
judina totam temple
kristina totam Christian church
islama totam mosque
potam hotel
potameb hotelier
kostam cloister
dyentam library
fabtam treehouse
tem hall
abtem gallery
yagtem gallery
zatem lobby, foyer
zotem back room
zyutem rotunda
zyetem corridor, hallway
kutem side hall
obtem cellar, cave
drasintem picture gallery, art gallery
dyeduntem lecture hall
datuputtem reception hall
tultem dining hall
tim room, chamber, salon
abtim attic
bektim hospital room
beltim holding cell
fatim sacristry
obtim basement, cellar
teltim dining room
tapektim exercise room
tutim classroom
tultim kitchen
tiltim bar, saloon
tojtim death chamber
yantim suite
yebtim inner chamber
yontim apartment, compartment, quarters, flat
zatim antechamber
zyotim corridor
zotim backroom
miltim bathroom, restroom, washroom
igef biktim emergency room
deztim theatre salon
dezzatim theatre lobby
mimpartim ship cabin
mimparebtim ship's captain quarters
pestim waiting room
popdatim guest room
yextim bureau, den, office
timog closet
sumtim bedroom
glasumtim dormitory
datim living room, salon, sitting room
mustim stair well
timyan quarters
timuf wing
tum cell, compartment, unit, section
tuma cellular, compartmental
tumaxer compartmentalize
tumaxen compartmentalization
tumaxwa compartmentalized

The a (One) yan (Together) Families[edit]

The stems in this family are based on a one, and yan together and their opposites, o zero and yon apart.
Header text Header text
a one o zero
an- uni- on- non-
yan together yon apart
yad all yod none

a one

a gab a gese e: 1 plus 1 equals 2
anapa first, primary, foremost
anapan primacy
anapber rank first, put in first place
anoga primary, first-rung, first-degree, first-ranking
anogay primarily
ajaga one year old
ajagat one-year-old
awa jaga one year old
anida single-file, serial
aniday in a single line, single-file, serially
anidser line up, queue up
anidxer serialize
anidxen serialization
yanida parallel
yanid parallel, parallel line
yaniday in tandem, in parallel
an- mono-, uni-, one-, single-
antyoba one-legged
anteaba one-eyed, monocular
anteabar monocle
antepyena single-minded, obstinate
antoosa unisex
anzyuspar unicycle
anfatin monotheism
antex obsession
antexa obsessed
antexer obsess
antexeya obsessive
antada monogamous
antadan monogamy
antotin monotheism
antotina monotheistic
antotinut monotheist
annusutyan monopoly
annusutyanxer monopolize
annusutyanxwa monopolized
annaad monorail
aniznad one-way, single direction
aniznada one-way
anmepesa single-laned
anteuza monotone
anteuzan monotony
anteuzaya monotonous
antima unicameral
antuyabay single-handedly
annayga unidimensional
anvoza monochromatic
anzyus monocycle
anteaba one-eyed
anzyemepa one-track, single-track
anteuza unanimous
anteuzan unanimity
ansana uniform
ansanan uniformity
olansana disparate, non-uniform
andab dictatorship, autocracy
andaba dictatorial, autocratic
andeb autocrat, dictator
andalyena monolingual
anes unit
anesa unitary::
awa one
awas one, one of them, one thing
awat one person, one, one of them
awan oneness, unity
away only
awa jod once, one time
awa ga jod once again, again, another time
aa first, prime
aas first one, first, first thing
ad aas the first thing
aat first person, numero uno
aan priority, primacy
aanxer prioritize, make first
aanxem prioritization
aanxwa prioritized
aanay primarily
aay firstly, first
aaper go first
aapen going first
aaput person who goes first
aayux first aid
aadudut first respondant
aatajba first-born
aana unique
aanan uniqueness
aanay uniquely
aa- arch-, proto-, original, prime
aasaun prototype, model, archetype
aasauna prototypical, model, archetypical
aaovekut archrival
aayodat arch enemy
aaojduut prime lender
aafox original sin
aatex principle
ay and
aon whole, entirety
aon- holo-
aonina holistic
aonyamxen holocaust
aona whole, entire, integral, complete, perfect
olaona unwhole, incomplete, imperfect
aonay wholly, entirely, completely, perfectly
aonas whole thing, entire thing, sum
ad aonas the whole thing, the entire thing
aonan entirety, integrity, perfection
aonxer integrate, complete, perfect
aonxen integration, completion, perfection
aonxwa integrated, completed, perfected, perfect
olaonxwa unintegrated, imperfect, uncompleted
aonser become whole, heal, integrate
aonsag integer, whole number
aonsagyan set of integers
olaonxer disintegrate
olaonxen disintegration
olaonxwa disintegrated
aonder sum up
aonden summation
aondwa summed up, summary
ad aona mir the whole world
gel aon as a whole
aun unit, component, item
auna unitary
aunxer itemize
aunxen itemization
aunxwa itemized
aunyan complex
aunyana complex::
yaun component, constituent
anyan series, chain
anyana serial
anyanxer serialize, string together, chain together
anyanxen serialization
anyanxwa serialized
olanyanxer break the chain, unchain
anyanes link, chain link, item in a series
angona united, consisting of one part, whole, integral, unipartite
angonan wholeness, unison, integrality
alo ten
aloti group of ten people
alosi a group of ten things
lojab decade
ala eleven
ale twelve
aleon dozen
aleoni dozens
alogoler decimate
aluna decimal
aso one hundred, hundred
sojab century
sojaba centennial
asa one hundred one
ase one hundred two
asoney per cent
asoneyn percentage
asoni hundreds
aro one thousand
rojab millennium
rojaba millennial
rojabat millennial
aroni thousands
amlo one million, million
amloni millions
amro one billion, billion
amroni billions
aan unison
aanxer unify
aanxen unification
aanxwa unified
aanay in unison
aana unique, one and only
aanan uniqueness
aanay uniquely
be aan in unision
ana single, only, solitary, sole
ad ana the only, the sole
anay only, solely, merely
anan singularity, unison
ad anas the only thing
ad anat the only person
ad anasi the only things
ad anati the only people
anta alone, solitary
antan aloneness, solitude
antaxer isolate
antaxen isolation
antaxwa isolated
antaser isolate oneself, stay alone
antasa isolated
yanta combined
yantaxer combine
yantaxen combination
yantaxwa combined
yantaxun combination
anla singular
anlan singularity
anlaxer singularize
anlaxen singularization
anlaxwa singularized
yanla plural
yanlan plurality
yanlaxer pluralize
yanlaxen pluralization
yanlaxwa pluralized
anxer unite
anxen union
anxon union
anxan unity
anxwa united
olanxer disunite, break up
olanxwa disunited, broken up
yonxer divorce, separate, disunite, break up
yonxen divorce, separation, breakup
yonxwa divorced, separated, broken up
yonper go apart, separate, deviate, diverge
yonpea divergent, deviant
yonpen divergence, deviance, separation
yonput deviant
yonber put asunder, break apart
yonbun break
yonbyexer break, crack, disrupt, rupture
yonbyexun crack, disruption, rupture. fissure
yonbuxer push apart
yanbuxer push together, compress
yanbuxen compression
yanpeper ride together, share a ride
yanteler eat together, dine together
yantelut dinner companion
yandaler converse, discuss, deliberate
yandal conversion, dialog, communication, discourse, discussion, deliberation
yandala deliberative
yagyandaler converse at length
yandalut deliberator, discutant
yandalutyan congress, parliament, convention
yandalutyana congressional, parliamentary
yondaler dispute, argue, debate
yondal dispute, argument, debate
yondalut disputant, debater
yondaleya disputatious, argumentative
yondaleyan disputatiousness, argumentativeness
yandat ally
yandatan alliance
yandatser ally, become allies
yandatxer ally, make allies
yandatsa allied
yanek match, meet, competition, game
yanekut competitor
yanekeya competitive
fiyanekbyen gamesmanship, good sportiveness
ekutyan team
ekutyantup team member
anyafer tie, bind, connect
anyaf tie, binding, ligature, bond, connection
anyafwa tied, bound, connected
anyafen tying, binding, connection
olanyafer untie, unbind, disconnect, unlace
olanyafen untying, unbinding, disconnection, unlacing
olanyafwa untied, unbound, disconnected, unlaced
yanifer sew, stitch
yanif thread, stitch
yanifen sewing, stitching
yanifwa sewn, stiched
yanifar stitching needle
yanivar needle
yanifur sewing machine
yaniftyen couture
yanker combine
yank combination
yanken combination
yankwa combined
zoyyanber reassemble, rejoin, put back together
zoyyanben reassemblage, rejoining
zoyyanbwa put back together, reassembled, rejoined
yanbixer attact, pull together, contract
yanbixen attraction, contraction
yanbixeya attractive
yonbixer distract, pull apart
yonbixen distraction
yonbixea distracting
yonbixwa distracted
yanmul mix, melange, fusion
yanmulxer mix, fuse
yanmulxen mixing, melange, fusing
yanmulxwa mixed, fused
yanmel continent
yanmela continental
zeyyanmela transcontinental
yonmel island
yonmela insular
eyyonmel peninsula
eyyonmela peninsular
yanmeg concrete
yanmegyel cement
yanmegyelber cement
yanmegyelbwa cemented
yanbyeer conform, keep together
yanbyeen conformance
yanbyeya conformant
yanbyeyan conformity
yanbyea bay in conformance with
oyanbyea non-conformant
yansaner constitute
yansanen constitution
yansanea constituent
yanbexer adhere, hold together, cling, stick together
yanbexea adherent
yanbexeya clingy, sticky
yanbexen adherence
yanbexut adherent
yanbexwa adhered, held together, stuck
yanbexof adhesive
yanbexil paste, glue
yanbexiler paste, glue
yanbexilwa pasted, glued
yanbexilwas poster, sticky, sticker
yanbexileya sticky
yanas funds
yanasbuer fund
yanasbuwa funded
yanasbuen funding
yanasbuut funder
yanabier collect, harvest
yanabien collection, harvesting
yanabiut collector, havester
yanabiwa collected, harvested
yanabiut collector, havester
yantamer live together, cohabit
yantamen cohabitation
yantamea cohabiting, living together
yantamut cohabitor
yanyexer work together, cooperate, collaborate
yanyex cooperation, collaberation
yanyexa collaborative
yanyexut collaborator
yantexer agree, concord
yantex agreement, concord
yantexwa agreed
yantexuwa agreeable
yantexdren written agreement
yantexea bu according to, in accordance with
yontexer disagree
yontex disagreement, discord, dispute
yontexaya discordant
yontexwa disputed
yontexeya disputatious
yontexeyan disputatiousness
yanteser sympathize, commiserate, empathize
yantesea sympathetic
yantes sympathy, empathy
oyantes lack of sympathy
oyantesea unsympathetic
yonteser feel antipathy, resent
yontes antipathy, resentment
yontesea antipathetic:
yanbyen harmony
yanbyena harmonic
yanbyenxer harmonize
yanbyenxen harmonization
yanbyenxwa harmonized
be yanbyen bay in harmony with
yonbyen disharmony
topyanat soul-mate:
ebyana mutual
ebyanay mutually
ebyanan mutuality
ebyona rival
ebyonut rival, contestant
ebyonan rivalry
ebyonut rival
ebyonutser rival:
anaxer unify
anaxen unification
anaxwa unified
yanbier bring together, collect
yanbien collection
yanbiwa collected, brought together
ya- multi-, more than one
yatada polygamous
yatadan poygamy
yadalyena polyglot
yadalyenat polyglot
yasana poly-morphic, generic
yasauna various, varied
yasun chain
yasuna serial
yasunxer concatenate
yasunxen concatenation
yasunxwa chained, concatenated::
yan- co-, fellow-, mate
yanmemut fellow-countryman
yandit fellow citizen
yanfatinat co-religionist
yanpoput fellow-traveler, travelmate
yan together
yana together
yanay together
yanat partner, fellow, mate, companion, associate
yanatan partnership, fellowship, companionship, association
yanatser partner, mate, associate
yanatsen partnering, mating, association
yanatseya sociable
yanatseyan sociability
yanatyan association, society, committee
yanatyana associational, societal, social
timyanat roommate
sumyanat sleep-mate, bed-mate
telyanat dining companion
yanil glue
yanilber glue
yanilbwa glued
oyanilbwa unglued
yanilben gluing
yanyel paste
yanyelber paste
yanyelben pasting
yanyelbwa pasted
yanyelyena pasty
yanxer gather, assemble, collect
yanxen gathering, meeting, assemblage
yanxwa gathered, assembled
yanxon assembly
yanser join, meet, collect, assemble
yansen meeting, collection, assembly
yans meeting
yansem meeting place
yanper go together, accompany, associate
yanput accompanist, companion, associate
yanputan companionship, companion, association
yanuper meet, come together, assemble
yanup meeting, convocation, get-together
yanupem meeting venue:
yanber put together, compose, assemble
yanben composition, assemblage
yanbut composer, assembler
yonber take apart, break up, disassemble
yonben disassemblage
yanyeber mix
yanyeben mixing, tangling
yanyebun mixture, melange, mixup, tangle
yanyebwa mixed, tangled
yonyeber disentangle, untangle
yonyeben untangling, resolution
yanun pile, accumulation, stack, grouping, heap
yanuna cumulative
yanunser pile up, accumulate, stack up, group
yanunxer pile up, stack, stack up, make a pile
yanunxwa piled up, stacked, accumulated, heaped up
yanunxen piling up, stacking, accumulation, heaping
nyaun pile, mass, heap, cluster
nyauna massive
nyaunser pile up, cluster
nyaunxer pile together, cluster, group, amass
nyaunxwa piled together, clustered, grouped, amassed
nyaunag bloc, crowd
nyaunagser crowd together, form a bloc
nyaunagxer crowd together, make into a bloc:
nyan ensemble, gathering, collection
nyana collective
nyanay collectively
nyanan collectivity
nyanaxer collectivize
nyanaxen collectivization
nyanaxwa collectivized
nyanag mass, herd, crowd
nyanaga massive
nyanagber mass, crowd, gather, assemble, herd together, gather together
nyanagbwa crowded, massed, herded together
nyautyan crowd
nyautyana crowded
-yan: collection, grouping
fabyan forest
tobyan humankind, mankind, humanity
potyan animal kingdom
patyan flock of birds
tulyan meal, set of dishes
dunyan verbiage
yanar link, joint, juncture, nexus, yoke
yanarser link up, join
yanarxer link, join
yanarxen linking, joinning
yanarxwa linked, joined
yanaryan chain
yanzyus chain
yanzyusaber chain, shackle
yanzyusaben chaining, shackling
yanzyusabwa chained, shackled
yanzyusober unchain, unshackle
yanzyusoben unchaining, unshackling
yanzyusobwa unchained, unshackled
aut person
agaut personage, v.i.p.
ogaut little guy, man on the street, average Joe
auta personal
autaxer personalize
autaxwa personalized
autan personality, personhood
autyan public
autyana public
autyanyux public service
autyanyuxut public servant
autyander publicize, advertise
autyanden publication, publicity, advertisement, ad
anut individual, private person
anuta private, particular, individual
anutay privately, individually
anutan privacy, ndividuality, particularity
anutaxer privatize
anutaxen privatization
anutaxwa privatized
olanutaxer de-privatize
olanutaxen de-privatization
olanutaxwa de-privatized
yanuta general
yanutan generality
yanutay generally
yanutaxer generalize
yanutaxen generalization
yanutaxwa generalized
yanaut people
yanauta popular
yanautan popularity
yanautaya populous
yanautber populate
yanautben population
yanautin populism
yanautina populist, populistic
yanautinat populist
yauta common, communal
yautay commonly
yautan community
yautana communitarian, communal
yaut commune::
yautin communism
yautina communist
yautinat communist
yautinyena communistic, communist-leaning
ovyautina anti-communist
avyautina pro-communist
autnyan community
autnyana communitarian, communal
utyan group
utyanser group together
grautyan crowd, mass of people
grautyanser crowd together, mass
grautyansa crowded
asana special
asanay specially, especially
asanan specialty
asanxer specialize
asanxen specialization
asanxwa specialized
asanxut specialist
asuna specific
asunay specifically
asunder specify
asunden specification
asunxwa specified
yasana general
yasanay generally
yasanan generality
yasanxer generalize
yasanxen generalization
yasanxwa generalized
yasuna generic, typical
yasunay generically, typically
oyasuna ungeneric, atypical:
tyan class
tyana classic, classical
tyanxer classify
tyanxen classification
tyanxwa classified
tyanes genre, type, genus
tyanesa generic, typical
aatyan first class
eatyan second class
iatyan third class
yabtyan high class
yabtyana high-class
yobtyan low class
yobtyana low-class
zetyan middle class
zetyana middle-class
vityana classical
vutyana vulgar
vutyanan vulgarity
vutyanun vulgarism
vutyanxer vulgarize
vutyanxen vulgarization
tyanin classism
tyanina classist
tyantijtea class-conscious::
utyan group
utyanser group, band together
utyansen grouping
utyanxer group, band
utyanxen grouping
utyanxwa grouped
utyana collective
utyanan collectivity
utyanaxer collectivize
utyanaxen collectivization
yebutyan in-group
oyebutyan out-group
utyanes team
utyanesyex teamwork
ovutyanes opposite team
utyanog band
utyanogser band together
avutyan party
dobtuna avutyan political party
avutyana partisan
avutyanan partisanship
ovutyan opposition party
utnyan assembly
syan species, type
syana specific
syanes type
syanog category
syanogxer categorize
syanogxen categorization
syangoxwa categorized
syanoga categorical
asyan series
asyana serial
asyanxer serialize
asyanxen serialization
asyanxwa serialized
yasyan collection
yasyanxer collect
yasyanxen collection
yasyanxut collector
nyanut union, syndicate
nyanuta syndical
nyanutan syndicalism, unionism
nyanutut unionist
ebnyanuta intersyndical, interunionist
nyanutyan federation
nyanutyana federal
nyanutyanan federalism
yanyanutyan confederation
yanyanutyana confederal
yanyanutyanan confederalism
yonxer separate
yonxen separation
yonxuwa separable
oyonxuwa inseparable
oyonxuwan inseparability
yonzyaber disperse
yonzyaben dispersal
yonzyabwa dispersed
yonkuber sideline, set aside
yonkuben sidelining, setting aside
yonkubwa sidelined, set aside, benched
yanifer sew, stitch
yanifen stitching
yanifwa stitched, sewn
oyanifer take out the stitches, unstitch
nyaf knot, tangle
yanyafer knot, tangle
yanyafwa knotted, tangled
yanyafen kotting, tangling
oyanyafer untangle
oyanyafen untangling, denouement
yonofer tear, tip
yonof tear, rip
yonofen tearing, ripping
yonofun tear, tip
yonofwa torn, ripped
yonofar ripping device, scissors
yaniler glue
yanilun glueing
yanilwa glued
oyaniler unglue
oyanilwa unglued
yaner tie, link
yanen liason, tie
yoner untie, unlink
yonen untying, unlinking
yanler attach
yanlen attachment
yanlwa attached
yonler detach
yonlen detachment
yonlwa detached
yonrer cut
yonren cutting
yonrwa cut
yonrar knife, cutter
yonrares blade
yanxer join
yanxen joining
yanxwa joined
yonxer unjoin, partition, separate
yonxen unjoining, partitioning, separation
yonxwa disjoined, unjoined, partitioned, separated
yonxun partition, separation, gap
yontader divorce
yontaden divorce
yontadwa divorced
yonaxer separate
yonaxen separation
yonaxwa separated
yona apart, separate
yonay apart, separately
yonan apartness, separateness
yonim apartment
yonimyan apartment complex
yon apart
yonay apart, sunder
yonan apartness
yonser come apart, separate
yonsen coming apart, separation
yan together
yanay together
yanan togetherness
yanuper meet
yanup meeting
yanupem meeting venue
yanat mate, partner, fellow
yanatan mateship, partnership, fellowship
yanan togetherness
tamyan housing complex, block of houses
tomyan building complex, block of building
sumtimyan dormitory
patyan flock of birds
maryan constellation
saryan instrumentation, equipment
yandal colloquy, discussion
yandaler discuss
yandalut discutant, interlocutor
yanber compose, put together
yanben composition
yanbena compositional
yanbut composer
yanbwa composed
yonber take apart, decompose
yonbem decomposition
yonbwa decomposed
yontim apartment, flat
yontimyan apartment complex
yonyem separate space, compartment
yonyemxer compartmentalize
yonyemxen compartmentalization
yonyemxwa compartmentalized
tomyan block of building, block, complex
tamyan block of houses, housing complex
sumtimyan dormitory
maryan constellation
suryan equipment
siryan machinery
ajtedyan ancestry
amulyan molecule
apelatyan swarm of bees
atulyan breakfast
saryan toolset
sayryan instrumentation
somyan furniture
sunyan reality
suzyan art collection
syagyan account
dafyan deck of cards
debyan leadership
defyan stationary
detyan club
dityan citizenship
dlunyan phraseology
dopsuryan ordnance
doutyan bourgeoisie
dresinyan alphabet
drenyan scripture
dreunyan documentation, dossier
drevyan grammar
drezyan poety
dyedutyan readership
dyendyunyan bibliography
dyenyan book collection, library
dunyan glossary, lexicon
dyuvyan ream of paper
etulyan lunch
bapeltyan swarm of ants
faybyan shrubbery, thicket
fayebyan foliage
itulyan dinner
jogatyan youth
jubdryenyan the press
kobiunyan loot
masyan masonry
mepyan network
naafyan drapery
nasyan capital
nesyan savings
neunyan reserves
nibyan array, grid, matrix, web
nisyan earnings
nifyan wiring
nozyan jewelry
nofyan textiles
nusbiutyan clientele
nunamyan shopping center
patayebyan plumage
patyan poultry
peltyan swarm
pityan school of fish
potyan animalia
tadetyan fraternity
tadyan husband and wife
taibyan skeleton
taydetyan sorority
teesiutyan audience
telaryan cutlery
teipibyan denture
tiutyan student body
tolaryan dishes
totyan pantheon
tulyuxutyan wait staff
tulyan meal
tutamyan university
tuutyan academe
tyadetyan grandchildren
tyadyan grandparents
tyunyan ideology
vazasunyan greenery
vidrenyan literature
vosyan bouquet
vulobyan thorn patch
ebdrenyan mail
yexyan handiwork
yipetobyan litter
av for
ava in favor, pro
avan advocacy

o zero

oun null, nil
osun nothing
osunxer anihilate
osunxwa anihilated
osunxen anihilation
osunan nothingness
owa no, not any, not a
owas not a thing, nothing
owat nobody, no one, not a single person
o- non-, un-, dis-
otwa unknown
ol- non-, un-, dis-
olafwa disallowed
olo- non-, un-, dis-
ov against
ovaxer counteract
ova against, opposite
ovader contradict
yo- non-, un-, dis-, the opposite of
tat angel
yotat devil

The tob (Man) Family[edit]

The stem of words in this family begin with the consonant t, designating human, and end in b, meaning organism or organ. The words have to do with the human being and the human body.

tob man, human

toyb woman
toyban womanhood
toban humanity, manhood
tobyan humanity, humankind, mankind
tobaxer humanize
tobaxen humanization
tobaxwa humanized
tobin humanism
tobina humanist
tobinat humanist
toybin feminism
toybina feminist
tobinat feminist
toob male
tooba male
tooyb female
tooyba female, feminine
tobtun anthropology
tobtuna anthropological
tobtut anthropologist
tobyena manly
tobyenan manliness
toybyena womanly
toybyenan womanliness
tobava humanitarian
tobavin humanitarianism
tobavina humanitarian
tobavat humanitarian
tobot child, baby, infant
tobota infantile
tobotan childhood, infancy
tobotsim highchair
tobotyena childlike, babyish, infantile
tobotyenan infantility
tobottojben infanticide
tobottojbena infanticidal
tobottojbut baby-killer
tobog midget
tobyog urchin
tobet boy
tobetan boyhood
tobetyena boyish
tobetyenan boyishness
toybet girl
toybetan girlhood
toybetyena girlish
toybetyenan girlishness
joga tob young man
joga toyb young woman
jaga tob old man
jaga toyb old woman:::
tobtujben homocide, killing
tobtujbena homocidal
tobtujbut killer
tobsana anthropomorphic
tobsanan anthropomorphism
tobifina philanthropic
tobifin philanthropy
tobifinat philanthropist
tobufina misanthropic
tobufin misanthropism
tobufinat misanthrope

tab body

taba bodily, corporal
taban corporality
tojtab corpse
tojtabnyem coffin
tabnyem coffin
tabnyef body bag
tabkyojun remains
tabaga corpulent
tabagan corpulence
tabog corpuscle
taboga corpuscular
taob flesh
taoba carnal
taaban carnality
taobaya fleshy, carnal
taobser become flesh, incarnate
taab lymph
taaba lymphatic
tabil humor
tabila humoral
taeb muscle
taeba muscular
taebyan musculature
taebaya muscle-bound
taib bone
taiba osseous, bony
taibyena bony
taibyenan boniness
taibser ossify
taibsen ossification
taibsa ossified
taibnyan skeleton
taibnyana skeletal
taibyan frame, framework, bone structure
tekib vertebra
tekiba vertebral
tekibnyan spine, spinal column
tekibnyana spinal
taub cartilege
tauba cartilaginous
tayob skin, hide
tayobil sweat, perspiration
tayobiler sweat, perspire
tayobilaya sweaty
tayoba cutaneous, dermal
tayobtun dermatology
tayobtuna dermatological
tayobtut dermatologist
tayobober skin, strip, flay
tayoboben skinning, flaying
tayobobwa skinned, flayed
tayobdril tattoo
tayobdriler tattoo
tayobbok skin disease, dermatitis
tayab fat
tayaba fatty
tayeb hair
tayeba capillary
tayebaya hairy
tayebayan hairiness
oytayeba bald, hairless, smooth
oytayeban baldness, hairlessness, smoothness
tayeyb fuzz
tayeybyena fuzzy
tayeybyenan fuzziness
omoltayeb wig, hairpiece
tayib nerve
tayiba nervous
tayiban nervousness
tayibxer enerve, get on one's nerves, annoy
tayibxea enerving, annoying
tayibxen annoyance
tayiser grow nervous, get excited
tayisen excitement
teb head
tebnyem cranium, skull
tebnyema cranial
tebos brain
tebosa cerebral
teboses cerebellum
zateb forehead
zateba frontal
tebzan face, countenance
tebzana facial
obteb neck
obteba cervical
zoobteb nape
zaobteb throat
yobteb chin
tep mind
tepa mental
tepyen mentality, attitude
tijtep consciousness
tujtep subconscious
tepaza intelligent
tepoza stupid
teob cheek
teoba jugal
zeteob cheekbone
teobyeb beard
teobyebaya bearded
teab eye
teaba ocular, optic
teabigyijer blink
zeteab pupil
teabyeb eyelash
fateab eyelid
fateaxer blink
fateabyeb eyebrow
teabar eyeglasses, glasses
teabil tear
teabiles teardrop
teabiler tear up
teapiler cry, weep
teapileya weepy
teabtun ophthalmology
teabtuna ophthalmological
teabtut ophthalmologist
teater see
teat vision, sight
teatyofa blind
teatyofat blind person
teatyofan blindness
teatyofxer blind
teatyofxeya blinding
teatyofxwa blinded
teatyaf ability to see, sight
teatyafa sightful, able to see
yeatyafat seeing person
oteatwa unseen
oteatwas something unseen
jateater foresee
teatuwa visible
teatuwan visibility
oteatuwa invisibile
oteatuwan invisibility
teatuer show
teatuen demonstration
teatueya demonstrative, showy
teatier catch sight of, perceive
teatien perception
teatiwa perceived
teaxer look
igteaxer glance
yagteaxer glare
kyoteaxer stare
yokteaxer peek
zyoteaxer peer
zyateaxer scan
yabteaxer look up
yobteaxer look down
yebteaxer look in
oyebteaxer look out
yubteaxer examine
abteaxer supervise
ugteaxer gaze::::
teaser seem, look, appear
teas appearance
teaseay apparently, seemingly
fiteasa good-looking
futeasa ugly
teaper visit
teap visit
teaput visitor
teabizer aim
anteaba one-eyed, monocular
teeb ear
teeba aural, auricular
fozteeb earlobe
teeter hear
teet hearing
teetyaf ability to hear
teeta auditory
teeten hearing, audition
teetyofa deaf
teetyofan deafness
teetyofat deaf person
teetyofxer deafen
teetyofxeya deafening
teetyaf ability to hear
teetyafa able to hear, hearing
teetuwa audible
teetuwan audibility
oteetuwa inaudible
oteetuwan inaudibility
oteetwa unheard of
oteetwas something unheard of
teetar hearing aid
teetyuxar hearing aid
teexer listen
teexut listener
teexutyan audience
teexar earphone, headphone, earpiece
teeser sound, sound like
tees sound, audio
teesag noise
teesa acoustic, audio
teesyen acoustics
teesaga noisy, loud
fiteesea nice-sounding, sweet-sounding, melodious
futeesea bad-sounding, cacophonous
teeper attend
teeput attendee
teeputyan attendance, audience
teib nose
teiba nasal, rhino-
teibyes nostril
teibil snot, mucus
teibila mucal
teiv handkerchief
teibilober blow one's nose
teibukxer sneeze
teiter smell
teit odor, smell, scent, whiff
teita olfactory
teitier sniff, smell, take a whiff of
teiz perfume
teizam perfumery
teizaber perfume
teizabwa perfumed
teituer smell up, give off an odor
teityofa unable to smell
teiser smell, smell like
fiteisea fragrant, sweet-smelling
fiteis fragrance
futeisea stinky, bad-smelling, foul, odorous
futeis stink, foul smell, odor
teis scent, smell, odor
teisaya smelly, odorous
oyteisa odorless
teixer smell, sniff
teixen olfaction
teixa olfactory
teixeuser snore
teixeusen snoring
teub mouth
teuba oral, buccal
teubil saliva, spit
teubiler salivate
teubiluer spit
teubilier swallow
teubyijer yawn
teuder shout, scream, yell, cry, call out
teud shout, scream, yell, cry
teuden shouting, screaming, yelling, crying
uvteuder cry, moan, sigh
azuvteuder wail
ivteuder laugh
azivteuder laugh out loud, laugh uproariously
ozivteuder chuckle, snicker
yokteuder exclaim
yokteuden exclamation
yokteudena exclamatory
ivteuxer smile
ivteux smile
ivteuxea smiling
ivteuxaya smiley
uvteuxer frown, grimace
uvteux frown, grimace
teuter taste
teuxer taste, try
teuser taste
fiteusea delicious, good-tasting
fiteus good taste
futeusea bad-tasting
futeus bad taste
oyteusa tasteless, insipid
oyteusan tastlessness, insipidness
teubob lip
teuboba labial
enteuboba bilabial
teubozer smile
teuboxer kiss
teusozer laugh
teubobier suck
teubab tongue
teubaba lingual
teubaber lick
teubeb gum
teubeba gingival
teubebbok gingivitis
teubib jaw
teubixer chew
teumib palate
teumiba palatal
teupib tooth
teupiba dental
teupibyan denture
teupibut dentist
teupibbek dentistry, dental hygiene
teupibbekut dental hygienist
teupixer bite
teupixun bite
yebteupixer crunch
yebteupixeya crunchy
yebteupixeyan crunchiness
teupixoger nibble
ateupib central incisor
eteupib lateral incisor
iteupib canine
uteupib premolar
yoteupib molar
tez crown
abteupimul enamel
ebteupimul dentine
megil cement
fyob root
fyob ebmip root canal
teuz voice
teuza vocal
teuznyem voice box, larynx
teuznyema larygeal
zoyteuz echo
zoyteuzer echo
zoyteuzim echo chamber
teuzun vowel
teuzibar telephone, phone
teuzibarer telephone, phone
teuzibara telephonic
teus phone, sound
teuson phoneme, elemental sound
teusa phonetic::::
teustun phonology
teustuna phonological
teustut phonologist
teusontun phonemics
teusontuna phonemic
teusontut phonemicist
teustin phonetics
teustina phonetic
teustinay phonetically
teustinut phonetician
deser pronounce, articulate
desen pronunciation, articulation
desun consonant
deuz song
uvdeuz dirge
yogdeuz ditty
yagdeuz chant
ogdeuz tune, air
detdeuz anthem
fadeuz hymn, canticle, psalm
ivdeuz carol
ajdeuz ballad
yandeuz chorus, harmony
yandeuzer harmonize
yandeuza harmonic
egdeuz refrain
videuz melody
videuza melodic
deuzer sing, vocalize
yagdeuzer chant
endeuz duet
deuzut singer
deuzutyan chorale, chorus, choir
deuzuyt songstress, female singer
deuzen singing
deuzduni lyrics
dudeuz antiphon
dudeuza antiphonal
deuzes verse
duz music
duza musical
duzan musicality
duzut musician
duzutan musicianship
duzutyan band, orchestra
duzun concert
duzunam concert hall
duzunyan concerto, symphony
yanduz harmony:::
duzer play music
duzar musical instrument
duzaryan orchestra, band
duzaryana orchestral
duzarer play an instrument
duzaryt instrumentalist, player
duznod musical note, note
duznodyan chord
duzmuys musical scale, scale
duzdyuf music sheet, sheet of music, score
duzes piece of music
duztun musicology
duztuna musicological
duztut musicologist
duzam music venue, music hall, concert hall
duznog pitch
duznogyan range
duzijnog key
duznap musical arrangement
duznagun measure
duzbyex beat
duzbyexyan rhythm
duzbyexyana rhythmical
jaduz prelude
ebduz interlude
egduz refrain
duzyen music genre
duzigan tempo
seux sound
seuxa sonic, acoustic
seuxer make a sound
seuser sound, sound like
viseux melody
viseuxa melodic
viseuxaya melodious
seuxes tone
seuxesa tonal
seuxesan tonality
vyiseuxes pure tone
anseuxesa monotonous
anseuxesan monotony
seuxtun acoustics
seuxtuna acoustic
seuxtut acoustics expert
seuxpaan sound wave, acoustic wave
seuxpaandren sonograph
seuxpaandrar oscilloscope
seuxibar radio, radio receiver
seuxibun radio reception
seuxubun radio transmission, radio broadcast
seuxubar radio transmitter:::
seuxdrar recorder
seuxdren recording, record, phonograph
seuxdrer record
seuxaya sonorous
seuxoya silent
seuxoyan silence:
xeus noise
xeusaya noisy
xeusayan noisiness
xeusoz faint noise
xeusaz loud noise
xeusaza loud
xeusazan loudness
xeusoya noise-free, silent
xeusoyan silence
xeusar noise-maker
xeusag boom, loud noise, bang:
xeuspyex boom, crack, bang, thunder::
tib trunk
zetib waist
zetif belt
zotib back
zotiba dorsal
zotibnyef backpack, rucksack
tibuzer bow, bend over
tiab chest
tilab breast
tilabil breast milk
bil milk
bilier milk, suck
biluer give milk
biliar milking machine
tilaf brassiere, bras
tieb lung
tieba pulmonary
tiexer breathe
tiexen respiration, breathing
tiexun breath
tiebmal breath
yebtiexer breathe in
tiebier breathe in
tiebien breathing in
tiebuer breathe out, expire
tiebuen expiration
oyebtiexer breathe out, expire
oyebtiexen expiration
tiebukxer cough
tebukxen cough, coughing
tiib heart
tiiba cardiac
tiibil blood
tiibiler bleed
tiibilea bleeding
tiibilaya bloody
tiibilayan bloodiness
tiibilika blood-filled
oytiibila bloodless
omtiibila cold-blooded
tiibiluer bloody
tiibilier suck blood
tiibiliut vampire
tiibuf artery
tiibufa arterial
tiibufog arteriole
zoytiibuf vein
zoytiibufa venous
zoytiibufog venule, veinlet
tiibpos cardiac arrest
tiiba igef heart attack, cardiac emergency
tiub belly
tiuba ventral
tiuyb abdomen
tiuyba abdomenal
zetiub belly button
zotiub buttock, butt
tiyob kidney
tiyoba renal
tiyobil urine, pee, piss
tiyobiler urinate, pee, piss
tiyobilim urinal, pissoir
tiyab penis, phallus
tiyaba penile, phallic
tiyayb vagina
tiyayba vaginal
ebtiyaba sexual
ebtiyaxer have sex, copulate
ebtiyaxen copulation, sex
ebtiyaxena copulatory
tikob esophagus
tikoba esophageal
tikab stomach
tikaba gastric
tikabil chyme
tikabukxer vomit, throw up
tikabukxun vomit
tikeb liver
tikeba hepatic
tikub intestine
tikuba intestinal
tikubil chyle, feces, shit
tikubila fecal
tikubiler defecate, shit
tikubilen defecation
tikubilena defecatory
tikubuj anus, asshole::
tikubuja anal
tikubuja teubabien analingus
tub arm, limb
tuba brachial
tubyuzer embrace
tuab shoulder
tuapyener bump
tueb upper arm
tuib elbow
tuiber elbow
tuub forearm
tuyob wrist
tuyoxer wave
tuyab hand
tuyaba manual
tuyaber handle
tuyabar handle
tuyapyener slap
tuyabirer grab hold of
tuyabyanxer shake hands
tuyabyanx handshake:::
tuyeb fist
tuyepyener box, hit, sock, punch
tuyib palm
tuyipyener slap
tuyibaner pat
tuyub finger
tuyuba digital
atuyub thumb
etuyub index finger
etuyubizer point
ituyub middle finger
utuyub ring finger
yotuyub pinkie
uatuyub left hand thumb
uetuyub left hand index finger
uituyub left hand middle finger
uutuyub left hand ring finger
uyotuyub left hand pinkie
iatuyub right hand thumb
ietuyub right hand index finger
iituyub right hand middle finger
iutuyub right hand ring finger
iyotuyub right hand pinkie
tuyuxer touch, feel, finger
tulob fingernail, nail
tuloxer scratch
tyob leg
tyoab hip
tyoeb thigh
tyoub leg
tyouv stocking
tyoyob knee
tyoyoper genuflect
tyoyab foot
tyoyaf shoe
tyoyafxut shoemaker, cobbler
tyoyav sock
tyoyaper walk
tyoyapen walking, walk
tyoyapea ambulatory, walking
tyoyapar walker
tyoyap step
igtyoyaper run
igtyoyaput runner
igtyoyapem running track, course
tyoyapem sidewalk
tyoyaput pedestrian, walker
tyoyapyener kick
tyoyabarer stomp:::
tyoyeb ankle
tyoyib sole
tyoyub toe
tyolob toenail

Bodily Fluids and Functions[edit]

tob human being tab body -il liquid til drink -el food tel food -yel oil, gel -al gas, air tabil humor tilier drink tiluer give to drink, water telier eat teluer feed ilier absorb iluer pour alier breathe in aluer aerate, blow taib bone taibil marrow taibober de-bone taibser ossify tayob skin tayobil sweat tayobiler perspire, sweat tayobober flay, skin tayoboser itch tayib nerve tayixer excite, irritate tayiser get excited teb head tep mind tes feeling tespan emotion ter know texer think vyatexer reason vyetexer wonder vatexer believe vetexer suppose votexer doubt ivtexer be thankful uvtexer regret teser feel fiteser feel good futeser feel bad ivteser feel happy uvteser feel sad tespaner emote tebaxer nod vatebaxer nod yes votebaxer nod no vetebaxer shrug tebsin face tebsiner face zaytebsiner face forward ovtebsiner confront ibtebsiner face away vutebsiner grimace, sneer vitebsiner grin teab eye teabil tear teabiler weep teater see teaxer look igteaxer glance kyoteaxer stare yagteaxer glare ugteaxer gaze zyoteaxer peer eyteaxer squint yubteaxer examine zyateaxer survey, peruse koteaxer peek izteaxer focus jateaxer preview, foresee teatuer show teatier perceive, catch sight teaser seem teaper visit teatyofuer blind teatyofser disappear teatyofier go blind teatyofxer make disappear teatyofer be blind teabigyujer wink teabyeb eyelid teabyebyujer blink teeb ear teebyel ear wax teeter hear teexer listen teetuer inform teetuwer be rumored teetier get wind of teeser sound (like) teetyofuer deafen teetyofier go deaf teetyofser become inaudible teeyofxer make inaudible yuvteexer obey koteeter overhear koteexer snoop ekteexer audition, audit yekteexer try, hear (a case) teib nose teibil snot teibukxer blow one's nose teixeuser snore teiter smell teixer sniff teiser smell (like) futeiser stink ebteiber nose in, meddle teibaber nuzzle teub mouth teubil saliva, spit teubiler salivate teubier swallow teubiluer spit teubiloker slabber, drivel teubyijer yawn teuder shout teuser taste (like) teuxer taste (try) ivteuber smile, grin uvteuber frown, grimace uvteuder moan, groan ivteuder laugh ozivteuder chuckle, giggle ozuvteuder whimper, sigh ufteuder scowl ifteuder coo teubob lip teuboxer kiss teubozer smile, grin teusozer laugh teubobier suck teubab tongue teubaber lick teabaxer wag teubib jaw teubixer chew, masticate teupib tooth teupibyel pulp teupixer bite yagteupixer gnaw teupixeger much ogteupixer nibble tib trunk uztibser bow, bend over iztibser stand erect zyatibser stretch yobtibser crouch yuftibser cringe tiib heart tiibil blood tiibiler bleed tiibiloker lose blood tiibiluer get blood on tiibilglalser coagulate, clot tilab breast tilabil milk bil milk biluer breastfeed bilier milk (a cow) bilyigser curdle tieb lung tiebal oxygen tiexer breathe tiebalier breathe in tiebaluer expire, breathe out tieboker cough tiebyujer suffocate, choke tiebaloker burp, belch tiyob kidney tiyobil urine tiyobiler urinate, piss tiyab phallus, penis tiyayb vagina tiyabil pre-cum tiyaybil vag. fluid ebtiyaxer have sex, copulate tiyaybiler menstruate tiyabier fellate, suck tiyagiber fuck tiyabraxer masturbate tiyabober castrate, geld tiyagorber circumcise, cut tiyeb testicles tiyebil semen tiyebiloker ejaculate, cum tiyebiluer inseminate tikab stomach, gut tikabil chyme tikabel guts tikabeloker vomit, throw up tikeb liver tikebil bile tikub intestine tikubil chyle tikubober disembowel tikubuj anus tikubujil feces tikubujal wind tikubujiler defecate tikubujaler fart, break wind tub arm tubaxer flail, swing tubyuzyuber fold one's arms tubyuzer embrace, hug patubaxer flap tuib elbow tuiber elbow, nudge tuyab hand tuyabuer hand, deliver tuyabier grab yantuyabier shake hands tuyapyexer slap tuyabaxer wave tuyabexer handle,manipulate futuyabexer mishandle kyituyaber maul tuyapixer clasp pyotuyaber paw tuyasiuner sign tuyeb fist tuyepyexer sock, deck tuyebyujer clench one's fist tuyedeker fist-fight tuyebarer pound tuyebraxer shake one's fist tuyib palm tuyibaber palm tuyibaxer pat, caress yantuyipyexer clap, applaud tuyibraxer wave tuyub finger tuyuxer palpate, feel, touch iftuyuxer tickle tuyugiber poke tuyubifeker fiddle tuyupyexer tap, rap tuyubizeaxer point, indicate tuyubizder point out, indicate tulob fingernail tuloxer scratch pyotuloxer claw, maul tyoib knee tyoiber genuflect tyoiper crawl tyoyab foot tyoyaper walk igtyoyaper run, jog, rush yogigtyoyaper sprint, dash igektyoyaper race iftyoyaper stroll, jaunt tyoyapyexer kick tyoyabarer trample,tread tyoyakyeper hobble ugtyoyaper saunter, amble apetyoyaper gallop doptyoyaper march zyatyoyaper perambulate ivtyoyaper prance fyatyoyaper strut, sashay yagtyoyaper stride vyotyoyaper stumble, trip yantyoyaper walk alongside kutyoyaper step aside zaytyoyaper step forward nogtyoyaper pace, march iztyoyaper walk straight yibtyoyaper hike mebtyoyaper hike daztyoyaper promenade kyetyoyaper meander

The bak (Health) Family[edit]

Here are the main words in Mirad dealing with health, illness, and medecine:
bak health
bek treatment byek cure
bok illness
book fatigue
byok pain
byork torture
bik care
buk injury
bruk mutilation

bak health

baka healthy, sound
bakay healthily, soundly
bakan healthiness, soundness, well-being
bakat well person, healthy person
obaka unwell, ill, unsound
obakan illness
Bak! Gesundheit!
bakam health clinic
bakamut health clinician
bakxer heal, make well
bakxen healing
bakxut healer, doctor
bakxwa healed
bakser get well, heal
baksea healing
bakxwat patient
bakser get well, heal
egbakser recover
egbaksen recovery
egbaksea recovering, in recovery
egbaksa recovered
egbakim recovery room
baktun health science, medecine, hygiene
baktuna health science-related, medicinal, hygienic
baktut health scientist, medical scientist, hygienist
bakxetyen practice of medecine, medecine, health practice
bakxetyenut health practioner
baktyentun health technology
fibak well-being
fibaka well, salubrious, in good health
fibakan wellness, salubriety
fibakxer make well, heal, bring back to health
fibakxen healing
fibakxwa recovered, healed
fibakser heal, get well
Fibaksu ig! Get well soon!, Have a speedy recovery!
Fibak bu et! To your health!
fibakden salutation, greeting
fibakder salute, greet, say hello
fubak ill health, sickness
fubaka ill, sick, in poor health, unwell
fubakan illness, sickness, poor health
fubakxer make ill, make sick, sicken
fubakxea sickening
fubakxwa sickened
fubakser get ill, get sick
baktel health food
baktea health conscious
bakdub health ministry, health department, health administration
tepbak mental health
fitepbaka sane, in good mental health
fitepbak sanity, mental health
futepbak insanity, mental illness
futepbaka insane, mentally ill
futepbakat insane person, mentally ill person
futepbakser go insane
futepbakam insane asylum
tapbak physical health
topbak spiritual health, salvation
teabaktun opthamology
teabbaktuna opthamological
teabbaktut opthamologist
teubak oral hygiene
teubaktun oral hygienics
teubaktuna oral hygienic
teubaktut oral hygienist
baak sanitation
baaka sanitary
baakxer sanitize
baakxwa sanitized
baakxen sanitization
baakxil sanitizer
baakan sanitariness
obaaka unsanitary
obaakan unsanitariness

bek treatment, therapy, remedy

beker treat, nurse, remedy
beken treatment, nursing
bekun remedy
bekam sanatorium
bekwa treated, nursed
beka therapeutic, clinical, remedial
bekut nurse
bekuyt female nurse
bektun medecine, medical science
bektuna medical
bektut doctor, physician, medical scientist
abektun surgery
abektuna surgical
abektut surgeon
bekam clinic, hospice, treatment center
bekwat patient
bekil medicine, remedy, drug
bekila medicinal, pharmaceutical
bekiluer medicate, drug
bekiluen medication, drugging
bekilnam pharmacy, drugstore
bekilnamut pharmacist, druggist
bekiltun pharmacology
bekiltuna pharmacological
bekiltut pharmacologist
bekildren prescription, drug prescription
fubeker mistreat
fubeken mistreatment
fubekwa mistreated
fibeker treat well, pamper
fibeken good treatment, pampering
fibekwa well-treated, pampered
bekuwa treatable, remediable, curable
bekuwan treatability, remediability, curability
obekuwa untreatable, unremediable, uncurable
obekuwan untreatability, unremediability, uncurability
tepbek psychiatry, psychiatric care
tepbekut psychiatrist
tepbeka psychiatric
tepbekwat psychiatric patient
tuyabek manicure
tyoyabek pedicure
byek cure
byeka therapeutic
byeker cure
byekwa cured
byekeya curative
byekuwa curable
obyekuwa uncurable
byekam sanatorium

bik care, custody, vigilence, caution

biker care, care for, watch over, monitor
bikam clinic
bikames dispensary
yanbikam polyclinic
bikuer provide care, care for, give care
bikuut caregiver
bikier take care, watch out, be cautious
Bikiu! Watch out!, Take care!
biken custody, caretaking
bikut custodian, caretaker, nurse
bikam care facility
bikeya careful, watchful, vigilent, cautious
bikeyan carefulness, watchfulness, vigilence
bikeyay carefully
obikeya unvigilent, unwatchful, careless
bikoya careless, uncautious
bikoyan carelessness, uncautiousness
bikoyay carelessly
bikwa cared for
bikwat patient under care
obik danger, threat, peril
obikaya dangerous, perilous
obikuer endanger, threaten, emperil
obikueya dangerous, perilous
azla bik intensive care
azla bikim intensive care unit, ICU
azla bikimut ICU nurse

bok illness, sickness, bad health

boka ill, sick, infirm
bokam hospital, infirmery
bokamber hospitalize
bokamben hospitalization
bokambwa hospitalized
bokxer make ill, sicken
bokxeya sickening
bokxwa sickened
bokser get sick, get ill, grow ill, grow infirm
bokat sick person, ill person, patient
bokatam hospital, infirmery
boktun pathology
boktuna pathological
boktut pathologist
boktunay pathologically
tayobbok skin disease
tepbok mental illness, insanity
tepbokat mentally ill person
bokil poison, venin
bokila poisonous, venimous
bokiluer poison
bokiluen poisoning
bokiluwa poisoned
bokilier take poison, poison oneself, ingest poison
ovbokil antidote
ambok inflammation
amboka inflammatory
amatan fever
amata feverish
amatser come down with a fever
vyusbok infection
vyusbokxer infect
vyusbokxen infection
vyusbokxwa infected
vyusbokser get infected
tiebok pneumonia
tiebokier catch pneumonia
tieboyk cold
tieboykier catch a cold
ombok flu
ombokier catch the flu:
tiyobok kidney disease, renitis
tikebok liver disease, hepatitis
tiibok heart disease
tikabok gastritis
tayobok dermatitis
teibok rhinitis
tikubok enteritis
booka tired, fatigued, worn out
book fatigue
bookan tireness
bookxer tire, fatigue, wear out
bookxwa tired, fatigued, worn out
bookser get tired, grow fatigued

byok pain

byoker hurt, ache
byokea aching, painful, hurting
byokaya painful
byokoya painless, pain-free
byokoyan painlessness, analgesia
byokoyxer relieve pain, analgesize
byokoyxil analgesic, pain reliever
byokuer punish, hurt, inflict pain, induce pain
byokueya punishing, pain-inducing
byokuen punishment, penalty, pain-inducement
tikabyok stomach ache
tebyok headache
teebyok ear ache
byook suffering, misery
byooker suffer
byookea suffering, miserable
byookut sufferer
byookuer make suffer, inflict
byork torture, agony
byorker writhe in torture, agonize
byorkuer torture, antagonize
byorkueya tortuous, agonizing
byorkuut torturer
byorkuwat torture victim
byorkuwa tortured:

buk injury, harm, trauma, wound

buker injure, harm, wound, traumatize
bukwa injured, harmed, wounded
bukwat injured person, casualty, wounded
buken injury, harming, wounding
bukeya injurious, harmful, traumatic, traumatizing
bukuwa vulnerable
bukuwan vulnerability
obukuwa invulnerable
obukuwan invulnerability
obuk safety
bukun injury, wound, trauma
kyebuk danger, risk, peril, threat, potential harm
kyebukaya dangerous, risky, perilous, theatening
kyebukuer endanger, put at risk, imperil, threaten
kyebukuen endangerment
kyebukuwa endangered
bukes scratch, minor injury
bukesuer scratch
bukesuwa scratched up
bukesier get a scratch
buyk sore
sumbuyk bedsore
tayobuyk skinsore
jobuk scar
jobukxer scar
jobukxen scarring
jobukxwa scarred
jobukser get scarred, scar
bruker mutilate, mangle
bruken mutilation, mangling
brukwa mutilated, mangled

tiibtun cardiology

tiibtuna cardiological
tiibtut cardiologist

tiebtun pneumology

tiebtuna pneumonology
tiebtut pneumonologist

tiyobtun renology

tiyobtuna renological
tiyobtut renologist

tikebtun hepatology

tikebtuna hepatological
tikebtut hepatologist

taptun physiology

taptuna physiological
taptut physiologist

The tod (Family) Family[edit]

Stems in this family begin with t for human and end in d for society and have to do with families and family relationships.
tod = family
tad husband tayd wife tadet brother taydet sister
jatad fiance jatayd fiancee taodet brother-in-law taydet sister-in-law
ted father teyd mother tedet son teydet daughter
tid uncle tiyd aunt tidet cousin tiydet female cousin
tud brother-in-law tuydet sister-in-law tudet nephew tuydet niece
tyod father-in-law tyoyd mother-in-law tyodet son-in-law tyoydet daughter-in-law
tyad grandfather tyayd grandmother tyadet grandson tyaydet granddaughter
tyed relative tyeyd female relative
tyid godfather tyiyd godmother tyidet godson tyiydet goddaughter
tyud tutor tyuyd nanny tyudet pupil tyuydet female pupil

tod family

toda familial
toyd home
todama domestic, household
todamuyt housewife
todana familiar

tad spouse, husband

tayd wife
tada marital, spousal
tadser get married, wed
tadsen marriage, wedding
tadsa married, wedded
otadsa unmarried, unwed
tadsenxel wedding
tadxer marry
otadsat unmarried person, bachelor
otadsayt spinster
tadokat widower
tadokayt widow
tadokatan widowhood
tadoker be widowed
tadet brother
tadeta fraternal
tadetan brotherhood, fraternity
taydet sister
taydeta sisterly
taydetan sorority, sisterhood
taodet brother-in-law
tayodet sister-in-law

ted father

teyd mother
teda paternal, parental
teyda maternal
tedan paternity, parentage
teydan maternity
tedif papa
teydif mama
tedet son
teydet daughter
tedeta filial
teodet son-in-law
teyodet daughter-in-law

tid uncle

tida avuncular
tiyd aunt
tidet cousin
tiydet cousin

tud brother-in-law

tuyd sister-in-law
tudet nephew
tuydet niece

tyod father-in-law

tyoyd mother-in-law
tudet son-in-law
tuydet daughter-in-law

tyad grandfather

tyayd grandmother, grandchild
tyadyena grandfatherly
tyaydyena grandmotherly
tyadet grandson
tyaydet granddaughter
tyadyan grandparents
tyedetyan grandchildren

tyed relative

tyeyd female relative
tyedyan kin, kindred, kinfolk, kith
tyeda related, kindred, kin
tyedan relateness, kinship
tyedser become related

tud godfather

tuyd godmother
tudet godson, godchild
tuydet goddaughter
tuder serve as godfather
tuyder serve as godmother

tyud tutor

tyuyd female tutor
tyudet pupil
tyuydet female pupil
aytyuder adopt

oyted orphan

oyteyd female orphan
oytedser become orphaned
oytedsa orphaned
oytedam orphanage

oytad widower

oytayd widow
oytadser become widowed
oytadsa widowed
oytadsen becoming widowed

otad celibate person, bachelor

otayd unmarried female
otadan celibacy

yontad divorce'

yontayd divorcee
yontader divorce
yontadsen get divorced
yontadxer divorce
yontadsa divorced
yontadxen divorce

jatad fiance

jatayd fiancee
jatadser become engaged, become entrothed
jatadsa engaged, betrothed
jatadsen engagement, betrothal

ajted ancester

ajteda ancestral
ajtedan ancestry
ajtedyan ancesters

jaut ascendant

jautan ascendance

jout descendant

joutan descendence

tobot child, boy

toybot female child, girl
tobotan childhood, boyhood
toybotan girlhood
tajat baby, baby boy, infant, infant boy
tayjat baby girl, infant girl
tajatan infancy, babyhood
tajatyena infantile, babyish
tobog young man, little fellow
toybog young woman, little lady
joga young
jogat young person, young man, youth, boy, juvenile
jogatan youth, boyhood, juvenility
joygat young lady, girl, female juvenile
joygatan young ladyhood, girlhood
grojoga minor
grojogat minor
grojoygat female minor
jaga old, aged, elderly
jagat old person, old man, elder, senior
jagatan old age, elderliness, seniority
jaygat old woman, female elder, old lady
lojaga teenage, teenaged
lojagat teenager, teenaged boy, teen
lojaygat teenaged girl
lojag teens, teenhood
gyejaga old enough, mature, adult
gyejagaser reach adulthood, become an adult
gyejagat adult
gyejagatan adulthood
zejaga middle-aged
zejagat middle-aged person::
jagser grow
jagsen growth
jagsa grown
jagsat grown-up
jagaser grow old, get old, age
jagasen aging, getting old
jagasea getting old, aging
grajaga too old, over-aged
grajagan advanced age

The dot (Society) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with d for society and end in t for human.
dot society
dat friend
det comrade, mate
dit citizen
dut gentleman, sir
dout bourgeois
auta personal
yauta public

Societal Vocabulary[edit]

dot society

dota social, societal, public
dotser socialize
dotxer socialize
dotxen socialization
dotxwa socialized
dotay socially
doteya sociable
doteyan sociability
dotyena social, civil
odotyena unsocial, uncivil
odotyen uncivility
dotsyen civilization
dotsyenser civilize
dotsyenxer civilize
dotsyenxwa civilized
odotsyenxwa uncivilized
yodota savage, wild, barbarous
yodatan savagery, wildness, barbarity
yodotat savage, barbarian
dotin socialism
dotina socialistic
dotinat socialist
doyt association, club
doyta associational, associate
doytaser associate
doytaxer associate
doytaxen association
dotyux public service
dotyuxut public servant
dotyuxutyan bureaucracy
dotvalan social security

dat friend, ally

data friendly, allied
datan friendship, alliance
datyena friendly, amicable
datyenan friendliness
dayt female friend, girlfriend
daat buddy
daatan buddyship
daayt girl buddy, girlfriend
odata unfriendly
odatan unfriendliness
datser befriend
yodat enemy
yodata inimical
yondatan enmity
ovdata hostile
ovdatan hostility

det comrade, mate, fellow

detan comradeship, fellowship
aydet companion, mate, fellow
aydetan companionship, company
popdet travel mate, traveling companion, fellow traveler
pepdet fellow passenger
teldet dining companion
titamdet school mate
timdet roommate
sumdet bedmate
memdet fellow countryman
tildet drinking companion
jobdet contemporary
tejdet life mate
tapdet sex mate
tapdetser copulate, have sex, share sex, mate:

dit citizen

ditan citizenship
dityan citizenry
dita civilian, civil
dita yux civil service
dita yuxut civil servant
dityena civil
dityenan civility
dityenaxer civilize
dityenaxwa civilized
odityenaxwa uncivilized
ditbyen civility
doita civic
doitan civicism
ditser become a citizen
ditsen becoming a citizen
mirdit world citizen, cosmopolitan
mirdita cosmopolitan

dut sir, mister, master, senor

abdut master
abduter master
abduten mastery
duyt madam, ma'am, lady
duytyan mesdames, ladies
duut sire, lord, don, gentleman, milord
abduut overlord, don
abduuter lord over, dominate
abduuten domination
dutyan sirs, messieurs, ladies and gentlemen
duyut lady, dame, mylady, gentle lady
duyutyan ladies, mesdames
duyuytet young lady, demoiselle, damsel
duyuytetyan mesdemoiselles
dutet young man, squire, esquire

dout bourgeois, member of the middle class, burgess

douyt bourgeoise
doutan bourgeoisie
doutyan bourgeoisie

ibdat host

ibdayt hostess
ibdata hospitable
ibdatan hospitality
datiber host, welcome, greet, receive a guest
datibut host
datibam hostel, inn, hotel, guesthouse
datuper visit, be a guest
Datupu! Welcome!

aut person

auta personal
autay personally
autyan public
autyana public
anuta particular, individual
anutay particularly
anutan individuality
yanuta public, communal
yanutan communality, community
yanutyan public, community, commune
yanutaxer publicize
yanutaxen publication
yanutaxwa published, publicized
yanutaxut publisher
yanutaxam publishing firm
yonuta private
yonutay privately
yonutan privacy
yonut private person, individual
agaut personnage, vip
utyan group
utyanser group
utyanxer group
utyanxen grouping
utyanxwa grouped
grautyan crowd
grautyanxer crowd
grautyanser get crowded
grautyanxwa crowded::
utnyan people, population
utnyana popular
utnyanan popularity
utnyanaxer popularize
utnyanaxen popularization
utnyanber populate
utnyanben population
outnyanbwa unpopulated
utnyanika populous
utnyanuka unpopulous, deserted
yauta common, collective
yautan commonality, collectivity
yautana communitarian
yautxer collectivize
yautxen collectivization
yautin communism
yautina communist, communistic
yautinat communist
utbyen personal manner, behavior
utbyenyan mores
ajutbyen tradition
ajutbyena traditional
oajutbyena untraditional
utyanbyen custom
utyanbyena customary
utyanbyenay customarily
utyanbyenxer customize
utyanbyenxen customization
utyanbyenxwa customized
jubyen habit
jubyena habitual, usual
jubyenay habitually, usually
jubyenser habituate, get used to, accustomize oneself
jubyenxer habituate, accustomize, train
jubyenxwa habituated, accustomed, used to
ojubyenxwa unaccustomed

The tof (Clothes) Family[edit]

The stems in this family of words begin with t for human and end in f or v, which are reminiscent of nof cloth and nov lingerie. The words have to do with clothing.
tob man tof clothing
tab body taf suit, tayf dress
teb head tef hat
teyob neck teyof necktie
tuab shoulder tuaf shawl
tib trunk tif vest
zetib waist zetif belt
tiab chest tiav shirt, tiayv blouse
tilab breast tilav bra
tuyab hand tuyaf glove
tyob leg tyof pants, tyoyf skirt

tof clothing, apparel, garment, item of clothing

tofyan clothes, clothing, gear
tofer wear
otofer go naked, go nude
otofen going naked, going nude
otofea naked, nude, going naked, going nude
otofin nudism
otofina nudist
otofinat nudist
tofut wearer
tofsam clothes closet
oytofa nude, naked
oytofan nudity, nakedness
oytofat nude, nude person, naked person
oytofayt female nude
tofaber put on, don, clothe, dress
tofabim dressing room
tofabwa dressed
egtofaber put clothes back on, redress
egtofabwa redressed
tofober undress, disrobe, take off, strip
tofobwa undressed, disrobed, naked, nude, stripped
tofoben undressing, disrobing, getting naked, stripping
abtof outerwear
obtof underwear, undergear
tofvyixar laundry machine, clothes washer
tofvyixen laundry
tofvyixer launder, do the laundry, wash clothese
tofvyixim laundry room
tofvyixam laundromat
tofnyeb laundry basket, clothes hamper
tofsam cubbord, armoire
tofimes clothes closet
taf suit, outfit
tayf dress, robe, outfit
abtaf coat
abtaaf overcoat
abtaayf cardigan
pontav pijamas
abtayv work blouse
abtaves overalls, apron, smock
tafut tailor
tayfut dressmaker
tayfuyt couturiere
ozyemilaf raincoat:::
tef hat, headgear
atef cap, baseball cap
etef beret
itef bonnet
utef top hat
yotef derby hat
yatef shapka
zyakuntef wide-brimmed hat
yiktef hardhat, helmet
tebuz crown
eytebuz diadem
tebuzaber crown
tebuzaben coronation
tev scarf
teyov collar
aybtev scarf, headdress, veil
yabtev headband
teaf eye patch
teabkof blindfold
teef earmuffs
teebuz earring:
teif muffler
teibuz nose ring
teiv handkerchief
teyof tie, necktie
abteyof scarf
aybteyof head scarf
teyofes bowtie
teyobuz necklace
teyof belar tie rack
teyof nivar tie tack
tuaf shawl
eytuaf sash
aybtuaf shoulder strap, shoulder pad
eybtuabuz epaulette
tif jacket, suit coat, waist coat, blazer
tifes vest
fotif bulletproof jacket
zetif belt
zetif fyafar belt buckle (fyaf < fom+nyaf = metal fastener/clasp)
zetiv sash
tiav shirt, long-sleeved shirt
tiavog short-sleeved shirt
tiayv blouse, long-sleeved blouse
tiayvog short-sleeved blouse
nefiaf pullover, sweater
tiabuz broche
eytiav tank top
tilav brassiere, bra
tilabuz tit ring
tiuf corset, bodice
tiuv underwear, underpants
atiuv boxers
etiuv briefs
itiuv jockstrap
utiuv g-string
yotiuv longjohns
yatiuv loincloth
tiuyv panties, underwear, knickers
utiuv g-string
zetiubuz belly button ring
tuf sleeve
otufa sleeveless
tuyaf glove
eytuyaf mitten, mit
tuyafyem pocket
tuyafyember pocket
tapyentuyaf boxing glove
fotuyaf gauntlet
tuyafyag fireman's glove
tuyubuz ring
tuyof cuff
tuyobuz bracelet
tuyubuz ring
tyof pants, trousers
yovoztyof bluejeans
abtyof overalls, trousers
vityof slacks, dress slacks
tyofyog shorts, bermudas, cutoffs
tyofyag long pants
tyoyf skirt
tyoyfes petticoat
obtyoyf slip
tyofober depants
tyoif kneepad
tyoiv kneesock
tyouf puttee
tyoyaf shoe
tyoyayf high-heels
abtyoyaf boot
yebtyoyaf slipper
faotyoyaf wooden shoe
atyoyaf patent leather shoe
etyoyaf tennis shoe
ityoyaf sandal
tyoyav sock
tyoyayv stockings
tyoyafut shoemaker, cobbler
tyoyafaber shoe
apetyoyaf horse shoe
apetyoyafut blacksmith
apetyoyafam blacksmith shop
apetyoyafaber shoe a horse
tyoyafnyiv shoe lace::
tyoyafeyub shoe horn (teyub = horn):
tyoyafobwa barefoot
otyoyafa barefoot, shoeless
otyoyafan shoelessness, barefootedness
tyoyef talon, spur
tyoyev ankle sock
tyoyif sole, shoe sole
tyoyuf heel
yabtyoyuf highheel
tiyuf train, dragnet, tail, tassle
tiyabuz cock ring

The tom (Building) and em (Place) Family[edit]

The stems of words in this family begin with t for human and end in m for place. The words have to do with buildings, houses, rooms, spaces, and places:
tom building -m place
tam house -am enclosed place
tem hall -em location, place
tim room -yem enclosure, box
tum cell -yeb container
-yef bag

tom building, habitation, habitat, residence, apartment building

toma habitational, residential
tomer inhabit, live, reside
tomut inhabitant, resident
toym residence, dwelling
toymer reside, dwell
toem domicile
tomof tent
toom lodging
toomer lodge
ogtom abode
toomes lodge
tomes apartment
tomtun architecture
tomtuna architectural
tomtut architect
tombuer rent out
tombier rent
tombiut renter
tombiwas rental unit
utomut owner, proprietor
utomutan owernship, proprietorship
tomnas rent
tombelut concierge
zyutom tower
tomxer build, construct
tomxut builder, construction engineer
tomxen building, construction
tomxwas edifice, construction
otomxer demolish, tear down, destroy
otomxen destruction, demolition
egtomxer rebuild
egtomxwa rebuilt, reconstructed
egtomxen rebuilding, reconstruction
tomxem construction site
tomsan structure
tomsana structural::

tyem residence

tyemut resident
tyemer reside
tyema residential

tam house

agtam mansion
ivagtam palace
ivagtama palatial
potam hotel
ogtam cottage
ogtames cabin:
taam home, household, domain, dominion
taama domestic, tame
taamaxer domesticate, tame
taamaxen domestication, taming
taamaxwa domesticated, tame
taym pavillion
tamper go home
tamuper come home
tamupen home-coming
tamber settle, set up home
tambut settler
tamben settling
tambun settlement
tameb head of household, master
tameber dominate
tamebeya dominant
tambeyan dominance
tameyb mistress
tamab dominion, domain
yebeytam courtyard, inner courtyard
zatam facade
param garage
tamzam front yard
tamzom back yard
tamkum side yard
tamyan block of houses
tamuer house, shelter
tamuen housing
tamier take up residence, move in, settle, settle in
tamien taking up residence, moving in, settlement
tamiut settler

tem hall

telem cafeteria, refectory, mess hall
tujem dormitory
abtem gallery
yuzyujem court, courtyard
obtem cave, cellar
yagtem gallery
dyedem lecture hall
dezyem performance hall
dazyem dance hall
duzyem music hall
kutem side hall
zatem lobby, foyer
zetem central hall, main hall

tim room, chamber

telim dining room
tujim bedroom
datim salon, living room, parlour
zyotim hallway, hall
zyotiym corridor
zatim antechamber, frontroom, lobby
zotim backroom
yextim bureau, office, den
yexim laboratory, lab
ifekim playroom
miltim bathroom
milim water closet
tofmilbim laundry room
telxim kitchen
abtim attic
obtim basement
yebtim inner room, inner chamber, chamber
tiym nook
kutim side room
tilim bar
tutim classroom
uzkumim bay
yebmilim bath, bathroom
yontim compartment, apartment
movim smoking den
mimpartim ship cabin
milabim shower room, shower
milpunsim shower room
fatim sacristry
bekim hospital room, treatment room
datuputim guestroom
dyedim lecture room
magelim kitchen
tapektim exercise room
fadiim chapel
teasibarim den, t.v. room
novim linen closet, closet
pestim waiting room
ebtim room in between:

tum cell, compartment

tuma cellular, compartmental
tumaxer compartmentalize
tumaxen compartmentalization

The mos (Floor) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with m, meaning place and end in s, meaning thing. The words all have something to do with parts of a building or house, i.e. masonry.
mos floor
mas wall
mes door
mis window
mus stairs

mos floor

omos ground floor
amos first floor
emos second floor
abmos top floor, attic
obmos basement
ebmos mezzanine
ebmospar elevator, lift

mas wall

mays partition, bulkhead
abtammas roof
abmas roof
aybmas ceiling
obmas foundation
oybmas floor
oybmasaof parquet
agmas great wall
massin mural
uzabmas vault
abzamas balcony
abkumas ledge, cornice
obzamas porch, portico
masyan masonry
mastyen masonry
mastyena masonic
mastyenut mason
yebmas inner wall
yebmasber wall in
yebmasbwa walled-in
oyebmas outer wall
eybmasa intramural
domyuzmas city walls
zamas front wall
zomas back wall
ebmas partition
ebmasber partition
ebmasbwe partitioned
yonmasber wall off, partition
yonmasben walling off, partitioning
yonmasbwe walled off, partitioned

mes door, portal

meys gate
zames threshold, front door, entryway
zamesag porte-cochere
zomes back door
eymes half-door
mesmep doorway, entrance, gateway
mesnyuf door knob
mestuyar door handle
mesazyujar door lock
mesyuznad door frame
zyup mes revolving door
zoyzap mes swing door

mis window

mises ticket window
misag dormer window
abmis fanlight
misof curtain
eymis shutter, flap
vozzyefmis stained glass window
cinmis picture window
miszyef window pane
zamisabun awning

mus stairway, stairs, staircase

muys ladder, scale, step ladder
muysa scalar
muysaxer escalate
muysaxen escalation
omuysaxer de-escalate
musyaper go up the stairs, climb, scale
musyaput climber
musyapen climbing
musnog step, stair rung
pasmus escalator
musim stairwell
musmep stairway
magmus fire escape
igirpmus fire escape
musabnod climax
musabnoda climactic

The som (Furniture) Family[edit]

The stems in this family begin with s, meaning thing, and end in m, meaning place. The words all have to do with furniture.
som furniture
sam armoire, chest
sem table
sim chair
sum bed

som furniture, furnishing

somber furnish
somben furnishing
sombwa furnished
osombwa unfurnished
somyan real estate, furnishings, furniture
somxer make furniture
somxut carpenter
somxen carpentry
comiper move
milsom sink

sam armoire, chest

telarsam china cabinet
telsam cupboard
tofsam closet
dyensam library
masam cubboard
tovsam chest of drawers

sem table

semes board, chart, blackboard, tablet
semof table cloth
dresem desk
dalsem pulpit
cemnyem drawer
bemer sit down to the table
tilsem bar, counter
yagsem counter
agsem banquet table
yuzsem round table
yuzsem ebdal round table discussion
yopissem chart, blackboard, whiteboard, pull-down chart
jaber la sem set the table

sim chair

siym seat
agsim armchair
panetsim rocking chair
zaypzoypsim rocking chair
yagsim couch, divan, sofa
eysim stool
tilsem eysim bar stool
parsim car seat, coach seat
yagyuksim bench
siim bench
bimer sit, sit down
bimea seated, sitting
tobobsim high chair
zyupsim swivvel chair
debsim throne
mimkumsim beach chair
amulpsim electric chair

sum bed

suam cushion, bed cushion
suaym pillow
suem mattress
malsuem air mattress
yezsuem futon
suav pillow case, pillow slip
suev sheet
absuef bedspread, bed cover
suef blanket, cover
obsuev liner
suim box spring, spring
sumnyan bedding
bumer go to bed, recline, lie down
bumea in bed, reclining, lying down, recumbent
summuf bed post
jaber la sum make the bed
eonsum twin bed
eysum day bed
igsum day bed, temporary bed, cot
suym couch
iksum full-size bed, queen-size bed
agsum king-size bed
ogsum cot
nyanxwa sum bunk bed, stacked bad
kusum side bed, bunk, cot
milsum waterbed
pyowa sum hammock
tabsum sleeping bag
tomofsum sleeping bag
summanar bed lamp

The sar (Machine) and par (Vehicle) Family[edit]

Stems having to do with tools, devices, and machines all begin in s for thing and end in r for tool. Vehicles are mobile machines, and therefore their stems begin with p for mobile.
sar instrument, tool, implement
sir machine
sur apparatus
syir motor, engine
syur device
Note that the part of the above words minus the initial s are used as endings for many tools, machines, and devices.


Vehicle words all end in par, where the initial p signifies going and the final ar indicates instrument.
par vehicle, car
mampar airplane
mempar automobile
mimpar boat, ship
kyipar truck
elyanadpar train
yautpar bus
zyuspar bicycle

par vehicle, car

para vehicular
parizber drive, steer
parizbut driver
parizbar steering wheel
parposem parking lot, car park
parposember park
parposam garage, carport
pep ride
peper ride
pepier ride off
aypeper run over, ride over
zeypeper ride across
ifpep pleasure ride
peput rider, passenger
mempar automobile, car, land vehicle
autpar car, automobile, private vehicle
yautpar bus, public vehicle, omnibus
nusyixpar taxi, taxicab, cab
jobyixpar rental car
parog cart, carriage, buggy
apetparog horse and buggy
elyanad rail
elyanadpar train
elyanadpares train car
elyanadpar posem train station, railroad station, railway station
iga elyanadpar high-speed train
igmep elyanadpar express train
ema elyanadpar local train
elyamep iron road, railroad
obniufpar cable car
abniufpar tram
ebdompar intercity bus, coach
parilp traffic
parilp siunman traffic light. traffic signal
parilp yanbar traffic jam, traffic congestion
paper fly
papier fly away, take flight
papuer alight
aypaper fly over, overfly
oypaper fly under
zyepaper fly through
yepaper fly into
oyepaper fly out
mampar airplane, plane
mamparizber pilot a plane
mamparizut pilot
mampareb pilot
mamparem airport
mamparyem hangar
mampartam hangar
mempier take off
mempien takeoff
mempuer land
mempuen landing
mempuen mani landing lights
mempuem landing strip, runway
mampop flight, air travel
mamyuxut flight attendant
mamper fly
mampier fly away
mampiem departure zone
mampuem arrival zone
mimpar ship
mimpayr boat
mimparizber pilot a ship, navigate, sail
mimparibut ship's captain
mimpareb ship's captain
mimparyexut crew member, airline attendant
mimparyexutyan ship's crew
mimpop sea voyage, cruise
mimpoper cruise, sail
mimpier set sail
mimpuer dock
mimpuem dock, harbor
mimper sail, cruise, navigate
piper cruise, sail
piput sailer, seafarer
pip cruise, sea voyage
mimof sail
mimofpar sailing ship
mimofper sail
kyimimpar cargo ship
dropekpar warship
dopekpar battleship
mamparbelea mimpar aircraft carrier
anzyuspar unicycle
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
enzyuspur motorcycle
kyipar truck
kyipares wagon, cart
zyuskyipares wheelbarrow
nyemkyipar van
bixpar tractor
pop travel, trip, voyage
poper travel
zyapoper travel around, travel widely
poput traveler,, voyager
ifpop vacation travel, leisure trip
ifpoput tourist, vacationer
ifpopen tourism, pleasure-tripping, vacationing
popizbut travel guide
popyuxam travel agency, travel bureau
popyuxut travel agent
podet travel mate, traveling companion, fellow-traveler
potam hotel
potaym inn, hostel
parpotam motel
igpotam motel
potamdat hotel guest
potamdatibut hotel receptionist, hotel host
datibam hostel, guesthouse, inn
pomep itinerary
pomepdaf travel map
podaf travel map
podryen travel brochure
ponyem suitcase, luggage

Tools, machines, and devices[edit]

sar instument, tool, device, utility

sara instrumental
saryan instrumentation, toolset
sarser be instrumental, help, be a tool
sarxer utilize, make use of
sarnyem toolbox
sartim toolshed

-ar instrument

anteabar monocle
anzyuspar unicycle
yanifar stitching needle
yanivar needle
yanar link, joint, juncture, nexus, yoke
yonofar ripping device, scissors
yonrar knife, cutter
obmimpar submarine
igefpar ambulance
ograsteaxar microscope
yagpar train
tejvalxar life-saver
mavxar incinerator, cremator
ekar toy
ifekar toy, plaything
nasekar casino machine
amulp nyeubar battery
azyujar lock
azlaxar intensifier
yezaxar flattener, iron
zyupar wheel, rotor
zyubar wheel, rotor
zyabar spreader
izbar steering wheel
yuzpar circulator, bus, shuttle
zayzoypar shuttle bus
yanbar connector, link
gonbar divider
gabar adding machine, abacus
ukbar drain
ijbar starter
yijbar opener, key
yujbar lock
zyulbar spinner
ababar lid, cover, top
ovababar protective device, shield
ebar holder
ibar receiver
ubar transmitter
yuzpar bus, omnibus, circulator
yanbarar squeezer
ibabarxar eraser
braxegar vibrator
zayzyoybraxar rocker:
pyapar hovercraft
pyaxar launcher, shooter
pyaxunogar pistol
kupasar skate
zyuskupasar roller skate
tapasar exercise machine
zayzoypasar swingset
apaxar wiper
apalxar broom, sweeper
aparxar brush
bexar holder, railing
tuyabexar handle
kyimempar truck
kyimimpar cargo ship
kyimampar cargo plane
belar cart, carriage, carrier, wagon, barrow
mamparbelar aircraft carrier
tolbelar grocery cart
tuyabelar hand cart
tobotbelar baby carriage
anzyusbelar wheel barrow
zeybelar transporter, ferry
milzeybelar ferryboat
pexar trap, catcher
klepet pexar mouse trap
byexar drum
obyexar protective device, guard
olovpyexar shield, fence, fender
yonpyerxar bomb
yonpyerxuar bomber
ovpyexar barrier, barricade
booxar tranquilizer
poxar stopper
parpox nagar parking meter
zaybux mampar jet plane
mansinpuxar projector
ilpuxar fountain
zyalpuxar spray nozzle
pulxar shooter
bixar pulley
zobixar tractor
yobixar ripcord
obyexar protector, shield
pyexeguar whip
byexar container
byeelar preservative
pyorar plunger
ilbiar absorber
bixar tractor, pulley
bubixar piston
yubixar magnet
zobixar tug
iftayobyuxar tickler
par vehicle, car, automobile, craft
mampar airplane, aircraft, plane
mempar land vehicle, car, automobile
mimpar ship, vessel, boat
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
kyipar truck, cargo vehicle
yagpar train
elyanadpar train, locomotive, rail vehicle
ifpop mimpar cuise ship
yuzpar obiter
zyupar wheel, rotator
zyulpar helicopter
tyoyapar walker
mampar airplane, aircraft, plane
malapar flotational device
milapar float
mimpar ship, boat, watercraft
kyimimpar cargo vessel
ifpop mimpar cruise ship
malof mimpar sailboat
yagmimpar long boat
mipar riverboat
mialpar steamboat, steamship:::
zoyzaypar shuttlebus
zoyzaybar swing
mipar riverboat
yuzpar circulator, circulator bus, tour vehicle
yuzbar girdle, belt, cincture
anzyuspar monocycle
enzyuspar bicycle
inzyuspar tricycle
unzyuspar four-wheeled vehicle
zyuxar rotator
zyufufar roller, rolling pin
zyumepar circulator bus, tour vehicle
mopar orbiter
uzdopar bow
uzyupatub mampar helicopter
yabexar supporter
vyadesar dictation device, dictaphone
izeadar indicator
dryeynxar editor
sardrar typewriter
bardrar printing press, press
geldrar copier::
dryenar printing press
dryenesar ticket machine
judar calendar
dyufbuar sheetfeeder
drar pencil
yilemdrar lead pencil, pencil
drilar ink pen, pen
lodrar eraser
drear feather pen
vozdrar crayon
meyagdrar chalk, stick of chalk
domep manar street lamp
mompar subway train, metro, underground
parzyep siunar traffic signal
dopar weapon, armament
dopyonar sword
doparyonar bayonette
adopar gun
tuyab adopar handgun, pistol
zyup adopar revolver
edopar rifle
idopar shotgun
udopar musket
dapar fighter jet
depar tank
diepar aircraft carrier
dipar battleship
obdipar submarine
fuseuxar noise-maker
fyuseuxar noise-maker
faogorbar axe, hatchet, chopper, adz
gedrar copier
gorbar knife
faogorbar axe
taogorbar cleaver
tayegorbar shaver
degorbar paper cutter
taogorbar dagger
gorfar scissors
zyigiar sword
gixar sharpener
gibar poker
igxar accelerator
ugxar brake
yugxar mill
yuglaxar polisher
ijbar starter, ignition switch
ijar starter
tobijovar contraceptive
yijbar opener
yijar key
melyijbar shovel, hoe
manyijbar light switch
ilyijbar spout, decanter, sluice
yujbar stopper, plug, stopgap
misyujbar shutter
kyayujbar shutter
azyujar lock, bolt, latch
yujar lock
manyujbar off switch
igyujar blinker
manigyujar blinker, light blinker
milyujar spigot, faucet, peg, cock, plug, cork
ilyujar stopper, plug, cork
tujbar sleep inducer
melukxar shovel
ilukxar drain
yuvar chain
izbar steering mechanism, guidance
yizogateaxar ultramicroscope
momyuzmepar obiter
jwobar watch
tuyojwobar wrist watch
jwodar hour hand
jwadar second hand
judar calendar
keteaxar scanner
kyapar sled, sleigh
kyabar motor
kyenekar gaming machine
kyoxar stick, rod, peg, anchor, lock
kyinar scale
kyinzebar scale, weights
kyiunmimpar cargo vessel, cargo ship
kyiunmampar cargo plane
kyiunmempar truck
kyiunpar truck
maluar air pump, inflater
melukxar hoe, digger, ditch digger
mialpar steamship
mamilovar umbrella
milapar flotation device
mimpar boat, ship
mimpopar cruise ship
malofpar sailboat
ilapar flotation device
ilukar drain
iluar spout
iliar straw, sipper
ilzyabar spray
ilbar squirt:::::
drilar ink pen
amul ogunteaxar electron microscope
amulpa manar electric lamp
amula syagar electronic computer
amulp ijujar electric switch
amulpa kyabar electric motor, electric engine
yanmulxar mixer
mompar subway
mumpar orbiter
mampar airplane, aircraft
mempar land vehicle, vehicle, car, auto, automobile
mimagpar ocean-going vessel, oceanliner
mimpar ship, boat
mipar riverboat
miampar boat, lake craft
mompar subway, metro
mumpar spaceship
manar light, lamp
mimmanar lighthouse
sommanar lamp
tuyamanar flash light
mansar lantern
manyijar light switch
zoymanar reflector
kumanar reflector
manigar flasher
manigesar sparkler:
moynxar umbrella
magxar burner
magijar lighter
abmagxar grill
yebmagxar oven, stove, kiln, furnace
magelar cooker
ummagelar oven
magyelar frying pan, fryer
magilar boiler
mogxar incinerator
amanar thermometer
amxar heater
aymar warmer
oymxar cooler
oyoymxar defroster
iymxar humidifier
umxar drier
yamxar burner
yamijar lighter
abyamxar grill
yebyamxar oven, stove, kiln, furnace
yamelar cooker
umyamelar oven
yelyamelar frying pan, frier
yamilar boiler
mekobar dust mop, dust remover
mekxar grinder, mill
mekesxar grater, granulater
mekilxar crusher, grinder, mill
ebmospar elevator, lift
mestuyar door handle
mesazyujar door lock
elyanadpar train, locomotive
elyanaadpar train, locomotive
nasgoun sagar coin counter
nofxar spinning wheel
nofyonar shears, scissors
favofar cotton gin
nyafar fastener
fyafar metal fasterner, clasp, buckle
gofar scissors
nefar knitting needle
nifar needle
nivar pin
niifduzar string instrument
niyofibar plug
fuyufar fork
zyufuvar screwdriver
fuvabar hammer
apyenar hammer, pound
defgorbar shredder, paper shredder
mimofpar sailboat
syagar counter
syaagar computer, calculator
meksyaagar electronic computer
syagar counting machine
judar calendar
gar to the power of, exponentiated by
apet pyexeguar horsewhip
klapet pexar rat trap
upelat pyexar flyswatter
zyupatupar helicopter
pitpix mimpar fishing boat
gar exponentiated by
kyasanxar transformer
mansinar camera, still camera
passinar movie camera
zoysinar reflector
siunar signal
axar activator, on switch
loaxar deactivator, off switch
yilxpar taxi, taxicab, cab
gexar copier
passinmar movie star
summanar bed lamp
teabar eyeglasses, glasses
teetar hearing aid
teetyuxar hearing aid
teexar earphone, headphone, earpiece
teuzibar telephone, phone
duzar musical instrument
seuxpaandrar oscilloscope
seuxibar radio, radio receiver
seuxubar radio transmitter:::
seuxdrar recorder
xeusar noise-maker
biliar milking machine
tuyabar handle
tyoyapar walker
tofvyixar laundry machine, clothes washer
teyof belar tie rack
teyof nivar tie tack
zetif fyafar belt buckle (fyaf < fom+nyaf = metal fastener/clasp)
tolar eating utensil
telar fork
teilar spoon, soup spoon
tilar spoon
bilyig mekxar grater
bilyug telar butter knife
mekxar mill, grinder
tilyeb yijbar bottle opener
zyufuv yijbar cork screw
yujunobar cork screw, bottle opener
vafil oymxar wine cooler
ilyujar tap, spigot, faucet
bi ilyujar on tap
yavil bi ilyujar beer on tap
mil bi ilyujar tap water
tular dish, piece of china, eating utensil
tularvyixar dishwasher
tuilar saucer
tulyuxar platter
taolgorbar meat cleaver, cleaver, butcher knife
taolmekxar meat grinder
motozaxar toaster, browner
volyanmul telar salad fork
mimolbar salt shaker
sifyolbar pepper shaker
lavol fayobobar potato peeler
magilar boiler
magelar cooker
ummagelar oven
motozaxar toaster
yijmagelar broiler, grill, gridiron
izummagelar roaster
mamegmagelar barbecue grill, charcoal grill
yomxar freezer
fyefmagelar grill
ummagelar oven
yobmagyelar deep fryer
mialbar steamer
barmagelar pressure cooker
utmagelar samovar
motozaxar toaster
yagmagelar slow cooker
nyefavol amxar waffle iron
mamegmagelar barbecue, brazier
yigtayebabar brush
zyabar spatula
mulyonxar sieve, sift, filter
yifyab yonbyexar nutcracker
ama zyibolar hot plate
abimxar baster
bilyug gorbar butter knife
gorbar bolar knife holder
tilar bolar spoon rest
vafyal oymxar wine cooler
amxar heater
umxar dryer
magxar burner
fayobobar peeler
gorbar knife, cutter
zyogorbar slicer
kyigorbar axe, hatchet, chopper
glalgorbar grater
bilyig glalgorbar cheese grater
sangorbar carving knife
vyigorbar trimmer
kugorbar trimmer, edger
yubgorbar shaver
zyegarbar stabbing knife
gorfar scissors, shears
kyegorbar machete
gyigorbar dagger
zayzoygorbar saw
yebgorbar incisor
yonrar cut, split, partition, divide
faogorbar axe, hatchet, chopper, hacksaw, adz, adze
vabgorbar mower, scythe
topvabgorbar machete
fomgorbar hacksaw
yonar knife
dopyonar sword, saber
dopargorbar bayonet
mimdopyonar cutlass
puxgorbar spear
megyonar tomahawk
zyadopyonar battle-ax
potekgorbar hunting knife
tuyagorbar stiletto
pitgorbar fish cutter
gyogar slice, thin section, cutlet
mulyonxar sieve
mulyonxar filter
mulyonxar colander
tejvalxar life-saver
vyapxar regulator
vyanagar ruler
vyiar broom, sweeper
vyisar brush
teubvyisar toothbrush
tayebvyisar hairbrush, brush
vyusukar shovel, hoe
vabgorbar scythe
vabiblar harvester, reaper
vyabogxar miller, grater, granulator, crusher
vozil aparxar paint brush
avozaxar whitener
zeybar conveyance, vehicle, ferry
zeybelar truck, conveyance
zeyubar transmitter
zebar balance, scales
zyateaxar scanner
ilzyabar spray gun
ilzyabegar sprinkler
zyesbar drill
melzyesbar hoe, shovel
zyoxar tightener
zyimgorbar planer
nofzyixar iron
zyitulbar platter
zyimnagar level
zyifar planer
zyufuvar screwdriver
zyupar rotor, cycle
zebzyupar gyroscope
zyubar mill
milzyubar water mill
mapzyubar windmill
igzyupar spin top
zyurbar twister
yuzyubar roller
zyufobar wrinkle remover


The tol (Food) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family begin with t for human and l for liquid or in this case, drinkable or edible substances. The words have to do with food, food preparation, eating and drinking.
tol food -yal juice
tel- eat -el food
til- drink -il liquid, drink
tul dish -yel gel, oil
tyal meal -eil soup

tol food

tola food, alimentary
tolyan groceries, foodstuffs, provisions
tolamut grocer
tolyanam grocery store
toltun dietetics, food science
toltuna dietary
toltuna vyaab dietary regime, diet
toltut dietitian
tolvyaab diet
tolsam food buffet
toluer feed
toluen feeding, alimentation
tolier feed oneself
tolien feeding oneself
tolkeer forage, forage for food, scrounge for food, seek food
tolkeut forager
tolanyan food chain
toyl nutrition
toyla nutritional
toyles nutrient
toyluer nourish
toylueya nourishing
gretoyluwa adequately-nourished
grotoyluwa malnourished, undernourished
grotoyluwan malnutrition
toylier nourish oneself
toylien nourishing
toloyser go without food, starve, be deprived of food
toloys starvation, hunger, food deprivation
toloysag famine
toloysea starving
toloyxer starve, deprive of food
toloyxwa starved
tolgran food surplus
tolgron food deficit
tolgronag major food deficit, famine
tolnien food consumption, demand for food
tolnuen food supply
tolnuut food supplier
tolneun food reserve
tolniam food storehouse
toleus taste
toleuser taste
toleusoya insipid, tasteless
toleusoyan tastelessness
toleusaya tasty
toleusayan tastiness
toleuxer taste
toleusgab relish
yotoleus disgust
yotoleuser disgust
yotoleusea disgusting
tolar eating utensil
tolaryan place setting

tel cooked food, prepared food, food, edible

telier eat, ingest, consume
teliuwa edible
oteliuwa inedible
teliut eater
telien eating
telam restaurant, eatery, eating establishment
telamut restauranteur
teleus flavor, taste
teleuser savor, taste
teleusaya flavorful, savory, tasty
teleusayan flavorfulness, savoriness, tastiness
teleusoya flavorless, unsavory, tasteless
teleusoyan flavorlessness, unsavoriness, tastelessness
fiteusa delicious, good-tasting
futeusa disgusting, bad-tasting
igtel fast food
igtelam fast food outlet
telar fork
telarpib prong
telyeb plate
uktelyeb bowl
teil soup
teilar spoon, soup spoon
teilarag ladle, soup ladle
teilyeb bowl, soup bowl
taolteil stew, meat stew
yagteil stew
yagteilxer stew
yagteilxwa stewed:
gyoteil broth
sifyabteil chili
aybilteil bisque
vobteil vegetable soup
evyabteil lentil soup
yivobteil rice roup
ivyabteil pea soup
luvolteil carrot soup
levolteil beet soup, borsht
fevolteil onion soup
bavolteil tomato soup
avyabteil bean soup
teilyena soupy
telef hunger
telefa hungry
telefer hunger, be hungry
telefxer make hungry, famish
telefxwa famished
teleftojer die of hunger
telefag famine
telif love of food, gourmandise
telifut gourmet, foodie, food-lover
vitelin epicureanism
vitelina epicurean, epicureanist
vitelinut epicure, lover of good food, gourmet
vitel fine food
teluf foodophobia
grateler eat too much, overeat, gorge
gratelen eating too much, overeating, gourmandise, gluttony
gratelut overeater, glutton, gourmand, gorger
gretelier eat up, eat to satisfaction, get filled up
greteluer satiate
greteliawa full, sated
groteliawa unsatiated, underfed
ogreteliuwa insatiable
ogreteliuwan insatiability
groteler eat too little, undereat
teltun gastronomy, food science
teltuna gastronomic
teltut gastronomist
oteliawa uneaten
oteliawas leftover
oteliawas nyem doggy bag, take-away box

til drink, beverage, potion

tilier drink, imbibe
tilien drinking, imbibing
tiliut drinker, imbiber
tiluer give to drink, water, irrigate
tiluen watering, irrigation
tilsem bar, drink counter
tilsemut bartender
tilam bar, saloon, drinking establishment, tavern
tilsom refreshment stand
tilaym bistrot
tilef thirst
tilefa thirsty
tilefer thirst, be thirsty
telefober quench thirst
telefobeya thirst-quenching
tilefag drought
tiloys water shortage
tiloysag drought
tilgron water shortage, water deficit
tilgronag major water shortage, droubt
tilar spoon
tilarog teaspoon
tilarag soupspoon, ladle
gratila inebriated, drunk
gratilan drunkenness
gratilat drunk, inebriated person
gratiler drink too much, overdrink
gratilut drunkard
gretiler drink moderately
gretilut drink moderately
otilut teetotaler
mil water
mila aquatic
mamegaya mil carbonated water
mamegoya mil still water
tilyeb mil bottled water
fufyuj mil tap water
mipa mil river water
mipij mil spring water
alamil soda water
levalamil soda pop, soda beverage, soft drink, pop
gyalevil syrup
gyalevilaya syrupy
dyofyel gyalevil chocolate syrup
bil milk
tilabil breast milk
tilabiluer breast feed, nurse
tilabiluen breastfeeding, nursing
tilabilier suckle
tilabilien suckling
toybil breast milk, human milk, mother's milk
epeybil cow's milk
yopeybil goat's milk
yivyabil soy milk
aona bil whole milk
yanglal bil yoghurt, curdled milk
eynbil half-and-half
abobwa bil skim milk
abobwa bilgab buttermilk
eya soyon bil two percent milk
bilyena milky, murky
bilyenan milkiness, murkiness
bilyenser get murky, cloud up
bilier milk, draw milk
biliur milking machine
biluer give milk, lactate, nurse
biluen lactation, nursing
yanbilxer amulsify
yanbilxen amulsification
yanbilxwa amulsified
yanbil amulsion
yanbilyena amulsoid
bilun milk product, dairy product
bilunxam dairy, dairy farm
bilunxen dairy production
bilunxut dairyman
bilunxuyt diarymaid
bilyig cheese
bilyigaya cheesy
bilyigika cheese-filled
yanglal bilyig cottage cheese
helveta bilyig swiss cheese
kamamber bilyig camembert
cedar bilyig cheddar cheese
amerika bilyig American cheese
yovoza bilyig blue cheese
gyagor bi bilyig hunk of cheese
gyogor bi bilyig slice of cheese
mekxwa bilyig grated cheese, parmesan cheese
bilyig mekxar grater
bilyig favol cheese souffle
yopeyt bilyig feta, goat cheese
bilyug butter
bilyugaya buttery
bilyugika butter-filled
bilyugaber butter, apply butter
bilyugabwa buttered
evozbilyug margarine
muf bi bilyug stick of butter
bilyug telar butter knife
aybil cream
yomaybil ice cream
igza aybil sour cream
apyexwa aybil whipped cream
gyalevabil pudding
agyalevabil tapioca
egyalevabil mousse
igyalevabil custard
ugyalevabil junket
yogyalevabil yoghurt
fufyab gyalevabil fig pudding
dyofyel gyalevabil chocolate pudding
favol froth, foam, fluff
patobij favol meringue
favolabun icing, frosting
dyofyal cocoa, cocoa drink
dyofyabil chocolate milk
dyofyel chocolate
dyofyel ababwa chocolate-covered
dyofyel umleavol chocolate cookie
dyofyel gyalevabil chocolate mousse
dyofyel gyalevabil chocolate pudding
dyofyel yomaybil chocolate ice cream
dyofyel jotul chocolate dessert
gradyofyelut chocoholic
dryofyelika chocolate-filled, chocolaty
mekil meal, porridge, gruel, mush, grits, grout, pottage
mekxer grind, mill
mekxwa ground, milled
mekxar mill, grinder
mekxwa eopet ground beef
biil juice
biilaya juicy, succulent
biilayan juiciness, succulence
taobiil gravy
tuil sauce
tuilyeb saucer
omtil refreshment, soda, pop
fyab fruit
fyal fruit juice
fyabaya fruity
afyab apple
afyal apple juice, cider
ofilxwa afyal sweet cider
filxwa afyal hard cider
efyab pear
efyal pear juice
ifyab cherry
ifyal cherry juice
ifyab prune
ufyal prune juice
yofyab apricot
yofal apricot juice
yafab peach
yafal peach juice
yefab quince
yefal quince juice
lufab grapefruit
lufal grapefruit juice
fufyab coconut
fufyal coconut juice
vafyab grape
vafyal grape juice
vafyal fayob grape skin
lafyab orange
lafyal orange juice
levelafyal orangeade
lafyalamil orange soda, orange pop
lifyab lemon
lifyal lemon juice
levelifyal lemonade
fifyab banana
fifyal banana juice
fifyab fayob banana peel
zavyab strawberry
zavyal strawberry juice
levob beet
levyal beet juice
luvob carrot
luvol biil carrot juice
bavol tomato
bavol biil tomato juice
bavol teil tomato soup
safayel tea
safayeb tea leaf
safeyelam teahouse
safayelyeb tea urn
safayelsyeb teacup
tilsyeb safyel cup of tea
safayel bay level sweetened tea
safayel boy level unsweetened tea
safayel bay lifyab tea with lemon
sefyal coffee
sefyalam cafe
sefyalyeb coffee urn
sefyalsyeb coffee cup
tilsyeb sefyal cup of coffee
sefyab coffee bean
sefyal bay level coffee with sugar
sefyal bay bilyug coffee with creme
sefyal bay bil cafe au lait
sefyal boy bilyug black coffee
sefmul caffeine
sefmulxwa caffeinated
losefmulxwa decaffeinated, decaf
fil alcohol, alcoholic drink, fermented drink
grafiliut alchoholic
ofiliut teetotaler, non-drinker
filoya alchohol-free
ofila non-alcoholic
filxer ferment
filxwa fermented
ofilxwa unfermented
filxen fermentation
fileynsag proof
60 proof: 60-fileynsaga
filvyunober distill
filvyunobam distillery
filovyunobwa distilled::
levafil liquor, alcoholic drink
levafilyeb liquor bottle
levafilnam liquor store
yugglal mash, pulp, malt, pulpy mass, crushed malt, batter
yugglalxer mash, crush, mill, pulp, beat
vafil wine
vafil ilyeb wine bottle
vafil tilyeb wine glass
ilyeb bi vafil bottle of wine
tilyeb bi vafil glass of wine
tilyeb yijbar bottle opener
yujun cork, plug
zyufuv yijbar cork screw
yujunobar cork screw, bottle opener
vafil oymxar wine cooler
vafilnam wine store
vafilam wine bar
vafilxam winery
vafilxem vineyard
vafilxut wine-grower, wine-maker
vafilxen viticulture, wine-making
vafilxena viticultural
vafiltun oenology
vafiltuna oenological
vafiltut oenologist
vafil faosyeb wine barrel
yigvafil vinegar
yigvafilaya vinegary
gravafiliut wino
vafiltyeut wine connaisseur
vafyab grape
vafyabyan bunch of grapes
umvafyab raisin
umvafyab ovol raisin bran
wa ikxwa vafayeb stuffed grape leaves
vafayb vine
vafaybem vineyard
vafil teuxen wine tasting
ivoza vafil red wine
avoza vafil white wine
uvoza vafil rose' wine
yanbixmul tannin
yanbixmulaya astringent, pungent
yigza sour
levelaya sweet, sugary
fyabika fruity
yavil beer, lager
yavil ilyeb beer bottle
yavil tilyeb beer glass
yavil yolsyeb beer can
yavil faosyeb beer barrel
yavil faosyeyb beer keg
yavil kyitilsyeb beer mug
ilyeb bi yavil bottle of beer
tilyeb bi yavil glass of beer
yolsyeb bi yavil can of beer
yavilam beer bar, tavern, pub, bar
yavilxam brewery
myoza yavil ale, dark beer
Hinda atooza yavil IPA, India pale ale
etoza yavil blond beer, lager
ilyujar tap, spigot, faucet
bi ilyujar on tap
yavil bi ilyujar beer on tap
mil bi ilyujar tap water
yavabil head, beer foam
faosyeb barrel
faosyeyb keg
kyitilsyeb mug
fomsyeb can, tin can
yavobika hoppy::
lavil vodka
lavil yeb lifyal vodka sour
levil rum
level yeb koka rum and coke
alofil gin
alyamsil tonic, sulphur water
alofil yeb alyamsil gin and tonic
gevofil whiskey
burbona gevofil bourbon
irlanda gevofil irish whiskey
boy yom neat, straight up, no ice
bay yom on the rocks, with ice
gevofil yeb lifyal whiskey sour
portugala ivyozvafil port
manigegea vafil sparkling wine
sampanya fil champagne
magxwavafil brandy
konyaka magxwavafil cognac
yanmulxwa til cocktail, mixed drink
ofila til non-alcoholic drink
glofila lite, low-alcohol
glafila high octane, strong
?: tequila (Mexican agave drink)
margarita maragarita

tul cuisine, prepared food, dish

jatul hors d'oeuvres, appetizer
jotul dessert
kutul side dish
agtul main course dish
agtulyan main course
ogtul tapa, small dish
ogtulyan selection of tapas
igtul snack
ebtul snack
tulyan course, spread, selection of dishes
atulyan first course
etulyan second course
itulyan third course
kusem tulyan buffet
utyux tulyan buffer, self-serve spread
tular dish, piece of china, eating utensil
tularsom china cabinet, buffet
tularyan dishes, china
vyixer la tularyan wash the dishes
tularvyixar dishwasher
tularvyixut dishwasher
tularvyixen dishwashing:
tulam restaurant
tulamut restauranteur
tuler dine
tulen dining
tulut diner
tuldet dinner companion
yantulen symposium
dotuler dine in public, dine out
tamtuler dine at home
tulim dining room
agtulim banquet hall
tuluer dish out
tulxer cook, prepare food
tulxut cook
tulxeb chef
tulxim kitchen
tulxen cooking
tulxwa cooked
tamtulxwa home-cooked
jatulxwa pre-cooked
egtulxwa warmed over
gratulxwa over-cooked
grotulxwa under-cooked
otulxwa uncooked, raw
tulur stove, cooker, range
tultun cuisine, culinary science, culinary arts
tultuna culinary
tultut culinary scientist
vitul fine cuisine
vitula gastronomic
vitulay gastronomically
vitultun gastronomics
vitultuna gastronomical
vitultun gastronomist::
tuldras menu
jatuldras appetizer menu
jotuldras dessert menu
agtuldras main course menu
ogtuldras tapas menu
tildras drink menu
tuil sauce
tuilber add sauce, add gravy
tuilar saucer
ama tuil hot sauce
tuilyeb sauce pan
tulyuxut server, waiter
tulyuxuyt waitress
tulyuxutyan server staff
tulyuxar platter
tulnaxdras bill
naxdras bill
diler la naxdras ask for the bill
iber la naxdras receive the bill
nuser la naxdras pay the bill, settle the bill
gorer la naxdras split the bill
yuxnas tip, service fee
yuxnasbuer tip, put down a tip, give a tip
yuxnasbuen tipping
groyuxnasbuer undertip
agyuxnasbuut big tipper
ogyuxnasbuut stingy tipper
yuxnasyeb tip jar

tyal meal, repast

tyalier have a meal, dine
tyaliut diner
tyalim dining room
tyalam diner, restaurant, eatery
tyalim dining room
tyalsem dining table
oyebtyalier eat out, eat outdoors
oyebtyalam outdoor restaurant, cafe
oyebtyalier eat in
atyal breakfast
atyalier have breakfast
etyal lunch
etyalier have lunch
ityal dinner
ityalier have dinner
utyal supper
utyalier have supper
tyalog snack
tyalogier have a snack, snack
tyalogun snack
tyalogunam snack bar
tyalogunur snack machine
zemoj tyalog midnight snack
tyalag banquet
tyalagam banquet hall
tyalagsem banquet table
yomxwa tyal tv dinner, frozen meal
tamibwa tyal home delivery meal
oyebiwa tyal take-out meal
tamtyal in-home meal
tulamtyal restaurant meal
tyalobelun leftovers
obelunyem doggy bag, take-away box
kyasa tyal meal on-the-run
ebtyal in-between meal
igtyal fast-food meal, quick-fix meal
agtyal main meal
yagtyal extended meal
ifpoptyal picnic, excursion meal
oyebemtyal picnic, outdoor meal
vabemtyal picnic, a meal in the field
gonbiwa tyal potluck, potluck meal, shared meal
kyetyal potluck meal

taol meat

taolaya meaty
taolika meat-filled
taoloya meatless
taolgor cut of meat, chop, cutlet
aakebiwa taolgor choice cut of meat, prime choice cut
taolgorbar meat cleaver, cleaver, butcher knife
taolgorbut butcher
taolgorbam butcher shop, chop shop
taolgorber butcher, cut meat, chop meat, chop
taolgorbwa butchered
taolgorben butchery, meat-cutting
taolgorben faof chopping block, cutting board, butcher block
taolmekxar meat grinder
taolgyagor steak, chop,
taolgyogor cutlet
taolzyogor strip, meat strip
taolfuyf sausage
yapet taolfuyf pork sausage
taolfuyfes sausage link:

avol bread

avolaber bread
avolabwa breaded
avolaben breading
avolsom pantry
eymuravol croissant
uzavol twist
zyuavol roll
yazavol bun
yuzavol wrap, gyro, taco
zyiavol pita, flatbread, pide, pizza
gyozyiavol crepe
gyazyiavol pancake
nyefavol waffle
ebavol sandwich
agebavol hero
gevobavol cornbread
umvafyab avol raisinbread
avolek flour
avolekaya floury
avolab crust
motozaxwa avol toast, brown
motozaxer toast, brown
motozaxwa toasted, browned
motozaxar toaster, browner
leavol pasta, dough
leavoler knead, roll out pasta
leavolyan pastry
fuyf leavol maraconi
niif leavol spaghetti
nyov leavol noodle
yagzyi leavol fettucini
leavolut pastry-maker, kneader
umleavol cookie, biscuit
zyiumleavol cracker, biscuit
leyavol cake
fyab leyavol fruitcake
dyofabyel leyavol chocolate cake
leyavol yugglal cake batter
ableyavol pie
fyab ableyavol fruit pie
aybil ableyavol creme pie
afyab ableyavol apple pie
alofyab ableyavol blackberry pie
ifyab ableyavol cherry pie
volyanmul salad, mixed salad, salad greens, greens
volyanmul abyel salad dressing
volyanmul telar salad fork
volyanmulyeb salad bowl
tolmek spice
tolmekaya spicy
tolmekber add spice
tolmekbwa spiced
tolmek somos spice rack
zivol thyme
zevol basil
fuvol garlic
fuvolaya garlicky
fevol onion
fayobober fevol peel an onion
fevol fayob onion peel
zavol parsley
mimol salt
mimolber salt
mimolbwa salted
mimolaya salty
mimolbar salt shaker
sifyol pepper
sifyolber pepper
sifyolbwa peppered
sifyolbaya peppery, hot
sifyolbar pepper shaker
tolabwas food topping
tolgabun food additive
mekil meal, grub, porridge
ovob cereal
ovol bran
avob wheat
avomek flour
mozavob buckwheat
gyiavob durum wheat, hard wheat
Hindavob maize, Indian corn, corn
avol bread
evob rye
ivob barley
uvob buckwheat
yovob millet
yavob hop
yavobaya hoppy
yevob rapeseed
yivob rice
yivob zyiglal rice cake
yivob zyuglal rice ball
bilyivob rice pudding
yagvyab yivob long grain rice
kreolama yivob Creole rice
motoza yivob brown rice
yuvob oat
yuvob mekil oatmeal
alovob sorghum, sorgo:::::
gavob sunflower
gevob corn, maize
gevob ab la veb corn on the cob
gevob avol cornbread
gevob mekil cornmeal
givob tobacco
fevob flax
fivob hemp
fuvob jute
ovyab legume
avyab bean, green bean
evoza avyab yellow French bean
avoza avyab haricot bean
ivoza avyab kidney bean
vaza avyab green bean
umxwa avyab dried bean
evyab lentil
evyab teil lentil soup
ivyab pea
ivyab teil pea soup
uvyab bean, broad been
evoza uvyab wax bean
vaza uvyab green bean, French bean
wa uvyab bay yel baked beans
yovyab peanut
yovyabyel peanut oil
mekxwa yovyab peanut butter
mekxwa yovyab ebavol peanut butter sandwich
yevyab chickpea
mekxwa yevyab hummus, chickpea paste
yivyab soy, soybeen
yivyel soy paste
lavol potato
wa yugglalxwa lavol mashed potatoes
wa yaggor lavol French fries
fayobober lavol peel a potato
lavol fayobobar potato peeler
lavol fayob potato peel
lavol volyanmul potato salad
levol beet
levol biil beet juice
livol radish
luvol carrot
lyovol turnip
lyavol artichoke, Jerusalem artichoke
savob mushroom
favol leek
fevol onion
fevol teil onion soup
fevol fayob onion peel
fivol shallot
fuvol garlic
fuvolaya garlicky
pavol cabbage
apavol white cabbage
epavol brussel sprout
ipavol red cabbage
upavol kale
yopavol rutabaga
gorbwa pavol slaw
pevol cauliflower
bavol tomato
bavolog cherry tomato
green bavol green tomato
gyogorber bavol slice a tomato
bevol eggplant, aubergine
bivol gourd, squash
bivoyl zucchini, summer squash
buvol cucumber
silbuvol pickle
buvolbyel tzatziki
byovol gherkin
byvol artichoke
vavol lettuce
vevol spinach
vivol sorrel
vuvol dandelion
vyavol watercress
vyovol chicory, endive
gavol pumpkin
gevol melon
givol watermelon
zavol parsley
zevob basil
zivob thyme
zuvob? rosemary
zavob strawberry plant
zavyab fraisse?
savob fern
sevob thistle
sivob nettle:::
evyab lentil
ivyab pea
uvyab bean

umxwa dried

umxwa fyab dried fruit

yomxwa frozen

apelatil honey yel oil

yelaya oily
yelaber add oil
tulyel cooking oil
gavyel sunflower oil
gevyel corn oil
kafyel olive oil
fuvolyel aioli, garlic and oil
yigvafilyel vinegar and oil
amsalxwa yel hydrogenated oil
oyanilikxwa yel unsaturated oil

toleusgabuil dressing

bavuil ketchup
?: mustard
mayona yigvafuil mayonnaise

toleusgabol condiment leveyel jam, confiture leveyeyl jelly yiglevyel candy

yiglevyelam candy store
yiglevyelxer candy
yiglevyelxwa candied


yifyab nut, walnut ayifyab cashew eyifyab almond yufyab hazelnut


pit fish

pituil fish sauce
apit trout
epit perch
ipit pike
upit carp
yopit tench
yapit stud
yepit stickleback
yipit whiting
tepit turbot
ryapit swordfish
ryepit tuna
ryipit sturgeon
ryupit cod
lipit salmon

l:upit sole

sapit herring
sepit barbel
syopit sardine
sipit anchovy
vapit eel


pitaib fishbone
piteob jowl
piteb fish head
piteab fish eye


piit shellfish

apiit lobster
malzyunwa apiit boiled lobster
epiit rock lobster
ipiit scampi
upiit crayfish, crawfish
yopiit prawn
yapiit shrimp
lapiit crab
lapiit ebavol crab sandwich

pyeit mollusk

apyeit oyster
apyeituil oyster sauce
apyeit yagteil oyster stew
epyeit mussel
ipyeit clam
ipyeituil clam sauce

malzyun bubble

malzyunika bubbly, carbonated
malzyunea effervescent
malzyunuka still, uncarbonated, unbubbly
malzyuner bubble

magiler boil

magilwa boiled
magilar boiler
magilen boiling

magilmul yeast, leaven, foam, spume

magilmuler ferment
magilmulwa fermented
magilmulen fermentation

vyaab malt, germinated grain fil alcohol

fila alcoholic
ofila non-alcoholic
filika alcoholic
grafilut alcoholic

yolam antimony, Sb yanglal curd

yanglalxer curdle, coagulate
ganglalxa curdled, coagulated

magilmulwa fermented apelatyel molasses alovobyel sorghum, sorgho, sorgo


nyeb container

nunyeb crate, package, case
milnyeb bucket, pail
ibyeb receptacle
ilyeb bottle
tilyeb glass, drinking glass
telyeb plate, dinner plate
telyeyb saucer
tulyeb platter, food platter
nunyeb case, package, crate
yomyeb ice chest
nazunyeb safe, safety deposit box
ilneyeb tank, reservoir
vosyeb flower pot, vase
maagilyeb fuel can
mogyeb ashtray
amulpyeb battery
nozyeb jewelry box
obelunyeb trash can, garbage pail
drilyeb ink well

syeb container, bin, vessel

tilsyeb cup, drinking cup
kyitilsyeb mug, stein
elsyeb pot, pan
magyelsyeb frying pan, skillet
tolsyeb casserole, pan
zyitolsyeb skillet
yolsyeb can, tin, tin can
teilsyeb bowl, soup bowl
milsyeb tank, cistern, reservoir
magilsyeb kettle
magilsyebag cauldron, boiler
ilsyeb carafe, beaker, flask, jug
faosyeb barrel
faosyeyb keg
meksyeb urn

fyeb tin can, can

fyebag tub, canister
milfyeb canteen
milfyebag tub
telfyeb can, food tin, tin can, can of food

zyeb glass container

manzyeb lightbulb
elzyeb jar
ilzyeb bottle, glass bottle
tilzyeb drinking glass, glass
bekilzyeb vial

nyef sack, bag, basket

nyefyan baggage
popnyef suitcase, travel bag
popnyefyan luggage, baggage
yignyef basket
zotib nyef backpack, rucksack
tolnyef grocery bag, grocery sack
defnyef paper sack, paper bag
myelnyef plastic bag
obelunyef garbage bag, trash bag, garbage sack
tafnyef portmanteau
nasyef wallet
nasyeyf purse
nasesyef coin purse
safyalnyef teabag
malnyef airbag, airsack
vyabnyef grain sack

nyem box, case

dofnyem cardboard box, carton
fomnyem metal box, metal case
popnyemag trunk, coffer
tuyabyem pocket
tibyeym pouch, poke
tojatnyem coffin, casket
belnyem briefcase

nyus package, shipment

nyusag crate, bin

fuf pipe

fuyf tube
tilfuyf straw
milfuf water pipe
movuf tobacco pipe, pipe, smoking pipe
miluf toilet, commode
ukxen fuf drainage pipe

nidyuz envelope bakilyuz capsule tim room, chamber

yixuntim utility closest
timog cell, pod
times booth, roomette, compartment
miltimes W.C., water closet, lavabo, washroom
dalibartimes phone booth, telephone booth

milim water closet, bathroom, bath milufim toilet, W.C., bathroom, restroom novim linen closet parim car, wagon, train car tofim clothes closet, closet avolim pantry sam armoire, chest

tofsam chest of drawers
dyensam bookcase


tulxer cook

tulxut cook
tulxam kitchen
tulxen cooking
tulxwa cooked
otulxwa raw

mageler cook

magelut cook
magelim kitchen
magelwa cooked
omagelwa raw
magelar cooker
mageltun gastronomy
mageltuna gastronomic
mageltut gastronomist
gramageler overcook
gramagelwa overcooked
gromageler undercook
gromagelwa undercooked

magyeler fry

magyelwa fried

yobmagyeler deep-fry

yelmageylwa deep-fried

belgamagyeler french-fry

belgamagyelwa french-fried

ummageler bake

ummagelwa baked
ummagelun baked good
ummagelar oven

igmagyeler sautee

igmagyelwa sauteed

motozaxer toast, brown

motozaxwa toasted, browned
motozaxar toaster

mageier boil, poach

magilwa boiled, poached
magilea boiling
yigmagilwa hard-boiled
yugmagilwa soft-boiled

yijmageler broil, grill

yijmagelwa broiled, grilled
yijmagelar broiler, grill, gridiron

izummageler roast

izummagelwa roasted
izummagelar roaster

mamegmageler barbecue, charcoal gril

mamegmagelwa barbecued, charcoal grilled
mamegmagelar barbecue grill, charcoal grill

yagilamxer simmer, braise

yagilamxwa simmered, braised

levelimaber glaze

levelimabwa glazed

imaber baste

imabwa basted

moveler smoke

movelwa smoked

oyomxer thaw

oyomxwa thawed

yomxer freeze

yomxwa frozen
yomxar freezer

ilxer melt, liquefy

ilxwa melted, liquefied

mimolber salt

mimolbwa salted

sifyolber pepper

sifyolbwa peppered
sifyolaya peppery, hot, spicy

tolmekber spice

tolmekbwa spiced
tolmekaya spicy, hot

gorbunogxer mince

gorbunogxwa minced
gorbunogxwa taol minced meat

uglaxer tenderize

uglaxwa tenderized

favofyenxwa fluffed, souffleed


telier eat, ingest

ogtelier nibble, snack, peck at
iktelier devour, gorge, cram, stuff, wolf, inhale, polish off
igtelier scarf, cram, gobble up
ugtelier graze, munch
iftelier feast, feast on
gratelier overeat, gormandize, eat too much, gluttonize, pig out, binge

teluer feed tilier drink, imbibe

ogtilier sip, nip
iktilier guzzle, gulp, swig, drain
gratilier overdrink, tipple, booze, drink to excess
igtilier slurp, down
iftilier quaff, indulge, enjoy drinking
gratilier drink too much, overdrink, overindulge
tiltojer drink to death, drown oneself
glatilier quaff

tiluer water, give water to teluzbier taste, take a taste teuxer taste teubabaxer lick teubil saliva, spit, sputum teubilxer salivate teubilpuxer spit, expectorate, spew teubiluer spit teubiloyeber spit out, expectorate teubiloker drool, slaver teubilokeger dribble teubixer chew, masticate

teubixeger ruminate, graze

tilabilier suck, suckle tilabiluer suckle, nurse, lactate teubobyeber suck teubyeber swallow

igteubyeber gulp

teubikxer cram into the mouth tikabukxer vomit, throw up, regurgitate tikubier ingest tikubxer digest

tibubxen digestion

teiter smell, detect an odor teitier sniff, smell, take a whiff, savor teixer smell telefer hunger, be hungry, have an appetite

glatelefer crave, be famished

teleftojer starve, starve to death telukser go hungry telikser get full, be sated tilefer thirst, be thirsty tileftojer die of thirst


fiteluza delicious, savory teluzoya tasteless, insipid fiteisa delicious, savory futeluza disgusting, nasty futeisa bad-tasting, disgusting ama hot

amxwa heated
egamxwa re-heated

ayma warm

aymxwa warmed
egaymxwa re-warmed

oma cold

omxwa refrigerated

oyma cool

oymxwa cooled

yomxwa frozen

oyomxwa thawed

yomaya icy yombwa iced ima wet

imxwa glazed, basted

uma dry

umxwa dried

ilxwa melted, liquefied mimolaya salty mimolbwa salted

omimolbwa unsalted

yigza sour yugza bitter levelbwa sweet, sugared tulxwa cooked

otulxwa raw, uncooked

ejsa fresh ajsa stale, flat ojwosa green, unripe jwosa ripe yiga hard yuga soft yigla tough yugla tender

yuglaxwa tenderized
oyuglaxwa untenderized

yoynruwa brittle malzyunika bubbly, effervescent, carbonated malzyunuka still, uncarbonated tolmekaya spicy tomekbwa spiced

otomekbwa unspiced

sifyolyena hot, spicy, peppery, piquant sifyolbwa peppered

osifyolbwa unpeppered

bay lifyal with lemon bay level with sugar boy level without sugar, unsweetened bay biel with cream boy biel without cream, black bielyena creamy, smooth yifyabika nutty, nut-filled gyula plain aza strong oza week eza medium ivoza red avoza white uvoza rose' yanbixmulaya tannic, astringent, pungent yigza sharp, pungent, acrid, biting, caustic magxwa burnt gramagelwa overcooked gromagelwa undercooked magelwa cooked magilwa boiled ummagelwa baked magyelwa fried yobmagyelwa deep-fried yijmagelwa barbecued avolabwa breaded tayobobwa skinned magelwa be zyitolyeb yagilamxwa braised taibobwa boned imabwa basted, glazed uglaxwa tenderized izmagelwa seared barmagelwa broasted motozaxwa browned yiglevyelxwa candied levyelmotozaxwa caramelized fyefmagelwa charbroiled, grilled gromagilwa coddled bielxwa creamed yanmulxwa curdled yagbelwa cured, preserved umxwa dried yagugmagelwa Dutch-oven-cooked magilmulxwa fermented mimolbekwa pickled, brined yugglalxwa pureed, mashed, pulped, beaten kyeyanmulwa scrambled izummagelwa roasted igyelmagelwa sauteed igmagyelwa simmered ikmovxwa smothered moxwwa smoked ikimxwa steeped yagteilxwa stewed braxmagyelwa stir-fried ikxwa stuffed gyaxwa thickened ableveylbwa glazed abimbwa basted, coated mialbwa steamed mulyonxwa sifted mulyonxwa filtered ilogukxarwa strained glamagelwa well-done ezmagelwa medium-well glomagelwa rare gramagelwa over-done gromagelwa under-done gremagelwa done just right, done favofyenxwa souffleed fayobobwa peeled amsalxwa hydrogenated yanilikxwa saturated oyanilikxwa unsaturated bosa organic leveloya sugar-free amonoya calorie-free, zero-cal amonaya caloric gloamona low-calory, low-cal tolvyaaba diet braxwa shaken yuzbraxwa stirred gorbiilmagyelwa fricassee gorbunogxwa minced yebilkxwa soaked pasteuraxwa pasteurized vyisaxwa purified sefmulxwa caffeinated losefmulxwa decaffeinated


kina magelyeb wok yijmagelur rotisserie fyefmagelar grill ummagelar oven ogilpas ummagelur microwave oven yobmagyelar deep fryer mialbar steamer magilsyeb kettle safayal magilsyeb teakettle magelarabun stovetop barmagelar pressure cooker utmagelar samovar motozaxar toaster yagmagelar slow cooker nyefavol amxar waffle iron sefyal mulyonxur percolator gyamagelsyeb dutch oven mamegmagelar barbecue, brazier gimuf spit, skewer, stick, pick tilfuf straw yigtayebabar brush zyabar spatula mulyonxar sieve, sift, filter ilogukxyeb colander, strainer yifyab yonbyexar nutcracker ama zyibolar hot plate enbirtub tongs abimxar baster zyubea muf rolling pin teabip gimuf toothpick tulnov napkin semov tablecloth tilsyeb leyavol cupcake bilyug gorbar butter knife gorbar bolar knife holder tilar bolar spoon rest avolmuf breadstick uzglal loaf tultaf apron tulimeb tef chef's hat gorben zyifaof cutting board, chop block vafyal oymxar wine cooler

ama hot

aman heat
amxer heat, heat up
amxwa heated
amxar heater
jaamxer pre-heat
jaamxwa pre-heated
egamxer re-heat
egamxwa re-heated
amansag temperature
amon calorie

uma dry

uman dryness
umxer dry, dry out
umxwa dried
umxar dryer
umaman dry heat

mag fire

mageler cook
magelwa cooked
omagelwa uncooked, raw
magxer burn
magxwa burned, burnt
magxea burning
magxar burner
yija mag open fire

fayobober peel

fayobobwa peeled
fayobobar peeler
fayob peel
fifyal fayob banana peel


gorber cut

gorbar knife, cutter
gorbaryan cutlery
gorbun cut

zyogorber slice, cut narrowly

zyogorbun slice, slot
zyogorbar slicer

kyigorber chop, cut heavily, hack, axe

kyigorbar axe, hatchet, chopper

eyngorber dissect, cut in two, halve, cut in halve glalgorber grate, dice, cut into a pile

glalgorbar grater
bilyig glalgorbar cheese grater
glalgorbwa grated

sangorber carve, cut to a form, sculpt

sangorbar carving knife
sangorbut sculptor, carver
sangorbun sculpture, carving

vyigorber trim, cut cleanly

vyigorbar trimmer

kugorber trim, cut along the edge

kugorbar trimmer, edger

yubgorber shave, cut close

yubgorbar shaver

iggorber snip, cut quickly

iggorbun snippet

taogorber cleave, chop, hack, butcher, cut meat

taogorber clever, chopper, butcher knife, meat cleaver
taogorbut butcher
taogorbam butcher shop
taogorbsem butcher block

kyugorber graze, cut lightly bukgorber lacerate, cut to wound, stab

bukgorbun laceration, stab wound

oggorber nick, cut a small bit

oggorbwa nicked
oggorbun nick

gingorber notch, cut at an angle

gingorbwa notched
gingorbun notch

zyegorber pierce, cut through, stab

zyegorbea piercing
zyegarbar stabbing knife

gorfer rip, tear, cut cloth

gorfun scrap, rag, shred
gorfar scissors, shears

yongorfer rip apart, rip asunder, tear apart, tear asunder, tear up, rip up kyegorber slash, cut haphazardly

kyegorbar machete

yaggorber slit, cut long

yaggorbun slit

gyigorber stab, cut sharp

gyigorbar dagger

gorbober shear, cut and remove zayzoygorber saw, cut back and forth

zayzoygorbar saw

teupixer bite, do something hard with the teeth

teupixun bite

teupixeger nibble, do something repeatedly with the teeth teugorber bite, teeth-cut

teugorbun bite

teubixer chew, do something mildly with the teeth brukgorber mangle, cut with mutilation

brukgorbwa mangled

gonxer partition, divide, cut, part

gonx partition, division

oyegorber excise, cut out

oyegorbun excision

yebgorber incise, cut into

yebgorbun incision
yebgorbar incisor

gorfuner shred, cut to shreds, tear up, rip to pieces yonrar cut, split, partition, divide yonber detach, separate, take apart

yonbun detachment

eynyonrer split in two, dichotomize

eynyonren dichotomy

obgorber lop off, cut off, amputate tupober dismember, amputate, remove a limb

tupobwa dismembered, amputated

tebober decapitate, remove a head

teboben decapitation

nadgorber score, cut a line zaygorber cut across, bisect yongorber sever, cut apart uyngorber quarter, cut into four pieces gorbuner segment, make a section

gorbun segment, section

tayegorber tonsure, cut hair, shave

tayegorb haircut
tayegorbam hair cutlery
tayegorbut hair cutter

yongorfer abscind, rip apart zyagorbuer share gorbarer stab, knife faogorber chop

faogorbar axe, hatchet, chopper, hacksaw, adz, adze

vabgorber mow

vabgorbar mower, scythe
topvabgorbar machete

fomgorbar hacksaw yonar knife

dopyonar sword, saber
dopargorbar bayonet
mimdopyonar cutlass

puxgorbar spear megyonar tomahawk zyadopyonar battle-ax potekgorbar hunting knife gorbayeb blade tuyagorbar stiletto pitgorbar fish cutter tayogorber scar

tayogorbun scar
tayogorbwa scarred

eopet beef

eopet gyagorbun beefsteak, steak
mekxwa eopet ground beef
mekxwa eopet ebavol hamburger
hamburgas hamburger
eopet yagteil beef stew
eopet yaggorbun strip steak

uopet mutton

uopet taogorbun mutton chop

yapet pork

yapet taogorbun pork chop
magyelwa yapetzokun bacon
yapetyob ham
yapetyob ebavol ham sandwich
ummagelwa yapetyob baked ham

yupet rabbit

yupet yagteil rabbit stew

vapyet escargot epyeit tyob frog leg epetob veal

epetob gorbunog veal cutlet

ipat turkey

ipat ebavol turkey sandwich

patijob egg

wa kyeyanmulwa patijob scrambled eggs
patijob avoz egg white
patijob zamul egg yolk
patijob evoz egg yolk, yellow part of the egg
patijobayob egg shell
patijob zyiun omelet
magyelwa patijob fried egg
magilwa patijob boiled egg, poached egg
yigmagilwa patijob hard-boiled egg
yugmagilwa patijob soft-boiled egg
yapet ay patijob bacon and eggs

apaytot chicken

wa apaytot patub chicken wings
apaytot teil chicken soup
yelmagelwa patub fried chicken
ummagelwa patub baked chicken
apaytot gyagorbun chicken steak

taol be muf kabob, skewered meat


abgabun topping, coating

abgabuner top off, coat

yebun ingredient gabun additive, garnish

gabuner garnish

toleusgabun condiment, relish tolmek spice, seasoning

tolmekber spice, season

levelabun icing, frosting, glaze

levelabuner ice, frost, glaze

abun coating, topping, coat

abuner coat, top

tuil sauce biil juice taobil gravy zyaygoseger sprinkle

zyaygosegun sprinkle

zyaybun spread favolun froth, foam, fluff, meringue, frost


gon part, portion

gones particle
gonog small part, small portion
gonbun share
ujgon butt, end part

goun piece gos piece, morsel, crumb, tidbit, bit, bite

gosog speck, particle

gorf shred, rag

yaggorf strip

gorb cut

uyngorb quarter
eyngorb half
ayngorb whole cut

gorp hunk, chunk

gorpes chip, flake:

gor section

gyagor slab, steak, thick section
gyogar slice, thin section, cutlet

gol division glal mass, bunch, cluster

yanglal curd, lump, clot, glob
glalab stack, pile, heap
zyiglal patty
yugglal mush, mash, soft mass

fuyf tube

fuyfes link
tilfuyf straw

zyun ball, sphere

malzyun bubble
zyunog pellet, bullet, bead
milzyun drop of water
milzyunog water bead
ilzyun drop, drop of liquid
ilzyunog bead of liquid
mekzyun dust bowl

kun side, flank

zakun front end, face
zokun back end, rear
kunad edge, frontier

mul matter, material, substance

zamul kernel, core
yigmul hard substance
yugmul soft substance
yunmul cluster

muf pole, stick, rod

gimuf sharp stick, skewer, spit

faof board, plank nyaun pile, mass, heap, stack

nyaunxer pile up, stack

nyan pile, stack, heap byeb pile, stack vyayb seed zoniub butt ujun end, butt ujgin tip kuned flank abem top abned top, surface, upper plane obem bottom obned bottom, lower plane zaned front, face, frontal plane zoned back, back plane ijun head ounce pound pint gallon ton inch foot yard millimeter centimeter meter avolgos crumb zyigos flake, chip, crisp

lavol zyigos potato chip, potato crisp

gos piece, morsel

goses little piece, bit, tiny morsel

gwos atom, tiniest thing gwo- nano-

gwojweb nanosecond

gones particle vzevyab kernel, nucleus

zevyaba nuclear

vyab grain

vyabes speck
vyabesaya speckled
vyabyena grainy

mekes grain vyayb seed

vyaybes seedlet
vyaybyem pod, seed vessel

vabij seed

vabijoya seedless
vabijyem pod

zyogorf strip gyogorf slice, slit gorfun piece, shred, scrap yaggorf strip, long strip gyagorf slab. hunk fomgyagorf ingot fomgorf bar mulukumnid block, block of matter mulzyun ball of stuff, wad, lump, roll, plug milzyunes water bead, drop gorbun chop, cut, segment, section, slice gyagorbun steak, thick slice gorbunog cutlet, thin slice tayegorbun shaving taolzyun meatball nuad stripe taolzyogorf steak niiv strand glal mass, pile, lump, mob

yugglal soft mass, mash, mush, gob
yugglalxer mash, smash, crush
yanglal curd, clot, lump, conglomeration, coagulation, concretion
yanglalxer clot, curdle, lump together, conglomerate, coagulate
glalgorber grate
glala massive
glalika lumpy

mek powder, dust

mekil mash, mush, crush

fef grate fefyan grating fef grid fef grill fef grille fefyan grillwork nef web nef weave zyezeyer crisscross misnef lattice faibyan framework nefxen reticulation nef net nefyan netting nefyan network ebnyivyan fretwork nefmis screen nefyem basket checkerboard nefsunyen mesh konef maze mufnefyan wattle ebnefea interweaving ebgorbwas intersection zeygorbwas cross-section ebnyiver interlace kofvaob thatch nyef bag nyef sack fyeb tin can, can mulyonxar sieve mulyonxar filter mulyonxar colander

The mor (Universe) Family[edit]

The stems of the words in this family are characterized by the letter m nature. The words, thus, have to do with nature, the sky, ground, water, planets, etc.
mor universe mol nature mom, outer space, moj night, mon dark, mog ash, mov smoke, oma cold
mar star, amar* sun mal air mam sky, maf cloud, man light, mag fire, maj day, mav flame, ama heat
mer planet, meir earth mel soil mem land, meb mountain, meg rock, mep road, em place
mir world mil water mim sea, mip river, ima wet
mur satellite, amur* moon mul mineral mum underground, mup tunnel, uma dry
*Note that sun is called amar because it is the number one star as far as we are concerned. Similarly, moon is called amur because it is the number one satellite.

Names of the Planets[edit]

Here are the names of the planets in our solar system:
PLANET = mer
Mear Mercury
Meer Venus
Meir Earth
Meur Mars
Meyor Jupiter
Meyar Saturn
Meyer Uranus
Meyir Pluto

mor universe

mora universal
moran universality
moraxer universalize
moraxen universalization
moraxwa universalized
moreb God
moreba divine
moreban divinity

mar star

mara stellar
maryan constellation
marika starry
marikan starriness
marmaf galaxy
amarmaf Milky Way
marmafa galactic
amar sun
amara solar
amaryap sunrise
amaryop sunset
amarman sunlight
amarmas sunshine
amarnad sunray, sunbeam
amarzena heliocentric
amara vyaab solar system

mer planet

mera planetary
mear Mercury
meer Venus
meir Earth
meira earthly, terrestrial
meirat earthling, terrestrial
omeira extraterrestrial
omeirat extraterrestrial
meur Mars
meurat Martian
meyor Jupiter
meyar Saturn
meyer Uranus
meyir Pluto

mir world

mira global
miran globality
Mirad world language, Mirad
mirdit cosmopolitan, world citizen
mirdita cosmopolitan
miraxer globalize
miraxen globalization
miraxwa globalized
famir heaven
famira celestial, heavenly
famirat angel
famirata angelic
zyamira world-wide, worldwide
zyamira nef worldwide web, www
la aona mir the whole world
lyamira worldwide, global
amir north
amira northern, nordic
amirat northerner
amiray northward, northerly
amirnod north pole
emir equator
emira equatorial
emirnad equator
omir south
omira southern
omirat southerner
omiray southward, southerly
omiyra meridional
omirnod south pole
imir east, orient
imira eastern
imirat easterner
imiray eastward
imiray eastward
imiyra oriental
imirytat oriental
umir west, occident
umira western
umirat westerner
umiray westward
umiyrat occidental
aomira north-south, vertical, longitudinal
aormiray vertically, longitudinally
aormirnad longitude
iumira east-west, horizontal, latitudinal
iumiray horizontally, latitudinally
iumirnad latitude

mur moon, satellite

mura lunar
amur earth's moon, moon
muar comet
muartiyub comet tail
muer meteor
muerog meteorite

mol nature

mola natural
omola unnatural, artificial
omolan artificiality
omolas something artificial
yizmol supernatural
yizmola supernatural
molaxer naturalize
molaxen naturalization
molaxwa naturalized
ijmol origin
ijmola original

mal air

maal atmosphere
maala atmospheric
mael troposphere
maela tropospheric
mail stratosphere
maila stratospheric
maul ionosphere
mayol exosphere
mayl gas
mayla gaseous
maylxer gaseify
maylxen gaseification
maylxwa gaseified
maluer aerate, blow up, pump air into, inflate
maluen aeration, blowing up, inflation
maluar air pump, inflater
maluuwa inflated, pumped up, aerated
omaluer deflate
omaluen deflation
omaluuwa deflated
malyen weather
malyentun meteorology
malyentuna meteorological, weather-related
malyentut meteorologist, weatherman, weatherperson
jebmalyen climate
jebmalyena climatic

mel land, soil, ground, dirt

mela terrestrial, land, ground
yanmel continent
yanmela continental
yonmel island
yonmela insular
yonmelat islander
melpuer land
melpuen landing
melpuem landing strip
meluk hole in the ground, hole, ditch
melukxer dig
melukxar hoe, digger, ditch digger
tojmeluk grave
tojmelukxut gravedigger
milmeluk well
milmelukxut welldigger
yagmeluk ditch
yagmelukxut ditchdigger
melyex farming, agriculture, land work
melyexa agricultural
melyexut farmer
melyexem farm
melyexam farmhouse
melyexer farm
melyextun agriculture
melyextuna agricultural
abmel topsoil
abmela above-ground
obmel subsoil
obmela underground, subterranean
meel terrain
yebmelber bury
yebmelben burial
yebmelbwa buried
yebmelbem grave

mil water

mila aquatic
milaya aqueous, watery
miles drop, drop of water, water drop
milesog droplet, bead
mial vapor, steam
mialaya steamy, vaporous
mialayaser get steamed up
mialxer vaporize
mialxen vaporization
mialpar steamship
miil dew
miilika dewy
miilaya dewy
miiles dew drop
mamil rain
mamiler rain
mamilaya rainy