Chess Opening Theory/Great Big Opening Survey

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Introduction[edit]

This page is intended as an extended contents page of the Chess Opening Theory Wikibook project.

Not all openings are created equal. A 7th move variation in the Najdorf Sicilian needs its own page in this Wikibook. A 7th move variation in the Potato Variation of the Réti Opening does not.

But this is difficult to see when you're navigating through the book one move at a time starting from the initial position. One blue link looks the same as another. It's easy to get lost in the forest.

The rule for including an opening in the Great Big Opening Survey is simple:

Does your database have at least 100 games with this branch for every 50,000 games that start 1.e4?

In other words, take the number of 1.e4 games in the database and divide it by 500. That number is the cut-off for inclusion in this survey. (As this Wikibook grows, this cutoff can be lowered!)

The Opening Explorer at http://www.chessgames.com/perl/explorer, for example, has 396,710 1.e4 games as of 10th January 2018. So an opening line must appear in at least 396710 / 500 = 793 games in that database to be included.

Regardless of the size of your database, if you look at the frequency of White's initial moves this magic number should fall between 1.Nc3 and 1.b4 - between the unfashionable and the eccentric. If it falls below 1.b4, your database is probably not selective enough in what it considers high-level games. If it falls above 1.Nc3, your database might be out of date.

Because the Great Big Opening Survey is a very long list, an abridged version is shown, representing 10 times less "resolution", i.e. instead of appearing 100 times for every 50,000 1.e4 games, an opening must appear 1,000 times.

For every line given below, the last move that appears in the text is the last move that qualifies as an independent line under the above criteria.

Where a move is underlined, that move dips below the cut-off for inclusion but the resulting position does not, due to transpositions. Some lines have been extended beyond the cutoff, either to separate two lines that would otherwise appear to transpose into each other, or to merge two lines that were clearly converging on the same position.

Abridged list (1,000 games per 50,000 1.e4 games)[edit]

1.e4 (35 lines)[edit]

  • Sicilian Defence: 1...c5, then
    • Open Sicilian: 2.Nf3 (alternatively Closed Sicilian: 2.Nc3 Nc6; Alapin Sicilian: 2.c3), then
      • Najdorf & Dragon Sicilians: 2...d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 then [A] Najdorf Sicilian: 5...a6; [B] Dragon Sicilian: 5...g6. For 5...Nc6 see 2...Nc6 > Classical Sicilian
      • Classical Sicilian: 2...Nc6 3.d4 (alternatively Rossolimo Sicilian: 3.Bb5) cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 (for 4...e6 see 2...e6 > Taimanov Sicilian) 5.Nc3 d6
      • Taimanov & Kan Sicilians: 2...e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 then [A] Taimanov Sicilian: 4...Nc6 5.Nc3; [B] Kan Sicilian: 4...a6
  • Open Game: 1...e5 2.Nf3 (alternatively King's Gambit: 2.f4), then
    • 2...Nc6 (alternatively Petroff's Defence: 2...Nf6), then
      • Ruy Lopez: 3.Bb5, then
        • Closed Variation: 3...a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.0-0 Be7 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 8.c3 0-0 9.h3
        • Berlin Defence: 3...Nf6
      • Italian Game: 3.Bc4, then
        • Two Knights: 3...Nf6
        • Giuoco Piano: 3...Bc5
      • Scotch Game: 3.d4 exd4
  • French Defence: 1...e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 (alternatively Tarrasch Variation: 3.Nd2), then [A] Winawer Variation: 3...Bb4; [B] Classical French: 3...Nf6
  • Caro-Kann Defence: 1...c6 2.d4 d5
  • Pirc Defence: 1...d6 2.d4 Nf6 3.Nc3
  • Modern Defence: 1...g6 2.d4 Bg7 3.Nc3
  • Scandinavian Defence: 1...d5 2.exd5
  • Alekhine's Defence: 1...Nf6 2.e5 Nd5

1.d4 (9 lines)[edit]

  • Indian Defences: 1...Nf6 2.c4 (or 2.Nf3 followed by 3.c4. For 2.Nf3 d5 see 1.d4 d5), then
    • 2...e6, then
      • Queen's Indian Defence: 3.Nf3 b6 (for 3...d5 see Queen's Gambit Declined) 4.g3
      • Nimzo-Indian Defence: 3.Nc3 Bb4 (for 3...d5 see Queen's Gambit Declined), then [A] Rubinstein System: 4.e3; [B] Classical Variation: 4.Qc2
    • 2...g6 3.Nc3, then
      • Grünfeld Defence: 3...d5
      • King's Indian Defence: 3...Bg7 4.e4 d6 5.Nf3 0-0 6.Be2 e5
    • Benoni Defence: 2...c5 3.d5
  • Queen's Gambit: 1...d5 2.c4 (or 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.c4), then
    • Queen's Gambit Declined, Orthodox Defence: 2...e6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 (or 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Nf3) Be7 (for 4...c6 see Semi-Slav Defence)
    • Semi-Slav Defence: 2...c6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Nf3 (or 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3) e6 5.e3 Nbd7
  • (For 1...e6 2.e4 see 1.e4 > French Defence; for 1...e6 2.c4 d5 see 1.d4 d5; for 1...e6 2.c4 Nf6 see 1.d4 Nf6)
  • Dutch Defence: 1...f5

1.Nf3 (1 line)[edit]

  • 1...Nf6 (for 1...c5 2.c4 see 1.c4 > Symmetrical English; for 1...c5 2.e4 see 1.e4 > Sicilian Defence; for 1...d5 2.d4 see 1.d4 > Queen's Gambit), then
    • Barcza System: 2.g3 (for 2.c4 g6 3.d4 and 2.c4 e6 3.d4 see 1.d4 > Indian Defences)

English Opening: 1.c4 (2 lines)[edit]

  • Reversed Sicilian: 1...e5 2.Nc3 Nf6
  • Symmetrical English: 1...c5 2.Nf3
  • (for 1...Nf6 2.d4 see 1.d4 > Indian Defences; for 1...Nf6 2.Nc3 e5 see Reversed Sicilian; for 1...Nf6 2.Nf3 see 1.Nf3)
  • (for Anglo-French: 1...e6 2.d4 - see 1.d4)

Full list (100 games per 50,000 1.e4 games)[edit]

1.e4[edit]

  • Sicilian Defence 1...c5
    • Open Sicilian 2.Nf3
      • 2...d6
        • 3.d4 cxd4
          • 4.Nxd4 Nf6
            • 5.Nc3 (also arises via 3...Nf6 4.Nc3 cxd4 5.Nxd4)
              • Najdorf: 5...a6
                • 6.Be3
                  • Modern Main Line: 6...e5 7.Nb3 Be6 8.f3 Be7 9.Qd2
                  • 6...e6 - see Scheveningen, English Attack
                • 6.Bg5 e6 7.f4
                  • Old Main Line: 7...Be7 8.Qf3
                  • Poisoned Pawn: 7...Qb6
                • Opocensky Variation: 6.Be2
                  • 6...e5 7.Nb3 Be7 8.0-0 0-0
                  • 6...e6 - see Scheveningen, Main Line
                • Sozin-Najdorf: 6.Bc4 e6 7.Bb3 b5
                • Amsterdam Variation: 6.f4
                • 6.f3
                  • 6...e5 7.Nb3 Be6 8.Be3 Be7 9.Qd2 - see 6.Be3, Modern Main Line
                  • 6...e6 7.Be3 - see Scheveningen, English Attack
                • Zagreb Attack: 6.g3
                • Adams Attack: 6.h3
              • Dragon: 5...g6
                • Yugoslav Attack: 6.Be3 Bg7 7.f3 0-0 8.Qd2 Nc6 (or 7...Nc6 8.Qd2 0-0)
                  • 9.Bc4 Bd7 10.0-0-0
                  • 9.0-0-0 d5
                • 6.Be2 Bg7 7.0-0
              • Classical: 5...Nc6
                • Richter-Rauzer: 6.Bg5
                  • Main Line (to Rauzer Attack): 6...e6 7.Qd2
                    • 7...a6 8.0-0-0
                      • 8...Bd7 9.f4
                      • 8...h6
                    • 7...Be7 8.0-0-0 0-0
                  • Larsen Variation: 6...Bd7
                • Sozin: 6.Bc4
                  • Sozin-Scheveningen: 6...e6 7.Be3
                  • Benko Variation: 6...Qb6
                • Boleslavsky Variation: 6.Be2 e5
              • Scheveningen: 5...e6
                • Main Line: 6.Be2 Be7 7.0-0
                • Keres Attack: 6.g4 h6
                • English Attack: 6.Be3 a6 7.f3
            • Prins Variation: 5.f3
          • Chekhover Variation: 4.Qxd4 Nc6 5.Bb5 Bd7 6.Bxc6 Bxc6 7.Nc3
        • Moscow Variation: 3.Bb5+
          • 3...Bd7 4.Bxd7+ Qxd7
            • 5.0-0
            • 5.c4
          • 3...Nc6 - see Rossolimo Variation
          • 3...Nd7 4.d4
        • 3.c3 Nf6 4.Be2
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...Nc6 4.d4 - see 3.d4
          • 3...Nf6 4.d4 - see 3.d4
      • 2...Nc6
        • 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4
          • 4...Nf6 5.Nc3
            • 5...d6 - see 2...d6
            • Sveshnikov: 5...e5 6.Ndb5 d6 7.Bg5 a6 8.Na3 b5
              • 9.Nd5 Be7 10.Bxf6 Bxf6 11.c3 0-0 12.Nc2
              • 9.Bxf6 gxf6 10.Nd5
                • 10...f5
                • 10...Bg7
            • Taimanov Four Knights: 5...e6 - see Taimanov Variation
          • Accelerated Dragon: 4...g6
            • Maroczy Bind: 5.c4 Bg7 6.Be3 Nf6 7.Nc3 0-0 8.Be2 (can also arise via 5...Nf6 6.Nc3 d6 7.Be2) d6 9.0-0 Bd7
          • 4...e6 - see Taimanov Variation
          • Löwenthal Variation: 4...e5 5.Nb5 d6
            • 6.N1c3 a6 7.Na3
            • 6.c4
          • Flohr Variation: 4...Qc7 5.Nc3 e6 - see Taimanov Variation
          • Grivas Variation: 4...Qb6
        • Rossolimo Variation: 3.Bb5
          • 3...g6
            • 4.0-0 Bg7
              • 5.c3
              • 5.Re1
            • 4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.d3
          • 3...d6 4.0-0 Bd7 5.Re1 Nf6 6.c3 a6
          • 3...e6 4.0-0 Nge7
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...g6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 - see Accelerated Dragon
          • 3...e6 - see 2...e6
          • 3...d6 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nxd4 Nf6 - see 2...d6
        • 3.c3 - see Alapin Sicilian
      • 2...e6
        • 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4
          • Taimanov Variation:4...Nc6
            • 5.Nc3
              • Bastrikov Variation: 5...Qc7
                • 6.g3 a6 7.Bg2 Nf6 8.0-0
                • 6.Be2 a6 7.0-0 Nf6 8.Be3 Bb4
                • 6.Be3 a6
                  • 7.Bd3 Nf6 8.0-0
                  • 7.Qd2 Nf6 8.0-0-0
                  • 7.Be2 - see 6.Be2
              • 5...Nf6 6.Ndb5 - see Sveshnikov Variation
              • 5...a6 6.Be2 Qc7 - see 5...Qc7
              • 5...d6 6.Be3 Nf6 - see Scheveningen Variation
            • 5.Nb5 d6 6.c4
          • Kan Variation: 4...a6
            • 5.Bd3
              • 5...Nf6 6.0-0 Qc7
              • Polugayevsky Variation: 5...Bc5 6.Nb3 Be7 (6...Ba7 is the other independent line that's slightly under the cutoff)
            • 5.Nc3
              • 5...b5 6.Bd3
              • 5...Qc7
                • 6.Bd3 Nf6
                • 6.Be2 Nc6 - see Taimanov Variation
              • 5...Nc6 - see Taimanov Variation
            • 5.c4
          • 4...Nf6 5.Nc3
            • Four Knights Variation: 5...Nc6 6.Ndb5 d6 7.Bf4 e5 - see Sveshnikov Variation
            • 5...e6 - see Scheveningen Variation
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...a6 4.d4 - see Kan Variation
          • 3...Nc6 4.d4 - see Taimanov Variation
        • 3.c3
          • 3...d5 4.exd5 Qxd5 5.d4 - see Alapin Variation
          • 3...Nf6 4.e5 Nd5 5.d4 - see Alapin Variation
        • 3.d3 Nc6 4.g3
        • 3.b3
      • Hyper-Accelerated Dragon: 2...g6 3.d4
        • 3...cxd4 - see Accelerated Dragon
        • 3...Bg7
      • O'Kelly Variation: 2...a6
      • Nimzowitsch Variation: 2...Nf6
    • Closed Sicilian 2.Nc3
      • 2...Nc6
        • 3.Nf3 - see Open Sicilian 2.Nf3
        • King's Indian Attack Sicilian: 3.g3 g6 4.Bg2 Bg7 5.d3 d6
          • 6.Be3
          • 6.f4
        • Grand Prix Attack (A): 3.f4 g6 4.Nf3 Bg7
        • 3.Bb5
        • Chameleon Variation: 3.Nge2
      • 2...e6 3.Nf3 - see Open Sicilian 2.Nf3
      • 2...d6
        • Grand Prix Attack (B): 3.f4
        • 3.Nf3 - see Open Sicilian 2.Nf3
      • 2...a6
    • Alapin Sicilian 2.c3
      • Main Line: 2...Nf6 3.e5 Nd5
        • Lines with ...d6 and ...e6: 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nf3 e6 6.cxd4 d6 (can arise via 4.Nf3)
        • Lines with ...d6 and ...Nc6: 4.d4 cxd4 5.Nf3 Nc6 6.cxd4 d6
      • Barmen Variation: 2...d5 3.exd5 Qxd5 4.d4
        • 4...Nf6 5.Nf3 e6
        • 4...Nc6 5.Nf3 e6
      • 2...e6
        • 3.Nf3 - see 2.Nf3
        • 3.d4 d5 (lines without 4.e5, for 4.e5 see French Defence)
      • 2...d6 3.Nf3 - see Open Sicilian 2.Nf3
    • Smith-Morra Gambit: 2.d4 cxd4 3.c3
    • McDonnell Attack: 2.f4
    • Keres Variation: 2.Ne2
    • Snyder Variation: 2.b3
    • Big Clamp: 2.d3
  • 1...e5 (This is highly dependent on what years your database covers. Many of the following alternatives to the Ruy Lopez show up in databases of "historic" games far more than in current master play.)
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...Nc6
        • Ruy Lopez: 3.Bb5
          • Morphy Defence: 3...a6
            • 4.Ba4
              • Main Line: 4...Nf6
                • 5.0-0
                  • Closed Ruy Lopez: 5...Be7
                    • 6.0-0 b5 7.Bb3
                      • Closed Main Line: 7...d6 8.c3 0-0
                        • 9.h3
                          • Chigorin Variation: 9...Na5 10.Bc2 c5 11.d4 Qc7 12.Nbd2
                          • Breyer Variation: 9...Nb8 10.d4 Nbd7 11.Nbd2 Bb7 12.Bc2 Re8 13.Nf1 Bf8 14.Ng3 g6
                          • Zaitsev Variation: 9...Bb7 10.d4 Re8 11.Nbd2 Bf8
                        • Bogoljubow Variation: 9.d4 Bg4
                      • to Marshall Gambit: 7...0-0
                        • 8.c3
                          • Marshall Gambit: 8...d5 9.exd5 Nxd5 10.Nxe5 Nxe5 11.Rxe5
                          • 8...d6 - see Normal Variation
                        • Anti-Marshall: 8.h3
                        • Kasparov Attack: 8.a4
                    • 6.d3 b5 7.Bb3 - see Anderssen Variation
                    • DERLD: 6.Bxc6 dxc6
                  • 5...b5 6.Bb3
                    • Møller Defence: 6...Bc5
                    • Arkhangelsk Defence: 6...Bb7
                    • 6...Be7 - see Closed Ruy Lopez
                  • Open Ruy Lopez: 5...Nxe4 6.d4 b5 7.Bb3 d5 8.dxe5 Be6
                • Wormald Attack: 5.Qe2
                • Anderssen Variation: 5.d3
              • Steinitz Defence Deferred: 4...d6 5.c3
            • Exchange Variation: 4.Bxc6 dxc6 5.0-0 f6 6.d4
          • Berlin Defence: 3...Nf6
            • Open Berlin: 4.0-0 Nxe4
              • Berlin Wall: 5.d4 Nd6 6.Bxc6 dxc6 7.dxe5 Nf5 8.Qxd8+ Kxd8 9.Nc3
              • 5.Re1 Nd6
            • 4.Nc3 - see Spanish Four Knights
            • Closed Berlin: 4.d3
              • 4...d6
              • 4...Bc5
          • Schliemann Defence: 3...f5
          • Cordel Defence: 3...Bc5
        • Max Lange Attack: This is included as an independent position that can arise from several 2.Nf3 lines, without being a significant variation of any of them. 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6 4.d4 exd4 5.0-0 Bc5 6.e5 is one possibility.
        • Italian Game: 3.Bc4
          • Two Knights Defence: 3...Nf6
            • Modern Variation: 4.d4 exd5 5.e5
            • Old Main Line: 4.Ng5 d5 5.exd5 Na5 6.Bb5+ c6 7.dxc6 bxc6
            • 4.d3
              • 4...Be7 5.0-0 0-0
              • 4...Bc5 5.c3 d6 6.0-0 or 5.0-0 d6 6.c3 - see Giuoco Pianissimo
          • 3...Bc5
            • Giuoco Piano: 4.c3 Nf6
              • Main Line: 5.d4 exd4 6.cxd4 Bb4+
              • Giuoco Pianissimo: 5.d3 - White plays Bb3, 0-0 and Nbd2, Black plays ...d6, ...a6, ...Ba7 and ...0-0, with numerous move orders possible
            • Evans Gambit: 4.b4 Bxb4 5.c3 Ba5
            • 4.d3 Nf6 - see Two Knights
            • 4.0-0 Nf6 5.d3 - see Two Knights
        • Scotch Game: 3.d4 exd4
          • 4.Nxd4
            • Classical Scotch: 4...Bc5
              • Main Line: 5.Be3 Qf6 6.c3 Nge7
              • 5.Nxc6
            • 4...Nf6
              • Mieses Variation: 5.Nxc6 bxc6 6.e5
              • Scotch Four Knights: 5.Nc3 Bb4 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.Bd3 d5 8.exd5 cxd5 9.0-0 0-0 10.Bg5 c6
          • Scotch Gambit: 4.Bc4 Nf6 5.e5 and 4.Bc4 Bc5 5.c3 Nf6 - see Two Knights
          • Goring Gambit: 4.c3
        • Three Knights (to Four Knights): 3.Nc3 Nf6
          • Spanish Four Knights: 4.Bb5
            • Symmetrical Spanish: 4...Bb4 5.0-0 0-0 6.d3 d6
            • Rubinstein Countergambit: 4...Nd4
          • 4.d4 exd4 5.Nxd4 - see Scotch Four Knights
        • Ponziani Attack: 3.c3
      • Petroff's Defence: 2...Nf6
        • 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4
          • Classical Petroff, Jaenisch Attack: 5.d4 d5 6.Bd3 Nc6 7.0-0 Be7 8.c4
          • Nimzowitsch Attack: 5.Nc3
        • 3.Nc3 Nc6 - see Four Knights
        • Modern Attack: 3.d4 Nxe4 4.Bd3 d5 5.Nxe5
      • Philidor's Defence 2...d6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 Be7
    • Vienna Game: 2.Nc3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.Nf3 Nc6 - see Four Knights
        • Vienna Gambit: 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4
        • Smyslov Variation: 3.g3
        • 3.Bc4 Nc6 4.d3 - see Bishop's Opening
      • 2...Nc6
        • 3.Nf3 - see Three Knights
        • 3.Bc4 - see Bishop's Opening
    • King's Gambit: 2.f4
      • 2...exf4
        • King's Knight Gambit: 3.Nf3 g5
        • King's Bishop Gambit: 3.Bc4
      • Falkbeer Counter-Gambit: 2...d5 3.exd5
      • King's Gambit Declined: 2...Bc5 3.Nf3 d6
    • Bishop's Opening: 2.Bc4 Nf6
      • 3.d3 Nc6 4.Nf3 - see Two Knights
      • 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.d3
    • Centre Game: 2.d4 exd4
  • French Defence: 1...e6
    • 2.d4 d5
      • 3.Nc3
        • Winawer: 3...Bb4
          • Advance Winawer: 4.e5
            • 4...c5 5.a3 Bxc3+ 6.bxc3 Ne7
              • 7.Qg4
              • 7.Nf3
            • 4...Ne7 5.a3 Bxc3+ 6.bxc3 c5 - see 4...c5
          • Exchange Winawer: 4.exd5 exd5 5.Bd3
          • Alekhine Gambit: 4.Nge2
        • 3...Nf6
          • 4.Bg5
            • Burn Variation: 4...dxe4 5.Nxe4 Be7 6.Bxf6
            • Classical French: 4...Be7 5.e5 Nfd7 6.Bxe7 Qxe7
            • MacCutcheon Variation: 4...Bb4 5.e5 h6 6.Bd2 Bxc3
          • Steinitz French, Boleslavsky Variation: 4.e5 Nfd7 5.f4 Nc6 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.Be3 a6 8.Qd2
        • Rubinstein French: 3...dxe4 4.Nxd4
          • 4...Nd7 5.Nf3 Ngf6
            • 6.Nxf6+ Nxf6
            • 6.Bg5 - see Burn Variation
          • Fort Knox Variation: 4...Bd7 5.Nf3 Bc6
      • Tarrasch French: 3.Nd2
        • Open Tarrasch: 3...c5
          • 4.exd5
            • 4...exd5 5.Ngf3 Nc6 6.Bb5 Bd6
            • 4...Qxd5 5.Ngf3 cxd4 6.Bc4 Qd6 7.0-0 Nf6 8.Nb3 Nc6 9.Nbxd4 Nxd4 10.Nxd4
          • 4.Ngf3 cxd4
        • Closed Tarrasch: 3...Nf6 4.e5 Nfd7
          • 5.Bd3 c5 6.c3 Nc6 7.Ne2 cxd4 8.cxd4 f6 9.exf6 Nxf6 10.Nf3 Bd6 11.0-0 (also via 10.0-0)
          • 5.c3 c5 6.Bd3 - see 5.Bd3
        • 3...Be7
        • 3...dxe4 4.Nxe4 - see 3.Nc3, Rubinstein Variation
        • Guimard Variation: 3...Nc6 4.Ngf3 Nf6 5.e5 Nd7
      • Advance French: 3.e5 c5 4.c3
        • 4...Nc6 5.Nf3
          • 5...Qb6 6.a3
          • 5...Bd7
        • 4...Qb6 5.Nf3 Nc6 - see 4...Nc6
      • Exchange French: 3.exd5 exd5
        • 4.Bd3
        • 4.Nf3
    • King's Indian Attack French: 2.d3 d5 3.Nd2 Nf6 4.Ngf3
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...d5
      • 2...c5 - see Sicilian Defence
    • Chigorin Variation: 2.Qe2
  • Caro-Kann Defence: 1...c6
    • 2.d4 d5
      • Advance Caro-Kann: 3.e5
        • 3...Bf5
          • Short Variation: 4.Nf3 e6 5.Be2
          • Bayonet Attack: 4.Nc3
        • 3...c5
      • Exchange Caro-Kann: 3.exd5 cxd5
        • Main Line: 4.Bd3 Nc6 5.c3
        • Panov-Botvinnik Attack: 4.c4 Nf6 5.Nc3
          • 5...Nc6 6.e6 Nf3
            • 7.Be7
            • 7.Bb4
      • 3.Nc3 OR 3.Nd2 dxe4 4.Nxe4
        • Classical Caro-Kann: 4...Bf5 5.Ng3 Bg6
          • Spassky Variation: 6.h4 h6 7.Nf3 Nd7 8.h5 Bh7 9.Bd3 Bxd3 10.Qxc3 e6 11.Bd2 Ngf6 12.0-0-0
          • 6.Nf3
        • Steinitz Variation: 4...Nbd7
          • 5.Ng5
          • 5.Nf3 Ngf6
        • 4...Nf6 5.Nxf6
          • Bronstein-Larsen Variation: 5...gxf6
          • Tartakower Variation: 5...exf6
    • English Variation: 2.c4 d5 3.exd5 cxd5 4.cxd5 Nf6
    • Two Knights Variation: 2.Nc3 d5 3.Nf3 Bg4 4.h3 Bxf3 5.Qxf3
    • King's Indian Attack Caro-Kann: 2.d3
  • Pirc Defence: 1...d6 2.d4
    • 2...Nf6 3.Nc3
      • 3...g6
        • Austrian Attack: 4.f4 Bg7 5.Nf3 0-0 6.Bd3
        • Classical Pirc: 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.Be2 0-0 6.0-0 c6
        • 150 Attack: 4.Be3
        • Robert Byrne Attack: 4.Bg5
      • 3...e5
        • Queen Swap: 4.dxe5 dxe5 5.Qxd8+ Kxd8
        • 4.Nf3 Nbd7 - see Philidor Defence, Improved Hanham
      • Czech Pirc: 3...c6
      • 3...Nbd7 4.Nf3 e5 - see Philidor Defence, Improved Hanham
    • 2...g6 - see 1...g6
  • Hanham Defence: This is included as an independent position that can arise from several 1.e4 lines, without being a significant variation of any of them. 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nf6 4.Nc3 Nbd7 5.Bc4 Be7 6.0-0 c6 is one possibility.
  • Modern Defence: 1...g6
    • 2.d4
      • 2...Bg7
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...d6 - see 2...d6
          • Gurgenidze Variation: 3...c6 4.Nf3
        • 3.Nf3 d6 - see 2...d6
        • Averbakh: 3.c4 d6 4.Nc3
          • Kotov Variation: 4...Nc6
          • 4...Nf6 - see King's Indian Defence
      • 2...d6
        • 3.Nc3 Bg7
          • 4.Be3
            • Tiger's Modern: 4...a6
            • 4...c6
          • Pseudo-Austrian Attack: 4.f4 Nf6 - see Pirc, Austrian Attack
          • Two Knights Variation: 4.Nf3 Nf6 - see Classical Pirc
        • 3.Nf3 Bg7 - see 2...Bg7
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...c5 - see Sicilian Defence
      • 2...Bg7 3.d4 - see 2.d4
  • Scandinavian Defence: 1...d5 2.exd5
    • Centre Counter Defence: 2...Qxd5 3.Nc3
      • Main Line: 3...Qa5 4.d4 Nf6 5.Nf3
      • Tiviakov System: 3...Qd6
    • 2...Nf6 3.d4 Nxd5
  • Alekhine's Defence: 1...Nf6
    • 2.e5 Nd5 3.d4 d6
      • Modern Alekhine: 4.Nf3
        • Main Line: 4...Bg4 5.Be2 e6
        • Fianchetto Variation: 4...g6
      • Classical Alekhine: 4.c4 Nb6 5.exd6 cxd6
    • 2.Nc3 - see 1.Nc3
  • Nimzowitsch Defence: 1...Nc6 2.Nf3 e5 - see 1...e5
  • Owen's Defence: 1...b6 2.d4 Bb7

1.d4[edit]

  • Indian Defences: 1...Nf6
    • 2.c4
      • 2...e6
        • 3.Nc3
          • Nimzo-Indian Defence: 3...Bb4
            • Rubinstein System: 4.e3
              • 4...0-0
                • 5.Bd3 d5 6.Nf3 c5 (or 5...c5 6.Nf3 d5) 7.0-0
                  • Bernstein Variation: 7...Nc6 8.a3 Bxc3 9.bxc3
                  • 7...dxc4 8.Bxc4 where Black avoids ...Nc6
                • 5.Nge2 d5 6.a3 Be7
              • 4...c5 5.Bd3 0-0 - see 4...0-0
              • Fischer Variation: 4...b6 5.Nge2
            • Classical Variation: 4.Qc2
              • Main Line: 4...0-0 5.a3 Bxc3+ 6.Qxc3 b6 7.Bg5 Bb7
              • Nimzo-Benoni: 4...c5 5.dxc5 0-0
              • Noa Variation: 4...d5 5.cxd5
            • Kasparov Variation: 4.Nf3
              • 4...d5 - see Ragozin Variation
              • Nimzo-Queen's Indian: 4...b6 5.Bg5 Bb7
              • 4...c5 5.g3
            • Kmoch Variation: 4.f3 d5 5.a3
            • Sämisch Variation: 4.a3 Bxc3 5.bxc3
          • 3...d5 - see 1...d5
          • 3...c5 - see Benoni/Benko
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...d5 - see 1...d5
          • Queen's Indian Defence: 3...b6
            • 4.g3
              • 4...Bb7 5.Bg2
                • 5...Bb4+ 6.Bd2
                • 5...Be7 6.0-0 0-0 7.Nc3 (or 6.Nc3 0-0 7.0-0) Ne4
                  • Old Main Line: 8.Qc2 Nxc3 9.Qxc3
                  • Classical Variation: 8.Bd2
              • Slipped Bishop Variation: 4...Ba6 5.b3 Bb4+ 6.Bd2 Be7 7.Bg2 c6
          • Bogo-Indian Defence: 3...Bb4+
            • 4.Bd2
              • 4...Qe7 5.g3 Nc6
              • 4...a5
            • 4.Nc3 - see Nimzo-Indian Defence
            • 4.Nbd2
              • 4...0-0
              • 4...b6
          • 3...c5
            • 4.e3 - see Anti-Benoni
            • 4.d5 - see Modern Benoni
      • King's Indian Defence: 2...g6
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...Bg7
            • 4.e4
              • 4...d6
                • 5.Nf3 0-0
                  • 6.Be2
                    • 6...e5
                      • 7.0-0
                        • 7...Nc6 8.d5 Ne7
                          • Aronin Variation: 9.Ne1 Nd7
                          • Taimanov (Bayonet) Attack: 9.b4 Nh5
                          • Normal Variation: 9.Nd2
                        • Old Main Line: 7...Nbd7 8.Be3
                        • 7...Na6
                      • Gligoric Variation: 7.Be3 8.Ng4
                      • Petrosian System: 7.d5 a5
                    • 6...Nbd7 7.0-0 e5 - see 6...e5
                  • 6.h3 e5 7.d5
                • Saemisch Variation: 5.f3 0-0 6.Be3 e5
                • 5.Be2 0-0
                  • 6.Nf3 - see 5.Nf3
                  • Averbakh Variation: 6.Bg5
                • Four Pawns Attack: 5.f4 0-0 6.Nf3 c5 7.d5 e6 8.Be2 exd5 9.cxd5 - see Modern Benoni
                • 5.h3 0-0 6.Nf3 - see 5.Nf3
              • 4...0-0 5.Nf3 - see 4.Nf3
            • 4.Nf3
              • 4...d5 - see 3...d5
              • 4...d6 5.e4 - see 4.e4
              • 4...0-0 5.e4 - see 4.e4
          • Grünfeld Defence: 3...d5
            • Exchange Grünfeld: 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.e4 Nxc3 6.bxc3 Bg7
              • 7.Nf3 c5 8.Rb1 0-0 9.Be2
              • 7.Bc4 c5 8.Ne2 0-0
            • Three Knights Grünfeld: 4.Nf3 Bg7
              • Russian Variation: 5.Qb3 dxc4 6.Qxc4 0-0 7.e4
              • 5.cxd5 - see 4.cxd5
              • 5.Bg5 Ne4 6.cxd5
              • 5.e3 c6 6.Be2 0-0 (or 5...0-0 6.Be2 c6) - see Schlechter Slav
            • Brinckmann Attack: 4.Bf4 Bg7 5.e3 0-0 6.Nf3 (or 5.Nf3 0-0 6.e3)
            • Stockholm Variation: 4.Bg5 5.Ne4 Bh4
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...Bg7
            • 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
            • 4.g3 - see Fianchetto Variation
          • 3...d6 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
        • Fianchetto King's Indian: 3.g3 Bg7
          • 4.Nf3
            • 4...0-0 5.Bg2 d6
              • 6.Nc3
                • Panno Variation: 6...Nc6 7.0-0 a6
                • Classical Variation: 6...Nbd7 7.0-0 e5 8.e4
                  • 8...c6 9.h3
                  • 8...cxd4 9.Nxd4
                • 6...c6 7.0-0
              • 6.0-0
                • 6...Nc6 7.Nc3 - see Panno Variation
                • 6...Ndb7 7.Nc3 - see Classical Variation
            • 4...d6
              • 5.Bg2 0-0 - see 4...0-0
              • 5.Nc3 0-0 - see 4...0-0
          • 4.Bg2
            • 4...0-0
              • 5.Nf3 - see 4.Nf3
              • 5.Nc3 d6 6.Nf3 - see 4.Nf3
            • Neo-Grünfeld: 4...d5
              • Neo-Exchange Grünfeld: 5.cxd5 Nxd5 6.Nf3 0-0 7.0-0 Nb6 8.Nc3 Nc6 9.e3
              • Original Defence: 5.Nf3 0-0 6.0-0 c6
      • Benoni/Benko: 2...c5
        • 3.d5
          • Modern Benoni: 3...e6
            • 4.Nc3 exd5 5.cxd5 d6
              • 6.Nf3 g6
                • 7.e4 Bg7
                • 7.f4 Bg7
                  • 8.Bb5+
                  • 8.Nf3 0-0 9.Be2 is an independent position that can also arise from the KID Four Pawns Attack
              • 6.e4 g6 7.Nf3 - see 6.Nf3
            • 4.Nf3 exd5 5.cxd5 d6 6.Nc3 - see 4.Nc3
          • Benko Gambit: 3...b5 4.cxb5 a6 5.bxa6 g6 6.Nc3 Bxa6
          • Czech Benoni: 3...e5 4.Nc3 d6 5.e4
          • 3...g6 4.Nc3
            • 4...d6 5.e4- see King's Indian Defence
            • 4...Bg7 5.e4 - see King's Indian Defence
        • 3.Nf3 - see Anti-Benoni
      • Old Indian: 2...d6
        • 3.Nc3 e5 4.Nf3 Nbd7 (or 3...Nbd7 4.Nf3 e5) 5.e4
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...Nbd7 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
          • 3...e5 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
          • 3...g6 - see King's Indian Defence
      • Budapest Gambit: 2...e5 3.dxe5 Ng4
      • 2...c6
        • 3.Nc3 d5 - see 1...d5
        • 3.Nf3 d5 - see 1...d5
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...e6
        • 3.c4 - see 2.c4
        • 3.e3
          • 3...b6 - see Queen's Indian Defence
          • 3...d5 - see 1...d5
          • 3...c5 4.c4 d5 - see 1...d5
        • 3.g3 d5 - see 1...d5
        • 3.Bg5 - see 2.Bg5
        • 3.Bf4 d5 - see 1...d5
      • 2...c5
        • 3.c4 - see Symmetrical English, Anti-Benoni
        • 3.d5 - see Old Benoni
      • 2...b6 3.c4 e6 - see English Defence
      • 2...d6 3.c4 g6 - see King's Indian Defence
    • 2.Bg5
      • Trompowsky Attack: 2...Ne4 3.Bf4 c5
      • Torre Attack: 2...e6 3.Nf3
      • 2...d5 - see 1...d5
    • 2.Nc3 d5 - see Veresov's Opening
    • 2.Bf4 d5 - see 1...d5
    • 2.g3
      • 2...g6 3.c4 - see 2.c4
      • 2...d5 - see 1...d5
  • 1...d5
    • Queen's Gambit: 2.c4
      • Slav Defence: 2...c6
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...Nf6
            • 4.e3
              • 4...Bf5 5.Nc3 e6 6.Nh4 Bg6
              • 4...e6
                • 5.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
                • 5.Bd3 Nbd7 6.Nc3 - see Meran Variation
              • 4...Bg4
              • 4...a6 5.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
            • 4.cxd5 cxd5 - see Exchange Slav
            • 4.Qc2
            • 4.Qb3
            • 4.Nf3 - see 3.Nf3
          • 3...e6
            • 4.e3 - see 3.e3
            • 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
        • 3.Nc3
          • Semi-Slav, Triangle Defence route: 3...e6 4.e3 Nf6 - see 3...Nf6
          • 3...Nf6
            • 4.e3
              • 4...a6 5.Nf3 - see 4.Nf3
              • 4...e6 5.Nf3 - see 4.Nf3
              • 4...g6 5.Nf3 - see Schlechter Slav
            • 4.Nf3
              • 4...Bf5 5.e3 - see 3.Nf3
              • Semi-Slav: 4...e6
                • Anti-Meran Gambit: 5.Bg5
                  • 5...dxc4 6.e4 b5 7.e5 h6 8.Bh4 g5
                  • 5...h6 6.Bxf6 Qxf6 7.e3
                  • 5...Nbd7 6.e3 Qa5 - see Cambridge Springs Defence
                • 5.e3
                  • 5...Nbd7
                    • Meran Variation: 6.Bd3 dxc4 7.Bxc4 b5 8.Bd3
                      • Blumenfeld Variation: 8...a6
                      • Wade Variation: 8...Bb7
                    • Stoltz Variation: 6.Qc2 Bd6 7.Bd3 0-0 8.0-0 dxc4 9.Bxc4
                  • 5...a6 - see 4...a6
                • 5.cxd5 exd5 6.Bg5 - see QGD, Exchange Variation
              • Main Line Slav: 4...dxc4 5.a4 Bf5
                • 6.Ne5 Nbd7 7.Nxc4
                • 6.e3 e6 7.Bxc4 Bb4 8.0-0 0-0 9.Qe2 Nbd7 (or 8...Nbd7 9.Qe2 0-0)
              • a6 Slav: 4...a6
                • 5.c5
                • 5.e3
                  • 5...b5
                  • 5...e6
              • Schlechter Slav: 4...g6 5.Nf3 Bg7 6.Be2 0-0 7.0-0
        • Exchange Slav: 3.cxd5 cxd5 4.Nc3 Nf6 5.Bf4 Nc6 6.Nf3 Bf5 7.e3 e6 or various other move orders
        • 3.e3 Nf6
          • 4.Nf3 - see 3.Nf3
          • 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
      • Queen's Gambit Declined: 2...e6
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...Nf6
            • 4.Nf3
              • 4...c6 - see Semi-Slav Defence
              • 4...Be7 - see Petrosian Defence
              • Ragozin Defence: 4...Bb4 5.cxd5 exd5 6.Bg5
              • 4...Nbd7 5.Bg5 - see 4.Bg5
              • Semi-Tarrasch Defence: 4...c5
                • Exchange Variation: 5.cxd5 Nxd5
                • Symmetrical Variation: 5.e3 Nc6 6.a3
              • Vienna Variation: 4...dxc4 5.e4 Bb4 6.Bg5
            • Pillsbury Attack: 4.Bg5
              • Orthodox Defence: 4...Be7
                • 5.Nf3
                  • Classical Variation: 5...Nbd7 6.e3 0-0 7.Rc1
                  • Tartakower Variation: 5...h6 6.Bh4 0-0 7.e3 b6
                  • 5...0-0 6.e3
                    • 6...Nbd7 - see Classical Variation
                    • 6...h6 - see Tartakower Variation
                • 5.e3
                  • 5...0-0 6.Nf3 - see 5.Nf3
                  • 5...Nbd7 6.Nf3 - see 5.Nf3
              • 4...Nbd7
                • 5.Nf3
                  • Cambridge Springs Defence: 5...c6 6.e3 Qa5
                  • 5...Be7 - see Classical Variation
                • 5.e3 Be7 6.Nf3 - see Classical Variation
            • Exchange Variation: 4.cxd5 exd5 5.Bg5 Be7 6.e3 c6 (or 5...c6 6.e3 Be7)
          • Triangle Defence: 3...c6
            • 4.e3 Nf6 - see Semi-Slav
            • 4.Nf3 Nf6 - see Semi-Slav
          • Tarrasch Defence: 3...c5 4.cxd5 exd5 5.Nf3 Nc6 6.g3 Nf6 7.Bg2 Be7 8.0-0 0-0 9.Bg5
          • Petrosian Defence: 3...Be7 4.Nf3 Nf6
            • 5.Bg5 - see Pillsbury Attack
            • Harrwitz Attack: 5.Bf4 0-0 6.e3
              • 6...Nbd7
              • 6...c5 7.dxc5 Bxc5
        • (to) Catalan Opening: 3.Nf3
          • 3...Nf6
            • Catalan Opening: 4.g3
              • Open Catalan: 4...dxc4 5.Bg2
              • Closed Catalan: 4...Be7 5.Bg2 0-0 6.0-0
                • 6...c6 7.Qc2 Nbd7
                • 6...dxc4 7.Qc2 a6 8.Qxc4 b5 9.Qc2 Bb7 - see Open Catalan
              • Improved Closed Catalan: 4...Bb4+ 5.Bd2 Be7 6.Bg2 0-0 7.0-0 c6 8.Qc2 Nbd7
            • 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
            • 4.Bg5
              • 4...Be7 5.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
              • 4...Nbd7 5.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
            • 4.e3
              • 4...c5 - see Tarrasch Defence
              • 4...dxc4 - see QGA
              • 4...c6 - see Semi-Slav
          • 3...c6
            • Anti-Semi-Slav: 4.Qc2
            • 4.e3 Nf6 - see Semi-Slav
            • 4.Nc3 Nf6 - see Semi-Slav
          • 3...dxc4 - see QGA
          • 3...c5
            • 4.cxd5 exd5
              • 5.Nc3 - see Tarrasch Defence
              • 5.g3 Nc6
                • 6.Nc3 - see Tarrasch Defence
                • 6.Bg2 Nf6 7.Nc3 - see Tarrasch Defence
            • 4.e3 Nf6 5.Nc3 - see Tarrasch Defence
      • Queen's Gambit Accepted: 2...dxc4
        • Centre Variation: 3.e4
        • 3.e3 Nf6 4.Nf3 - see 3.Nf3
        • Classical Variation: 3.Nf3 Nf6
          • 4.e3 e6 5.Bxc4 a6 6.0-0 c5 (or 5...c5 6.0-0 a6)
          • 4.Nc3
            • 4...c6 - see Slav Defence
            • 4...e6 - see QGD
      • Chigorin Defence: 2...Nc6 3.Nf3
      • Albin Counter-Gambit: 2...e5 3.dxe5 d4 4.Nf3 Nc6
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.c4
          • 3...c6 - see Slav Defence
          • 3...e6 - see QGD
          • 3...dxc4 - see QGA
        • 3.e3 e6 - see 2...e6
        • 3.Bf4 - see London System
      • 2...e6
        • 3.c4 - see QGD
        • 3.e3 Nf6
          • Colle System: 4.Bd3
          • 4.c4 - see QGD
      • 2...c6 3.c4 - see Slav Defence
      • Krause Defence: 2...c5 3.c4 e6 - see QGD
      • 2...Nc6 3.c4 - see QGD Chigorin Defence
    • 2.Bf4 Nf6
      • London System: 3.Nf3
      • London System: 3.e3
    • Hodgson Attack: 2.Bg5 Nf6 - see Trompowsky Opening
    • 2.e3 Nf6 3.Nf3 - see 2.Nf3
    • Veresov's Opening: 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.Bg5
  • 1...e6
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...f5 - see Dutch Defence
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • 2...d5 - see 1...d5
    • 2.e4 - see 1.e4
    • 2.c4
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • 2...d5 - see 1...d5
      • 2...f5 - see Dutch Defence
      • English Defence: 2...b6
      • Kangaroo Opening 2...Bb4+
  • Dutch Defence: 1...f5
    • 2.c4
      • 2...e6 3.g3 - see 2.g3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...e6 - see non-Leningrad Dutches
          • 3...g6 - see Leningrad Dutch
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...e6 - see non-Leningrad Dutches
          • 3...g6 - see Leningrad Dutch
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.g3 - see 2.g3
        • 3.c4 - see 2.c4
      • 2...e6
        • 3.c4 - see 2.c4
        • 3.g3 Nf6 4.Bg2
          • 4...d5 5.c4 c6 6.0-0 Bd6 - see Stonewall Dutch
          • 4...Be7
            • 5.c4 - see 2.c4
            • 5.0-0 0-0 6.c4 - see 2.c4
    • 2.g3 Nf6 3.Bg2
      • Leningrad Dutch: 3...g6 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.0-0 0-0 6.c4 d6 7.Nc3
        • Main Line: 7...Qe8
        • Matulovic Variation: 7...Nc6
        • Warsaw Variation: 7...c6
      • non-Leningrad Dutches: 3...e6
        • Classical Dutch: 4.c4 Be7 5.Nf3 0-0 6.0-0
        • 4.Nf3
          • 4...Be7 5.c4 see Classical Dutch 4.c4
          • Stonewall Dutch: 4...d5 5.c4 c6 6.0-0 Bd6 (or 5.0-0 Bd6 6.c4 c6)
    • Anti-Dutch: 2.Bg5
    • Raphael Variation: 2.Nc3
  • Old Indian: 1...d6
    • 2.Nf3
      • Wade Defence: 2...Bg4
      • 2...Nf6 3.c4 - see 2.c4
      • 2...g6
        • 3.e4 - see 1.e4, Modern Defence
        • 3.c4
          • 3...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
          • 3...Bg7 4.Nc3 Nf6 - see King's Indian Defence
    • 2.e4 - see 1.e4, Pirc Defence
    • 2.c4
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...Nbd7 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
          • 3...g6 - see King's Indian Defence
        • 3.Nc3
          • Ukrainian Defence: 3...e5 4.Nf3 Nbd7 5.e4 (Black or White can vary the order of those moves)
          • 3...g6 - see King's Indian Defence
      • Pillsbury Defence: 2...e5 3.Nc3 Nf6 - see Ukrainian Defence
  • Robatsch Defence: 1...g6
    • 2.c4
      • 2...Bg7
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...d6 - see King's Indian Defence
          • 3...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
        • 3.e4 d6 4.Nc3 - see King's Indian Defence
        • 3.Nf3
          • 3...d6 - see King's Indian Defence
          • 3...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
    • 2.e4 - see Modern Defence
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • 2...Bg7
        • 3.e4 - see Modern Defence
        • 3.c4
          • 3...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
          • 3...d6 4.Nc3 Nf6 - see King's Indian Defence
      • 2...d6
        • 3.e4 - see Modern Defence, 2...g6
        • 3.c4 - see King's Indian Defence
  • Old Benoni: 1...c5
    • 2.e4 - see Sicilian, Smith-Morra Gambit
    • 2.d5
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.c4 - see Modern Benoni
        • (to) Blumenfeld: 3.Nf3
      • Czech Benoni: 2...e5 3.c4 Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
  • 1...c6
    • 2.e4 - see Caro-Kann Defence
    • 2.c4
      • 2...d5 - see Slav Defence
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
  • 1...b6 2.e4 - see Owen's Defence
  • 1...e5 2.e4 - see Centre Game

Réti Opening: 1.Nf3[edit]

  • 1...Nf6
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.c4
      • 2...e6
        • 3.g3 - see 2.g3
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...d5
            • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 4.e3 c6 5.d4 - see Semi-Slav
          • Nimzo-English: 3...Bb4
            • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 4.Qc2
      • 2...g6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.g3 - see 2.g3
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...Bg7
            • 4.e4 d6 5.d4 - see 1.d4, King's Indian Defence
            • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 4.g3 - see 2.g3
          • 3...d5
            • Grünfeld Réti: 4.cxd5 Nxd5
            • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
      • 2...c5 - see Symmetrical English
      • 2...b6
        • 3.g3 - see 2.g3
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
      • 2...d6 3.d4 - see 1.d4
      • 2...c6
        • 3.Nc3 d5
          • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
          • 4.e3 e6 5.d4 - see 1.d4 Semi-Slav
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.g3
      • 2...b6
        • 3.c4
          • 3...Bb7 4.Bg2 - see 3.Bg2
          • 3...c5 - see Symmetrical English
          • 3...e6 4.Bg2 - see 3.Bg2
        • 3.Bg2 Bb7
          • 4.0-0 - see Hedgehog English
          • 4.c4
            • 4...e6
              • 5.d4 - see 1.d4
              • 5.0-0
                • 5...c5 - see Hedgehog English
                • 5...Be7
                  • 6.d4 - see 1.d4, Queen's Indian Defence
                  • 6.Nc3
                    • 6...0-0 7.d4 - see 1.d4, Queen's Indian Defence
                    • 6...c5 7.d4 cxd4 - see Hedgehog English
            • 4...c5 - see Symmetrical English
      • 2...g6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.Bg2 Bg7
          • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
          • Symmetrical Barcza: 4.0-0 0-0
            • 5.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 5.c4 - see 3.c4
        • 3.c4 Bg7
          • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
          • 4.Bg2 0-0
            • 5.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 5.Nc3 d6
              • 6.0-0 e5 - can this be categorised under the Reverse Sicilian English?
              • 6.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 5.0-0 d6
              • 6.Nc3 - see 5.Nc3
              • 6.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • Nimzowitsch Attack: 2.b3
  • 1...d5
    • King's Indian Attack: 2.g3
      • Yugoslav Defence: 2...c6 3.Bg2 Bg4
      • 2...Bg4 3.Bg2 c6 - see 2...c6
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
    • Main Line: 2.c4
      • 2...e6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.g3 Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • 2...c6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.e3 Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • Reverse Benoni: 2...d4
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
  • 1...c5
    • 2.e4 - see Sicilian Defence
    • 2.c4 - see Symmetrical English
    • Barcza System: 2.g3 Nc6 3.Bg2 - lines where White avoids transposing to the Symmetrical English
  • 1...g6
    • 2.e4 - see Modern Defence
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.c4
      • 2...Bg7 3.d4 - see 1.d4
      • 2...c5 - see Symmetrical English
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
  • 1...f5
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.g3 Nf6
      • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
      • 3.Bg2 g6
        • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
  • 1...d6 2.d4 - see 1.d4
  • 1...e6
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.c4
      • 2...Nf6 - see 1...Nf6
      • 2...d5 - see 1...d5

English Opening: 1.c4[edit]

  • Anglo-Indian: 1...Nf6
    • 2.Nc3
      • Grünfeld English: 2...d5 3.cxd5 Nxd5 4.g3 - significant lines involve a transposition to either the Reversed Sicilian with ...e5 or the Neo-Grünfeld with d4
      • 2...e5 - see Reversed Sicilian 1...e5
      • 2...c5 - see Symmetrical English 1...c5
      • 2...e6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • Mikenas Attack: 3.e4
        • 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
      • 2...g6
        • 3.e4 d6 4.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.g3 - see 2.g3
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
    • 2.g3
      • 2...e5 - see 1...e5
      • 2...e6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
        • 3.Bg2 d5
          • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
          • 4.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
      • 2...g6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
        • 3.Bg2 Bg7
          • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
          • 4.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
          • 4.Nc3 0-0
            • 5.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 5.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
  • Reversed Sicilian 1...e5
    • 2.Nc3
      • 2...Nc6
        • Closed English: 3.g3 g6 4.Bg2 Bg7
        • 3.Nf3 Nf6 - see 2...Nf6
      • King's English: 2...d6 3.g3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.g3
          • Reversed Dragon: 3...d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Bg2 Nb6 6.Nf3 Nc6 7.0-0 Be7
          • Smyslov System: 3...Bb4 4.Bg2 (lines where Black defends the e-pawn with ...Re8 instead of ...Nc6, which transposes into the English Four Knights)
        • English Four Knights: 3.Nf3 Nc6 4.g3
          • 4...Bb4
          • 4...d5 - see Reversed Dragon
    • 2.g3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.Bg2 d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5 5.Nc3 - see Reversed Dragon
        • 3.Nc3 - see 2.Nc3
      • 2...Nc6
        • 3.Bg2 Nf6 4.Nc3 - see 2.Nc3
        • 3.Nc3 - see 2.Nc3
      • 2...d6 3.Nc3 - see King's English
  • Anglo-French Defence: 1...e6
    • 2.g3
      • 2...Nf6 - see Anglo-Indian
      • 2...d5
        • 3.Nf3 Nf6 - see Anglo-Indian
        • 3.Bg2 Nf6 - see Anglo-Indian
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.Nc3
      • 2...Nf6 - see Anglo-Indian
      • 2...d5 3.d4 - see QGD
    • 2.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
  • Symmetrical English: 1...c5
    • 2.Nc3
      • 2...g6 - see Ultra-Symmetrical English
      • 2...Nc6 3.Nf3 - see 2.Nf3
      • 2...Nf6 3.Nf3 - see 2.Nf3
    • 2.Nf3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.Nc3
          • 3...e6
            • 4.g3 b6 - see Hedgehog Defence
            • 4.d4 - see Anti-Benoni
          • 3...Nc6 - see 2...Nc6
          • Modern Variation: 3...d5 4.cxd5 Nxd5
        • Anti-Benoni: 3.d4
          • 3...cxd4 4.Nxd4
            • 4...e5
            • 4...Nc6 5.Nc3 e6
          • 3...e6
            • Anglo-Catalan: 4.g3 cxd4 5.Nxd4
            • 4.e3 d5 - see QGD Tarrasch
            • 4.d5 - see Benoni
        • 3.g3 b6 4.Bg2 Bb7 5.0-0
          • Hedgehog Defence 5...e6 6.Nc3 Be7 7.d4 cxd4 8.Qxd4
          • Double Fianchetto Defence: 5...g6
      • 2...Nc6
        • 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.g3 - see Ultra-Symmetrical English
        • 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 - see Anti-Benoni
      • 2...g6 3.d4 - see Robatsch Defence
    • Ultra-Symmetrical English: 2.g3 g6 3.Bg2 Bg7 4.Nc3 Nc6 5.Nf3
  • Great Snake: 1...g6
    • 2.g3
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
        • 3.Nc3 Bg7 - see 2...Bg7
        • 3.Bg2 Bg7 - see 2...Bg7
      • 2...Bg7
        • 3.Bg2
          • 3...c5 - see 1...c5
          • 3...Nf6
            • 4.d4 - see 1.d4
            • 4.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
            • 4.Nc3 - see 3.Nc3
        • 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg2 0-0
          • 5.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
          • 5.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.Nc3
      • 2...Bg7
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.g3 Nf6 - see 2...Nf6
      • 2...Nf6
        • 3.d4 - see 1.d4
        • 3.g3 Bg7 4.Bg2 0-0
          • 5.d4 - see 1.d4
          • 5.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
        • 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
        • 3.e4 d6 4.d4 - see 1.d4
      • 2...c5 - see 1...c5
    • 2.d4 - see Robatsch Defence
    • 2.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
  • Anglo-Slav: 1...c6
    • 2.c4 - see Caro-Kann, English Variation
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
  • Anglo-Dutch: 1...f5 2.d4 - see Dutch Defence

Zukertort Opening: 1.g3[edit]

  • 1...d5
    • 2.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
    • 2.Bg2 Nf6 3.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3
  • 1...g6
    • 2.Bg2 Bg7 3.c4 - see 1.c4
    • 2.c4 - see 1.c4
  • 1...Nf6
    • 2.d4 - see 1.d4
    • 2.c4 - see 1.c4
    • 2.Nf3 - see 1.Nf3

Bird's Opening: 1.f4[edit]

  • 1...d5 2.Nf3

Larsen's Opening: 1.b3[edit]

  • 1...e5 2.Bb2 Nc6

Dunst Opening: 1.Nc3[edit]

Systems not otherwise classified[edit]

  • Hippopotamus Defence: ...d6, ...e6, ...g6, ...h6, ...Nd7, ...Ne7, ...Bg7. Often includes ...a6, ...b5/...b6 and ...Bb7 too.

Very abridged list (100,000 games per 50,000 1.e4 games)[edit]

a b c d e f g h
8 {{{square}}} black rook {{{square}}} black knight {{{square}}} black bishop {{{square}}} black queen {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black bishop {{{square}}} black knight {{{square}}} black rook 8
7 {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn {{{square}}} black pawn 7
6 {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king 6
5 {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king 5
4 {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king 4
3 {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king {{{square}}} black king 3
2 {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn {{{square}}} white pawn 2
1 {{{square}}} white rook {{{square}}} white knight {{{square}}} white bishop {{{square}}} white queen {{{square}}} white king {{{square}}} white bishop {{{square}}} white knight {{{square}}} white rook 1
a b c d e f g h
This position occurs in 100% of top games and over 99% of amateur games.