# Chess Opening Theory/1. d4/1...f5

Dutch Defence
 a b c d e f g h 8 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 a b c d e f g h
Position in Forsyth-Edwards Notation (FEN)
Moves: 1. d4 f5
ECO code: A80-A99
Parent: Queen's Pawn Opening

## 1...f5 - Dutch Defence

The Dutch Defence has a character all of its own. Black usually plays variously for

• for a Classical setup with 2...e6 3...d6 4...Be7,
• for a Stonewall with 2...e6 3...d5 4...c6, or
• for the Leningrad with 2...g6 3...Bg7 4...d6.

White usually plays 2. g3 or 2. c4 here, though many moves are playable.

One interesting, though often considered dubious, option is to play the Staunton Gambit with 2. e4 leading to more tactical positions rather than the positional grinds and straightforward attacks the Dutch usually provides. This grabs the e4-square without copying moves.

## Semi-Closed Games

Black responds to 1.d4 with f5, breaking the symmetry, the resulting opening type is known as a Semi-Closed Game. It is called “semi-close-games” because one player, but not both, will have a fixed pawn in the center which implies the center will be somewhat, but not completely, closed. The whole point of the f5-pawn is to take control over e4 square. The idea behind f5, typically followed by Nf6, is to prevent white from playing e4. However white has several options to play e4 anyway. One way to achieve this is the Staunton Gambit. The Bladel Modern Variations or the Raphael Variation is a more sophisticated way of playing e4. In most of this lines, white plays Nc3 fallowed by e4.

## Statistics

Approximate chances
White win 36%, Draw 42.1%, Black win 29.1%.[1]

## Theory table

1. d4 f5

2 3 4 5 6 7 Evaluation Notes
Stonewall Defence c4
Nf6
g3
e6
Bg2
Be7
Nf3
O-O
O-O
d6
Nc3
Qe8
= The Stonewall fights for central control, by taking control over the light squares. White seeks to exploit weaknesses among the dark squares
Nf6
g3
g6
Bg2
Bg7
Nf3
O-O
O-O
d6
Nc3
Qe8
= A very dynamic choice by black to fight for the e5 push. If white allows that, a king side attack by black is possible.
g3
Nf6
Bg2
g6
Nf3
Bg7
O-O
O-O
b3
d6
Bb2
Ne4
=
Hopton Attack Bg5
g6
Nc3
d5
h4
Bg7
e3
c6
e4
O-O
Nf3
Be6
+/= A very aggressive way by white to attack. But black will be able to equalize later on
Staunton Gambit e4
fxe4
Nc3
Nf6
Bg5
Nc6
d5
Ne5
Qd4
Nf7
Bxf6
exf6
+/= This is by far the most popular choice by white. Black will have to know a lot of theory in order to equalize.
Exchange Variation Nf3
Nf6
Bg5
e6
Nbd2
Be7
Bxf6
Bxf6
e4
d5
exd5
exd5
+/= The Exchange Variation leads to semi open games. There are tactical opportunities for both sides.
Krejcik Gambit g4
fxg5
h3
d5
hxg4
Bxg4
Bg2
Nf6
Bg5
Qd7
+/= The Krejcik Gambit leads to sharp positions. Most of the time both sides will castle long.
Krejcik Gambit, Hevendehl Counter Gambit g4
e5
+/= A unique counter gambit. White has two ways to accept it.
Krejcik Gambit, Hevendehl Counter Gambit, Belgian Line g4
e5
gxf5
...
+/= Sharp and tactical.
Krejcik Gambit, Hevendehl Counter Gambit, Dutch Line g4
e5
dxf5
...
+/= Sharp and tactical
Korchnoi Attack h3
...
+/= Leads to a mix between positional and tactical lines.
Korchnoi Attack, closed h3
e5
+/= Leads to more positonal lines.
Korchnoi Attack, semi closed h3
e6
+/= Leads to more tactical lines.
g6
Nc3
Nh6
+/= Leads to rich positions which are also very theoretical.

For explanation of theory tables, see theory table and for notation, see algebraic notation.

## References

• Nunn's Chess Openings. 1999. John Nunn (Editor), Graham Burgess, John Emms, Joe Gallagher. ISBN 1-8574-4221-0.