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Grammar Parts of speechNounPronounAdjectiveVerbParticipleAdverbPostpositionConjunctionInterjection

ਸੰਬੰਧਕ (Postposition)[edit]

Postpositions in Punjabi link nouns, pronouns and phrases to other parts of the sentence in the same way prepositions do in English, the only difference being that postpositions follow the noun whereas the prepositions precede it. Some Punjabi postpositions are

  • ਦਾ – the possessive case marker, "of"; agrees with the connected noun/pronoun.
  • ਨੂੰ – marks the indirect object(dative case) or the direct object of a transitive verb.
  • ਨੇ – marks the subject of transitive verbs.
  • ਤੋਂ – ablative case marker, "from"
  • ਤੇ – superessive case marker, "on" or "at"
  • ਵੱਲ – orientative marker; "towards"
  • ਕੋਲ਼ – possessive marker; "with"
  • ਵਿਖੇ – "at (a specific location)." Often colloquially replaced with ਤੇ.
  • ਤਕ - "until, up to"
  • ਲਈ, ਵਾਸਤੇ - benefactive marker; "for"
  • ਬਾਰੇ - "about"
  • ਵਰਗਾ - comparative marker; "like"
  • ਦੁਆਲ਼ੇ - "around, surrounding"
  • ਬਿਨਾ - abessive marker; "without"
  • ਨੇੜੇ - "near"
  • ਲਾਗੈ - Apudessive case marker; "adjacent/next to"

Inflection of postpositions[edit]

Some postpositions inflect(change form) to conform in number, gender or case to the following noun or phrase. For example compare ਮੋਹਨ ਦਾ ਪੈੱਨ with ਮੋਹਨ ਦੀ ਕਿਤਾਬ. Postposition ਦਾ in the first phrase agrees with ਪੈੱਨ in number and gender, both being singular and masculine. In the second phrase ਦੀ agrees with ਕਿਤਾਬ in number and gender, both being singular and feminine. Now take another example ਮੋਹਨ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ. Here again ਦੀਆਂ agrees with ਕਿਤਾਬਾਂ in number and gender, both being plural and feminine. The rules for change of form of such postpositions are generally the same as applicable to adjectives.

At times a postpositional phrase is used instead of a single postposition. For example phrase ਮੇਜ ਦੇ ਉਪਰ ਕਿਤਾਬ contains postposition ਦੇ ਉਪਰ. In such cases the second part of the composite postposition inflects like a noun, that is there is no concord with the following noun or phrase but but the concord is with the following verb. See for example ਮੇਜ਼ ਦੇ ਉੱਪਰੋਂ ਕਿਤਾਬ ਚੁੱਕੀ.

Uninflected postpositions[edit]

Many postpositions do not inflect at all. The postpositions, ਨੇ, ਨੂੰ and ਤੋਂ always immediately follow the noun. When ਨੇ and ਨੂੰ succeed certain pronouns they are converted into suffixes like ਮੈਨੂੰ, ਤੈਨੂੰ, ਉਹਨੂੰ, ਉਹਨੇ, ਇਹਨੇ etc. When ਤੋਂ follows some pronouns it becomes ਥੋਂ and results in ablative case form of those pronouns, e.g. ਮੈਥੋਂ, ਤੈਥੋਂ etc.