Turkish/Verbs

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All infinitives end either in -mak or -mek according to the vowel harmony (last vowel of the verb stem).

almak (to take, to buy)
bulmak (to find)
vermek (to give)
gitmek (to go)
öğrenmek (to learn)
bilmek (to know)
söylemek (to say)
konuşmak (to talk)
dinlemek (to listen)
çalışmak (to study/to work)
sevmek (to love)
tanışmak (to get acquainted)
yazmak (to write)<br/) okumak (to read)
Turkish knows also the negative verb infinitives (not to do, not do learn, etc.). The stem contains the negative suffix -ma- or -me-. "-me" or "-ma" is used according to the vowel harmony (last vowel of the verb stem). If the last vowel of the noun is a back vowel (a, ı, o, u), the negative suffix "-ma" is used. if the last vowel of the noun is a front vowel (e, i, ö,ü), the negative suffix -me is used.

almamak (not to take, not to buy)
bulmamak (not to find)
vermemek (not to give)
gitmemek (not to go)
öğrenmemek (not to learn)

The negative stem (alma-, bulma-, etc.) is used for building negative forms of most tenses (past tense, simple present, future, ...).

Personal Endings[edit]

Turkish verbs indicate person as Spanish verbs do. Thus, personal pronouns are not generally used in sentences as the verb of the sentence already indicates it. Please note that vowels in the suffixes change according to the vowel harmony, i.e. -im can be -ım or -sin can be -sın. Different suffixes are added to the verb to indicate person (letters in brackets are used only when necessary):

Subject Personal Ending
Ben (I) -(i)m
Sen (You) -(s)(i)n
O (He/she/it) No suffix
Biz (We) -k (only in seen past tense and conditional) or -(y)iz (in other tenses and moods)
Siz (You) -(s)(i)niz
Onlar (They) -ler
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