Turkish/Conjunctions

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Some Turkish conjunctions are borrowed from Persian and Arabic.

Logical conjunction[edit]

The cumulative sense of the English "A and B" can be expressed several ways:

  • A ve B (an Arabic borrowing);
  • B ile A (ile is also a postposition);
  • A, B de.

For the adversative sense of "but" or "only", there are ama and fakat (both Arabic), also yalnız (which is also an adjective corresponding to "alone").

For emphasis: hem A hem B "both A and B".

Logical disjunction[edit]

For the sense of English "(either)…or":

  • A veya B;
  • ya A veya B;
  • ya A ya da B.

The pattern of the last two can be extended:

  • ya A ya B veya C;
  • ya A ya B ya da C.

Logical non-disjunction[edit]

  • Ne A ne B "Neither A nor B":
NE ABD NE AB TAM BAĞIMSIZ DEMOKRATİK TÜRKİYE 
"Neither USA nor EU: Fully Independent Democratic Turkey" 

(slogan on placard at demonstration);

  • Ne A ne B ne C "Not A or B or C."

Implication[edit]

  • B, çünkü A "B, because A".
  • ((Eğer)) A'ysa, (o zaman) B'dir. "If A, then B." ("Eğer" is not generally used.)

Both çünkü and eğer are Persian; the latter is not generally needed, because the conditional form of the verb is available.

The conjunction ki[edit]

The Persian conjunction ki brings to Turkish the Indo-European style of relating ideas (#Lewis [XIII,15]):

Beklemesini istiyorum "Her-waiting I-desire"; but
İstiyorum ki beklesin "I-desire that he-wait."

Thus ki corresponds roughly to English "that", but with a broader sense:

Güneş batmıştı ki köye vardık "The-sun had-set [when] that at-the-village we-arrived."
Kirazı yedim ki şeker gibi "The-cherry I-ate [and found] that [it was] sugar like."

The following is from a newspaper:

             "Vahdettin ne yazık ki haindi"
...Bu iki açıklamadan anlıyoruz ki 
Ecevit, Osmanlı Tarihi adlı bir kitap hazırlıyormuş...
Vahdettin, Tevfik Paşa ve Londra Konferansı hakkındaki açıklamaları gösteriyor ki 
Sayın Ecevit, yakın tarihimizi ciddi olarak incelememiş, 
bu konudaki güvenilir araştırmaları ve sağlam belgeleri görmemiş...
Diyor ki: 
"Benim şahsen çocukluğumdan beri dinlediğim şeyler var..." 


"...From these two accounts, we understand that 
Ecevit is preparing a book called Ottoman History...
His accounts concerning Vahdettin, Tevfik Pasha and the London Conference show that 
Mr Ecevit has not seriously studied our recent history, 
has not seen trustworthy research and sound documentation on this subject...
He says that: 
"'There are many things I heard personally from my childhood till today...'"

(Source: Cumhuriyet 19 July 2005.)

Turkish/TOC text