Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country located in Southeast Asia. Indonesia is made up of over 17,000 islands, only which 6,000 are inhabited by people. Indonesia is the biggest archipelago (group of islands) in the world. Indonesia's current president is Joko Widodo and the current capital of Indonesia is Jakarta (located in one of Indonesia's main islands, Java). Indonesia's main islands are Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Bali, Sulawesi (Celebes), the Nusa Tenggara islands, the Moluccas Islands, and Irian Jaya (also called West Papua).
The Dutch East India Company took control of the country in 1602. In 1945, war ensued between Indonesia and the Dutch East India Company. In 1949, Indonesia gained their independence. Sukarno took the title of president from 1967 to 1998. The first fully free parliamentary election, since 1955, took place in 1999.
In 2004, a huge tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in Indonesia, reducing Indonesia's population significantly. The tsunami also affected countries in Southeast Asia and beyond, including Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Seychelles and others countries.
Where is Indonesia?[edit | edit source]
Indonesia is located in Southeast Asia, bordering Papua New Guinea and Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, and Australia. Indonesia, as stated above, consists of more than 17,000 islands, with 6,000 inhabit by people. Malaysia and Indonesia are split in the Borneo Island. Indonesia is surrounded by two major oceans, the Pacific Ocean (East and North) and the Indian Ocean (West and South).
How many people live in Indonesia?[edit | edit source]
As of 2013, 249.9 million people live in Indonesia, surpassing Brazil (200.4 million, as of 2013) and Japan (127.3 million, as of 2013). Java is the most populated island in the world (with 139,448,718 people as of 2014). The 2nd and 3rd most populated islands in the world are Honshū of Japan (with 104,000,00 people as of 2010) and Great Britain of the UK (with 60,800,000 people as of 2011).
The largest city of Indonesia is Jakarta (with 9,588,198 people). The second and third most populated cities in Indonesia are Surabaya (with 2,765,487 people) and Bandung (with 2,394,873 people).
What are the most common languages in Indonesia?[edit | edit source]
The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian.
Both Indonesian and Malay are spoken by 210 million people throughout the country (2010). Sundanese and Javanese are the 3rd and 2nd most spoken languages in Indonesia respectively. Sundanese is spoken by 34.0 million (as of 2000) and is mainly spoken in Banten and West Java. Javanese is spoken by 84.3 million people (as of 2000) and is mainly spoken in Northern Banten, Northern West Java, Yogyakarta, Central Java and East Java. Most Indonesians speak more than 700 indigenous languages.
Seeing that Indonesia has a large population, while most of the large population speak Indonesian, Indonesian is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world (in 14th place in the list of languages by number of native speakers). Indonesian is also spoken in Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore.
What is the most common religion in Indonesia?[edit | edit source]
The most common religion of Indonesia is Islam (87.18%), the other religions of Indonesia are Protestant (6.96%), Catholic (2.91%), Hinduism (1.69%), Buddhism (0.72%), Confucianism (0.05%), and other religions (0.13%). Islam was brought over in Indonesia by Malaysian traders in the 13th century, and by the late 16th century, Islam was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra, surpassing Buddhism and Hinduism.
What is the sport of Indonesia?[edit | edit source]
Badminton is the national sport of Indonesia. In 1992, the Games of Barcelona, Badminton was introduced as an Olympic Sport. Indonesia did very well in the games, winning five medals, including two gold ones. Alan Budi Kusuma and Susi Susanti won the 2 gold medals. Some other sports in Indonesia that are played by Indonesia are football, Basketball (popular among Indonesian youths), and Boxing.
What are some important sights?[edit | edit source]
- Tana Toraja in South Sulawesi, shows the cultural and rituals by the natives of Tana Toraja. When travelers come, travelers are usually stunned by the tongkonan, the houses with a boat shaped roof. This area will show travelers about the natives of Tana Toraja's culture, with different ways in representing their social hierarchical system. Sulawesi Experience arranges tours here in Tana Toraja, in which will enlighten travelers about the History of Tana Toraja, and their change in culture after Dutch Colonization.
- Sangrian, located in Central Java, is where 50 fossils of Meganthropus palaeo (name given to several large jaw and skull fragments found in Sangrian) and Pithecanthropus erectus/Homo erectus (Java Men). This UNESCO Historical Site is a key site for the understanding/learning of human evolution. In 1934, Sangrian was examined by anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald, in which the fossils of the Pithecanthropus erectus were found. More than 60 fossils were found later while under examination. In 1996, UNESCO listed Sangiran as a World Heritage Site. Sangrian was visited by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono with 11 cabinet members on February 2012.
- Borobudur Temple Compounds are three Buddhist temples (named Borobudur, Mendut, and Pawon) located in Kedu Valley, Central Java, Indonesia. Borobudur Temple Compounds were added in as a UNESCO site in 1991. These temples are located in a straight "line", and is believed to have been built in the 8th–9th centuries in the Sailendra dynasty. They are as well two museums in the Borobudur Temple Compounds, which are Karmawibhangga Museum and Samudra Raksa Museum. The Borobudur Temple Compounds were as well known as one of the great Buddhists Monuments in the World. Borobudur Temple Compounds are an outstanding resemble of architecture for Indonesia in the 8th to 9th centuries and appealing.
- Masjid Agung Demak, or the Great Mosque of Demak, located in Demak, Central Java, Indonesia, is one of the oldest mosques in Indonesia. The Great Mosque of Demak also shows a fascinating chapter in Indonesia's religious history. This mosque is believed to be built in the 15th Century by Sunan Kalijaga. Krakatoa Tours provides a tour of this mosque, and a brief summary of Indonesia's Islamic History. The Great Mosque of Demak is the usual Javanese mosque. The main entrance are 2 doors with plants, crowns, and vases. As well as an animal with an open-wide toothed mouth. Unlike most mosques in the Middle East, it is made from timber.
- Palembang is the capital city of South Sumatra. Palembang is one of the oldest Indonesian cities in Indonesia, while also featuring several attractions, as well as a must see entrance, the Ampera Bridge. Palembang's history can be seen at the Museum Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II.