Handbook of Management Scales/Risk aversion

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Risk aversion (CR = 0.81)[edit]


Hofstede's five cultural factors are reconceptualized as ten personal cultural orientations: independence, interdependence, power, social inequality, masculinity, gender equality, risk aversion, ambiguity intolerance, tradition, and prudence. A new 40-item scale is developed to measure these personal cultural orientations. Much effort has been invested in ensuring validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale.


Risk aversion is the extent to which people are reluctant to take risk or make risky decisions.


  • I tend to avoid talking to strangers. (0.83)
  • I prefer a routine way of life to an unpredictable one full of change. (0.79)
  • I would not describe myself as a risk-taker. (0.77)
  • I do not like taking too many chances to avoid making a mistake. (0.75)


Related Scales[edit]