Handbook of Management Scales/Independence

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Independence (CR = 0.84)[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

Hofstede's five cultural factors are reconceptualized as ten personal cultural orientations: independence, interdependence, power, social inequality, masculinity, gender equality, risk aversion, ambiguity intolerance, tradition, and prudence. A new 40-item scale is developed to measure these personal cultural orientations. Much effort has been invested in ensuring validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale.

Definition[edit | edit source]

Independence is defined as a personal cultural orientation associated with acting independently, a strong self-concept, a sense of freedom, autonomy, and personal achievement.

Items[edit | edit source]

  • I would rather depend on myself than others. (0.82)
  • My personal identity, independent of others, is important to me. (0.79)
  • I rely on myself most of the time, rarely on others. (0.78)
  • It is important that I do my job better than others. (0.72)

Source[edit | edit source]