Handbook of Management Scales/Independence
Independence (CR = 0.84)
Hofstede's five cultural factors are reconceptualized as ten personal cultural orientations: independence, interdependence, power, social inequality, masculinity, gender equality, risk aversion, ambiguity intolerance, tradition, and prudence. A new 40-item scale is developed to measure these personal cultural orientations. Much effort has been invested in ensuring validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale.
Independence is defined as a personal cultural orientation associated with acting independently, a strong self-concept, a sense of freedom, autonomy, and personal achievement.
- I would rather depend on myself than others. (0.82)
- My personal identity, independent of others, is important to me. (0.79)
- I rely on myself most of the time, rarely on others. (0.78)
- It is important that I do my job better than others. (0.72)