Handbook of Management Scales/Tradition

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Tradition (CR = 0.72)[edit]


Hofstede's five cultural factors are reconceptualized as ten personal cultural orientations: independence, interdependence, power, social inequality, masculinity, gender equality, risk aversion, ambiguity intolerance, tradition, and prudence. A new 40-item scale is developed to measure these personal cultural orientations. Much effort has been invested in ensuring validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale.


Tradition is defined as a personal cultural orientation representing respect for traditional values including hard work, non-materialism, benevolence, social consciousness, morality, and respect for one’s heritage.


  • I am proud of my culture. (0.82)
  • Respect for tradition is important for me. (0.75)
  • I value a strong link to my past. (0.74)
  • Traditional values are important for me. (0.70)