Handbook of Management Scales/Masculinity

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Masculinity (CR = 0.82)[edit | edit source]

Description[edit | edit source]

Hofstede's five cultural factors are reconceptualized as ten personal cultural orientations: independence, interdependence, power, social inequality, masculinity, gender equality, risk aversion, ambiguity intolerance, tradition, and prudence. A new 40-item scale is developed to measure these personal cultural orientations. Much effort has been invested in ensuring validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale.

Definition[edit | edit source]

Masculinity represents the expression of assertiveness, self-confidence, aggression, and ambition.

Items[edit | edit source]

  • Women are generally more caring than men. (0.78)
  • Men are generally physically stronger than women. (0.76)
  • Men are generally more ambitious than women. (0.74)
  • Women are generally more modest than men. (0.72)

Source[edit | edit source]