Handbook of Management Scales/Masculinity
Masculinity (CR = 0.82)
Hofstede's five cultural factors are reconceptualized as ten personal cultural orientations: independence, interdependence, power, social inequality, masculinity, gender equality, risk aversion, ambiguity intolerance, tradition, and prudence. A new 40-item scale is developed to measure these personal cultural orientations. Much effort has been invested in ensuring validity, reliability, and cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the new scale.
Masculinity represents the expression of assertiveness, self-confidence, aggression, and ambition.
- Women are generally more caring than men. (0.78)
- Men are generally physically stronger than women. (0.76)
- Men are generally more ambitious than women. (0.74)
- Women are generally more modest than men. (0.72)