Flora of New York/Violaceae

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Malpighiales (1):
Hypericaceae, Podostemaceae, Elatinaceae
Flora of New York — Malpighiales (2) : Violaceae
Malpighiales (3):
Salicaceae
Table of
contents
Genus
index
Protected species index Invasive species index


Order Family Subfamily Tribe Genera G T
Malpighiales Hypericaceae Hypericeae Hypericum (St. John's wort)
Triadenum (marsh St. John's wort)
2 20
Podostemaceae Podostemoideae Podostemum (river weed) 1 1
Elatinaceae Elatine (water wort) 1 3
Violaceae Violoideae Violeae Hybanthus (greenviolet)
Viola (violet)
2 58
Salicaceae Salicoideae Populus (cottonwood, aspen, poplar)
Salix (willow)
2 47
Euphorbiaceae Acalyphoideae Acalypheae Acalypha (copperleaf)
Mercurialis (herb mercury)
Ricinus (castor bean)
3 6
Crotonoideae Crotoneae Croton (rushfoil) 1 1
Euphorbioideae Euphorbieae Euphorbia (spurge) 1 21
Linaceae Linoideae Lineae Linum (flax) 1 9

Family Violaceae[edit]

The Violaceae (violet family) ...

Subfamily Violoideae[edit]

Tribe Violeae[edit]

Genus Hybanthus[edit]

Of the four species of Hybanthus (greenviolets) that are native to North America, only Hybanthus concolor (the eastern greenviolet) has been discovered outside of cultivation in New York.

Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Hybanthus
Hybanthus Greenviolet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 1
(T.F.Forst.) Spreng.

1802. Viola concolor  T.F.Forst.
1824. Hybanthus concolor  Spreng.
1897. Cubelium concolor  Raf. ex B&B
Eastern greenviolet

Hybanthe à fleurs verdâtres
Native,
Vulnerable
Hybanthus concolor BB-1913.png
Hybanthus concolor nymap.svg
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Genus Viola[edit]

The Viola genus has about 50 species found outside of cultivation in New York. The majority of the species are native to the region, though a few are escaped garden exotics.[1]

Viola sect. Chamaemelanium[edit]

The Viola section Chamaemelanium Ging. contains the stemmed white and yellow violets in subsections Canadenses and Nudicaules, as well as the stemless yellow violet in subsection Orbiculares.

Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Chamaemelanium[2]
Violasubsect. Canadenses Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 L.
var. canadensis

1753. Viola canadensis  L.
1836. Lophion canadense  (L.) Spach
1841. Viola scouleri  Dougl. ex Steud.
1938. V. canadensis var. corymbosa Nutt.
Canada violet,
Canadian white violet
Native,
Secure
Viola canadensis (Orvokki) Kanadaviol C DSC03075.JPG
Viola canadensis var canadensis nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Violasubsect. Nudicaules Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Aiton
var. pubescens

1789. Viola pubescens  Aiton
1803. Viola pensylvanica  Michx.
1818. V. pubescens var. eriocarpa Nutt.
1822. Viola eriocarpon  Schwein.
1914. Crocion pubescens  Nieuwland
1914. Crocion eriocarpum  Nieuwland
Downy yellow violet,
Smooth yellow violet,
Hairy yellow violet,
Yellow forest violet

Violette pubescente
Native,
Secure
Viola pubescens 5472129.jpg
Viola pubescens var pubescens nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW 
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Aiton
var. scabriuscula Torr. & A.Gray

1901. V. scabriuscula  Shafer
1922. V. eriocarpa var. leiocarpa Deam
1938. V. pubescens var. scabriuscula
1940. V. eriocarpa fo. leiocarpa Fern.& Wieg.
1941. V. pensylvanica var. leiocarpoa Fernald
1967. V. pubescens var. leiocarpa B. Boivin
Downy yellow violet,
Smooth yellow violet,
Yellow forest violet,
Common yellow violet
Native,
Unranked
Viola pubescens var. scabriuscula, 2015-04-26, Kane Woods, 01.jpg
Viola pubescens var scabriuscula nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-NN
NEW 
ITIS



Images, wsp
 Aiton
var. peckii House

1923. Viola pubescens var. peckii House
Downy yellow violet,
Peck's yellow violet
Native,
Unranked
Viola pubescens 5472128.jpg
Viola pubescens var peckii nymap.svg
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
 Michx.

1803. Viola hastata  Michx.
1813. Viola trifida  Spreng.
1822. Viola hirta  Schwein. (ambig.)
Halberdleaf yellow violet,
Halberd-leaved yellow violet
Introduced,
US South native,
Impersistent
Viola hastata BB-1913.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngHalberd-Leaf Violet (4526399519).jpg
Viola hastata nymap.svg
NYFA-X
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Violasubsect. Orbiculares Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Michx. (1803)
Roundleaf yellow violet,
Round-leaved violet,
Violette à feuilles rondes
Native,
Secure
Round-leaf Yellow Violet (4506716756).jpg
Viola rotundifolia nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Viola sect. Plagiostigma[edit]
Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Plagiostigma[1]
Violasubsect. Adnatae Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Pursh ex Goldie (1822)
Great-spurred violet,
Selkirk's violet
Native,
Secure
Viola selkirkii flower 1 AB.jpg
Viola selkirkii nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Violasubsect. Stolonosae Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Willd. (1804)

Viola incognita Brainerd
Sweet white violet,
Large-leaf white violet,
Willdenow's violet,
Woodland-white violet,
Violette méconnue
Native,
Unranked
Viola blanda WFNY-139B.png
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 L. (1753)
ssp. lanceolata
Bog white violet,
Lance-leaved violet,
Lance-leaved water violet
Native,
Secure
Viola lanceolata 5497265.jpg
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 F.E.Lloyd (1895)

V. pallens (Banks ex DC.) Brainerd
V. pallens subreptans
V. rotundifolia pallens
Small white violet,
Smooth white violet,
Macloskey's violet,
Violette de macloskey
Native,
Secure
Viola macloskeyi 5496701.jpg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 A.Gray
Kidney-leaf white violet,
Kidney-leaved white violet,
Northern white violet,
White violet,
Violette réniforme
Native,
Secure
Viola renifolia 1215055.jpg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Viola × primulifolia
 L. (1753)
[ lanceolata × macloskeyi ssp. pallens ]

V. sublanceolata
Primrose-leaf violet,
Primrose-leaved violet
Native,
Threatened
Viola primulifolia WFNY-140A.png
NYFA-2
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
Viola × sublanceolata
House (pro hybr. 1924)
[ lanceolata × macloskeyi (as pallens) ]
Lance-leaved violet Native,
Impersistent
NYFA-Um
USDA-NN

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)
[ lanceolata × ×primulifolia ]
Hybrid bog white violet violet
 & primrose-leaf violet
Native,
No recent reports
NYFA-H?
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)
[ macloskeyi × ×primulifolia ]
Hybrid small white violet
 & primrose-leaf violet
Native,
Impersistent
NYFA-Um
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
Viola sect. Melanium[edit]

The Viola section Melanium contains plants commonly known as pansies.

Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Melanium[1]
Violasect. Melanium Pansy N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Pursh

auct.. V. kitaibeliana  non Schult.
(=) V. kitaibeliana var. rafinesquei
(=) V. rafinesquei  Greene
Field pansy Native,
Endangered,
Note[2]
Viola bicolor jamestown1.jpgImg spacer 2x87.pngViola bicolor BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 Murray
European field pansy,
Small wild pansy
Introduced
Viola arvensis 1.JPG
NYFA-X
USDA-XW





Images, wsp
Johnny jumpup,
Three colored violet
Introduced
Violette Viola Tricolor.jpg






Images, wsp
  1. BioLib.cz - Viola sect. Melanium
  2. Native status of Viola bicolor is not clear. May be an introduction of the European Viola kitaibeliana Schult. or a New World relative of that species. NYFA
Viola sect. Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae[edit]

The taxa of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae W.Becker are native exclusively to North America (including northern Mexico). They are commonly referred to as the "stemless blue" violets, as the leaf petioles and flower peduncles arise directly from the rhizome instead of from a shared above-ground stem. Their classification has long been in flux, partially due to apparent introgressive hybridization within the subsection.[1]

Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Viola[2]subsect. Boreali-Americanae
Violasubsect. Boreali-Americanae Stemless blue violets N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Willd.
var. sororia

1809. Viola sororia  Willd.
1910. Viola chalcosperma  Brainerd
Common blue violet,
Hooded blue violet,
Common violet,
Sister violet

Violette parente
Native,
Secure
Viola sororia 5496713.jpg
Viola sororia nymap.svg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Leconte
var. affinis L.E.McKinney

1826. Viola affinis  Leconte
1992. V. sororia var. affinis L.E.McKinney
1996. V. sororia ssp. affinis R.J. Little
Sand violet,
Le Conte's violet,
Arizona bog violet,
Common blue violet,
Thin-leaved blue violet

Violette affine
Native,
Secure
Viola affinis 5496758.jpg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images
 House
var. novae-angliae L.E.McKinney

1904. Viola novae-angliae  House
1935. V. septentrionalis var. grisea Fernald
1992. V. sororia
   var.
novae-angliae L.E.McKinney
New England violet,
New England blue violet

Violette de
 Nouvelle-Angleterre
,
Violette de la
 Nouvelle-Angleterre
Native,
Endangered
Viola novae-angliae BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images
 Greene

1898. Viola septentrionalis  Greene
1814. Viola papilionacea  Pursh
Northern blue violet,
Northern woodland violet,
Northern bog violet

Violette septentrionale
Native,
Secure
Viola septentrionalis BB-1913.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Greene

1896. Viola nephrophylla  Greene
V. sororia var. affinis
V. sororia var. sororia
V. pratincola Brainerd
Northern bog violet,
Wanderer violet,
Sand violet,
Blue meadow violet

Violette néphrophylle,
Violete des calcaires
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[3]
Viola nephrophylla (4600731762) 4x3.jpg
NYFA-1
USDA-NN
NEW Can
ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Aiton (1789)

V. obliqua Hill (1768)
Marsh blue violet,
Blue marsh violet,
Violette cucullée
Native,
Secure
Viola cucullata NRCS-1.jpg
Viola cucullata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS 



Images, wsp
 Aiton (1789)
var. ovata

V. fimbriatula Sm.
Arrow-leaved violet Native,
Likely secure
Viola sagittata var ovata BB-1913.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Aiton (1789)
var. sagittata

V. emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte
Arrow-leaved violet,
Violette sagittée
Native,
Likely secure
Viola sagittata BB-1913.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngViola sagittata var sagittata BB-1913.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
 Pollard

1898. Viola brittoniana  Pollard
V. pedatifida var. brittoniana
Coastal violet,
Northern coastal violet,
Britton’s violet
Native,
Endangered,
NYNHP: 1[4]
Viola brittoniana BB-1913.pngImg spacer 2x87.pngViola brittoniana var pectinata BB-1913.png
NYFA-1
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Brainerd

1907. Viola hirsutula  Brainerd
Southern wood violet,
Southern woodland violet
Native,
Endangered,
No recent reports
Viola hirsutula BB-1913.png
Viola hirsutula NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-Z
USDA-N0

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 L.

V. brittoniana or pedatifida ×
V. affinis or sororia

1753. Viola palmata  L.
Early blue violet,
Three-lobe violet,
Palmate-leaf violet,
Wood violet
Native,
Secure
Viola palmata a1.jpg
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 (Greene) Greene

V. pedatifida ×
V. sororia

(=) Viola subsinuata  Greene
(=) Viola × bernardii  Greene
(=) Viola angellae  Pollard
(=) Viola emarginata var. subsinuata
auct.. Viola palmata non L
Palmate-leaved violet,
Early blue violet,
Bernard's violet,
Pale violet,
Wavy-leaved violet,
Greene's Violet[5]
Native,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-N0
NEW 




Images, wsp
Viola sect. Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae hybrids[edit]
Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Viola[1]subsect. Boreali-Americanae
Violasubsect. Boreali-Americanae (hybrids) Stemless blue violets N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
Greene (pro sp. 1906)

Viola affinis ×
Viola sororia

V. × columbiana House
V. × consona House
Hybrid of
 sand violet &
 common blue violet
Native,
Endangered
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola affinis ×
Viola sagittata

V. × dissena House
Hybrid of
 sand violet &
 arrow-leaved violet
Native,
Endangered
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola affinis ×
Viola triloba

V. × discors House
V. × milleri Moldenke
Slavin's violet,
Hybrid of
 sand violet &
 three-lobe violet
Native,
Endangered
NYFA-1?
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
Greene (pro sp. 1899)

Viola sagittata ×
Viola sororia

V. × parca House (1924)
Northern bog violet (hybrid),
Hybrid of
 arrow-leaf violet &
 common blue violet
Native,
No recent reports
NYFA-H?
NYFA-U

ITIS



Images, wsp
Greene (pro sp. 1898)

Viola sororia ×
Viola triloba
Peck's violet,
Hybrid of
 common blue violet &
 three-lobe violet
Native,
No recent reports
NYFA-H?
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Greene (pro sp. 1902)

Viola septentrionalis ×
Viola sororia

V. × montivaga House (1924)
Hybrid of
 Northern blue violet &
 common blue violet
Native,
No recent reports
NYFA-H?





Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola hirsutula ×
Viola × palmata

V. × dissita
Hybrid of
 southern wood violet &
 early blue violet
Native,
Likely extirpated
NYFA-Zm
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola cucullata ×
Viola sororia

V. × conturbata House
Bissell's violet,
Hybrid of
 marsh blue violet &
 common blue violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
House (1924)

Viola affinis ×
Viola septentrionalis
Hybrid of
 sand violet &
 northern blue violet
Native,
Impersistent
NYFA-U





Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola affinis ×
Viola hirsutula

V. × dowelliana House
Hybrid of
 sand violet &
 southern wood violet
Native,
Impersistent
NYFA-U
USDA-N0





Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola affinis ×
Viola cucullata
Hybrid of
 sand violet &
 marsh blue violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
(Nutt.) Schwein. (pro sp. 1929)

Viola hirsutula ×
Viola sororia

V. × perpera House
Hybrid of
 southern wood violet &
 common blue violet
Native,
Impersistent
NYFA-Um
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola × palmata ×
Viola sagittata
Hybrid of
 early blue violet &
 arrow-leaf violet
Native,
Impersistent
NYFA-Um
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
Pollard (pro sp. 1902)

Viola brittoniana ×
Viola sagittata

V. × marylandica House
V. × holmiana House
Hybrid of
 northern coastal violet &
 arrow-leaf violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
Bicknell (pro sp. 1904)

Viola brittoniana ×
Viola cucullata
Hybrid of
 northern coastal violet &
 marsh blue violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola hirsutula ×
Viola sagittata

V. × dimissa House
Hybrid of
 southern wood violet &
 arrow-leaf violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House (1924)

Viola cucullata ×
Viola × palmata

V. × notabilis Bickn.
Ryon's violet,
Hybrid of
 marsh blue violet &
 early blue violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-N0

ITIS



Images, wsp
Viola sect. Viola subsect. Pedatae[edit]
Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Violasubsect. Pedatae
Violasubsect. Pedatae Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 L.
Birdfoot violet,
Bird's-foot violet
Native,
Rare
Bird's Foot Violet (Viola pedata).jpg
NYFA-3
USDA-NN





Images, wsp
Viola sect. Viola subsect. Rostratae[edit]
Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Violasubsect. Rostratae
Violasubsect. Rostratae Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 Pursh (1814)
var. rostrata
Long-spur violet,
Violette à long éperon
Native,
Secure
NYFA-5
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 Sm. (1817)
var. adunca

Viola aduncoides
Viola bellidifolia
Viola cascadensis
Viola montanensis
Viola subvestita
Sand violet,
Hookedspur violet,
Western dog violet
Native,
Likely secure
Viola adunca 1123.JPG
Viola adunca var adunca NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-4
USDA-NN

ARS 



Images, wsp
 Schrank (1818)

(=) Viola conspersa  Rchb.
Alpine violet,
American dog violet,
Labrador violet,
Violette décombante,
Violette du labrador
Native,
Vulnerable
Alpine Violet Viola labradorica Plant 3008px.jpg
NYFA-3-5
USDA-NN

ARS 



Images, wsp
 Aiton (1789)
Striped cream violet,
Cream-white violet,
Pale violet
Native,
Vulnerable
NYFA-3-4
USDA-NN

ARS ITIS



Images, wsp
 H.E.Ballard (1989)
[ labradorica × striata ]
Hybrid American dog violet
  & striped cream violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ITIS



Images, wsp
 House
[ labradorica × rostrata ]
Hybrid American dog violet
  & long-spur violet
Native,
Unranked
NYFA-U
USDA-NN

ITIS



Images, wsp
Viola sect. Viola subsect. Viola[edit]
Violaceaesubfam. Violoideaetribe Violeaegenus Violasect. Violasubsect. Viola
Violasubsect. Viola Violet N.Y. Status Images Distribution 57
 L.
English violet,
Sweet violet
Introduced
Viola odorata fg01.JPG
Viola odorata NY-dist-map.png
NYFA-X
USDA-XX





Images, wsp