Persian/Lesson 3

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Iran

Afghanistan

Tajikistan

فارسی (‹fârsi›, “Persian”)
Learn the Persian language
ContentsIntroduction
Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting

Farsi

To continue, your computer must display Persian. The box below should show these Persian letters on the far right: Paa-individua.svgBaa-individua.svgAlif-individua.svg
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی

If they are different or in the wrong order, see Persian Computing.


In lessons 1 and 2, you learned some greetings, the first twenty letters of the Persian Alphabet, and how to spell several words with those letters. You also learned syllable stress in Persian words.

In this lesson, you will learn more about casual and formal speech, the next nine Persian letters, and more about short vowels in Persian.

Dialogue: ‹sobh bexeyr[edit]

Hassan drops by to see his good friend Mohamad:

Hassan : ‹sobh bexeyr, mamad!›
“Good morning, Mamad!”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
Mohamad : ‹sobh bexeyr, hasani. hâlet cetor e?›
“Good morning, Hassani. How’s your health?”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
Hassan : ‹bad nistam, mersi. va to?›
“Not bad, thanks. And you?”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
Mohamad : ‹man xeyli xubam.›
“I'm very good.”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.

Explanation

Mohamad and Hassan are using a very casual style of speech because they are close friends. “Mamad” is a common nickname for people named Mohamad. “Hassani” is a common nickname for people named “Hassan”.

Vocabulary

  • hâlet› Look up حالت in Wiktionary  About this sound /ˈhɒːlet/ — “your health” (informal)
  • ‹bad› Look up بد in Wiktionary  About this sound /bæd/ — “bad” similar meaning and pronunciation as the English word
  • nistam› Look up نیستم in Wiktionary  About this sound /ˈniːstæm/ — “(I) am not”
  • ‹va, o› Look up و in Wiktionary  About this sound /væ/, /o/ — “and”
  • xeyli› Look up خیلی in Wiktionary  — “very”
Familiarity and formality
In any language, speakers use various levels of formality in various social settings. For example, an English speaker in a formal setting may use proper grammar, pronounce -ing clearly (i.e., so that "walking" does not sound like "walkin'"), may choose formal or technical words (e.g. sodium chloride rather than salt and child rather than kid), and refrain from saying ain't, but the same person could violate some or all of those rules in an informal setting.

In Persian, several speech patterns are used to raise or lower the level of formality. One general rule in the Persian formality system is that referring to an individual with a plural pronoun and/or plural verb indicates respect for that individual. In polite Persian conversations, it is therefore customary to use the plural pronoun شما ‹šomâ› to when speaking with a superior or someone whom one has just met, and to use the singular pronoun تو ‹to› only when talking to friends, family members, and the like.



ع ‹’eyn›, غ ‹qeyn›[edit]

(read from right to left)
ع غ
‹’eyn› ‹qeyn›

The next two letters have the same form except only one has a dot over it. The bottom hook in these letters is a tail that only appears in isolated and final position.


ع ع‍ ‍ع‍ ‍ع ععع
About this sound ‹’eyn› connecting forms

The Persian letter  Look up ﻉ in Wiktionary ‹’eyn› represents the sound [ʔ], i.e. the glottal stop in the middle of “uh-oh” in English. Traditionally, as well as in UniPers it is transcribed as ‹’›. Its name sounds something like the English word “main”, but beginning with a glottal stop instead of an m. The top loop sits on the baseline. When it is the last (or only) letter in a word, its lower loop hangs below the baseline. When another letter follows it, it has a different form.


رعد ر ع‍ ‍د رعد
About this sound ‹ra'd› ‹r› ‹’› ‹d›

As shown on the right, the letter ‹’eyn› combines with the letter that follows it, e.g. with د in the word رعد Look up رعد in Wiktionary ‹ra’d› (“thunder”).


غ غ‍ ‍غ‍ ‍غ غغغ
About this sound ‹qeyn› connecting forms

The Persian letter غ Look up غ in Wiktionary ‹qeyn› represents the sound [ɣ], that is, it is produced by placing the back part of the tongue against the soft palate and vibrating the vocal cords while pushing air from the lungs over the middle of the tongue.

The top loop sits on the baseline. When it is the last (or only) letter in a word, its lower loop hangs below the baseline. When another letter follows it, it has a different form.


باغ ب‍ ‍ا غ باغ
About this sound ‹bâq› ‹b› ‹â› ‹q›

As shown on the right, the letter ‹qeyn› is used to spell باغ Look up باغ in Wiktionary ‹bâq› (“garden”).

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ع ‹'eyn› and غ ‹qeyn›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Ain-individua.svgAin-individua.svgAin-individua.svg GHain-individua.svgGHain-individua.svgGHain-individua.svg

ع ععع غ غغغ    
ع ععع غ غغغ    
Arabic alphabet ayn-ghayn.png

Lettre 18 ʿayn.jpgLettre 18 ʿayn.jpgLettre 18 ʿayn.jpgLettre 18 'ayn.gif Lettre 19 ġayn.jpgLettre 19 ġayn.jpgLettre 19 ġayn.jpgLettre 19 ġayn.gif


ف ‹fe›, ق ‹qaf›[edit]

ف ق
‹fe› ‹qaf›

The next two letters are shown on the right.


ف ف‍ ‍ف‍ ‍ف ففف
About this sound ‹fe› connecting forms

The Persian letter ف Look up ف in Wiktionary ‹fe› sits on the baseline. Its name sounds like a quick pronunciation of "Faye".


فردا ف‍ ‍ر د ا فردا
‹fardâ› ‹f› ‹r› ‹d› ‹â›

As shown on the right, the letter ف ‹fe› combines with the letter that follows it, e.g. as the first letter in the word فردا Look up فردا in Wiktionary ‹fardâ› (“tomorrow”).


ق ق‍ ‍ق‍ ‍ق ققق
About this sound ‹qaf› connecting forms

The Persian letter ق Look up ق in Wiktionary ‹qaf› is pronounced like غ ‹qeyn›, i.e. like [ɣ]. The small loop sits on the baseline and the tail, when present, hangs below the baseline. Like other Persian letters with tails, the tail is only written when no other letter follows.


آقا آ ق‍ ‍ا آقا
‹âqâ› ‹â› ‹q› ‹â›

As shown on the right, the letter ‹qaf› combines with the letter that follows, as in آقا Look up آقا in Wiktionary ‹âqâ› (“Mr., sir, gentleman”).

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ف ‹fe› and ق ‹qaf›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Faa-individua.svgFaa-individua.svgFaa-individua.svg Qaaf-individua.svgQaaf-individua.svgQaaf-individua.svg

ف ففف ق ققق    
ف ففف ق ققق    
Arabic alphabet fa-qaf.png

Lettre 20 fâʾ.jpgLettre 20 fâʾ.jpgLettre 20 fâʾ.jpgLettre 20 fâ.gif Lettre 21 qâf.jpgLettre 21 qâf.jpgLettre 21 qâf.jpgLettre 21 qâf.gif


ک ‹kaf› and گ ‹gaf›[edit]

ک گ
‹kaf› ‹gaf›

The next two letters are shown on the right.


ک ک‍ ‍ک‍ ‍ک ککک
About this sound ‹kaf› connecting forms

The Persian letter ک Look up ک in Wiktionary ‹kaf› sits on the baseline. The slash on top ( / ) is written after the connected strokes of the word, along with the dots in any of the word’s dotted letters. Its name sounds a bit like the English word “cough”.


کتاب ک‍ ‍ت‍ ‍ا ب کتاب
About this sound ‹ketâb ‹k› ‹t› ‹â› ‹b›

As shown on the right, the letter ک combines with the letter that follows it, e.g. as the first letter in the word کتاب Look up کتاب in Wiktionary ‹ketâb› (“book”).


گ گ‍ ‍گ‍ ‍گ گگگ
About this sound ‹gaf› connecting forms

The Persian letter گ Look up گ in Wiktionary ‹gaf› sits on the baseline. The two slashes on top ( // ) are written after the connected strokes of the word, along with the dots in any of the word’s dotted letters.


بزرگ ب‍ ‍ز ر گ بزرگ
About this sound ‹bozorg› ‹b› ‹z› ‹r› ‹g›

As shown on the right, the letter گ is used in the word بزرگ Look up بزرگ in Wiktionary ‹bozorg› (“big”).

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ک ‹kaf› and گ ‹gaf›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Kahah-individua.svgKahah-individua.svgKahah-individua.svg Gaaf-individua.svgGaaf-individua.svgGaaf-individua.svg

ک ککک گ گگگ    
ک ککک گ گگگ    
Arabic alphabet kaf.png

22b-Persisches Kaf.png22b-Persisches Kaf.png22b-Persisches Kaf.png 22a-Gaf.png22a-Gaf.png22a-Gaf.pngGaf.svg


ل ‹lâm›[edit]

ل ل‍ ‍ل‍ ‍ل للل
‹lâm› connecting forms

The letter ل Look up ل in Wiktionary ‹lâm› sits on the baseline and connects with the letter that follows it.


گل گ‍ ‍ل گل
‹gol› ‹g› ‹l›

ل is the last letter in گل Look up گل in Wiktionary ‹gol› (“flower”).

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ل ‹lâm›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Laam-individua.svgLaam-individua.svgLaam-individua.svg

ل للل      
ل للل      
Arabic alphabet lam.png

Lettre 23 lâm.jpgLettre 23 lâm.jpgLettre 23 lâm.jpgLettre 23 lâm.gif


م ‹mim›[edit]

م م‍ ‍م‍ ‍م ممم
About this sound ‹mim› connecting forms

The Persian letter م is pronounced as /m/.


اسم ا س‍ ‍م اسم
About this sound ‹esm› ‹e› ‹s› ‹m›

The Persian word اسم Look up اسم in Wiktionary ‹esm› (“name”), shown on the right, is an example of an initial alef without a “hat” ( ا ) used to indicate that the word begins with a short vowel, in this case, with ‹e›.

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing م ‹mim›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Miim-individua.svgMiim-individua.svgMiim-individua.svg

م ممم      
م ممم      

Lettre 24 mīm.jpgLettre 24 mīm.jpgLettre 24 mīm.jpgLettre 24 mîm.gif


ن ‹nun›[edit]

ن ن‍ ‍ن‍ ‍ن ننن
About this sound ‹nun› connecting forms

The name of this letter "nun" is pronounced rhyming with "noon" and not "nun". Note the difference between ن nun and be, in be the dot is below the curve and in nun it is above. The shape of nun is also narrower than the "be, pe, se, te" group of letters.


نان ن‍ ‍ا ن نان
‹nun› ‹n› ‹â› ‹n›

The Persian word نان Look up نان in Wiktionary ‹nun› (“bread”) is shown on the right. Note that the written form uses ا ‹â› , indicating that the word should be pronounced as ‹nân›, but in standard Persian, ان ‹ân› is usually pronounced ‹un›, including the word آن Look up آن in Wiktionary ‹un› (“that”).

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ن ‹nun›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Nuun-individua.svgNuun-individua.svgNuun-individua.svg

ن ننن      
ن ننن      

Lettre 25 nūn.jpgLettre 25 nūn.jpgLettre 25 nūn.jpgLettre 25 nūn.gif

Exercises[edit]

Note.svg Recognizing letters:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
What are the names of and sounds represented by the following letters?
ف

The letter ‹fe›, which represents the sound ‹f›.

The letter ‹lâm›, which represents the sound ‹l›.

گ

The letter ‹gaf›, which represents the sound ‹g›.

ق

The letter ‹qaf›, which represents the sound ‹q›.

ع

The letter ‹'eyn›, which represents the sound ‹'›.

غ

The letter ‹qeyn›, which represents the sound ‹q›.

ک

The letter ‹kaf›, which represents the sound ‹k›.

Note.svg Reading words:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
Read these words by breaking them down into their component parts.
بازار

بازار Look up بازار in Wiktionary ‹bâzâr› (“bazaar, market”)

چادر

چادر Look up  چادر in Wiktionary ‹câdor› (“chador, covering”)

بانک

بانک Look up  بانک in Wiktionary ‹bânk› (“bank”)

چک

چک Look up  چک in Wiktionary ‹chek› (“Czech”)

Review[edit]

In this lesson, you learned ..., the next seven letters of the Persian Alphabet, and how to spell several words with those letters from right to left. You also learned about syllable stress in Persian words.

Core vocabulary:
  • ‹sobh bexeyr› Look up صبح بخیر in Wiktionary  About this sound /sobh beˈxejɾ/ — “Good morning”
  • hâlet› Look up حالت in Wiktionary  About this sound /ˈhɒːlet/ — “your health” (informal)
  • ‹bad› Look up بد in Wiktionary  About this sound /bæd/ — “bad” similar meaning and pronunciation as the English word
  • xeyli› Look up خیلی in Wiktionary  — “very”
Letters:
  • ع Look up ع in Wiktionary ‹’eyn›
  • غ Look up غ in Wiktionary ‹qeyn›
  • ف Look up ف in Wiktionary ‹fe›
  • ق Look up ق in Wiktionary ‹qaf›
  • ک Look up ک in Wiktionary ‹kaf›
  • گ Look up گ in Wiktionary ‹gaf›
  •  Look up ﻝ in Wiktionary ‹lâm›
  • م Look up م in Wiktionary ‹mim›
  • ن Look up ن in Wiktionary ‹nun›
Bonus words:
  • رعد Look up رعد in Wiktionary ‹ra’d› — “thunder”
  • باغ Look up باغ in Wiktionary ‹bâq› — “garden”
  • فردا Look up فردا in Wiktionary ‹fardâ› — “tomorrow”
  • آقا Look up آقا in Wiktionary ‹âqâ› — “sir, Mr., gentleman”
  • کتاب Look up کتاب in Wiktionary ‹ketâb› — “book”
  • بزرگ Look up بزرگ in Wiktionary ‹bozorg› — “big”
All vocabulary Lessons 1 - 3   edit
English gloss Notes ‹fârsi› فارسی
Letter: [ɒː], [æ], [e], [o] Look up ا in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹alef ا
Noun: gentleman, sir, Mr. Look up آقا in Wiktionary Lesson 2 âqâ› آقا
Letter: [b] Look up ب in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹be› ب
Adjective: bad Look up بد in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹bad› بد
Letter: [p] Look up پ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹pe› پ
Letter: [t] Look up ت in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹te› ت
Pronoun: you (singular, informal) Look up تو in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹tow› تو
Letter: [s] Look up ث in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹se› ث
Letter: [dʒ] Look up ج in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹jim› ج
Letter: [tʃ] Look up چ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹ce› چ
Adjective: how Look up چطور in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹cetor چطور
Phrase: How are you? (informal) Look up چطوری؟ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹cetori?› چطوری؟
Letter: [h] Look up ح in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹he› ح
Noun: health Look up حال in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹hâl› حال
Noun: your health (informal) Look up حالت in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹hâlet› حالت
Letter: [x] Look up خ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹xe› خ
Phrase: May God keep you. (Goodbye.) Look up خداحافظ. in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹xofez.› خداحافظ.
Phrase: I’m fine. Look up (من) خوبم. in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹(man) xubam.› (من) خوبم.
very Look up خیلی in Wiktionary Lesson 3 xeyli› خیلی
Letter: [d] Look up د in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹dâ› د
Letter: [z] Look up ذ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ذ
Letter: [ɾ] Look up ر in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹re› ر
Letter: [z] Look up ز in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹ze› ز
Letter: [ʒ] Look up ژ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹že› ژ
Letter: [s] Look up س in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sin› س
Phrase: Peace (hello)! Look up سلام! in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹salâm!› سلام!
Letter: [ʃ] Look up ش in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šin› ش
Pronoun: you (plural or polite singular) Look up شما in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šomâ› شما
Letter: [s] Look up ص in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sâd› ص
Interjection: Good morning Look up صبح بخیر in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹sobh bexeyr صبح بخیر
Letter: [z] Look up ض in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâd› ض
Letter: [t] Look up ط in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹tâ› ط
Letter: [z] Look up ظ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ظ
Letter: [ʔ] Look up ع in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹’eyn› ع
Letter: [ɣ], [ɢ] Look up غ in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹qeyn› غ
Letter: [f] Look up ف in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹fe› ف
Letter: [ɢ], [ɣ], [q] Look up ق in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹qaf› ق
Letter: [k] Look up ک in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹kaf› ک
Letter: [g] Look up گ in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹gaf› گ
Letter: [l] Look up ل in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹lâm› ل
Letter: [m] Look up م in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹mim› م
Interjection: thanks Look up مرسی in Wiktionary Lesson 1 mersi› مرسی
Pronoun: I, me Look up من in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹man› من
Letter: [n] Look up ن in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹nun› ن
Verb: (I) am not Look up نیستم in Wiktionary Lesson 3 nistam› نیستم
Conjunction: and Look up و in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹va, vo, o› و

Next: Lesson 4 ( ۴ ), The alphabet (continued)

Continue to Lesson 4 ( ۴ ), The alphabet (continued) >>

ContentsIntroduction

Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting


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