Persian/Lesson 2

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Iran

Afghanistan

Tajikistan

فارسی (‹fârsi›, “Persian”)
Learn the Persian language
ContentsIntroduction
Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting

Farsi

To continue, your computer must display Persian. The box below should show these Persian letters on the far right: Paa-individua.svgBaa-individua.svgAlif-individua.svg
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی

If they are different or in the wrong order, see Persian Computing.


In lesson 1, you learned some greetings, the first nine letters of the Persian Alphabet, and how to spell several words with those letters from right to left. You also learned that short vowels are usually not written, and that many letters change their shape depending on whether they connect with letters before or after them.

In this lesson, you will learn more formal greetings, the next eleven Persian letters and syllable stress.

Dialogue: ‹hâl-e šo cetor e?›[edit]

Arash sees Peyman:

Arash : ‹salâm, âqâ-ye peymân. hâl-e šo cetor e?›
“Hello, Mr. Peyman. How are you?”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
Peyman : ‹salâm, âraš. xubam, mersi. šo cetorin?›
“Hello Arash. I am well, thank you. How are you?”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
Arash : ‹man xubam, mersi. xofez, âqâ-ye peymân.›
“I am well, thanks. Goodbye, Mr. Peyman!”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
Peyman : ‹xofez.›
“Goodbye.”

Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.

Explanation

Arash and Peyman are using a more formal style of speech typically used to show respect. That is why they use the formal pronoun ‹šo› Look up شما in Wiktionary  instead of the informal ‹tow› Look up تو in Wiktionary  used in lesson 1.

Vocabulary

  • hâl› Look up حال in Wiktionary  About this sound /ˈhɒːl/ — “health”
  • ‹šo› Look up شما in Wiktionary  About this sound /ʃoˈmɒː/ — “you” (formal, shows speaker's respect for listener)
  • ‹cetor› Look up چطور in Wiktionary  About this sound /t͡ʃeˈtoɾ/ — “how” (the endings ‹e› and ‹-in› will be explained in Lesson 5)
  • ‹xofez› Look up خدا حافظ in Wiktionary  About this sound /xoˈdɒː hɒːˈfez/ — “May God keep you” (similar to the literal meaning of “goodbye”, i.e. “May God be with you”)
Culture Point: Titles
Titles like آقا Look up آقا in Wiktionary ‹âqâ› (“sir, Mr.”) are used before or after the first name, before or after a last name, or before or after both names. In the dialogue above, it is used before the first name پيمان ‹peyman› .

The feminine version of آقا ‹âqâ› (“sir, Mr.”) is آغا ‹âqâ› (“madam, Miss”). The two words are pronounced the same way and are sometimes confused for each other as a misspelling, but آقا is the proper spelling for use with male names and آغا for female names.

Family names are a relatively new aspect of Persian culture, having been introduced in Iran in 1912.


Syllable stress
In most Persian words, the stress falls on the last syllable of the stem.

For example, in the following words from the dialogue, the stress is on the last syllable:

  • ‹šo
  • ‹cetor
  • ‹mamnun
  • ‹xo
  • ‹hâfez

When suffixes and enclitics are added to Persian words and word stems, the stress usually does not move:

  • ‹cetor› + ‹-in› → ‹cetorin›
  • hast› + ‹-am› → ‹hastam›
  • hâl› + ‹-e› → ‹hâl-e›

A few prefixes and suffixes are stressed. Those details will be explained in the lessons for those suffixes and prefixes.

A limited set of Persian words (interjections, conjunctions and vocatives), however, has the stress on the first syllable:

  • mersi› — First syllable is stressed when used as in the conversation above, "Thanks!"
  • âqâ-ye› — First syllable is stressed when addressing someone by title as in the conversation above, but not when talking with someone else about ‹â-ye› so-and-so.
  • âraš› — First syllable is stressed when addressing Arash as in the conversation above, but the last syllable is stressed ‹âraš› when talking about him.
  • peymân› — First syllable is stressed when addressing Peyman as in the conversation above, but the last syllable is stressed ‹peyman› when talking with someone else about him.


د ‹dâl›, ذ ‹zâl›[edit]

(read from right to left)
د ذ
‹dâl› ‹zâl›

The next two Persian letters, shown on the right, have the same basic form, but only second one has a dot. Like ا ‹alef›, these two letters do not connect with the letter that follows them.


‌د‌ ‌د‌‍ ‍‌د‌‍ ‍‌د‌ ‌د‌‌د‌‌د‌
About this sound ‹dâl› does not connect with the following letter

The letter د Look up د in Wiktionary ‹dâl› represents the /d/ sound. It sits on the baseline and is written beginning at the top, ending at the bottom left. Its name sounds like the English word “doll”.


داد د ا د داد
About this sound ‹dâd› ‹d› ‹â› ‹d›

The Persian word داد Look up داد in Wiktionary ‹dâd› (“(he/she/it) gave”) is shown on the right. As shown, د does not join with the letter that follows it.


‌ذ‌ ‌ذ‌‍ ‍‌ذ‌‍ ‍‌ذ‌ ‌ذ‌‌ذ‌‌ذ‌
‹zâl› does not connect with the following letter

The letter ذ Look up ذ in Wiktionary ‹zâl› is one of the “foreign” letters in Persian. In Arabic, it represents the consonant [ð], but Persian does not have that sound, so it is pronounced as the closest Persian sound. Thus, ذ ‹zâl› is one of four Persian letters pronounced /z/.


ذات ذ ا ت ذات
‹zât› ‹z› ‹â› ‹t›

As shown in ذات Look up ذات in Wiktionary ‹zât› (“essence”) on the right, the letter ذ also does not join with the letter that follows it.

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing د ‹dâl› and ذ ‹zâl›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Daal-fina.svgDaal-fina.svgDaal-fina.svg DHaal-fina.svgDHaal-fina.svgDHaal-fina.svg

د ددد ذ ذذذ    
د ددد ذ ذذذ    
Arabic alphabet dal-dhal.png

Lettre 8 dâl.jpgLettre 8 dâl.jpgLettre 8 dâl.jpgLettre 8.gif Lettre 9 ḏâl.jpgLettre 9 ḏâl.jpgLettre 9 ḏâl.jpgLettre 9 ḏâl.gif


ر ‹re›, ز ‹ze›, ژ ‹že›[edit]

ر ز ژ
‹re› ‹ze› ‹že›

The next three Persian letters, also have the same basic form except for the dots. They are all written with a tail that drops well below the baseline. Like ا ‹alef›, د ‹dâl›, and ذ ‹zâl›, these three letters do not connect with the letter that follows them.


‌ر‌ ‌ر‌‍ ‍‌ر‌‍ ‍‌ر‌ ‌ر‌‌ر‌‌ر‌
About this sound ‹re› does not connect with the following letter

The letter ر Look up ر in Wiktionary ‹re› is pronounced as [ɾ], that is, it is produced by striking the tongue against the roof of the mouth just behind the teeth, then expelling air over the middle of the tongue, similar to the r in the Scottish English pronunciation of free or the tt in the American English and Australian English better. Between vowels, it is often trilled like rr in the Spanish word perro. Its name, ‹re›, sounds similar to a quick pronunciation of the English word "ray".


در د ر در
About this sound ‹dar› ‹d› ‹r›

As shown in the word در Look up در in Wiktionary ‹dar› (“door”), the letter ر does not join with the letter that follows it.


چرا چ‍ ‍ر ا چرا
‹cerâ› ‹c› ‹r› ‹â›

چ followed by ر and ا spells the word چرا Look up چرا in Wiktionary ‹cerâ› (“why”). Recall that ‹e›, like other short vowels, is not usually written in Persian.


‌ز‌ ‌ز‌‍ ‍‌ز‌‍ ‍‌ز‌ ‌ز‌‌ز‌‌ز‌
About this sound ‹ze› does not connect with the following letter

The letter ز Look up ز in Wiktionary ‹ze› is the most common of the four ‹z› letters in Persian.


رز ر ز رز
‹roz› ‹r› ‹z›

The word رز Look up رز in Wiktionary ‹roz› (“rose”) is shown on the right. Recall that ‹o› is usually not spelled in Persian words. Like ر, ز does not join with the letter that follows it.


‌ژ‌ ‌ژ‌‍ ‍‌ژ‌‍ ‍‌ژ‌ ‌ژ‌‌ژ‌‌ژ‌
About this sound ‹že› does not connect with the following letter

The letter ژ Look up ژ in Wiktionary ‹že› is transcribed in UniPers and here as ‹ž› and is pronounced as [ʒ], i.e. like the "g" in "mirage" or the s in measure and Persian. If you open your Persian-English dictionary at the letter ژ , you can see that it is not used in very many words. It occurs in many loanwords of French origin.


ژخ ژ خ ژخ
‹žax› ‹ž› ‹x›

As shown in the word ژخ  Look up  ژخ  in Wiktionary ‹zhakh› (“wart”), ژ does not join with the letter that follows it.

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ر ‹re›, ز ‹ze› and ژ ‹že›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Raa-fina.svgRaa-fina.svgRaa-fina.svg Zai-fina.svgZai-fina.svgZai-fina.svg 11a-Zhe.png11a-Zhe.png11a-Zhe.png

ر ررر ز ززز ژ ژژژ  
ر ررر ز ززز ژ ژژژ  
Arabic examples.  Persian examples would be better here, probably a separate page to print out with letters to trace.

Lettre 10 râʾ.jpgLettre 10 râʾ.jpgLettre 10 râʾ.jpgLettre 10 râ'.gif Lettre 11 zâī.jpgLettre 11 zâī.jpgLettre 11 zâī.jpgLettre 11 zây.gif Jaa-individua.svgJaa-individua.svgJaa-individua.svgJaa-fina.svg


س ‹sin›, ش ‹šin›[edit]

س ش
‹sin› ‹šin›

The next two Persian letters have the same shape, but one of them has no dots and the other has three.


س س‍ ‍س‍ ‍س سسس
About this sound ‹sin› connecting forms

The letter س Look up س in Wiktionary ‹sin› is the usual Persian letter for /s/. Its name sounds like the English word "seen".


سر س‍ ‍ر سر
‹sar› ‹s› ‹r›

As shown in the word سر Look up سر in Wiktionary ‹sar› (“head”) on the right, the letter س joins with the letter that follows it.


ش ش‍ ‍ش‍ ‍ش ششش
About this sound ‹šin› connecting forms

The letter ش Look up ش in Wiktionary ‹šin› is pronounced as [ʃ], that is, like "sh" in English. It is transcribed in UniPers as ‹š›, but in other literature it may be transcribed as sh, sch, ʃ, or ş. Its name sounds like the English word “sheen”.


شب ش‍ ‍ب شب
‹šab› ‹š› ‹b›

As shown in the word شب Look up شب in Wiktionary ‹šab› (“evening”), the letter ش joins with the letter that follows it.

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing س ‹sin› and ش ‹šin›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

Siin-individua.svgSiin-individua.svgSiin-individua.svg SHiin-individua.svgSHiin-individua.svgSHiin-individua.svg

س سسس ش ششش    
س سسس ش ششش    
Arabic alphabet sin-shin.png

Lettre 12 sīn.jpgLettre 12 sīn.jpgLettre 12 sīn.jpgLettre 12 sīn.gif Lettre 13 šīn.jpgLettre 13 šīn.jpgLettre 13 šīn.jpgLettre 13 šîn.gif


ص ‹sâd›, ض ‹zâd›[edit]

ص ض
‹sâd› ‹zâd›

The next two Persian letters have the same shape, but only one has a dot.


ص ص‍ ‍ص‍ ‍ص صصص
About this sound ‹sâd› connecting forms

The the letter ص Look up ص in Wiktionary ‹sâd› is the third Persian letter for the sound /s/.


صد ص‍ ‍د صد
‹sad› ‹s› ‹d›

As shown in the word صد Look up صد in Wiktionary ‹sad› (“hundred”), on the right, the letter ص joins with the letter that follows it.


ض ض‍ ‍ض‍ ‍ض ضضض
About this sound ‹zâd› connecting forms

The the letter ض Look up ض in Wiktionary ‹zâd› is another Persian letter for the sound /z/.


ضد ض‍ ‍د ضد
‹zed› ‹z› ‹d›

As shown in the word ضد Look up ضد in Wiktionary ‹zed› (“opposite”) on the right, the letter ض joins with the letter that follows it.

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ص ‹sâd› and ض ‹zâd›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

SSaad-individua.svgSSaad-individua.svgSSaad-individua.svg DDaad-individua.svgDDaad-individua.svgDDaad-individua.svg

ص صصص ض ضضض    
ص صصص ض ضضض    
Arabic alphabet sad-dad.png

Lettre 14 ṣâd.jpgLettre 14 ṣâd.jpgLettre 14 ṣâd.jpgLettre 14 ṣâd.gif Lettre 15 ḍâd.jpgLettre 15 ḍâd.jpgLettre 15 ḍâd.jpgLettre 15 ḍâd.gif


ط ‹tâ›, ظ ‹zâ›[edit]

ط ظ
‹tâ› ‹zâ›

The next two Persian letters have the same shape, but only one has a dot.


ط ط‍ ‍ط‍ ‍ط ططط
About this sound ‹tâ› connecting forms

The the letter ط Look up ط in Wiktionary ‹tâ› is another Persian letter for the sound /t/.


طاس ط‍ ‍ا س طاس
‹tâs› ‹s› ‹â› ‹s›

As shown in the word طاس  Look up  طاس  in Wiktionary ‹tâs› (“bald”) on the right, the letter ط joins with the letter that follows it.


ظ ظ‍ ‍ظ‍ ‍ظ ظظظ
‹zâ› connecting forms

The the letter ظ Look up ظ in Wiktionary ‹zâ› is another Persian letter for the sound /z/. It is rare and only appears in words of Arabic origin.

ظ joins with the letter that follows it.

Note: Writing practice
Learning Arabic calligraphy (Kaf).jpg

Get out a pen and paper and practice writing ط ‹tâ› and ظ ‹zâ›. Remember to write from right to left and to keep the base lines even.

TTaa-individua.svgTTaa-individua.svgTTaa-individua.svg ZZaa-individua.svgZZaa-individua.svgZZaa-individua.svg

ط ططط ظ ظظظ    
ط ططط ظ ظظظ    
Arabic alphabet da-za.png

Lettre 16 ṭâʾ.jpgLettre 16 ṭâʾ.jpgLettre 16 ṭâʾ.jpgLettre 16 tâ'.gif Lettre 17 ẓâʾ.jpgLettre 17 ẓâʾ.jpgLettre 17 ẓâʾ.jpgLettre 17 zâ'.gif

Exercises[edit]

Note.svg Recognizing letters:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
What are the names of and sounds represented by the following letters?

The letter ‹šin›, which represents the sound ‹š› (IPA: [ʃ]).

The letter ‹dâl›, which represents the sound ‹d›.

The letter ‹sin›, which represents the sound ‹s›.

ژ

The letter ‹že›, which represents the sound ‹ž› (IPA: [ʒ]).

The letter ‹sâ›, which represents the sound ‹s›.

The letter ‹zâl›, which represents the sound ‹z›.

The letter ‹sâd›, which represents the sound ‹s›.

The letter ‹zâd›, which represents the sound ‹z›.

The letter ‹ze›, which represents the sound ‹z›.

The letter ‹tâ›, which represents the sound ‹t›.

The letter ‹re›, which represents the sound ‹r›.

Note.svg Reading words:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
Read these words by breaking them down into their component parts.
چرا

‹čerâ›: ج‍ ‍ر ا

صبح

‹sobh›: ص‍ ‍ب‍ ‍ح

بابا

‹bâbâ›: ب‍ ا‍ ب‍ ‍ا

اسم
Stub
This exercise is incomplete. Help the English Wikibooks Persian Language course by completing it.
چرا

‹čerâ›: ج‍ ‍ر ا

اثاث

‹asâs›: ا‍ ث‍ ا‍ ث

توت
Stub
This exercise is incomplete. Help the English Wikibooks Persian Language course by completing it.
Note.svg Word recognition.:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
See if you can recognize these familiar words:
ژاكت

ژاكت Look up ژاكت in Wiktionary ‹žâkat› (“jacket”)

بازار

بازار Look up بازار in Wiktionary ‹bâzâr› (“bazar, marketplace”)

بد

بد Look up بد in Wiktionary ‹bad› (“bad (not good)”)

Review[edit]

In this lesson, you learned some greetings, the first nine letters of the Persian Alphabet, and how to spell several words with those letters from right to left. You also learned that short vowels are usually not written, and that many letters change their shape depending on whether they connect with letters before or after them.

Core vocabulary:
  • hâl› Look up حال in Wiktionary  About this sound /ˈhɒːl/ — “health”
  • ‹šo› Look up شما in Wiktionary  About this sound /ʃoˈmɒː/ — “you” (formal, shows speaker's respect for listener)
  • ‹cetor› Look up چطور in Wiktionary  About this sound /t͡ʃeˈtoɾ/ — “how”
  • ‹xofez› Look up خدا حافظ in Wiktionary  About this sound /xoˈdɒː hɒːˈfez/ — “May God keep you” (similar to “goodbye”, “God be with you”)
  • hâl-e šo cetor e?› — "How is your health?"
  • ‹man xub hastam.› — “I am well.”
  • ‹šo cetorin?› — “How are you?” (formal)
Letters:
  • د Look up د in Wiktionary ‹dâl›
  • ذ Look up ذ in Wiktionary ‹zâl›
  • ر Look up ر in Wiktionary ‹re›
  • ز Look up ز in Wiktionary ‹ze›
  • ژ Look up ژ in Wiktionary ‹že›
  • س Look up س in Wiktionary ‹sin›
  • ش Look up ش in Wiktionary ‹šin›
  • ص Look up ص in Wiktionary ‹sâd›
  • ض Look up ض in Wiktionary ‹zâd›
  • ط Look up ط in Wiktionary ‹tâ›
  • ظ Look up ظ in Wiktionary ‹zâ›
Bonus words:
  • داد Look up داد in Wiktionary ‹dâd› — “(he/she/it) gave”
  • ذات Look up ذات in Wiktionary ‹zât› — “essence”
  • در Look up در in Wiktionary ‹dar› — “to, for, at”
  • رز Look up رز in Wiktionary ‹roz› — “rose”
  • چرا Look up چرا in Wiktionary ‹ce› — “why”
  • ژخ Look up ژخ in Wiktionary ‹žax› — “wart”
  • سر Look up سر in Wiktionary ‹sar› — “head”
  • شب Look up شب in Wiktionary ‹šab› — “evening”
  • صد Look up صد in Wiktionary ‹sad› — “hundred”
  • ضد Look up ضد in Wiktionary ‹zed› — “opposite”
  • طاس Look up طاس in Wiktionary ‹tâs› — “bald”

Below are all the core vocabulary words from lessons 1 and 2. The far right column shows the words in Persian script. Don't worry if you can't yet read the Persian script:

All vocabulary Lessons 1 - 2   edit
English gloss Notes ‹fârsi› فارسی
Letter: [ɒː], [æ], [e], [o] Look up ا in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹alef ا
Noun: gentleman, sir, Mr. Look up آقا in Wiktionary Lesson 2 âqâ› آقا
Letter: [b] Look up ب in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹be› ب
Letter: [p] Look up پ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹pe› پ
Letter: [t] Look up ت in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹te› ت
Pronoun: you (singular, informal) Look up تو in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹tow› تو
Letter: [s] Look up ث in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹se› ث
Letter: [dʒ] Look up ج in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹jim› ج
Letter: [tʃ] Look up چ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹ce› چ
Adjective: how Look up چطور in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹cetor چطور
Phrase: How are you? (informal) Look up چطوری؟ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹cetori?› چطوری؟
Letter: [h] Look up ح in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹he› ح
Noun: health Look up حال in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹hâl› حال
Letter: [x] Look up خ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹xe› خ
Phrase: May God keep you. (Goodbye.) Look up خداحافظ. in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹xofez.› خداحافظ.
Phrase: I’m fine. Look up (من) خوبم. in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹(man) xubam.› (من) خوبم.
Letter: [d] Look up د in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹dâ› د
Letter: [z] Look up ذ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ذ
Letter: [ɾ] Look up ر in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹re› ر
Letter: [z] Look up ز in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹ze› ز
Letter: [ʒ] Look up ژ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹že› ژ
Letter: [s] Look up س in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sin› س
Phrase: Peace (hello)! Look up سلام! in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹salâm!› سلام!
Letter: [ʃ] Look up ش in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šin› ش
Pronoun: you (plural or polite singular) Look up شما in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šomâ› شما
Letter: [s] Look up ص in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sâd› ص
Letter: [z] Look up ض in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâd› ض
Letter: [t] Look up ط in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹tâ› ط
Letter: [z] Look up ظ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ظ
Interjection: thanks Look up مرسی in Wiktionary Lesson 1 mersi› مرسی
Pronoun: I, me Look up من in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹man› من

Next: Lesson 3 ( ۳ ), The alphabet (continued)

Continue to Lesson 3 ( ۳ ), The alphabet (continued) >>

ContentsIntroduction

Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting