Persian/Lesson 6

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Iran

Afghanistan

Tajikistan

فارسی (‹fârsi›, “Persian”)
Learn the Persian language
ContentsIntroduction
Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting

Farsi

To continue, your computer must display Persian. The box below should show these Persian letters on the far right: Paa-individua.svgBaa-individua.svgAlif-individua.svg
ا ب پ ت ث ج چ ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل م ن و ه ی

If they are different or in the wrong order, see Persian Computing.


In this lesson, you will learn how to build noun phrases with اضافه ‹ezâfe› and with demonstrative adjectives.

Dialogue: اسم شما چی است؟ ‹esm-e šomâ ci-st?›[edit]

... and... are talking....

X: ‹â-ye Šahidi ostâd-e man e.›
“Mr. Shahidi is my professor.”
آقای شهیدی استاد من است.
Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
...:
Y: ‹...›
“...”
...
Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
...:
X: ‹esm-e šomâ ci-st?›
“What is your name?”
اسم شما چی است؟
Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
...:
Y: ‹...›
“...”
...
Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
...:
X: ‹...›
“...”
...
Missing audio Missing audio. If you are fluent in Persian, record and upload your voice.
...:

Explanation

Shahidi and ....

Vocabulary

  • استاذ Look up استاذ in Wiktionary ‹ostâd› About this sound /oˈstɒːd/ — “professor”
  • ی Look up ی in Wiktionary ‹ye, e› — “of” (see explanation of ezâfe below)
  • اسم Look up اسم in Wiktionary ‹esm› — “name”

Ezâfe[edit]

  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the door of the house” 
  در خانه  
  در خانه  
 ←  dar ‹e› ‹xune  
 ←  “door” “of” “house”  

An important part of Persian grammar is the handy little linking element called اضافه Look up اضافه in Wiktionary ‹ezâfe› (“addition”). It is used to extend a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase by adding an unstressed particle similar English “of”, followed by other words like adjectives, nouns, pronouns, and full phrases.

After a consonant, the ezâfe particle is pronounced as an unstressed ‹e› in standard Persian and is not usually written. On the right, در Look up در in Wiktionary ‹dar› (“door”) is extended by the ezâfe particle and the noun خانه Look up خانه in Wiktionary ‹xune› (“house”), making the Persian phrase در خانهdar-e xune› (“the door of the house”). در ‹dar› ends in a consonant, so the ezâfe particle is pronounced ‹e› and is not written.


  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “my house” 
  خانه (خانهٔ) من  
  خانه من  
 ←  ‹xune ‹ye› man  
 ←  “house” “of” “me”  

After a vowel, the ezâfe particle is pronounced as unstressed ‹ye› and may be written as ی or, after a silent ه, it may be written as a miniature superscript ی that looks like a hamze diacritic, i.e. as هٔ. Usually, though, it is only written after a vowel when extra clarity is wanted; otherwise it is often left unwritten.

Older texts صندلئ راحتی ‹sandaliye rāhati› (“easy chair”)
Modern texts صندلی راحتی


  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the woman’s scarf” 
  روسریی زن  
  روسری ی زن  
 ←  ‹rusari ‹ye› zan  
 ←  “scarf” “of” “woman”  

When ezâfe extends one noun by adding another, it often indicates that the first noun’s referent belongs to the second one’s, as shown on the right in the Persian phrase روسریی زن ‹rusari-ye zan› (“the woman’s scarf”). In older texts, ezâfe after ی is often represented by a small superscripted ی that resembles hamzeء ), so you may see words like روسرئ زن , but today, یی (and thus روسریی زن ) is more common.

Colloquially, short forms are used even after vowels.

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Adding a noun with ezâfe is not only used for ownership. It may indicate a family relationship:

  • ناصر خسرو ‹nâser-e xosrow› (“Nasir, [son] of Khusraw”)
  • پدر و مادر من و شما ‹pedar o mâdar e man o šo› (“mother and father of me and you”)

It may indicate composition or purpose:

  • کاسه مس ‹kâse-ye mes› (“the bowl [made] of copper, the copper bowl”)
  • آب زندگیâb-e zendegi› (“the water of life”)

It may also used for apposition:

  • آقای پیمان ‹â-ye peymân› (“the gentleman Peyman, Mr. Peyman”)
  • روز جمعهruz-e jom’e› (“the day Friday”)
  • شهر تهرانšahr-e tehrân› (“the city of Tehran”)


  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the big door” 
  در بزرک  
  در بزرک  
 ←  dar ‹e› ‹bozorg  
 ←  “door” “[that is]” “big”  

Ezâfe is also used to add an adjective, as in the phrase در بزرکdar e bozorg› (“the big door”), shown on the right. The particle in such constructions is not usually translated into English as a separate word, but it may be thought of as “that is”.

  • آب گرمâb-e garm› (“water [that is] warm, warm water”)


  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “on (the face of) the wall” 
  بر روی دیوار  
  بر روی دیوار  
 ←  ‹bar› ruy ‹e› ‹divâr  
 ←  “on” “face” “of” “wall”  

Ezâfe is also used with certain nouns that have preposition-like meaning. In the example on the right and the one below, the nouns روی Look up روی in Wiktionary ‹ruy› (“face”) and زیر Look up زیر in Wiktionary ‹zir› (“underside”) are used like prepositions with the help of ezâfe:

  • از زیر میز ‹az zir-e miz› (“from the underside of the table”)

Ezâfe is also used to add prepositional phrases, e.g. بعد از Look up بعد از in Wiktionary ‹ba’d az ...› (“after ...”):

  • روز بعد از آن اتفاقruz-e ba’d az un ettefâq› (“the day after that accident”)


  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the big door of my house” 
  در بزرک خانه من  
  در بزرک خانه من  
 ←  dar ‹e› ‹bozorg ‹e› ‹xune ‹ye› man  
 ←  “door” “[that is]” “big” “of” “house” “of” “me”  

A noun phrase created with ezâfe may be extended with ezâfe again, as shown on the right.

Demonstrative Adjectives[edit]

  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “this book” 
  این متاب  
  این کتاب  
 ←  ‹in› ‹ketâb›  
 ←  “this” “book”  
  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “that boy” 
  آن پسر  
  آن پسر  
 ←  ‹un› ‹pesar›  
 ←  “that” “boy”  

As the dialogues in the previous lessons have shown, Persian does not have a word that corresponds to the English definite article “the”. To say, “the book”, for example, the noun کتاب Look up کتاب in Wiktionary ‹ketâb› (“book”) is normally used alone. Persian does, however, have the demonstrative adjectives این Look up این in Wiktionary ‹in› (“this”) and آن Look up آن in Wiktionary ‹un› (“that”). These two words, unlike typical adjectives, are used before the noun with no intervening particle, as shown in the examples on the right.

Demonstrative contractions:

  • اینجا Look up اینجا in Wiktionary ‹injâ› (“here”)
  • آنجا Look up آنجا in Wiktionary ‹ânjâ› (“there”), colloquially pronounced ‹unjâ›
  • چنین Look up چنین in Wiktionary ‹conin› (“like this”), colloquially pronounced ‹cenin›
  • چنین Look up چنین in Wiktionary ‹conân› (“like that”), colloquially pronounced ‹cenun›
  • همین Look up همین in Wiktionary ‹hamin› (“this [very] same”)
  • همان Look up همان in Wiktionary ‹hamân› (“that [very] same”), colloquially ‹hamun›
  • کجا Look up کجا in Wiktionary ‹kojâ› (“where”)

Demonstrative pronouns:

  • آنها Look up آنها in Wiktionary ‹unhâ› (“those there”) or just "those", special case where ها is always joined
  • اینها Look up اینها in Wiktionary ‹inhâ› (“these here”), second special case where ها ‹hâ› is always joined


Exercises[edit]

Note.svg Ezâfe:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
1. Translate the following sentences into English:
  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the boy's hair” 
  موی پسر  
   
 ←  ‹mu› ‹-ye› ‹pesar›  
 ←  “hair” “of” “boy”  
  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the garden gate” 
  در باغ

 
  در باغ  
 ←  ‹dar› ‹-e› ‹bâq›  
 ←  “gate” “of”

“garden”  
  Each line below reads from right to left: the Persian expression, its components, transcription, and glosses.  “the Arabic woman” 
  زن اربی

 
  زن اربی  
 ←  ‹zan› ‹e› ‹arabi›  
 ←  “woman” “[who is]”

“Arabic”  
  • Daneshju-ye irani: “The Iranian student”
  • man-e bicâra (poor me) [Not really a qualifying adjective here]
Create Persian sentences with this formula:
  • [...] دوست من است. ‹[...] dust-e man e.› (“[...] is a friend of mine.”)
Introduce yourself by your first name by replacing “[...]” in one of the sentences below with your first name.

If your name ends in a consonant, use this:

اسم من [...] است. اسم شما چی است؟ ‹esm-e man [...] e. esm-e šomâ ci-st?› (“My name is [...]. What is your name?”)

If your name ends in a vowel, use this (note, the final ‹e› above becomes ‹s›):

اسم من [...] است. اسم شما چی است؟ ‹esm-e man [...] s. esm-e šomâ ci-st?› (“My name is [...]. What is your name?”)

Introduce yourself by your full name using the same formula.

Translate the following sentences into Persian:
Hassan's house

حسن حسن ‹Hassan-e xune›

2. Using the vocabulary below make 5 simple sentences using ezâfe:
{{Persian/vocab-list

‎|نمک|namak||salt| ‎|نمكدان|||zoutvat|Fa-نمكدان.ogg }}

Note.svg Demonstrative adjectives:
(To check your answers, click “[show ▼]”.)
Translate the following phrases into Persian.
this book

این کتاب‌ ‹in ketâb›

that girl

آن دختر ‹ân doxtar›

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Translate the following Persian phrases into English.
این گل

this flower

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Review[edit]

In this lesson, you learned ....

Core vocabulary:
  • ابپثت Look up ابپثت in Wiktionary ‹abepesete› — “lorem ipsum dolor...”
اکرم - Akram
کودک - child
می‌ریزد - strooiende
آن نمک است - dat is zout
اردک - eend
بازی کردن - to open
بازی می‌کند - i opened
...s:
  • ابپثت Look up ابپثت in Wiktionary ‹abepesete› — “lorem ipsum dolor...”
آن نمکدان است - dat is een zoutvat
این کودک اکرم است - Dit kind heet Akram
اکرم نمکدان در دست دارد - Akram heeft een zoutvat in de hand
او با نمکدان نمک می‌ریزد - Zij strooit zout met het zoutvat
...s:
  • ابپثت Look up ابپثت in Wiktionary ‹abepesete› — “lorem ipsum dolor...”
این اردک است - dit is een eend
اردک در آب بازی می‌کند - de eend speelt in het water
این بز است - dit is een geit
این بز بازی می‌کند - die geit speelt
  • ‹abepesete› Look up ابپثت in Wiktionary  — “lorem ipsum dolor...”


All vocabulary Lessons 1 - 6   edit
English gloss Notes ‹fârsi› فارسی
Letter: [ɒː], [æ], [e], [o] Look up ا in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹alef ا
Noun: gentleman, sir, Mr. Look up آقا in Wiktionary Lesson 2 âqâ› آقا
Adjective: American Look up آمریکایی in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹âmriyi› آمریکایی
Pronoun: they Look up آنها in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹ân, onâ› آنها
Verb: am, is, are Look up ام، ای، است، ایم، اید، اند in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹am, i, ast, im, in, an› ام، ای، است، ایم، اید، اند
Noun: name Look up اسم in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹esm› اسم
Pronoun: he, she Look up او in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹u› او
Adjective: Iranian Look up ایرانی in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹ini› ایرانی
Letter: [b] Look up ب in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹be› ب
Interjection: excuse me Look up ببخشید in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹bebaxšid› ببخشید
Adjective: bad Look up بد in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹bad› بد
Verb: to be Look up بودن in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹budan› بودن
Letter: [p] Look up پ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹pe› پ
Letter: [t] Look up ت in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹te› ت
Pronoun: you (singular, informal) Look up تو in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹tow› تو
Letter: [s] Look up ث in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹se› ث
Letter: [dʒ] Look up ج in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹jim› ج
Letter: [tʃ] Look up چ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹ce› چ
Adjective: how Look up چطور in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹cetor چطور
Phrase: How are you? (informal) Look up چطوری؟ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹cetori?› چطوری؟
Pronoun: what? Look up چی in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹ci› چی
Letter: [h] Look up ح in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹he› ح
Noun: health Look up حال in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹hâl› حال
Noun: your health (informal) Look up حالت in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹hâlet› حالت
Letter: [x] Look up خ in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹xe› خ
Phrase: May God keep you. (Goodbye.) Look up خداحافظ. in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹xofez.› خداحافظ.
Noun: (person) wife, lady, Miss Look up خانم in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹xânom› خانم
Phrase: I’m fine. Look up (من) خوبم. in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹(man) xubam.› (من) خوبم.
Phrase: Nice to meet you. Look up خوشبختم in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹xošbaxtam› خوشبختم
Interjection: no Look up خیر in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹xeyr› خیر
very Look up خیلی in Wiktionary Lesson 3 xeyli› خیلی
Letter: [d] Look up د in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹dâ› د
Letter: [z] Look up ذ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ذ
Letter: [ɾ] Look up ر in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹re› ر
Letter: [z] Look up ز in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹ze› ز
Letter: [ʒ] Look up ژ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹že› ژ
Letter: [s] Look up س in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sin› س
Phrase: Peace (hello)! Look up سلام! in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹salâm!› سلام!
Letter: [ʃ] Look up ش in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šin› ش
Pronoun: you (plural or polite singular) Look up شما in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹šomâ› شما
Letter: [s] Look up ص in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹sâd› ص
Interjection: Good morning Look up صبح بخیر in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹sobh bexeyr صبح بخیر
Letter: [z] Look up ض in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâd› ض
Letter: [t] Look up ط in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹tâ› ط
Letter: [z] Look up ظ in Wiktionary Lesson 2 ‹zâ› ظ
Letter: [ʔ] Look up ع in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹’eyn› ع
Letter: [ɣ], [ɢ] Look up غ in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹qeyn› غ
Letter: [f] Look up ف in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹fe› ف
Letter: [ɢ], [ɣ], [q] Look up ق in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹qaf› ق
Letter: [k] Look up ک in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹kaf› ک
Adjective: from where? Look up کجایی in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹kojâi کجایی
Letter: [g] Look up گ in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹gaf› گ
Letter: [l] Look up ل in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹lâm› ل
Letter: [m] Look up م in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹mim› م
Pronoun: us Look up ما in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹mâ› ما
Interjection: thanks Look up مرسی in Wiktionary Lesson 1 mersi› مرسی
Pronoun: I, me Look up من in Wiktionary Lesson 1 ‹man› من
Letter: [n] Look up ن in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹nun› ن
Verb: (I) am not Look up نیستم in Wiktionary Lesson 3 nistam› نیستم
Letter: [v], [u], [ow] Look up و in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹vâv› و
Conjunction: and Look up و in Wiktionary Lesson 3 ‹va, vo, o› و
Letter: [h] Look up ه in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹he› ه
Verb: am, is, are Look up هستم، هستی، هست، هستیم، هستید، هستند in Wiktionary Lesson 5 ‹hastam, hasti, hast, hastim, hastin, hastan› هستم، هستی، هست، هستیم، هستید، هستند
Noun: Persian New Year’s tradition of “seven S’s” Look up هفت‌سین in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹haftsin› هفت‌سین
Letter: [j], [i], [ej] Look up ی in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹ye› ی
Particle: of Look up ی in Wiktionary Lesson 6 ‹ye, e› ی
Symbol: (ligature) lam-alef Look up لا in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹lâ› لا
Symbol: (diacritic) tashdid (“strengthening”) Look up ّ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹tašdid› ّ
Symbol: (diacritic) hamze Look up ء in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹’› ء
Symbol: (diacritic) zabar (“above”) Look up َ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹a› َ
Symbol: (diacritic) zir (“below”) Look up ِ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹e› ِ
Symbol: (diacritic) pish (“before”) Look up ُ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹o› ُ
Symbol: (diacritic) sokun Look up ْ in Wiktionary Lesson 4 ‹-› ْ

Next: Lesson 7 ( ۷ ), Simple past tense

Continue to Lesson 7 ( ۷ ), Simple past tense >>

ContentsIntroduction

Persian Alphabet lessons: 1 ( ۱ )2 ( ۲ )3 ( ۳ )4 ( ۴ )
Elementary grammar: 5 ( ۵ )6 ( ۶ )7 ( ۷ )8 ( ۸ )9 ( ۹ )
10 ( ۱۰ )11 ( ۱۱ )12 ( ۱۲ )13 ( ۱۳ )14 ( ۱۴ )15 ( ۱۵ )
Intermediate: 16 ( ۱۶ )17 ( ۱۷ )18 ( ۱۸ )19 ( ۱۹ )20 ( ۲۰ )
21 ( ۲۱ )22 ( ۲۲ )23 ( ۲۳ )24 ( ۲۴ )25 ( ۲۵ )26 ( ۲۶ )
Advanced:
Appendix: AlphabetGlossaryHandwriting


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