TPACKing for a Wonderful Educational Trip
This is a project that was begun in Dr. Leigh Zeitz's Spring 2012 graduate class: "Coordinating Technology in an Educational Environment." It has been extended by Dr. Z's Spring 2014 Coordinating Technology course as well.
Technology-Rich Learning Environments (TRLEs) improve learning opportunities. As students become more comfortable using technology to learn, they will be better prepared to transition from high school into the workplace. Education of students is not based on technology; rather, it is using technology to enhance learning experiences. Since equipment and operating systems quickly become obsolete, technologically literate students will be able to apply skills learned in one platform to determine adaptive actions when encountering similar programs. Mastering the subject matter should be the target when integrating technology and managing equipment life-cycles.
Our graduate cohort believes that 1:1 environments allow educators to approach education in a whole new way. Computers cannot simply be “added” to the current educational paradigm. Educators need to re-evaluate and re-think how best to prepare students for their futures. In fact, we believe that students must be permitted to take a greater share of responsibility for their own learning. We believe that when technology is truly integrated, students will see technology as they “see” a pencil - as a tool needed to complete projects.
Pedagogical, technological, and subject matter expertise (TPack) are equal parts in well-designed project (or problem) based learning activities. The most successful teachers have always blended these parts. With the speed of technological advances and the increased collaborative spirit in today's environment, conscious efforts to create shared learning activities have occupied a large portion of this term's class.
This Wikibook provides concrete resources that model TPaCK principles to illustrate how this new paradigm is actually an update of good teaching throughout the history of education. Finding real-world problems for students to analyze, creatively solve, and evaluate in the manner that is most accessible for each learner is a goal for which all educators strive.
What is TPaCK?
Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) attempts to identify the knowledge required by teachers to integrate technology in their teaching, the content knowledge needed to be successful teaching a particular subject, and the knowledge of the best pedagogical approach share the information. As the figure above illustrates there is a complex interplay among the knowledge forms. The TPaCK framework builds on Shulman’s idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge, and it was developed by Punya Mishra and Matthew J. Koehler.
As part of the University of Northern Iowa's Spring 2012 Coordinating Technology in an Educational Setting class, groups constructed 1:1 technology plans for schools - real, fictitious, or blended. The groups chose hardware, wrote grants, planned professional development, and created lessons designed to efficiently and effectively integrate pedagogy, technology, and subject matter (aka TPaCK). TPaCKing in this wikibook uses the Iowa Core Curriculum and focuses on essential 21st Century skills, standards, and benchmarks.
In planning each lesson, individual designers chose technology that they knew would effectively integrate into the unit. Technology was chosen to enhance the learning process and provide students creative control and the opportunity to collaborate with peers.
The guidelines that groups followed regarding pedagogy are modeled after the Iowa Core Curriculum (Characteristics of Effective Instruction), which are detailed below.
- Student-Centered Classrooms
- Students are directly involved and invested in the discovery of their own knowledge. Through collaboration and cooperation with others, students engage in experiential learning which is authentic, holistic, and challenging. Students are empowered to use prior knowledge to construct new learning and develop meta cognitive processes to reflect on their thinking.
- Teaching For Understanding
- Students engage in a variety of thought-provoking activities such as explaining, finding evidence and examples, generalizing, applying, making analogies, and representing the topic in new ways. Teachers make learning a long-term, thinking-centered process; engage students in assessment for learning processes; support learning with representations and conceptual models; teach for learner differences; induct students into the discipline; and teach for transfer (Perkins, 1993).
- Assessment For Learning
- Process used by teachers and students provides feedback adjusting teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of core content. Formative assessment practices provide students with clear learning targets, examples, and models of strong and weak work, regular descriptive feedback, and the ability to self-assess, track learning, and set goals.
- Rigor And Relevance
- Lessons are cognitively demanding and challenge students to apply essential concepts and skills to real-world, complex and open-ended situations. Content is linked to core concepts or skills and requires authentic work, discipline-specific methods, and applying what is known or being learned to solve complex problems. Involves use of prior knowledge, development of in-depth understanding, and the ability to develop and express ideas and findings through elaborated communication.
- Teaching For Learner Differences
- Planning for and responding to variances among learners creates the best learning experience possible. These principles are part of Universal Design for Learning or UDL. This planning includes processes to determine the effectiveness of instruction, the use of data to guide instructional decision-making, and safeguards to insure access for all students.
- Contact your local subject matter expert!
The Mitchell School for Performing Arts (Team J B D W M)
BMK High School (Meet the Teachers)
Dream High School (3 Girls and a Guy)
Panther High School (The Fightin' Fourth)
MCCL School (Team MCCL)
JaJoSa Elementary School (The TechSperts)
Norman Borlaug Community School District (Amy, Randon, and Heather)
John T. Nash Elementary School (Kelsey, Mindy, Andi)
William Heights Elementary School (Ashley, Mel, and Amber)
TriState Middle School (Marija, Tyler, Kirstin and Ann)
Iowa Tech High School (Jeremy, Jarod, Brian, Samir & Tyler)
General Editor - Linda Engel