Chloroquine is used as a medicine against malaria and for treating rheumatism of the joints. It is marketed in three forms:
- as a base
- as a salt with phosphate or sulphate
- as a hydroxyl compound
The salts are not as strong as the base. Thus, if one plans on using the salts, it is suggested to add an extra grams.
When taken in overdose amounts, chloroquine causes death through cardiac arrest.
Mechanism of action
The cardiotoxicity of chloroquine is related to its quinidine-like and membrane-stabilizing effects. Chloroquine has a negative inotropic action (i.e. acts on sodium channels and thereby lowers the transmembrane voltage). As such, Chloroquine inhibits spontaneous diastolic depolarisation, slows conduction, lengthens the effective refractory period and raises the electrical threshold (Jaeger et al., 1987). This results in depression of contractility, impairment of conductivity, decrease of excitability, but with possible abnormal stimulus re-entry mechanism. Severe tachycardia is expected to follow, preceded by loss of voltage and widening of QRS, followed by sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and finally asystole and death.
The most important feature of acute chloroquine intoxication is the rapid onset (within one to three hours) of severe toxic manifestations. Drowsiness appears early: within 10 to 30 minutes of ingestion. Severe cardiovascular symptoms appear within one to three hours of ingestion. Fatal outcome usually occurs within two to three hours. The cause of death is circulatory arrest which is related to cardiac insufficiency or ventricular arrhythmia.
Evidence and reported cases
"In adults fatalities have been reported after ingestion of 2.25 to 3 g chloroquine (Britton & Kevau, 1978). Without treatment, a dose of 4 g is usually lethal. So 20 mg/kg is a toxic dose, 30 mg/kg may be lethal and 40 mg/kg is usually lethal without early intensive therapy (Jaeger et al., 1987)."
According to a Dutch euthanasia organisation, 12 people who used Chloroquine (though combined with a short-acting benzodiazepine and Zopiclone), were reported to have successfully died. In cases where the time it took to die was monitored by relatives, 2-3 hours was the time until death occured.
Official use as an euthanasia agent
"Chloroquine, which is the major ingredient of the euthanasia composition, has been discussed at length by right-to-die advocates as a means to carry out assisted suicide or euthanasia."
"While the composition may have been intended initially for animal euthanasia, its potential for human use was acknowledged by MSU in 1994 when an EPO examiner noted that the patent application's claims would encompass human use."
In many countries worldwide, you can legally buy chloroquine without a prescription. This is especially the case in countries where malaria is naturally occurring. However, in the United States, it seems a prescription is required. If you are unsure whether chloroquine is a prescription-only medication in your area, please check with your local pharmacist - the odds are stacked in your favour.
The book Departing Drugs claimed that chloroquine should not be used in conjunction with diazepam, as they might set off each others' effects. As such, this book, according to Guide to a Humane Self-Chosen Death recommends the use of Zopiclon in the cocktail. Examination of the text of Departing Drugs shows this not to be the case. Dr Admiraal had taken his information from an unauthorised version of the book produced by a Dutch society. Dr. Admiraal said in his book that case reports have shown that Zopiclone (a non-benzodiazepine sedative) may be slow in inducing a deep sleep. Dr. Admiraal suggested that diazepam can be used, and that it never was proven to counter-act the particular effect that turns chloroquine into a lethal drug. However, following the research of this wiki's authors, we found that diazepam in high doses can indeed act as a set-off to the cardiac poisoning-properties of chloroquine. Nevertheless, this may only occur in high doses (usually ones that were administered intravenously).
As a result of what is stated above, we recommend one of the following cocktails:
- Option #1:
|Antiemetic drugs must be taken beforehand|
|Chloroquine (Base)||11 grams|
- Option #2: ? (The original author of this article may have forgotten to add the second option.)
- If you only have access to chloroquine phosphate, then ingest 17.5 grams instead of the 11 grams mentioned above.
- If you only have access to hydroxychloroquine, then ingest 20 grams instead of the 11 grams mentioned above.
- If you only have access to chloroquine sulphate, then ingest 12.5 grams instead of the 11 grams mentioned above.
- If you happen to have phenobarbital, then you can use 3 grams of it, instead of zolpidem and Zopiclone.
Credentials and reliability
The Chloroquine Cocktail was created by a committee of medical professionals, which consist(ed) of:
- The late Dr. Pieter V. Admiraal, M.D. and Ph.D. Was a retired anaesthetist as well as a member of the Committee of Euthanatics of the Royal Dutch Pharmaceutical Society.
- Boudewijn E. Chabot, M.D. A psychiatrist and researcher in medical sociology. He has a website dedicated to a dignified end for the elderly (click here).
- Russel D. Ogden, criminologist and researcher in new technology for self-deliverance.
- Aad Rietveld (pen name), Ph.D. A biochemist and medical toxicologist by trade.
- Jan Glerum, Ph.D. A retired professor of clinical pharmacy and a hospital pharmacist.
The committee also declared (see their book Guide to a Humane Self-Chosen Death) to have received advice and consultancy from two professors in hospital pharmacy, who critically reviewed and improved their drug cocktail suicide methods. Last but not least, the committee received suggestions for improvements from the advisory board of WOZZ. WOZZ is an abbreviation of Dutch Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek naar Zorgvuldige Zelfdoding, which would roughly mean Scientific Research for Carefully-Executed Suicide in English. WOZZ is a foundation that was established by four doctors who were researching the subject matter of a humane self-chosen death.
- Jaeger, A. and F. Flesch. 1994. “Chloroquine”. Pavillon Pasteur—Hospices Civils de Strasbourg. Sections: (2). Retrieved 2009-01-02. http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/chloroqu.htm