25% developed


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The open source Handbook of Microfabrication and Microtechnology 25% developed

The Wikibook on Microtechnology has been started with the intention to gather information in one place about the various applications, fabrication methods and systems to provide students, researchers and everyone else an open-source handbook and overview guide.

Material is continuously being added to this book -join the effort to create it! Overview Tables:
Encourage the authors -use the discussion page There is a related book on Nanotechnology.
Latest major addition: Semiconductor Electronic Properties Google Search in this book

Contents Detailed descriptions (100% developed-icons are individual web pages; Numbers are sub-sections)


What is microtechnology about - what can you use it for and where is it going?

50% developed Introduction

  1. A Perspective on Microtechnology
  2. Applications of Microtechnology

50% developed Overviews

  1. Internet Resources
  2. Journals
  3. Microtech Products & Companies
  4. A Micro-technology Timeline

50% developed About the Book

  1. Vision
  2. How to Contribute
  3. History
  4. Authors
  5. Support and Acknowledgements

25% developed Reaching Out

  1. Outreach Projects
  2. Demonstration Experiments
  3. Teaching Microtechnology


Silicon is the traditional microfabrication material for making computer chips and other electronic circuits. A wealth of other material types are being increasingly used for lab-on-a-chip systems and cheap disposable circuits.

25% developed Materials

  1. Overview
  2. Applications and Uses
  3. Product Life-Cycles
  4. Environmental Considerations
  5. Wafers and Substrates Overview

25% developed Semiconductors

  1. Silicon
  2. Polycrystalline Silicon
  3. IV Semiconductors
  4. III-V Semiconductors
  5. II-VI Semiconductors

25% developed Insulators

  1. Silicon Dioxide
  2. Silicon Nitride
  3. PMMA
  4. PDMS
  5. SU8

25% developed Conductors

  1. Noble Metals
  2. Alloys
  3. Silicides


Microfabrication is largely concerned with making microchips by batch processing silicon (and an increasing number of different materials) wafers into individual chips in a cleanroom facility. Cleanrooms are used because dust must be avoided. The parts of a microchip are much smaller than the average dust particle, and a single particle can wreak havoc in a sensitive process (not only making a fault at some point on the wafer, but also contaminating process equipment) The processes can roughly be divided into Additive and etching processes that wither add or remove material, and lithography that creates patterns on the surface.

50% developed Additive Processes

  1. Overview
  2. Oxidation
  3. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
  4. Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
  5. Epitaxial Growth
  6. Electrochemical Methods
  7. Spinning
  8. Surface Functionalization

50% developed Etching Processes

  1. Etchants
  2. Wet Etch Overview Table
  3. Wet Etch Compatibility Chart
  4. Capillary Effects
  5. Silicon KOH Etch
  6. Silicon Oxide Etch (HF, BHF, BOE)
  7. Silicon Nitride Etch
  8. Metal Etches
  9. Cleaning Methods
  10. Dry Etching Overview
  11. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE, DRIE, ASE)
  12. Dry Cleaning Methods (Plasma, Ozone)
  13. Laser Ablation
  14. Gas Etches

25% developed Lithography

  1. Ultra Violet Lithography (UVL)
  2. Electron Beam Lithography (EBL)
  3. Resist Coatings

25% developed Additional Methods

  1. Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA)
  2. Wafer Bonding
  3. Electrical Connections
  4. Doping
  5. Packaging
  6. Ellipsometry
  7. 4 Point Measurements
  8. Atomic Force Microscopy
  9. Scanning Electron Microscopy
  10. Optical Microscopy
  11. Vacuum Equipment


Reading this, you are quite used to your computer which is based on microelectronics, you access the internet which would not work well without photonics. The airbag sensor in you car is a MEMS devices and shortly you will also find lab-on-a-chip devices in your everyday life.

25% developed Microelectronics

  1. An Ohmic Resistor
  2. The Diode
  3. The Transistor
  4. CMOS

25% developed Photonics

  1. Waveguides
  2. Photonic Band Gap Structures
  3. Electro-optical Devices

50% developed Micro-electromechanical Systems (MEMS)

  1. Applications
  2. Resonators
  3. Strain Gauges
  4. Pressure Sensors
  5. AFM cantilevers
  6. Acceleration Detectors
  7. Optical Beam Control
  8. RF MEMS

25% developed Microfluidics and Sensors

  1. Applications
  2. Microfluidic Pumps
  3. Microfluidic Valves
  4. Chemical Noses
  5. PCR Systems
  6. Microfluidic Cell Handling