Processes where material is added to the wafer.
Oxidation in microtechnology refers most often to the oxidation of silicon. A layer of silicon dioxide created on the surface of a silicon wafer can be easily patterned. An SiO2 layer can be created by thermal oxidation or by deposition.
Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
Electron Beam Evaporation Coating
- Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE)
- Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using solid sources and Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) using gasseuos sources.
- Epitaxy in general.
- Atomic layer epitaxy where only a few monolayers are deposited and bond to chemisorption sites on the surface.
- Electroless nickel plating
- Electrochemical deposition of metals onto silicon
- Y. Okinaka, in Electroless Plating: Fundamentals and Applications, edited by Glenn O. Mallory and Juan B. Hajdu, Chapter 15, American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society (1990).
Photo and electron beam resists as well as many other polymers are often coated on wafers by spinning a volatile solution of the compund onto the wafer.
See also notes on editing this book about how to add references Microtechnology/About#How to Contribute.