Microtechnology/Additional Methods

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Additional Methods[edit]

Apart from additiev and etching processes, there is also a range of processes to alter the materials properties and to characterize them.

Rapid Thermal Anneal (RTA)[edit]

Wafer Bonding[edit]

Wafer bonding

Wafer bond characterization

Electrical Connections[edit]


Ion Implantation[edit]

Diffusion Doping[edit]

Spin-on doping[edit]




  • Silicone oil
  • Spray-on polymers
  • Epo-tek H77 is a common packaging two-component UHV compatible epoxy glue.
  • Fortafix makes a high temperature glue that should work up to around 1000 C called Rocksett.
  • Vitcas Refractories manufacturer of high temperature glue/adhesives for industrial and domestic use up to 1700 C


Ellipsometers are used to measure thin film thicknesses by their optical properties (refractive index and reflectivity/absorbance).

4 Point Measurements[edit]

The four-point probe technique can be used to measure the conductivity of thin films. For improved measurements micro four-point probes can be used. Capres has an application note about micro four-point probes.

Atomic Force Microscopy[edit]

The Atomic force microscope (AFM) is mainly used to measure the topography of a surface, such as the roughness.

Scanning Electron Microscopy[edit]

JEOL has a good guide to SEM image interpretation

Optical Microscopy[edit]

Theres a good introduction to optical microscopy from Zeiss.

Vacuum Equipment[edit]


See also notes on editing this book about how to add references Microtechnology/About#How to Contribute.