Lombard/Irregular verbs

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Lombard language course
Morphology of Lombard language

Articles
Nouns
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PronounsSubject personal pronouns •• Object and term personal pronouns •• Pronominal and adverbial particles - Demonstrative pronouns •• Possessive pronouns •• Indefinite pronouns
VerbsMoods and tenses •• Infinitive •• Gerund and gerundial complements •• Participle - Present Indicative •• Past Indicative (Perfect Indicative) •• Imperfect Indicative •• Past Perfect Indicative •• Simple Future Indicative •• Compound Future Indicative •• Present Subjunctive •• Past Subjunctive (Perfect Subjunctive) •• Imperfect Subjunctive •• Past Perfect Subjunctive •• Present Conditional •• Past Conditional •• Present Imperative •• Future Imperative •• Continuous construction ••• Irregular verbs
••• Auxiliary verbs
••• Modal verbs
••• Phrasal verbs
Prepositions and prepositional locutions
Adverbs and adverbial locutions
Pronominal and adverbial particles
Negation
Other constructions replacing the adverbs "easily" and "hardly"
Conjunctions and conjunctive locutions

Lombard The reference orthography for this page of Lombard course is New Lombard orthography

Verbs that have many irregular forms[edit | edit source]

Main irregular verbs[edit | edit source]

In addition to the auxiliary verbs, there is a small series of verbs that have many irregular forms. They are , andà, , stà, trà, savé, volé, podé, , dové (here written in Milanese dialect, but what is said stands for all dialects)[1]. For consultation of the conjugations, see Lombard language wikitionary:

conjugation of "fà"
conjugation of "andà"
conjugation of "dà"
conjugation of "trà"
conjugation of "stà"
conjugation of "savé"
conjugation of "podé"
conjugation of "dì"
conjugation of "dové"

It should be noted that despite their irregularities, the way for conjugating "fà", "trà", "dà", "stà" is similar.

Note[edit | edit source]

  1. The verb dové is used very rarely, and usually due to the influence of Italian language. In Lombard it is generally replaced by the construction havégh de + infinitive (similar to the English to have to + infinitive)

Verbs ending in -ù and in -oeu[edit | edit source]

Two series of irregular verbs should also be noted which, however, can be considered regular with small precautions, they are:

  • Verbs ending in -ù (prodù, tradù, dedù...); they can be considered regular (except for the past participles in some dialects and obviously in the infinitive, see next paragraph) by adding an "s" i.e. they are conjugated as if their infinitive were produser, traduser, or a "c" for the formation of past participles in the dialects where this is regular (for example the Bergamasque dialect in which the past participle of prodù is producid).
  • Verbs ending in -oeu (toeu, distoeu...) can be considered regular (except for the past participles in some dialects and obviously the infinitive , see next paragraph) if you add a "v" (or a "g" depending on the dialect) i.e. they are conjugated as if their infinitive were toeuver, distoeuver. ..

Verbs ending in -egnì/-egn[edit | edit source]

The verbs with this ending, in addition to the possible irregularity in the past participle (see the following paragraphs), present a small irregularity in different dialects in the voices of the present indicative without desinence, i.e. only the 3rd singular in Western Lombard and the 3rd singular, the 1st and 3rd plural in Eastern Lombard. This irregularity consists in ending with -n instead of -gn.
For example:
in Milanese dialect: verb "tegnì"
Present indicative: mi tegni; ti te tegnet, lù el ten, num tegnom, vialter tegnii, lor (i) tegnen.

in Bergamasque dialect: verb "tegn"
Present indicative: mi tegne; ti te tegnet, lù el ten, noter am ten, voter tegnii, lor ten.
then for the rules of pronunciation in Bergamasque dialect the non-doubled final "n" is not pronounced.

Irregularity due to the apophony[edit | edit source]

Another predictable irregularity is the apophony, it consists in the transformation of "o" into "oeu" in Western Lombard or "u" into "oeu" in eastern Lombard for certain verb forms. Only the example of the verb "vorè" (usually written "volé" in standard NOL considering the "r" as a result of the rhotacism of the "l") in Milanese dialect is shown here although apophony is present in many disyllabic verbs that have "o" in the infinitive (or "u" in Eastern Lombard) not linked to a consonant on the penultimate syllable (before the consonant "v", "r"/"l", "g" or "d") such as "trovà", "mojà", "drovà" etc...

Voré (Milanese dialect)
Present indicative Imperfect indicative Simple future indicative Present subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Present conditional Present imperative
Mi voeuri vorevi voraroo voeura voressi voraria/vorariss/vorarissi -
Ti te voeuret vorevet voraree(t) voeuret voresset vorariet/vorarisset voeur!
Lu el /lee la voeur voreva vorarà voeura voress voraria/vorariss voeura!
Nun voeurom vorevom vorarèm voeurom voressom vorariom/vorarissom vorèm!
Vialter vorii vorevov vorarii vorii vorèssov vorariov/vorarissov voree!
Lor (i) voeuren voreven vorarànn voeuren vorèssen vorarien/vorarissen voeuren!
infinitive gerund participle
voré vorend(o) vorud

There is another exact opposite apophony, specular to the previous one, that of the transformation of "oeu" into "o" in Western Lombard or "oeu" into "u" in Eastern Lombard for the verbs of the third conjugation such as "moeuver", "scoeuder ", "noeuser" and also "toeu" which, as mentioned, is conjugated as if it were "toeuver"....

Moeuver (Milanese dialect)
Present indicative Imperfect indicative Simple future indicative Present subjunctive Imperfect subjunctive Present conditional Present imperative
Mi moeuvi movevi movaroo moeuva movessi movaria /movarissi -
Ti te moeuvet movevet movaree(t) moeuvet movesset movariet / movarisset moeuv!
Lu el /lee la moeuv moveva movarà moeuva movess movaria/movariss moeuva!
Nun moeuvom movevom movarèm moeuvom movessom movariom/movarissom movèm!
Vialter movii movevov movarii movii/moeuvov movessov movariov/movarissov movì!
Lor (i) moeuven moveven movarann moeuven movessen movarien/movarissen moeuven!
infinitive gerund participle
moeuver movend(o) movud

The apophonies are different between western Lombard (of which a representative example is the Milanese dialect) and eastern Lombard since le conjugations of verbs in eastern Lombard are different, however their collocation is intuitive , following the example of the Milanese dialect just shown.

Verbs that are irregular only in the past participle[edit | edit source]

Many verbs are regular in all forms except the past participle. Irregularities in the past participle are more prevalent in the Milanese dialect than in the other dialects, while Eastern Lombard dialects have the least amount of irregularities in the past participles. Irregular verbs in past participles can be grouped into groups with similar irregularities, so we can observe how irregular participles present a rule in their irregularity. Listed below are some irregular verbs divided into groups. The subdivision into groups based on the ending can help in understanding by analogy how a past participle of a verb not listed in the tables below can be made.

Ending in -ader[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -ader-as (IPA: /az/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
evader - evas to escape MI
dissuader - dissuas to dissuade MI
invader - invas to invade MI
persuader - persuas to persuade MI

Ending in -arger[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI General rule (MI ): -arger-ars (IPA: /ars/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
sparger - spars to scatter MI

Ending in -arì /-arè[edit | edit source]

Ending in -parì / -parè[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -arì /arè-ars (IPA: /ars/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
parì / parè parud pars to seem MI
descomparì descomparid descompars to disappear MI
comparì comparid compars to appear MI
valì / valé valud vals to be worth MI

Ending in -$arì con $ ≠ p[edit | edit source]

They are regular.

Ending in -eder[edit | edit source]

Disyllabic[edit | edit source]

Without a precise rule.

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
ceder cedud - to yield MI
leder - les to harm, to damage MI

Plurisyllabic[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -eder-ess (IPA: /ɛs/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
suceder sucedud sucess to happen MI

Ending in -esger, -eger, -ensger o -iger[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
Regola frequente (MI ): -eger / -enger / -iger-et (IPA: /ɛt/ - MI ) often in addiction to regolar form, only rarely regular
Attention: Not even in Milanese dialect these verbs always have irregular forms; for example lensger → lensgiud (but not let)

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
corresger corresgiud corret to correct MI
dirisger dirisgiud diret to direct MI
esiger esat to demand MI
lensger lensgiud to read MI
protesger protesgiud protet to protect MI
strensger strensgiud stret
strecc
to shake MI
MI (arcaic or provincial)
tensger tensgiud tint to dye MI


Ending in -ender[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
Frequent rule(MI ): -ender-es (IPA: /ez/ - MI ) sometimes in addiction to regular forms, pnore rarely only regolar

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
difender difendud difes to defend MI
dipender dipendud dipes to depend MI
imprender imprendud - to learn MI
render - res to make MI
ofender - ofes to offend MI
pretender pretendud pretes to pretend, to demand MI
condiscender - condisces to condescend MI
discender - disces to descend MI
comprender comprendud compres to comprehend MI
intender intendud intes to mean, to understand MI
spender spendud spes to spend MI
stender stendud stes to draft MI
sospender sospendud sospes to suspend MI
tender tendud tes to strive, to stretch MI
vender vendud - to sell MI

Ending in -erger o erder[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -erder / erger-ers (IPA: /ɛrs/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
disperder disperdud dispers to disperse MI
perder perdud pers to lose MI
emerger emergiud emers to emerge MI
somerger somergiud somers to submerge MI

Ending in -e$$ì con $ consonante[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -e$$ì-e$$ud (IPA: /ɛ$$y:/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
tegnì tegnid tegnud to hold MI
vegnì vegnid vegnud to come MI
sentì sentid sentud to feel, to hear MI

Ending in -eter[edit | edit source]

Ending in -meter[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -eter-iss (IPA: /is/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
ameter ametud amiss to admit MI
meter metud miss to put MI
prometer prometud promiss to promise MI

Ending in -neter[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -eter-ess (IPA: /ɛs/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
aneter - aness to annex MI
coneter - coness to connect MI

Ending in -ider[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -ider-is (IPA: /iz/ - MI ) sometimes in addictoin to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
decider decidud decis to decide MI
divider dividud divis to divide MI
incider - incis to engrave MI
intrider - intris to soak MI
recider - recis to sever MI

Ending in -inder[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -inder-iss (IPA: /is/ - MI ) with some exception

Verb in Lombard

regola -inder

Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
rescinder - resciss to rescind MI
scinder - sciss to break down, to split MI

Ending in -inger -inguer o -enger[edit | edit source]

Ending in -$inger -$inguer -$enger con $ ≠ r[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -inger /inguer/enger-int (IPA: /ĩ:t/ - MI ) with some exceptions

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
depensger depensgiud depenc to paint BG
distinguer - distint to distinguish MI
estinguer - estint to extinguish MI
tenger tengiud tint to dye MI

Ending in -imer[edit | edit source]

Ending in -rimer[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -imer-ess (IPA: /ɛs/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
comprimer - compress to compress MI
oprimer - opress to oppress MI
reprimer - repress to repress MI
imprimer - impress to impress MI
esprimer - espress to express MI

Ending in -dimer[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -imer-ent (IPA: /ẽ:t/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
redimer - redent to redeem MI

Ending in -ister[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -ister-istid (IPA: /isti:/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English
assister assistud assistid to assist MI
esister esistud esistid to exist MI

Ending in -oder[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -oder-os (IPA: /ɔz/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
esploder - esplos to explode MI
roder - ros[1] to gnaw MI
  1. usually "rosegad" is used inetsad

Ending in -olver[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI General rule (MI ): -olver-olt (IPA: /ɔlt/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
assolver - assolt to fulfil MI

Ending in -onder[edit | edit source]

Ending in -fonder[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -onder-us (IPA: /yz/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
fonder fondud fus to melt MI

Ending in -$onder con $ ≠ f[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -onder-ost (IPA: /ɔst/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
rispondere rispondud rispost to answer MI

Ending in -order o -orer[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -order/-orer-ors (IPA: /ɔrs/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
morder mordud mors to bite MI
ocorer ocorud ocors to be needed MI
corer

corer

corud

-

-

cors

to run (transtive verb)

to run (intransitive verb)

MI

MI

Ending in -oeu / -oeujer[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -oeu / oeuj-olt (IPA: /ɔlt/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
toeu - tolt
toeuj
toeud
toeult
ro remove MI
MI (arcaic)
Br
Br
distoeu - distolt to divert MI
regoeujer - racolt
regolt
to gather MI
MI (provincial)

Ending in -oeuder o -oeuver[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -oeuder /oeuver-oss (IPA: /ɔs/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
moeuver movud - to move MI
moeuves - moss to move MI
scoeuder scodud scoss to shake, to quench, to collect MI

Ending in -ofrì[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: (MI )
They are irregular in these dialects: MI BG
General rule (MI ): -ofrì-ofert (IPA: /u'fɛrt/ - MI ) sometimes in addiction to regular forms in disuse

General rule (BG ): -ofrì-oferid (IPA: /ofe'rit/ - BG )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
ofrì
ofrì
- ofert
ofrid
to offer MI

BG

sofrì (sofrid) sofert to suffer MI

Ending in -oprì[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: BG MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -oprì-opert (IPA: /u'pɛrt/ - MI ) sometimes in addiction to regular forms in disuse

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
scoprì (scoprid) scopert to discover MI

Ending in -omper[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: BG
They are irregular in these dialects: MI BG
General rule (MI ): -omper-ot (IPA: /ɔt/ - MI )

General rule (BG ): -omper-ot (IPA: /ɔt/ - BG ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
romper
romper
-
rompid
rot
rot
to break MI

BG

Ending in -onger[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -onger-ont (IPA: /ũ:t/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
vonsger vonsgiud vont
vonc
to grease MI
MI (arcaic or provincial), BG

Ending in -onner[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -onner-ost (IPA: /ɔst/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English
suponner - supost to suppose MI
disponner - dispost to arrange MI
esponner - espost to expose MI
preponner - prepost to put before, to put in charge MI
proponner - propost to propose MI

Ending in -orger[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects: MI
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -orger-ort (IPA: /ɔrt/ - MI ) in addiction to regular forms

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
acorges acorgiud acort to notice, to realize MI
sorgere sorgiud sort[1] to rise MI
  1. just in literary form, "nassud" is normally used

Ending in -orì[edit | edit source]

Almost all regular with some exceptions (see table below)

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
morì - mort to dead MI
dolì dolud

-

-

dolsud

to ache (transititive)

to ache (intransitive)

MI

Ending in [edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -ot (IPA: /ɔt/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English
condù - condot
condut
to conduct, to lead MI
MI (arcaic)
dedù - dedot
dedut
to deduce MI
MI (arcaic)
indù - indot
indut
to induce, to lead, to infer MI
MI (arcaic)
introdù - introdot
introdut
to introduce MI
MI (arcaic)
prodù - prodot
produt
to produce MI
MI (arcaic)
redù - ridot
redut
to reduce MI
MI (arcaic)
sedù - sedot
sedut
to seduce MI
MI (arcaic)
tradù - tradot
tradut
to translate MI
MI (arcaic)

Ending in -uder[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -uder-us (IPA: /yz/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
concluder (concludud) conclus to conclude MI
deluder - delus to disappoint MI
eluder - elus to evade MI
escluder - esclus to exclude MI
iluder - ilus to deceive MI

Ending in -ulger[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -ulger-ult (IPA: /ylt/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
indulger - indult[1] to indulge MI
  1. usually notr used, "havud clemenza" is used instead

Ending in -umer[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -umer-ont (IPA: /ũ:t/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
assumer assont to hire MI
presumer presont[1] to assume, to presume MI
  1. out of the legal context "prusmad" is used

Ending in -uger[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -uger-ut (IPA: /yt/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
distruger - distrut to destroy MI

Ending in -uter[edit | edit source]

They are regular in these dialects:
They are irregular in these dialects: MI
General rule (MI ): -uter-us (IPA: /ys/ - MI )

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
discuter - discuss to discuss MI

Other irregular participles[edit | edit source]

Verb Participi passad
forma regolar
Participi passad
forma iregolar
Dialet
estrà - estrat to extract MI


Other irregular past participles not classifiable in the previous cases[1][edit | edit source]

Verb in Lombard Past participle
regular form
Past participle
irregular form
Verb in English Dialects
coeuser
coeuser
cosud
-
cot
cocc
to cook MI

BG , MI (arcaic o provincial)

dervì dervid avert
vert
to open MI
MI (provincial)
scernì scernid scelt to choose MI
scriver scrivud
-
scrit
screit
scricc
to write MI

NO , MI (provincial) BG

vedé
ved
vedud
-
vist
vest
to see MI
BG
viver vivud vissud to live MI
vorè vorud vorsud to want MI
  1. presenti solo in alcuni Dialects

Defective verbs that have only the past participle[edit | edit source]

There are some verbs in Lombardy that exist only in the form of Past participle, most of them have been introduced only in the Dialects more italianized, especially Milanese, under the thrust of the Italian language. Therefore, it is possible to construct only the compound tenses of these verbs, while in the simple tenses it is necessary to use other verbs.

Past participle
of the difective verb
Usable verb(s)
in the simple tenses
Verb in English Dialects
aces[1] pizzà to turn on MI
adot tirà in ball, presentà to invoke MI
aflit tormentà, tossegà to afflict MI
assis setàss to sit MI
consont consumà to consume MI
cospers[2] sbrofà to sprinkle MI
contus macà to contuse MI
dilet havégh in del coeur to prefer MI
fint fà finta to pretend MI
intrus cascià dent a forza, cascià dent de sfros to intrude MI
prefiss prefissà to set MI
sciolt deslenguà to melt MI
trafit infilzà to pierce MI
rosegad roder to gnaw MI
  1. used only in literary form
  2. used only in literary form

Defective verbs that do not have the past participle[edit | edit source]

Some verbs are defective due to the lack of the past participle, which is replaced by the past participle of other verbs.

Lombard verb
difective
Past participle
replacement
Verb in English Dialects
conquider conquistad to conquer MI
incuter fad vegnì to strike MI
rediger compilad to draw up MI